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Ma 134 - Discrete Mathematics

Hw-3 (Solutions)

Due: September 28, 2016

1. (2pts) Explain in at most three sentences the difference between a sound argument and a
valid argument.
Solution: An argument is called valid if the conclusion is a logical consequence of the
premises that is all valuations which make all the premises true also make the conclusion
true. For an argument to be sound, additionally all the premises are required to be true
statements. In particular, if an argument is sound, then also the conclusion is true, whereas
an argument being valid does not tell anything about the truth of the conclusion.

2. (2pts) Determine if the argument below is valid or exhibits the converse or inverse error.
Use symbols to write logical forms for each argument.
If this computer program is correct, then it produces the correct output when run with
the test data my teacher gave me.
This computer program produces the correct output when run with the test data my
teacher gave me.
This computer program is correct.
Solution: The argument is of the form
pq
q
p
This argument form is not valid; it exhibits the converse error.

3. (2pts) Use the basic rules of inference to deduce the conclusion from the premises. For each
step give the name of the rule.
(a) p q
(b) q r
(c) (p s) t
(d) r
(e) q (u s)
t
Solution:
(f) q
(g) p
(h) u s
(i) s
(j) p s
(k) t

by modus tollens from (b) and (d)


by elimination from (a) and (f)
by modus ponens from (e) and (f)
by specialization from (h)
by conjunction from (g) and (i)
by modus ponens from (c) and (j)

4. (1pts) Write the following statements as quantified statement in symbolic form:


(a) There exists a real number x such that for every other real number y we have x + y = y.
(b) For every real number x there are two real numbers y and z such that x = y 2 z 2 .
Solution:
(a) x R, y R, x + y = y or
x R, y R, x 6= y x + y = y (if the statement is understood as that y should be
different from x)
(b) x R, y R, z R, x = y 2 z 2

5. (3pts) Which of the following statements are true, which are false? Give a short justification
(e. g. a counterexample) of your answers.
(a) x Z,

x1
x


(d) x R, x2 6 Q

/Z

(b) x R, x
/Z

(e) x R, y R, xy = 1

(c) x R, (x
/ Z x Q)

(f) x R, y R, xy = 0

Solution:
(a) false, counterexample: x = 1, then

x1
x

11
1

=0Z

(b) true. For instance x = 1/2 makes the existential statement true.
(c) true: x 6 Z x Z is a tautology. Since, if x Z, then also x Q (because Z Q),
that means that x 6 Z x Q is true for all x R.
(d) true: x R, x2 6 Q is a wrong statement (x = 1 is a counterexample). Therefore, its
negation is true(e) false: counterexample x = 0. Then there is no real number y such that xy = 0y = 1.
(f) true: x = 0 makes the statement true: for all real numbers y, we have xy = 0y = 0.

6. (1pts) Let D = {28, 6, 0, 4, 7}. Determine which of the following statements are true:
(a) x D if x is odd, then x > 0.
(b) x D if x < 0, then x is even.
Solution:
(a) true: 7 is the only odd number and it is greater than 0.
(b) true: 28 and 6 are the only negative number in D and they are both even.

7. (2pts) Check if the following statements are equivalent. Give a proof of your answer.
(a)

i. x D, P (x) Q(x)


ii. x D, P (x) x D, Q(x)

(b)


i. x D, P (x) Q(x)
ii. x D, P (x) x D, Q(x)

Solution:
(a) not equivalent: for instance, take D = {1, 2} and P (x) = x = 1, Q(x) = x = 2.
Then
x {1, 2} , x = 1 x = 2
is false, but
x {1, 2} , x = 1 x {1, 2} x = 2
is true because x {1, 2} , x = 1 is false.
(b) equivalent:

x D, P (x) Q(x) x D, (P (x) Q(x))
x D, (P (x) Q(x))

(De Morgan)
(De Morgan)

(x D, P (x)) (x D, Q(x)) (example in class)

8. (1pts) Draw Venn diagrams for sets A, B, C satisfying


(a)

AB
CB
AC =

(b)

AB
BC =

9. (2pts) Which of the following statements are true? Give only the answers without proof.
(a) {1, 2, 3} {1, 2, 3, 4} = {1, 2, 3}. Solution: true
(b) {1, 2, 3} \ {1, 2, 3, 4} = {4}. Solution: false
(c) {1, 2, 3} {1, 2, 3, 4} = {4}. Solution: false
(d) {1} {4} = . Solution: true
(e) P({5}) = {, {5}}. Solution: true
(f) P({1, 2, 3, 4, 5}) has 5 elements. Solution: false
(g) {1, 2, 3, 4} {1, 10, 100} = {1}. Solution: true
(h) N N =

S
iN

{(i, j) | j N} Solution: true