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Single Piles and Pile Groups

Under Lateral Loading

2nd

Edition

Lymon C.

Reese

Academic Chair Emeritus

Department of Civil Engineering


University of Texas at Austin

The

William Van

Impe

Full

Professor of Civil Engineering


Director Laboratory for Soil Mechanics
Ghent University, Belgium
Professor Catholic University Leuven, Belgium

Taylor & Francis Group


Boca

CRC Press is

Taylor

an

Raton

London

New York

Leiden

imprint of the
Group, an informa business

& Francis

A BALKEMA BOOK

Contents

Preface
List

xv

of Symbols

Techniques

xvii

for

Introduction

1.2

Occurrence of

1.3

Nature of the soil response

1.4

Response of a pile to kinds of loading


1.4.1 Introduction

1.5

laterally

Static

1.4.3

Cyclic loading

1.4.4

Sustained

1.4.5

Dynamic

Models for

loaded

piles

loading

1.4.2

7
8

loading
loading

10
10
of

11

1.5.3

analyses
single pile
pile and elastic soil
Elastic pile and finite elements for soil
Rigid pile and plastic soil

1.5.4

Characteristic load method

14

1.5.5

Nonlinear

15

1.6

pile and p-y model for soil


Models for groups of piles under lateral loading

1.7

Status of

20

1.5.1
1.5.2

use

in

Elastic

current

Homework
2

design

1.1

11

13
13

17

state-of-the-art

problems

for

chapter

20

Derivation of equations and methods of solution


2.1 Introduction

23

2.2

23

2.3

2.4

Derivation of the differential equation


2.2.1
Solution of reduced form of differential equation
2.2.2 Solution of the differential equation by difference

Solution for

EPy

kpyx

2.3.1

Dimensional

2.3.2

Equations for

2.3.3

Example

2.3.4

Discussion

Validity

32

39

kPyx

solution

problems

equations

44
46
50

of the mechanics

Homework

26

38

analysis

Epy

23

for

51

chapter

52

viii

Contents
Models for response of soil and weak rock
3.1
Introduction
3.2

3.4

3.5

3.7

3.8

modulus in analyzing a pile under lateral loading


Application of the Finite Element Method (FEM)
to obtaining p-y curves for static loading

Influence of diameter
3.3.1

Clay

3.3.2

Sand

Influence of
3.4.1

Clay

3.4.2

Sand

on

3.10

for sands above and below the

3.8.1

Detailed

3.8.2

Recommended soil

3.11

67
68

72
curves

soil response

water

72
73
73

74
75
75

76
water

78

water

81
88

table

procedure

91
91
94

tests

Example curves
p-y curves for layered soils
3.9.1 Method of Georgiadis

94
94
95

Example p-y curves

96

for soil with both cohesion and

friction

3.10.1

Background

3.10.2

Recommendations for computing p-y


Discussion

3.10.3

66

72

obtaining
Early recommendations for computing p-y curves
3.6.1 Terzaghi
3.6.2 McClelland & Focht for clay (1958)
p-y curves for clays
3.7.1
Selection of stiffness of clay
3.7.2 Response of soft clay in the presence of free
3.7.3
Response of stiff clay in the presence of free
3.7.4 Response of stiff clay with no free water

curves

64

71
curves

Nondimensional methods for

p-y

57

69

3.5.3

3.9.2

56

69

3.8.3
3.9

55

69

cyclic loading

3.5.2

curves

54

69

Soil response from direct measurement


Soil response from experimental moment

p-y

54

69

p-y curves

Experimental methods of obtaining p-y


3.5.1

3.6

53

Mechanics concerning response of soil to lateral loading


3.2.1
Stress-deformation of soil
3.2.2
Proposed model for decay of s
3.2.3
Variation of stiffness of soil {Es and Gs) with depth
3.2.4
Initial stiffness and ultimate resistance of
p-y curves from soil properties
3.2.5 Subgrade modulus related to piles under lateral loading
3.2.6
Theoretical solution by Skempton for subgrade
modulus and for p-y curves for saturated clays
3.2.7
Practical use of Skempton's equations and values of subgrade
3.2.8

3.3

53

Other recommendations for

angle

99

99

computing p-y

curves

curves

99
103
104

3.11.1

Clay

104

3.11.2

Sand

105

Contents

3.12

Modifications

to

p-y

for

curves

sloping ground

105

3.12.1

Introduction

105

3.12.2

Equations for ultimate resistance in clay


Equations for ultimate resistance in sand

106

3.12.3

Effect of batter

3.14

Shearing force

3.15

p-y curves for weak rock


3.15.1
Introduction

109

3.15.2

Field

110

3.15.3

Interim recommendations for

3.15.4
3.16

108

bottom of

at

pile

108

109

tests

curves

computing

for weak rock

Comments

on

110

equations for predicting

p-y curves for rock


Selection of p-y curves

114

3.16.1

Introduction

114

3.16.2

Factors

114

to

114

be considered

3.16.3

Specific suggestions
Homework problems for chapter
Structural characteristics of
4.1

Introduction

4.2

Computation
with

4.3

4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7

4.8

115
3

117
119

piles

119
of

an

noncircular

equivalent diameter of
cross

pile

section

120

Mechanics for

computation of Muit and Eplp as


a function of bending moment and axial load
Stress-strain curves for normal-weight concrete and structural steel
Implementation of the method for a steel h-section
Implementation of the method for a steel pipe
Implementation of the method for a reinforced-concrete section
4.7.1
Example computations for a square shape
4.7.2
Example computations for a circular shape
Approximation of
Homework

107

3.13

p-y

ix

Analysis

moment

problems for chapter

of groups of

and eccentric

of inertia for

piles subjected
loading

to

reinforced-concrete section

130
130
132
133

135

5.2

Approach

5.3

Review of theories for the response of groups of


to inclined and eccentric loads

5.4

Rational

135

analysis of groups of piles

equations for the


under generalized loading

response of

136

group

piles
137

of piles
139

Introduction

5.4.2
5.5

129

inclined

Introduction

5.4.1

126

134

5.1

to

121
125

Equations for
Laterally loaded piles

139
a

two-dimensional group of

piles

143
147

5.5.1

Movement of

pile head due

5.5.2

Effect of batter

to

applied loading

147
147

Contents

5.6

Axially loaded piles

148

5.6.1

148

5.6.2
5.6.3
5.6.4

5.7

Introduction
Relevant parameters concerning deformation of soil
Influence of method of installation on soil characteristics
Methods of formulating axial-stiffness curves

5.6.5

Calculation methods for load-settlement behaviour


basis of in-situ soil tests

5.6.6

Differential

153

157

5.6.8

Load-transfer

160

curves

Closely-spaced piles under lateral loading


Modification of load-transfer

5.7.2

Concept of

5.7.3

Proposals
closely-spaced piles under lateral loading
Description and analysis of experiments with closely-spaced
piles installed in-line and side-by-side
Prediction equations for closely-spaced piles installed

curves

159
165

5.7.1

for closely spaced piles

interaction under lateral loading


for solving for influence coefficients for

in-line and

side-by-side

165

166
167

170

174

5.7.6

Use of modified

prediction equations in developing


p-y curves for analyzing results of experiments with
full-scale groups of piles

175

5.7.7

Discussion of the method of predicting the interaction


of closely-spaced piles under lateral loading

190

Proposals for solving for influence coefficients for


closely-spaced piles under axial loading

190

5.8.1

Modification of load-transfer

190

5.8.2

Concept of interaction under axial loading

5.8.3
5.8.4

curves

for closely spaced piles

Review of relevant literature

Interim recommendations for

190

191

computing the efficiency

of groups of piles under axial load


Analysis of an experiment with batter piles

194

5.9.1

195

5.9.3

Description of the testing arrangement


Properties of the sand
Properties of the pipe piles

5.9.4

Pile group

5.9.5

Experimental
single pile

5.9.6

Results from

5.9.7

Comments

5.9.2

Analysis

195
196
198
199

curve

of axial load

versus

settlement for
200

experiment and from analysis

analytical method
Homework problems for chapter 5
6

150

the

5.6.7

5.7.5

5.9

150

equation for solution of finite-difference


equation for axially loaded piles
Finite difference equation

5.7.4

5.8

on

148

on

200
202
202

of

6.1

single piles and groups of piles


active and passive loading
Nature of lateral loading

6.2

Active

subjected

to

loading

205
205
205

Contents

6.3

6.2.1

Wind
Wave

207

6.2.3

loading
loading
Current loading

205

6.2.2

6.2.4

Scour

214

6.2.5

Ice

215

6.2.6
6.2.7

Loads from miscellaneous

Single piles

groups of

piles subjected

to

218
active

loading

Overhead

6.3.4
Passive

loading

243

6.4.1

Earth pressures

243

6.4.2

Moving soil

244

6.4.3

Thrusts from

Single piles

or

222
226
232

dead loading of structures


groups of piles subjected to passive loading

246

6.5.2

Anchored bulkhead

251

6.5.3

257

6.5.4

Pile-supported mat at the Pyramid Building


Piles for stabilizing slope

6.5.5

Piles in

272

266

settling

problems

fill in

for

sloping valley
chapter 6
a

279

281

7.1

Introduction

7.2

Piles installed into cohesive soils with

281
no free water

282

7.2.1

Bagnolet

282

7.2.2

Houston

285

7.2.3

Brent Cross

288

7.2.4

Japan

Piles installed into cohesive soils with free


surface

7.5

246

Pile-supported retaining wall

Case studies

7.4

246

6.5.1

Homework

7.3

218
218

6.3.3

or

216
sources

sign
Breasting dolphin
Pile for anchoring a ship in soft soil
Offshore platform

6.3.2

6.5

213

loading
Ship impact

6.3.1

6.4

xi

290
water

above

ground
291

7.3.1

Lake Austin

291

7.3.2

Sabine

294

7.3.3

Manor

296

Piles installed in cohesionless soils

298

7.4.1

Mustang Island

298

7.4.2

Garston

301

7.4.3

Arkansas river

301

7.4.4

Roosevelt

bridge
Piles installed into layered soils

306

7.5.1

Talisheek

307

7.5.2

AlcacerdoSol

311

7.5.3

Florida

312

7.5.4

Apapa

315

7.5.5

Salt Lake International Airport

315

307

xii

Contents

7.6

7.7

Piles installed in c-0 soil


7.6.1
Kuwait

319

7.6.2

320

319

Angeles

Los

Piles installed in weak rock

322

7.7.1

Islamorada

322

7.7.2

San Francisco

324

7.8

Analysis of results of case studies

7.9

Comments

Testing
8.1

327

studies
Homework problems for chapter 7
on case

of full-sized

328
331

piles

333

Introduction

333

8.1.1

Scope of presentation

333

8.1.2

Method of

333

8.1.3

Classification of

analysis
tests

334

8.1.4
8.2

8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6

Features unique to testing of piles under lateral


Designing the test program
8.2.1

Planning for the testing

8.2.2

Selection of

pile

and

336
339
340
at

the

pile head

Instrumentation

341
341
344

Testing for design of production piles

348

8.7.1

348

Introduction

Interpretation of data
8.7.3
Example Computation
Example of testing a research pile for p-y

348
348
curves

350

8.8.1

Introduction

350

8.8.2

Preparation of test piles


Test setup and loading equipment

350

8.8.4

Instrumentation

353

8.8.5

Calibration of

8.8.6

Soil

8.8.7

Installation of

8.8.8

Test

8.8.9

Penetrometer

8.8.3

piles
borings and laboratory

352

test

357
tests

360

piles

363

procedures and details of loading

366

test

tests

368

8.8.10

Ground settlement due

to

8.8.11

pile driving

Ground settlement due

to

lateral

8.8.12

Recalibration of

8.8.13

8.8.14
8.9

335
335

investigation
Installation of test pile
Testing techniques
Loading arrangements and instrumentation
8.6.1
Loading arrangements

8.7.2

8.8

334
335

test site

Subsurface

8.6.2
8.7

test

loading

loading

371
371

piles
Graphical presentation of curves showing bending moment
Interpretation of bending moment curves to obtain

373

p-y

375

test

curves

Summary
Homework problems for

373

379

chapter

379

Contents
9

Implementation

of factors of

381

safety

9.1

Introduction

381

9.2

Limit

381

9.3

382

9.4

Consequences of a failure
Philosophy concerning safety coefficient

9.5

Influence of

385

9.6

Special problems

states

9.6.1

nature

of structure

in

characterizing soil

Introduction

384

385
385

9.6.2

387

9.7

Characteristic values of soil parameters


Level of quality control

9.8

Two

388

9.9

general approaches to selection of factor of safety


Global approach to selection of a factor of safety
9.9.1
Introductory comments
9.9.2

9.10

9.11

9.12

10

xiii

387

388
388

Recommendations of the American Petroleum Institute

(API)
partial factors (psf)
9.10.1
Preliminary Considerations
9.10.2 Suggested values for partial factors for
design of laterally loaded piles
9.10.3 Example computations
Method of load and resistance factors (LRFD)

389

9.11.1

Introduction

393

9.11.2

Loads addressed

393

Method of

by the LRFD specifications


9.11.3
Resistances addressed by the LRFD specifications
9.11.4
Design of piles by use of LRFD specifications
Concluding comment
Homework problems for chapter 9

Suggestions

for

390
390

390

391
393

394
394
395
395
397

design

10.1

Introduction

397

10.2

Range

be considered in design
Validation of results from computations for single pile

397

10.3.1

Introduction

398

10.3.2

Solution of example problems


Check of echo print of input data
Investigation of length of word employed in internal

398

computations

399

10.3

10.3.3

10.3.4

10.4
10.5

of factors to

10.3.5

Selection of tolerance and

10.3.6

Check of soil resistance

10.3.7

Check of mechanics

10.3.8

Use of nondimensional

length of increment

398

399

399
400
400

curves

Validation of results from computations for pile group


Additional steps in design

400

401
401

10.5.1

Risk management

401

10.5.2

Peer review

401

10.5.3

Technical contributions

402

10.5.4

The

402

design

team

xiv

Contents

APPENDICES
A

Broms method for

Nondimensional coefficients for

analysis of single piles under lateral loading


piles with finite length, no axial load,
constant Ep/Ip, and constant Epy
Difference equations for step-tapered beams on foundations having
variable stiffness

D
E

G
H

441
case

where
451

Tables of values of efficiency measured in tests of groups of piles under


lateral loading
Horizontal stresses in soil near shaft during installation of a pile
Use of data from testing uninstrumented piles under lateral loading to
obtain soil response
Eurocode principles related

419
429

Computer Program COM622


Non-dimensional curves for piles under lateral loading for

Epy== Ik-pyOCt
F

403

461
465
471

geotechnical design
Discussion of factor of safety related to piles under axial load
to

477
481

REFERENCES

485

AUTHOR INDEX

501

SUBJECT INDEX

505