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Lecture 6

Static Data Transfers


14. 5 Release

Solving FSI Applications Using


ANSYS Mechanical and ANSYS Fluent
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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Outline
Direct Project Schematic Connections
Details on mapping CFD loads to Mechanical by connection cells on the
project schematic

External Data Connection to Mechanical


This discusses using External Data to import loads to Mechanical

External Data Connection to System Coupling


Covers External Data connection to System Coupling, which can then
connect to Fluent or Mechanical

Appendix A: Loads files via Fluent Mapping Panels


Appendix B: Manual Export from CFD-Post

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Direct Project Schematic Connections

Supports surface Force, Temperature or HTC


Supports volumetric Temperature transfer
Does not support transfer from Mechanical to Fluent
Interpolation is performed in the background by CFD-Post
Automated and persistent workflow in a single WB project

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Integrated Process in Workbench

Geometry

CHT Mesh

CFD CHT Solution

Thermal Loads

Pressure Loads

Thermal Stress Solution

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Imported Loads
In Mechanical an Imported Load entry will automatically be added to the
tree when a Fluent Solution cell is connected to a Mechanical system

Right-click on the Imported Load (Solution) to import:

Pressure or Body Temperature load in a Structural system


Temperature or Convection Coefficient surface load in a thermal system

Select the Imported Pressure etc


object to set the details (next slide)
See the Imported Load Transfer
Summary for details on the values
transferred, including any unmapped
nodes

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Imported Loads: Details panel


There are two Scoping Methods for imported loads
Geometry Selection: Select faces on solid geometry to transfer

CFD loads
Named Selection: Select existing named selections to transfer
CFD loads

All boundary condition or zone names in the Fluent


results file will be exposed via a drop-down

Can only pick a single CFD region per Imported Load object

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Imported Loads: Viewing


After setting the details and Generating the Imported Load
object, select the Imported Pressure/Temperature etc
object to view a contour or vector plot

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Imported Loads: Transfer Summary


After Generating the Imported Load object, select the Imported
Load Transfer Summary object to view details about the import

Important to check for unmapped nodes and


comparable values on the CFD and Mechanical
sides

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Pressure Transfer to Mechanical Systems


Pressure data is transferred from Fluent
to a Mechanical Static/Transient
Structural or Shape Optimization system
Mechanical nodal values are calculated
by linear interpolation from the
surrounding CFD nodes

Not conservative

If interpolation process cannot find a


face to map to, then closest point is
chosen

Mapping can be slow for large cases

Octree mapper can be used instead


(beta), discussed later

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Thermal Surface Transfer to Mechanical


Surface Temperature or Wall Heat Transfer Coefficient data is
transferred from Fluent to Mechanical via a Thermal system

Static Thermal, Transient Thermal, Thermal Electric systems

Solid temperature field will be solved in Mechanical


If CFD results already have a solid temperature field, consider using a body
load transfer to a structural system

Make sure thermal material properties (specific heat, thermal


conductivity, density) are consistent between CFD and Mechanical
setups if the CFD solution included the solids
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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Thermal Surface Transfer to Mechanical


Can import Temperature or
Convection Coefficient
If conjugate heat transfer (CHT)
has been solved in Fluent,
Temperature will be available on
the solid side and should be used
Otherwise only the fluid-side
temperature will exist, which
should not be used, so choose
Convection Coefficient

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Thermal Surface Transfer to Mechanical


The Convection Coefficient uses
Wall Heat Transfer Coefficient from
CFD-Post

This maps to Wall Func. Heat Tran.


Coef in Fluent

Choose CFD Near-wall Temperature


as the Ambient Temp Type

12

This is consistent with the way the HTC


is calculated in Fluent
After solving, check that the calculated
surface temperatures in Mechanical
match those in Fluent

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Thermal Surface Transfer to Mechanical


Wall Func. Heat Tran. Coef, like a
number of post-processing quantities in
Fluent are not stored in the Fluent data
file
Many quantities are computed on-the-fly
in Fluent

To transfer a Convection Coefficient to


Mechanical, Wall Func. Heat Tran. Coef
must be output as an additional data
quantity from Fluent
Also a requirement to post-process Wall

13

Heat Transfer Coefficient in CFD-Post


Data file quantities panel is accessible via
File > Data File Quantities or via Data File
Quantities button in Run Calculation panel

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Heat Transfer Coefficients in Fluent


Wall Func. Heat Trans. Coef.

This is the HTC that is transferred to Mechanical


Available for viscous flow, with energy solved but not Eulerian
multiphase

For multiphase/invisid cases schematic connections will not work for


HTC

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For laminar flow is computed based on the Prandtl number (0.85


by default); in general this is not a good representation of the
HTC
For turbulent flow this HTC is based on wall functions
The reference temperature is the adjacent cell temperature
(named Wall Adjacent Temperature in CFD-Post)

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Heat Transfer Coefficients in Fluent


Surface Heat Transfer Coef.

Available for viscous flow, with energy solved but not Eulerian
multiphase

To use this HTC use one of other approaches discussed later

Calculated based on the boundary heat flux, the outer wall


temperature and the reference temperature:
Surface Heat Transfer Coef. = q / (TWALL-TREF)

where TREF is set on the Reference Values panel in Fluent


TREF = Local cell temperature
Note: This can be evaluated using Custom Field Function of (Total Heat Surface
Heat Flux - Radiation Heat Flux) / (Wall Temperature (Outer Surface) - Static
Temperature) and plotting without node values

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Heat Transfer Coefficients in Fluent


Custom Surface HTC based on adjacent cell temperature

A Custom Field Function can be used to calculate the following HTC


HTC = (Total Heat Surface Heat Flux - Radiation Heat Flux) / (Wall
Temperature (Outer Surface) - Static Temperature)

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Like Surface Heat Transfer Coef., this HTC is based on the boundary
heat flux, but the reference temperature used here is the adjacent
cell temperature

It gives exactly the same HTC values as Wall Func. Heat Trans. Coef.

Can be calculated when energy is solved

To use this HTC use one of other approaches discussed later

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Comparing Fluent HTCs

TREF=TINLET
Surface Heat Transfer Coef.

Adjacent Cell Temperature

=
Wall Func. Heat Trans. Coef
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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Custom HTC based on adjacent cell temp.


Release 14.5

Surface Data Mapping


CFD-Post performs the mapping process for vector and
scalar quantities

Mechanical nodal values are transferred by linear interpolation

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from the surrounding CFD face nodes


If the interpolation process cannot find a face to map to, then
the closest point is chosen
The mapping is not conservative
The interpolation process can be slow for large cases
An octree surface mapping option (beta) is available to speed
up surface mapping

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Octree Surface Mapper


Surface mapping option (beta) to
speed up surface mapping
Turn on Edit > Options > CFD-Post >
Enable Beta Features and Enable
Octree FSI Surface Mapping
Octree mapping will then be used for
surface transfers from CFX or Fluent to
Mechanical (via Workbench and via Post
manually)
Must set this option in CFD-Post then
restart CFD-Post

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Octree Surface Mapper


The algorithm creates 3D elements
by extruding the CFD boundary
mesh in the surface normal
direction

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These 3D elements are called the


virtual layer

Structural nodes that lie inside the CFD


domain or inside the virtual layer are
mapped

In general, the thinnest virtual layer


that ensures all nodes are mapped will
provide the best results

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Octree Surface Mapper


Set Layer Tolerance by either:

Percentage of Domain Extents

If the domain extents are 50[m], setting

the Layer Tolerance to a value of 0.5,


would result in a Layer Thickness = ( 0.5
/ 100 ) * 50 = 0.25[m]
Setting the value in this way is useful for
cases with coarse CFD meshes

Percentage of Average Face Extents


If the average of all boundary face extents
is 0.2[m], setting the Layer Tolerance to a
value of 20 would result in a Layer
Thickness = (20 / 100) * 0.2 = 0.04[m]
Setting the value in this way is useful for
cases with finer CFD meshes, or for cases
with mesh refinement

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Octree Surface Mapper

Only surfaces that are closely aligned will be mapped

For Temperature transfer, data is mapped from the


Fluent nodes to the Mechanical nodes (i.e. the DOF is
specified directly in Mechanical)
Unmapped nodes are assigned the average domain Temperature

For Heat Flux, HTC and Stress vector transfer, data is


mapped from the Fluent nodes to surface element faces
in Mechanical
The surface element receives the average value of the Fluent
nodes mapped to that face
Only the Fluent nodes that are mapped contribute to the average
If no nodes are mapped for a given element face, a zero
value/vector is sent

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Thermal Body Load Transfer to


Mechanical
Temperature body loads are
transferred from Fluent to a
Mechanical Static/Transient Structural
or Shape Optimization system to
perform a thermal stress analysis

Solve CFD CHT analysis for combined


fluid and solid
Connect to a structural system and
insert a Body Temperature

Can only select a single Fluent solid


zone per import
Can also insert a surface Pressure load
if necessary
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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Thermal Body Load Transfer to Mechanical


After importing the load, check the transfer summary

In particular, check for unmapped nodes

Unmapped nodes are currently assigned the average domain


temperature

Adjusting the Interpolation Tolerance in CFD-Post can usually


avoid un-mapped nodes
Start CFD-Post: Edit > Options > CFD-Post

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Is saved as a preference when CFD-Post is closed

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Thermal Body Load Transfer to Mechanical


CFD-Post creates a virtual layer of elements around the
edges of the CFD domain when performing the mapping

Structural nodes that lie inside the CFD domain or inside the virtual
layer are mapped

The Interpolation Tolerance controls the size of the virtual layer. The
default is 0.5% of the CFD domain extent.

Increasing the Interpolation Tolerance may allow un-mapped


structural nodes to fall inside the virtual layer
For some geometries with sharp edges (e.g. cooling fins) a
virtual layer that is too thick produces highly skewed virtual
elements that cause the interpolation to fail

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Reducing the Interpolation Tolerance can help here

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Alternative Thermal Stress Workflow


Instead of passing a Body Temperature to a Structural system, thermal
stress can also be solved by passing a surface temperature/HTC to a
Mechanical Thermal system, solving the solid volumetric temperature,
then passing the Body Temperature to the Structural system

Thermal surface transfer


from fluid to thermal system

Thermal body transfer from


thermal to structural system

Optional Pressure surface transfer


from fluid to structural system
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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Thermal Surface Load vs Body Load


Transferring a body load directly to a structural system avoids
the need for re-solving the temperature field in a Mechanical
thermal system
When to consider using a surface load transfer:

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Mapping algorithms are different. Surface mapping provides another


route if there are problems with the volume temperature mapping

If you havent solved CHT in the fluid system, then only Wall HTC data
is available so must use surface mapping

However, the wall temperature used in Fluent to generate the HTC


will not have been exactly correct

Can export the wall temperature from Mechanical, import into


Fluent and re-solve to get a more accurate HTC

Will need to iterate towards a converged HTC

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Time-Averaged Data Transfer


Time-averaged data is useful for
many different applications
Averaged pressure loads from
transient CFD
LES, DES, Multiphase etc.

Averaged HTC or Temperature loads


from transient CFD
Turbine blade cooling, cylinder heads,
electronic cooling, furnaces etc.

No built-in support for timeaveraged data transfer

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Time-Averaged Data Transfer


Variable names transferred from Fluent to
Mechanical are:
Wall Func. Heat Tran. Coef, Pressure and
Temperature

To transfer a time-averaged quantity:


Use Fluent UDF to over-write variables in Fluent
data file with time averaged quantities (sample
outline shown)

Transfer data as usual to Mechanical


Refer to Fluent UDF manual and/or tutorials for
further information

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Example: Time-Averaged Data Transfer

Cycle Averaged Temperature Data


Instantaneous Temperature Data

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Example: Time-Averaged Data Transfer


For this example, two UDF macros are
used
DEFINE_EXECUTE_AT_END
This fills user-defined memory (UDM) locations
with summated and averaged quantity values (i.e.
temperature)
User defines and controls UDM

DEFINE_ON_DEMAND
This overwrites cell and face instantaneous
quantities with the averaged values from userdefined memory (UDM)
Save new Fluent data file such that new timeaveraged values can be transferred to
Mechanical
This macro is invoked at end of cycle
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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Execute at End Function Hook

Execute on Demand

Release 14.5

Using Transient CFD Results


Data from Transient CFD results can be
transferred to steady state and transient
Mechanical systems

A single Source Time can be selected from


a drop-down list when the Imported
<Variable> is highlighted in Outline panel
By default, the last time step is used
Load step End Time must match Analysis
Time for Imported Load

Fluent data sets must be complete

Partial data (i.e. cdat) is not supported for


imported loads

Not practical for many time steps

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Need an Imported Load for each time step


Load mapping repeated n times slow

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Select time from drop-down list


Release 14.5

Using Transient CFD Results


Other approaches for 1-way Transient
FSI:
1. Use co-simulation; send data only 1way

This is the preferred approach when


possible
Automated load transfer; faster and
more accurate mapping
Must run both codes simultaneously
with a common time step

In System Coupling the Data


Transfers can be suppressed or
deleted to easily switch to a 1way analysis

2. Use External Data see next section

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Using Transient CFD Results


3. Use ACT (Application Customization Toolkit) extension to
automate load file creation for all time steps and reading
them in during the Mechanical solution

34

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

Contact support for further information

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Outline
Direct Project Schematic Connections
Details on mapping CFD loads to Mechanical by connection cells on the
project schematic

External Data Connection to Mechanical


This discusses using External Data to import loads to Mechanical

External Data Connection to System Coupling


Covers External Data connection to System Coupling, which can then
connect to Fluent or Mechanical

Appendix A: Loads files via Fluent Mapping Panels


Appendix B: Manual Export from CFD-Post

35

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

External Data Component


The External Data Component allows data to be imported into ANSYS
Mechanical from an external ASCII file

Supports volumetric/surface Temperature, Pressure, HTC, Heat Flux,


volumetric Heat Generation and Displacementb

Can be used as an alternative to the standard 1-way mapping

Export a data file from CFD-Post, Fluent or elsewhere, then import via
External Data

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Consider Using External Data When


You want to map a non-standard variable, e.g. a transient
average

You want to perform 2D mapping to Mechanical


The External Data mapping algorithms are preferred to those of
CFD-Post

You want to use lower resolution data from CFD results instead
of mapping every node
Create a Point Cloud in CFD-Post then export data

Fluid and structural geometries are in different coordinate


frames
Export data using a local coordinate frame in CFD-Post or apply
transformations in External Data

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Consider Using External Data When


You want to edit the exported data before import to
Mechanical

You want to perform a transient 1-way FSI simulation in


Mechanical

A workflow based on a single project is not convenient


E.g. fluid and structural groups using different Workbench projects

You dont have a CFD-Post license available when importing the


data into Mechanical

The interpolation is too slow using the standard approach


Could also use the Point Cloud method to speed up

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

External Data Component


The main disadvantage of using External Data is that the workflow is
disconnected no automatic data updates
The External Data uses the mapping algorithms built into ANSYS
Mechanical rather than the mapping based on CFD Post

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

External Data Approach: Export


1. Load the CFD Results file into CFD
Post
2. Select File > Export External Data
File
Pick the Location that you wish to export
data for and select the variables that you
wish to export for the external data
transfer
Formatting is more automated in
External Data when using this file format
OR

Select File > Export


To perform a generic export, making
sure Export Geometry Information is
checked
Export of volumetric quantities must be
done this way
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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Notes for Generic File > Export

Line 7

When using the generic File > Export the csv file that you export from
CFD-Post includes a header which shows the variables that have been
exported along with their units.

When you read the file into External Data, be sure to skip the header
and start the import at the first line of the actual data

You will need to tell External Data what quantity each column
represents
This is automated when using the External Data (.axdt) file format

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Adding an External Data Component

42

Drag an External Data Component system on the Project Schematic

Link the Setup cell of the External Data system to the Setup cell of
Mechanical system which will receive the data

Edit the Setup cell of the External Data system to specify the file and
the data that will be imported

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Specifying the External File for Import

Inside the External Data system, click in the Location field to select
the file for import

Browse to select the file


Note that multiple files can be selected
here by using the Ctrl key

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Setting the File Format and Delimiter

The Format Type will be


AXDT if an External Data file
was exported nothing
else needs setting

For other files, including


CFD-Post csv files:
Set the format type to
Delimited and the Delimiter
Type to Comma
Set the Start Import At Line
correctly if the file includes a
header (line 7 in this case)

Can transform
the x, y, z
coordinates
here

Check the preview to see if the


data imported is correct
z [m]
x [m]

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Tnw [K]

h [W/m^2/K]

y [m]

Release 14.5

Setting the Data Columns

45

For AXDT files the Data


Type and Data Units will
have been automatically
set, but should be checked

For other files types click in


the drop-downs under
Data Type to correctly set
the variable contained in
each of the columns and
set the correct units under
Data Units

In the Project Schematic


Update the External Data
Setup cell

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Importing the External Load

When you open


Mechanical, the imported
load will appear in the
Model tree

To insert the load, rightclick on the Imported Load


entry and choose Insert >
and the appropriate load

For a thermal system,


choices include Heat Flux,
Heat Generation,
Temperature and
Convection Coefficient

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Convection Coefficient

When importing a
Convection Coefficient,
Mechanical expects both
an Ambient Temperature
and a Heat Transfer
Coefficient in the input file

Make sure the Ambient


Temperature is consistent
with that used when
calculating the HTC - see
earlier discussion on HTCs
in Fluent

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Scaling and Offset

In Mechanical a Scale factor and an Offset value can be applied to the


incoming data values

Recall that coordinate transforms are applied in External Data, but


data transforms are applied here in Mechanical

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Displaying the Mapped Data

49

To import load, right click on the imported


load and choose Import Load

If the imported data contains more than


one field (i.e. Convection Coefficient and
Ambient Temperature), you can choose
which is displayed using the Data field in
the Details view for the imported load

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Displaying the Mapped Data

50

After import, can right-click on the


imported load to Export the mapped
data to a txt file

Set Displace Source Points to On to


show the data points from External
Data on the model

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Mapping Controls

Mapping Controls available in


Mechanical

Weighting (smoothing) algorithm


options:

51

Triangulation: Good default. Can


give poor results if target points not
found within the source point cloud

Kriging: Regression-based
interpolation technique that can
give smoother mapping

Distance Based Average: Simple


robust method which can give a
mapping when other weightings fail

Triangulation versus Kriging smoothing

See Mechanical Applications doc:


// Mechanical User Guide // C. Data Transfer
Mesh Mapping
2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Checking Mapped Nodes

When data is mapped to nodes (as


opposed to surface elements), an
option is available to create a
Named Selection based on:

Unmapped Nodes: All target nodes in


Mechanical that cannot be mapped

Mapped Nodes: All target nodes in


Mechanical that were mapped

Outside Nodes: All nodes that cannot


be found within tetrahedrons when
using the Triangulation weighting
algorithm (these nodes would default
to the Distance Based Average
weighting)

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Mapping Validation

Right-click on an Imported Load


to insert a Validation object and
set the Type
See next slide for details

Turn Display In Parent On to show the


validation data when the parent imported
load object is selected (example on next
slide)

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Mapping Validation

Reverse Mapping: maps the


data back to the source and
shows the difference
Distance Based Average
Comparison: maps using the
simple distance weighted
algorithm and then compares
to the data mapped using the
currently selected mapping
method
Source Value: displays the
source data points and values
Undefined Points: unmapped
nodes

Reverse Mapping
differences overlaid with
mapped data (Display In
Parent = On)

Source Value validation draws source


load values directly on model
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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Transient Cases with External Data

Transient 1-way FSI to Mechanical is


performed by importing load files for
a number of time steps into External
Data

Do not process files one at a time!


Multi-select files for all time steps when

55

importing
Multi-select imported files when setting
properties
Follow documented procedure:
// User's Guide // Systems //
Component Systems // External Data //
Importing Multiple Data Sets
No requirements to use the same time
step in CFD and FEA

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Multiple Data Sets and Master File

Importing multiple load files is also useful when you are mapping
to many different bodies/surfaces

When dealing with multiple files, if all files have the same X,Y,Z
coordinate data (e.g. transient case), designating one file as the
Master will greatly speed up mapping

Mapping weights are only calculated once, then re-used

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Outline
Direct Project Schematic Connections
Details on mapping CFD loads to Mechanical by connection cells on the
project schematic

External Data Connection to Mechanical


This discusses using External Data to import loads to Mechanical

External Data Connection to System Coupling


Covers External Data connection to System Coupling, which can then
connect to Fluent or Mechanical

Appendix A: Loads files via Fluent Mapping Panels


Appendix B: Manual Export from CFD-Post

57

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

External Data to System Coupling


An External Data to System
Coupling connection provides
steady-state 1-way thermal
transfers:
One-way transfer of Heat Flow or
Temperature to Fluent via
External Data
One-way transfer of Heat Flow,
Temperature or Heat Transfer
Coefficient to Mechanical via
External Data

External Data can be used to provide static


thermal data to either Fluent or Mechanical

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

External Data to System Coupling


Why have another method for 1-way thermal
transfers?

A step towards 2-way and 1-way transient thermal


transfers in version 15.0

Can transfer data to either Fluent or Mechanical

Other methods only transfer to Mechanical


Can perform a series of 1-way transfers to get a 2-way solution

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

Provides access to System Coupling features, e.g. the


conservative mapping algorithm for conserved quantities
(Heat Flow)

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Workflow Example
1

1.

2.

3.

4.
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External Data file (.axdt)


from an existing analysis
provides Temperature
boundary data to Fluent
via System Coupling
After solving Fluent, HTC
and Near Wall
Temperature are
exported to a .axdt file
an read into External
Data
Mechanical solves using
the Fluent HTC
boundary data and
exports a .axdt file
containing Temperature
Repeat 1 3 as
necessary

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

AXDT

File

2
AXDT

File

3
AXDT

File

Release 14.5

AXDT File
The AXDT file is a simple text
file format
File contains node locations,
thermal data and element face
data from the source mesh
Face data is necessary to allow
conservative data transfer

AXDT files can be created by:


Export from CFD-Post
Automatically written at the end
of a Steady-State Thermal
analysis
Using Excel or output from other
solvers/post-processors
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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

AXDT Export from CFD-Post


Use File > Export > Export
External Data File in CFD-Post

Fluent or CFX results

For CHT results pick the


Location carefully

Typically want the solid side


when exporting Temperature
but the fluid side for HTC and
Wall Adjacent Temperature
Heat Flow wont be available
on interface regions in Fluent
results

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

AXDT Export from CFD-Post


Recommend variables are
presented

HTC and Wall Adjacent


Temperature: uses Wall Heat
Transfer Coefficient (which is
based on Wall Func. Heat
Trans. Coef) and its associated
reference temperature. Fluent
does not calculate this for
laminar or Eulerian mutliphase
Heat Flow: this is a
conservative quantity
Temperature
Can also select your own variables
if necessary
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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

AXDT Export from Steady-State Thermal


On a Fluid Solid Interface the
Export Results option (default is
Yes) triggers a macro
(dumpFSIHeats.mac) that writes
out the AXDT file after the solve

File written to the directory


containing the Thermal solution
Named fsin_#.axdt, where #
corresponds to the Interface
Number
Contains Temperature and Heat
Flow
Turn off when export is not needed
can be slow for large cases

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Load AXDT File into External Data

Edit External Data Setup and specify the AXDT file

Follow the same process as discussed earlier in the External Data


Connection to Mechanical section
Connect the External Data Setup cell and either the Fluent or Steady-State
Thermal Setup cell to the System Coupling Setup cell

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Define Regions to Receive the Data


To define the location that will receive the thermal data:
In Mechanical create a Fluid Solid Interface
In Fluent use the via System Coupling option as the Thermal condition on
a Wall boundary

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System Coupling Setup


Update the upstream Setup
cells then Refresh and Edit the
System Coupling Setup cell
External Data regions and
regions that can receive data in
Mechanical/Fluent are listed in
System Coupling
Multi-select regions and rightclick to create Data Transfers
as usual
Enable beta features to allow
1-to-many Data Transfers i.e.
a single External Data region
to many Fluent or Mechanical
boundaries
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System Coupling Setup


Since this is 1-way FSI, under
System Coupling Analysis
Settings use a single Coupling
Iteration
If multiple steps are used then
MAPDL will ramp the load
linearly over the Number of
Steps for a Steady-State
analysis
Update the System Coupling
Solution cell to solve the case

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System Coupling Solution


Mapping is performed at runtime by System Coupling
Check the Mapping Summary
in the output as usual
Temperature and HTC use
Profile Preserving mapping,
Heat Flow uses Conservative
mapping
Same debug controls
E.g. DumpInterfaceMeshes
or DTDiagShowAll to show
additional mapping
diagnostics (beta)

Loads are passed to Fluent or


MAPDL solver at run-time
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Summary

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There are a number of workflows for transferring static data


between Fluent and Mechanical

For Fluent to Mechanical data transfer, the direct schematic


connections are easy to use and are often the first choice

Using External Data provides more workflow flexibility since


theres no need for a single project and it extends easily to
transient 1-way Fluent to Mechanical cases

The External Data connection to System Coupling allows data to


be passed from Mechanical to Fluent in addition to Fluent to
Mechanical and provides conservative Heat Flow mapping

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

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Outline
Direct Project Schematic Connections
Details on mapping CFD loads to Mechanical by connection cells on the
project schematic

External Data Connection to Mechanical


This discusses using External Data to import loads to Mechanical

External Data Connection to System Coupling


Covers External Data connection to System Coupling, which can then
connect to Fluent or Mechanical

Appendix A: Loads files via Fluent Mapping Panels


Appendix B: Manual Export from CFD-Post

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Fluent Mapping Panels


Supports thermal and structural
loads for surfaces and volumes
Temperature, Heat Transfer
Coefficient (Wall Function,
Adjacent Cell Temperature and
Reference Temperature), Heat
Flux, Pressure, Force

Efficient interpolation to

structural mesh in Fluent


Workflow is not automated or
persistent by default
But can be scripted in WB

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Fluent Mapping Panels

Uses libraries from Visual


Kinematics Inc. (VKI) to read and
write FEA file formats

Libraries also allow FEA mesh to be


displayed in Fluent

For each FEA node/element a binary


search partition (BSP) tree
algorithm is used to find closest
node in Fluent mesh
Example: Find the point on the curved line
which is closest to the blue point BSP tree

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Data is then interpolated from the


closest node

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Fluent Mapping Panels


Scripting and Command Snippets can be used to
automate the workflow

See workshop for example

Consider using the Fluent mapping panels:

If you are using Fluent outside of Workbench and wish to


generate load files for Mechanical/MAPDL

To generate load files for non-ANSYS FEA solvers

If mapping using the CFD-Post algorithms produces unmapped


nodes that cannot be corrected or is slow

See Fluent documentation for further details:

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// User's Guide :: 2 // 4. Reading and Writing Files // 4.20.


Mapping Data for Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) Applications //
4.20.2. Using the FSI Mapping Dialog Boxes

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Outline
Direct Project Schematic Connections
Details on mapping CFD loads to Mechanical by connection cells on the
project schematic

External Data Connection to Mechanical


This discusses using External Data to import loads to Mechanical

External Data Connection to System Coupling


Covers External Data connection to System Coupling, which can then
connect to Fluent or Mechanical

Appendix A: Loads files via Fluent Mapping Panels


Appendix B: Manual Export from CFD-Post

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Manual 1-way Mapping


The project schematic connection approach is launching
CFD-Post in the background to perform the mapping
Can use CFD-Post to manually generate a load file, for
example when using Mechanical APDL:

Write out a .cdb file containing the Mechanical surface or volume


mesh
Load the .cdb and CFD results files into CFD-Post then export a
load file
Read the load file into Mechanical

The following slides describe how to do this in Workbench

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Generally not necessary, but could be used to apply a load from a


CFD solution that is not in the current project or apply a heat flux
(which is not supported via the direct connections)
The commands shown can be applied in MAPDL
January 4, 2013

Release 14.5

Manual 1-way Mapping


Write out the .cdb file from Mechanical/
APDL using the CDWRITE command:
For Mechanical in WB, can insert a Command

Snippet similar to that shown and Solve


The example shown for Temperature body
mapping refers to a Named Selection of solid
bodies called SolidPart
This writes the .cdb file without solving the
model due to the /EOF command

/PREP7
CMSEL,S,SolidPart
NSLE,S,ACTIVE
CDWRITE,DB,Export,cdb
ALLS
/SOLU
/EOF

Note that youll get a solution error when


running in WB, but it creates the .cdb file
Comment out the CDWRITE and /EOF
commands or Suppress the snippet when you
come to really solve

Use View > Files from the Project page to


locate the .cdb file

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Manual 1-way Mapping


To write out a .cdb file for
Pressure (stress vector) surface
mapping, create a layer of
SURF154 elements on the
boundary of interest
This example refers to a Named
Selection interface_solid_side
Comment out the CDWRITE and
/EOF commands when really
solving

/PREP7
ET,100,SURF154
CMSEL,S,interface_solid_side
TYPE,100
ESURF
ESEL,S,TYPE,,100
CDWRITE,DB,exported_surface,cdb
ALLSEL
/SOLU
/EOF

Dont suppress the snippet since the


surface elements need to get created
when solving

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Manual 1-way Mapping


To write out a .cdb file for HTC or Heat
Flux surface mapping, use the same
procedure as Pressure but use SURF152
elements
For HTC, associate with the fluid side of
a CHT interface when importing into
CFD-Post
For Heat Flux associate with the solid
side

To write out a .cdb file for Temperature


surface mapping, there's no need to
create surface effect elements since
Temperature will be the DOF and is set
directly
Pick the solid side of a CHT interface
when importing into CFD-Post
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/PREP7
ET,100,SURF152
CMSEL,S,interface_solid_side
TYPE,100
ESURF
ESEL,S,TYPE,,100
CDWRITE,DB,exported_surface,cdb
ALLSEL
/SOLU
/EOF
/PREP7
CMSEL,S,interface_solid_side
NSLE,S,ACTIVE
CDWRITE,DB,exported_surface,cdb
ALLSEL
/SOLU
/EOF

Comment out the CDWRITE and


/EOF commands when solving
Release 14.5

Manual 1-way Mapping


Open CFD-Post with the fluid results of
interest
Load the .cdb file using File > Import >
Import Mechanical CDB Surface
For surface select the associated CFD
boundary
Can only pick one
For volumes disable Specify Associated
Boundary

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Manual 1-way Mapping


After importing the .cdb file a User
Surface object will be created in CFD-Post
For surface mapping you can enable the
visibility and view the mesh using the usual
Render options
For volume mapping enabling the visibility
will not show the Mechanical volume mesh
Instead create a Point Cloud object scoped to
the User Surface with Sampling = Vertex and a
Reduction Factor of 1 to see the node
locations

For Pressure loads, can plot the Stress Vector in CFD-Post by


creating a new Vector Variable and assigning the components as
Force X/Area, Force Y/Area and Force Z/Area
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Manual 1-way Mapping


Export the load file from CFD-Post
using File > Export > Export Mechanical
Load File
For Stress, Heat Flux and HTC the load
file will contain SFE commands to apply loads
via the SURF152/154 elements

For Temperature a surface load file will


contain D commands to set the DOF

A Temperature body load file will


contain BF commands
Must export in Celsius
A structural analysis reads BF loads in Celsius
regardless of the units selection in WB

Can open the exported file in a text editor


and make sure the values look reasonable
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Manual 1-way Mapping


Read the load file into Mechanical
In Workbench can either paste the contents into a Command Snippet
or read in the file while solving using the /input command in a
Command Snippet
!/input,file name,file extension,'C:\file path
! For example:
/input,Pressure,sfe,'C:\Users\username\project

Make sure your solution units are consistent with the values exported
from CFD-Post
In particular, Mechanical is Celsius by default while Fluent is Kelvin

After solving check the Solution Information and .err file to make sure
the /input command was successful. If the file was not read the
solution will still proceed without the load applied

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Manual 1-way Mapping


After solving can visually check the applied load in Mechanical

For an imported Temperature


body load:
Selection Solution
Click Worksheet
Find the Type = BFE, Output
Unit = Temperature entry
Right-click and select Create
User Defined Result
A BFE entry appears under
Solution to show the imported
temperature load
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Manual 1-way Mapping


After solving can visually check the applied load in Mechanical
For an imported surface load,
insert a Command Snippet into
the structural setup as shown
See the doc for /PSF
command options for Heat
Flux, Convection Coefficient
and Pressure
CMSEL points to a Named
Selection
Insert an empty Command Snippet
below Solution; the plot will
appear as an object below this

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! --- set view position


/VIEW,,1,1,-1
! --- reverse video
/RGB,INDEX,100,100,100, 0
/RGB,INDEX, 80, 80, 80,13
/RGB,INDEX, 60, 60, 60,14
/RGB,INDEX, 0, 0, 0,15
! --- turn on pressure load contours
/PSF,PRES,NORM,3,0,1
! --- display to png image
/SHOW,PNG
! --- element display
CMSEL,S,interface_solid_side
ESLN,R,1
EPLOT
ALLSEL

Release 14.5

Exporting csv Files from CFD-Post


CFD-Post can also be used to export data to text files (.csv)

E.g. export CFD nodal pressures for use with External Data
(discussed in the next section)

Since CFD-Post can read Mechanical results, it can also be


used to export displacements for Fluent

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Use in Fluent like any other profile boundary

The EXPROFILE command also exports data from Mechanical results


(discussed in the last section)

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

January 4, 2013

Release 14.5