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Heat Capacity

Specific Heat

Heat Transfer

Thermal Energy Balance

BIG PICTURE: The big ideas are Temperature and Heat. Temperature is a property

common to systems in thermodynamic equilibrium. Temperature is quantified in SI

units using the kelvin scale, defined by gas thermometers. Heat is energy in transit

as a result of a temperature difference.

Temperature

how hot or how cold and object is, in relation to other objects. Objects in contact,

at the same temperature, are in thermodynamic equilibrium.

Kelvin (K) are the units of absolute temperature. There is no temperature less than

0, it is unphysical. 0 is the melting point of ice at standard pressure, whereas

100 is the boiling point of water. The interval = = .

The two scales are related by

: = + .

quest to reach the limit of temperature

between man and the elements

Empirically if a given amount of energy is added to a system, transferred to it as

Heat (), then this causes a temperature rise (), inversely proportional the

amount of material () and a material specific constant called the specific heat ().

Either =

or more commonly =

How much heat does it take to bring a 3.5 iron frypan from

20 to 120. If a 2stovetop heats the pan, how long will

this take. ( = 447 1 1 )

The same 3.5 iron frypan at 120 is plunged into a plastic sink

filled with 2 of water at 20 . What is the equilibrium

temperature. ( = 447 1 1, = 4184)

= =

= 0

1 1 1 + 2 2 2 = 0

1 1 + 2 2 = 1 1 1 + 2 22

1 1 1 + 2 22

=

1 1 + 2 2

=

3.5 447 + 2 4184

= 308.75 = 36

that are brought together and left to reach thermal equilibrium. i.e. mixing of fluids

Energy is assumed to be conserved =

Heat Transfer

conduction

convection

radiation

Usually for a given situation one mechanism will dominate however in some

cases all three need to be considered simultaneously.

Conduction

quantified by their thermal conductivity ( 1 1).

Conduction

quantified by their thermal conductivity ( 1 1).

Q

T

H=

A

t

x

heat flows from

high T to low T

dT

H = kA

dx

temperature

gradient

Heat flow is the rate of heat transfer by conduction. The larger the area the

greater the heat flow. The higher the thermal conductivity the greater the

heat flow. Heat flow is driven by a temperature gradient, so the larger the

temperature difference the greater the heat flow.

Thermal Resistance

across a composite slab of different k materials.

(T3 T2 )

(T2 T1 )

= k1 A

H = k2 A

x1

x2

thermal resistance of a single slab R (K/W)

HR2 = T2 T3

HR1 = T1 T2

Heat flow

ADD, H SUBJECT

dT

H = kA

dx

T1 T3

H=

R1 + R2

Thermal Resistances

add in series

= 1 + 2

Thermal Resistance

x

R=

kA

PHYSCAST ALERT

= 1 + 2

( ). Temperature difference is analogous to the potential difference

( ) and Heat flow is analogous to electrical current (H ).

Convection

Convection

the buoyancy effect alone to

move the fluid.

increases the fluid movement

by using a fan or pump.

and remains one of the important unsolved problems in science.

Radiation

energy. For everyday temperatures this radiation is in the infrared region.

= 4

= : 0 1 (0 , 1 : /)

= 5.67 108 2 4 Stefan Boltzmann constant

0.1, heating it at a rate of 50W. The strip has an emissivity = 1

and its surroundings are 300. What will be the strips temperature if

its enclosed in a vacuum bottle transparent to all radiation ?

Interpret

Evaluate

Radiation dominant mechanism

= =

= ( 4 4 )

Develop

=

=?

= 300

In equilibrium so =

+ 4

50

+ 3004

4

8

1 5 10 5.67 10

= 1153 = 880

Assess

120 for each degree Celsius difference between the water and its

surroundings. Its electrically heated at 2.5 in a basement of 15.

What is the water temperature if the heating element operates

continuously ?

Thermal Energy Balance is where the heat gains are equal to the

heat losses and the system stays in equilibrium.

Summary

Specific Heat is a material property

Calorimetry is conservation of thermal energy !

=

Conduction contact, Convection- transport, Radiation - light

Examples 16.1: Specific Heat: waiting to Shower

Examples 16.2: Finding the Equilibrium temperature: Cooling Down

Examples 16.3, 16.5, 16.6: Conduction, Radiation and Thermal Energy Balance

GOT IT 16.1, 16.2, 16.3 and Green House effect application

Gases: Ideal Gas Law

Gases: The Kinetic Theory of Gases

Phase Changes

Thermal Expansion

BIG PICTURE: Matter responds to heating in a variety of ways in addition to just

changing its temperature. Other responses include phase changes and changing

volume and/or pressure. The ideal gas is a simple way to tie macroscopic bulk

quantities to the microscopic interactions of Newtonian mechanics, culminating in

the proof that Temperature is a measure if the average molecular kinetic energy.

Gases

and rarely interact. Explaining their behaviour is relatively

straightforward. Empirically we can vary the properties of a

gas to see how they change and create the equation of state.

=

Piston-Cylinder

System

Chemist version

= number of moles

= 8.314 1 1

Physicist version

= number of molecules

= 1.38 1023 1

Ideal Gas Law is the equation of state which describes how the

properties of gases are related. Most gases follow this law and

only depart when interactions become strong (extremely high

pressures and extremely low temperatures)

pressure 1.5 , whats the gas volume ? b) The pressure is now

increased to 4.0 , and the gas volume drops to half its initial

value. Whats the new temperature ?

Interpret

Evaluate

a) =

Develop

a) = ,

b)

b)

= 0.0273

1

4.0

2 250

=

=

1.5

Assess

= 333

2. Atoms only have KE and no long range forces

3. Atoms have random velocities

Newton + a few simple assumptions can answer.

N gas atoms

= =

Newtons 2nd law

N gas atoms

2. Multiply by N/N

F

p= =

A

mN

p=

V

2

m

v

xi

AL

2

v

xi

m v xi2

V

mN 2

=

vx

V

2

v x2 = (v x21 + v x22 + ....v xN

)/ N

N gas atoms

mN 2

p=

vx

V

1. All directions random

2. Make pV subject

v x2 = v y2 = v z2

v 2 = v x2 + v y2 + v z2 = 3 v x2

2 1 2

p V = N ( mv )

3 2

energy associated with random translational

motion of an atom

p V = N k BT

1 2 3

m v = k BT

2

2

temperature ( = 20) and determine the speed of a nitrogen

molecule (2 ) with this energy. (1 = 1.66 1027 )

1 2 3

m v = k BT

2

2

1.E+04

Sun (~6000K)

1.E+03

Temperature (Kelvin)

vthermal

3k BT

=

m

Ice (273K)

Liquid Nitrogen (77K)

1.E+02

1.E+01

1.E+00

1.E-01

1.E-02

1.E-03

1.E-04

1.E-05

1.E-06

1.E-01

1.E+00

Evaporative

cooling

World record (50m/s, 450pK)

1.E+01

1.E+02

Velocity (m/s)

1.E+03

1.E+04

Phase Changes

eg. adding heat to ice, initially with T=-20 C at 1 atm.

T (C)

100

ice

heat of

vaporization Lv.

heat of

fusion Lf.

ice +

water

water

water

+

steam

steam

Q (Heat added)

The energy per unit mass to change a phase is called the latent

heat of transformation . For solid-liquid change its heat of

fusion , for liquid-gas change its heat of vaporisation .

Phase Changes

A bowl contains 16 of punch (essentially water) at a warm 25 . What is

the minimum amount of ice at 0 needed to cool the punch to 0 .

Interpret

=

=

Evaluate

= 0

Develop

1 = 1 ( )

1 = 16 4184 (0 25)

1 = 1.67 106

2 = 2

1

1.67 106

2 =

=

334 103 /

Assess

2 = 5

1 ( )

2 =

PHYSCAST calorlimetry

A 75 ice cube at 3 is placed in a glass of water (0.20 at

= 20 ). At equilibrium, how much ice remains unmelted (if

any)? What is the final temperature of the drink ?

-ive sign : energy lost

Interpret

Evaluate

Energy released by cooling water, Q1

Q1 = 0.2 4184 20 = 16736 J

Energy absorbed by heating of ice, Q2

Energy absorbed by melting ice, Q3

If Q1 < Q2+Q3 then some ice is left

Q1 = m c T cw = 4184 J/kg C

Q2 = m c T cice = 2100 J/kg C

Q3 = L f m

Lf = 3.33

Develop

105

J/kg

16236

m=

= 49 g mice = 26 g

5

3.33 10

care to account for all energies associated with temperature changes =

and with phase changes = . Note for phases must add sign in (+ s to l, - l to s)

Thermal Expansion

Ideal Gas ( ) = ( )

Thermal Expansion

Coefficent of linear expansion =

looking at long thin objects (railway).

Summary

The ideal gas law can be applied to most problems (with gases)

Know the chemist and physicist version (moles and molecules)

Only temperature dictates a molecules thermal speed

Calorlimetry is conservation of thermal energy

You put in the sign in manually for phase changes depending on direction

Reread, Review and Reinforce concepts and techniques of Chapter 17

Examples 17.2: Molecular Energy and Speed

Examples 17.3: The Heat of Fusion: Meltdown

Examples 17.4: Heat and Phase Change: Enough Ice

Examples 17.5: Thermal Expansion: Spilled Gasoline

The 1st Law of Thermodynamics

Thermodynamic Processes

Work and Volume Change

Isothermal Processes

Isovolumetric Processes

Isobaric Processes

Cyclical Processes

BIG PICTURE: Conservation of energy is now expanded to include heat. The

expanded statement is the first law of thermodynamics which relates the change of

a systems internal energy to the heat flowing into the system and the work done by

the system. We use diagrams along with the ideal gas law to describe

graphically basic thermodynamic proccesses.

= internal energy ( )

= +

work done by the system

on the net heat added to the system and the net work done on

the system, independent of the process.

Thermodynamic Processes

2

1

quasi-static (reversible)

process keeps water and

gas in equilibrium

How does the work done on the gas relate to volume ?

Gas exerts force on piston

= =

The work done on the gas

during a volume change

= =

1

+ Work done by gas

increase volume

- Work done on gas

increase volume

=

=

2

=

on gas: negative Area under curve

1

Isotherm

line of constant Temperature

=?

=

2

1

= =

= ln

1

1

1

Interpret

= 0 : Isothermal

U = 0, Q = W

Develop

25m

p2 = 1 atm

4

3

V2 = r2

3

Evaluate

V2

W = p dV = nRT ln

V1

V1

V2

nRT

nRT

V2 =

V1 =

p1V1 = nRT

p2

p1

V2 nRT p1

=

V1

p2 nRT

p1 3.5

=

=

= 3.5

p2

1

p1 = 3.5 atm

4

3

W = 3.5 101.3 103 2.110 6 ln (3.5)

V1 = r1

3

Assess

= 0.93 J

= 2.110 6 m 3

Adiabatic Processes

the temperature decreases

faster than an isotherm.

not examinable

and its environment. Examples include fast processes like

ignition in an engine or systems with perfect thermal

insulation. = and thus = .

Cyclical Processes

returns to the same thermodynamic state. Thus over the

course of one cycle the change to the internal energy is

=_________. Work done and Heat added are _________________.

Past Exam Q: An ideal gas has an initial state, A, with volume 2.4 103 3,

temperature of 30 and a pressure of 2.0 . It is heated isovolumetrically to

state B which has a pressure of 4.0 . It is then cooled isobarically to state C

which has a volume of 1.2 103 3. Finally, the volume is increased isothermally

until the original volume is reached.

(i) Sketch a PV diagram for the above sequence, clearly indicating the P and V

values for states A, B, and C, and the paths between them.

4 atm

2 atm

1.2 10 3

= 30

V

2.4 10 3

Calculate the work done by the gas during each of the state changes:

(I) A B

Interpret: Work done by gas is + area under PV curve

(II) B C

(III) C A

Evaluate: (I) Isometric change, V=0 no work is done, W = 0 J

(II) Isobaric change, W = PV

P

4 atm

Assess !

W = P(V f Vi )

W = 486 J

PV = nRT

2 atm

A

T = 30o C = 303K

V

1.2 10 3 2.4 10 3

Vf

1

W = PdV = nRT dV = nRT ln( )

V

Vi

VA

= PAVA ln( ) = 4.8 101.3 ln(2)

VC

= +337 J

(iii) For change (III), going from C to A, use the First Law of

Thermodynamics or otherwise to find the heat added to the gas.

W = +337 J

P

4 atm

Evaluate: U = Q W = 0

Q =W

net heat added to gas = Q = 337 J

2 atm

A

T = 30o C = 303K

V

1.2 10 3 2.4 10 3

Summary

Work done on = - Work done by

A system is what you define it to be, it just has to be closed.

A single point on a diagram has a well defined temperature

Isothermal=cost , Isovolumetric=const , Isobaric=const .

Work done on a gas is path specific and = minus the area under a curve.

Reread, Review and Reinforce concepts and techniques of Chapter 18

Examples 18.1: The 1st law of Thermodynamics: Thermal Polution

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