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Short Course

on the

Seismic Design of Concrete Gravity Dams


Lecture 2.4
EAGDSLIDE Run Procedure
March 3-6, 2009, IITK, Kanpur, India

Eagdslide - General
Program is a 2-dimensional implicit static and dynamic plain-stress linear-elastic
finite element structural analyses program specifically written for concrete gravity
dams.
Elements are 9-noded (4 corner nodes, 4 mid-side nodes, and 1 node at the
centroid) quadratic finite elements.
The foundation is modeled with a visco-elastic half space that takes into account
mass and inertia affects.
Hydrodynamic interaction is modeled with compressible fluid formulation.
Damping is by hysteretic material damping and radiation damping in the
foundation.
The majority of nodes and elements can be generated. Input is very simple and
can be created with a text editor.

Post-processing at Reclamation is done using programs EAGDSLIDEUNV and


PLT2D.

Eagdslide Features
Base of dam must be
a straight line but
may be inclined

Y-axis:
Must be vertical
-May be elevations

X-axis must be positive


toward downstream

Eagdslide Example Input File

TITLE
Guayo Dam non-overflow Max Section,Ec=4M,Ef=6.8M
SYSTEM
F=n10hkdEW n=777 E=180 V=10 P=1
NODES
1 X=0.0 Y=17640.0
21 X=120.0 Y=17640.0
589 X=0.0 Y=16260.0
609 X=1086.0 Y=16260.0 Q=1,589,21,609,21,1
757 X=-122.4 Y=15648.0
777 X=1512.0 Y=15648.0 Q=589,757,609,777,21,1
BASE
757,777,1 U=0,0 T=0
MATERIAL
N=1
1 M=150/32.2/20736 W=150/1728 E=4000000 U=0.20
ELEMENT
1 N=43,45,3,1,44,24,2,22,23 M=1 G=10,18,1,10
DAMPING
H=0.10
c INTERFACE
c U=0.7 F=0
RESERVOIR
V=4720*12 M=62.4/32.2/20736 H=62.4/1728,17520 A=0.8
1,171,10 S=4

Page 1 of 2

Eagdslide Example Input File

HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE
Page 2
121,171,10 S=4 H=85/1728,16417.584
FOUNDATION
E=6800000 U=0.33 M=160/32.2/20736 D=0.10 N=90 I=IMP3.DAT P=1
FREQUENCY RESPONSE
D=0.01 N=16384
DYNAMIC
T=80 N=20,500,20 E=0.005,0.005,0.005 V=1,1,1,1,0
GROUND ACCELERATION
D=x P=0 N=8000 T=0.01 S=386.4 W=10khkdh1
D=y P=0 N=8000 T=0.01 S=386.4 W=10khkdud
FOUT
1,777,42 R=a D=s
1,777,42 R=d D=s
WOUT
I=2 S=1
BOUT
I=2 S=1
NOUT
1,777,42 I=2 O=0,3,3 S=1
EOUT
1,180,1 I=2 O=1 S=1
ENVELOPE
O=1 S=1
END

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Eagdslide TITLE Commands


Followed by a one line description of the problem

Example
TITLE
Black Canyon Dam, Eagdslide, Ec=4.5M,Den=150, Ef=6.8M, Den=165,A=0.8

Eagdslide SYSTEM Command


Define output file name, number of nodes, elements, and modes
F = name
N = nodes
E = elements
V = vectors
T = tol
I = iter
P = post

Name (8 characters maximum) that will be given to


eagdslide output files followed by various extensions
(.bas, .elm. .out. .nod, .rit, .wrk).
Number of nodal points in the model of the dam
Number of elements on the model of the dam
Number of Ritz vectors (modes) for the dynamic analysis.
Typically 10 are sufficient for gravity dams. [Suggest using 10]
Orthogonality tolerance for Ritz vectors. T does not have to be
specified if default value used. [Default: 1E-8]
Orthogonality iterations for the Ritz vectors. [Default: 5]
Save data and response values in a binary file for additional
post-processing [Default = 0, Suggest using 1].
= 0 = Do not save. The default should not be use because an
error may occur.
= 1 = Save.

Example
SYSTEM F=shasta N=200 E=150 V=10 P=1
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Eagdslide NODE Command


Command to input node coordinates and node generation parameters.
nid
X=x
Y=y
S=s

Node number from 1 to N on the SYSTEM command


Global X coordinate. Reclamation uses inches.
Global Y coordinate. Reclamation uses inches.
Scale factor for node coordinates. The X and Y coordinates could be
entered in feet and S=12.0 converts the coordinates to inches.
G = g1,g2,inc
Node numbers (g1 and g2) and increment for linear generation
Q = q1, q2, q3, q4, in, jn
q1, q2, q3, q4 = node numbers for quadrilateral generation
in = the node number increment in the q1, q2 direction
jn = node number increment in the q1, q3 direction
Example
NODE
1 X=0.0 Y=10.0 G=1,10,1 Q=1,2,3,4,10,1
Notes:
1. Enter as many lines as necessary to define or generate N nodes.

Eagdslide Local Node Numbering

Eagdslide Automatic Node Generation


G = g1,g2,inc
Node numbers (g1 and g2) and
increment for linear generation

Q = q1, q2, q3, q4, in, jn


q1, q2, q3, q4 = node numbers for
quadrilateral generation
in = the node number increment in
the q1, q2 direction
jn = node number increment in the
q1, q3 direction
10

Eagdslide
Node
Numbering
Sequence
Start upper left
Then:
Left to Right
Top to Bottom

q3=3
jn=1
q1=1
in=17
q2=35
q4=37

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Eagdslide BASE Command


Command to define nodes along the base of the dam.
n1,n2,inc

Node numbers defining the base of the dam. Enter as many


lines as necessary to define the nodes along the base of the
dam.
n1 = Node number (at the heel of the dam)
n2 = Node number (at the toe of the dam)
inc = Node numbering increment between
nodes n1 and n2
U = u1,u2
Uplift pressure at node n1 and node n2
T = thick
Width of model for computing uplift force
Example
BASE
270, 291, 1 U = 0, 0 T = 0
Notes:
1. This command specifies the contact between the dam and foundation.
2. At Reclamation, typically the uplift is not applied here and u1 = u2 = thick = 0
because uplift is applied in a post-processing phase in program plt2d.
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Eagdslide RESTRAINTS Command


Command to define additional restraints at nodes.
n1, n2, inc
R = r1, r2

First node number, last node number and node increment


r1 = X translation code [0]
r2 = Y translation code [0]

Example:
RESTRAINT
55, 63, 2 R = 0, 0

Notes:
Typically restraints are not used and dam to foundation conditions are
automatically taken care of in with BASE command.

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Eagdslide MATERIAL Command (p1 or 2)


Command to define material properties of the dam.
N = nmat

Number of material in the dam

Then enter one line for each nmat materials:


nm
Material identification number from 1 to nmat
W=w
Weight density
M=m
Mass density
E = er , es
Modulus of elasticity in the r and s directions
U = ur , us
Poissons ratio of the r and s directions
Shear modulus in the r,s plane [er / (2(1+ur)]
G = grs
T = tz
Reference temperature
A = ar , as
Coefficient of thermal expansion in r and s

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Eagdslide MATERIAL Command (p2 or 2)


Example
MATERIAL
N=2
1 W=150/1728 M=150/32.2/20360 E=5000000 U=0.2
2 W=155/1728 M=155/32.2/20360 E=4000000 U=0.10
Notes:
These are the material properties of the elements in the dam.
If the material properties of the concrete are not know, reasonable values
are a density of 150 lb/ft3, a modulus of elasticity of 5000000 lb/in2, and a
Poissons ratio of 0.2.

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Eagdslide ELEMENT Command


Command to define element connectivity, associated material number, and
element generation parameters. Enter as may lines as necessary to define or
generate the elements:
nel
Element number
N = j1, j2, j3, j4, j5, j6, j7, j8, j9
Node numbering (see figures 2 and 3)
M = mat
Material identification number
G = g1, g2, i1, i2
Element generation numbers
g1 = Number of elements generated in the j1, j5, j2 direction
g2 = Number of elements generated in the j1, j8, j4 direction
i1 = Increment for elements in the g1 direction
i2 = Increment for elements in the g2 direction
A=a
Angle with respect to XY coordinate system for
orthotropic materials

Example
ELEMENT
1 N=35,37,3,1,36,20,2,18,19 M=1 G=8,8,1,8
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Eagdslide DAMPING Command


Command to specify a level of hysteretic damping in the dam.
H=h

Hysteretic damping value for dam [0]

Example
DAMPING
H = 0.10

Notes:
Reclamation typically uses a hysteretic damping of 10 percent. This relates
to a viscous damping of 5 percent. Additional damping mechanisms such
as radiation damping and reservoir-bottom reflection coefficient increase
this level of damping.

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Eagdslide INTERFACE Command


Command to specify friction and cohesion values along the dam to
foundation interface.
U=u
F=c

Coefficient of friction for the base of the dam


Cohesion force for the base of the dam

Example
c INTERFACE
c U = 1.0 F=0
Notes:
EAGD_SLIDE has the capability to slide along the dam to foundation
interface. This capability has not been used by Reclamation and has not
been validated. The INTERFACE command is usually not given or
commented out as shown in the example.

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Eagdslide RESERVOIR Command (p1 of 2)


Command to specify the reservoir water height, properties of the water, and a
reservoir-bottom reflection coefficient.
V=c
M=m
H = w, y
A=a

Wave propagation velocity in water. [Use 4720 ft/sec]


Mass density of water
Weight and reservoir elevation
w = Weight of water
y = Y coordinate of the reservoir water surface
Reservoir-bottom reflection coefficient (alpha or ).
All the energy is absorbed into the reservoir bottom with
a value of 0.0 and no energy is absorbed with a value of 1.0.
Typically Reclamation uses 0.8 (see notes).
[Default = 1, Use 0.8]

Enter as many of the following lines as necessary to define wet surface


e1, e2, einc First element, last element, and element increment
defining wet surface
S=n
Element side associated with water
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Eagdslide RESERVOIR Command (p2 of 2)


Example
RESERVOIR
V=4720*12 M=62.4/32.2/20360 H=62.4/1728, 12345.6 A=0.8
50, 60, 2 S=4

Notes:
At Reclamation, 0.8 is a reasonable value for the reservoir-bottom reflection
coefficient. A value for alpha of 0.8 was determined from measurements at
7 dams and from sensitivity studies on Morrow Point Dam by varying alpha
and comparing computed dam response to measured dam response.
Un-conservative results can be computed with alpha values less than 0.8
by over-damping the analyses. Eccentric mass shaker tests at the site
should be used to justify values of alpha.

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Reservoir loads (static and dynamic)

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Eagdslide HYDROSTATIC Command


This is the hydrostatic pressures due to silt or tailwater.
e1, e2, einc
S=n
H = w1, y1
T = w2, y2

First element, last element, and element increment


Element side associated with the applied pressure
= w1 = Equivalent fluid weight of silt on upstream
= y1 = Y coordinate of top surface of silt
= w2 = Weight of water for tailwater on downstream
= y2 = Y coordinate of tailwater surface

Example
HYDROSTATIC
1, 180, 17
S=4
17, 197, 17 S=2

H=85/1728, 12500.0
H=62.4/1728, 1340.5

Notes:
- For silt, the equivalent horizontal fluid pressure is 85 lb/ft3
(the vertical weight density is 120 lb/ft3).
- Hydrostatic pressure of the reservoir is defined with the
RESERVOIR command.
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Eagdslide MASSES Command


Additional mass can be added at nodes with this command. Enter as many
lines as necessary.
n1, n2, ninc
M = m1, m2

First node, last node, and node increment


= m1 = X translation mass
= m2 = Y translation mass

Example
MASSES
1, 187, 17 M = 100.0 / 386.4, 0

Notes:
Hydrodynamic interaction is automatically computed in EAGDSLIDE.
These masses are additional mass possibly from equipment and machinery.

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Eagdslide STATIC Command


These are concentrated loads at nodes. Possible uses are loads from
post-tensioned tendons. Enter as many lines as necessary.
n1, n2, ninc First node, last node, node increment
F = fx, fy
= fx =
Force in the X direction
= fy =
Force in the Y direction
Example
STATIC
1, 10, 2 F = -1000.0, 0.0

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Eagdslide FOUNDATION Command (p1 of 2)


Command to enter foundation material properties.
E=e
U=u
M=m
D=d
I = filef
N=n
P = prn

Modulus of elasticity for the foundation


Poissons ratio. [Default value of 0.33 must be used]
Mass density of the foundation. If the mass of the foundation
rock is not known, a reasonable value is
165 lb/ft3 / 32.2 ft/sec2 / 20736 in4/ft4
Hysteretic damping for the foundation. [Default 0.10]
Reclamation typically uses 10 percent.
Input file containing the frequency-dependent impedance
function. Use the default name of IMP3.DAT.
File IMP3.DAT has 90 impedance ratios [Default 90].
= 0 = Do not print impedance function to output file.
[Default 0].
= 1 = Print impedance function

Example
FOUNDATION
E=4000000 U=0.33 M=165/32.2/20360 D=0.10 I=IMP3.DAT N=90 P=1
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Eagdslide FOUNDATION Command (p2 of 2)


Notes:
1. The impedance file is currently generated for 90 frequencies with a
foundation Poissons ratio of 0.33 and 4 hysteretic damping values of
0.01, 0.10, 0.25, and 0.50.
2. If the foundation modulus is not known, a reasonable value to use is
4,000,000 lb/in2. This is 80 percent of the concrete modulus of
5,000,000 lb/in2. Care must be taken to not use a too low a value for
the foundation modulus in comparison to the concrete modulus because
radiation damping can be over estimated. A reasonable limit is to have
the foundation modulus no less the 80% of Econcrete.
3. A reasonable value for hysteretic damping is 10 percent. This equates to
5 percent viscous damping.

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Eagdslide FREQUENCY RESPONSE (p1 of 2)


Frequency response parameters
D = dt
N=n
I=r

Solution time step


Total number solution points
Interpolation
r = n = no interpolation
r = y = interpolation
B=b
Constant for interpolation
W = dmin, dmax
dmin = Lower limit for interpolation
dmax = Upper limit for interpolation
N = maxfrq Assumed number of frequencies.
Example
FREQUENCY RESPONSE
D=0.01 N=8192

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[Suggest using 0.01].


[Suggest 8192 = 213]
[Default = n]
[Default 0.50]
[Default 0.10]
[Default 0.20]
[Default = 500]

Eagdslide FREQUENCY RESPONSE (p2 of 2)


Notes:
This command is required for dynamic analyses.
The solution time step should be either 0.005 or 0.01 seconds:

DT

1
2( f Highest )

where:
fHighest is the highest frequency of interest of the
dam. Normally 25 Hz is the highest frequency of
interest because:
- any frequencies over 25 Hz do not add to the
response of the dam and
- ground motion recordings only measure
up to 25 Hz.

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Eagdslide DYNAMIC Command (p1 of 2)


T = time

Maximum duration for response analysis. A value of 10.0


provides output results for 10 seconds of the earthquake.
N = nstep, niter, ndie
nstep = Number of time steps per segment [Default = 20, values of 20 to 50
time steps per segment are recommended]. For example,
if dt = 0.2 seconds and there are 20 steps per segment, then
each segment will have 0.4 seconds.
niter = Maximum number of iterations per segment
[Default = 500]
ndie = Number of points for transition zone
[Suggest 20]
E = told, tolf, tols
told = Tolerance for dam generalized displacements [Suggest 0.005].
tolf = Tolerance for foundation displacements
[Suggest 0.005]
tols = Tolerance for sliding acceleration
[Suggest 0.005]
V = b1, b2, b3, b4, b5
b1 = 1 = Include ground acceleration
b2 = 1 = Include dam deformations
b3 = 1 = Include foundation displacements
b3 = 1 = Include hydrodynamic pressures
b4 = 1 = Include variation of mass due to sliding
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Eagdslide DYNAMIC Commend (p2 of 2)


Example
DYNAMIC
T=20 N=20, 500, 20 E=0.005, 0.005, 0.005 V=1,1,1,0

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Eagdslide GROUND ACCELERATION


Command specifies parameters for the ground motions files and
accelerations.
D=d

= x = Accelerations being read are in the horizontal direction


= y = Accelerations being read are in the vertical direction
P = flag
= 0 = Do not print accelerations to output file
= 1 = Print accelerations to output file
N = ng
Number of accelerations in file
T = dtg
Uniform time step for acceleration values
S = scale
Scale factor to multiply accelerations by.
W = fileg
File name containing ng accelerations at dtg time step interval.
FORTRAN read format is: read (nunit,*) (accl(i),i=1,ng)

Example
GROUND
D=x P=1 N=2000 T=0.01 S=386.4 W=ML_US
D=y P=1 N=2000 T=0.01 S=386.4 W=ML_UP

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Eagdslide Acceleration File


Example of ground motion file
0.0000 0.0002 0.0005 0.0001 -0.0003 -0.0007 -0.0010 -0.0003 0.0001 0.0020
0.0050 0.0025 0.0009 0.0001 -0.0004 -0.0023 -0.0065 -0.0105 -0.0082 -0.0051
Notes:
- Accelerations can be in g and then factored by 386.4 in/sec2
with the S= variable.
- Ground motions from the Seismotectonic Group are usually in time and
acceleration pairs. The time step must be removed in file fileg.
- Program srcprog / eqmerge can be used to reformat and remove the time step
from ground motions files and rewritten in a FORTRAN (10f8.4) format.
- Ground motion file name must be Capital letters even if name above is lowercase.

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Eagdslide BOUT Command


This is an output request for sliding response and forces along the dam to
foundation contact.

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I=i

= Time step interval for output.


A value of 1 outputs results at every solution time step
[Default = 1].

S = scale

= Scale factor to multiply the energy terms


[Default = 1].

Eagdslide EOUT Command


This is an output request for time-history of element stresses to be output to file
.elm. Enter as many of the following lines necessary.
e1, e2, einc
I=i
O = opt
S = scale

= First element number, last element number, and


element increment
= Time step interval for output. A value of 1 outputs results
at every solution time step. [Default = 1]
= 0 = Static stresses not included
= 1 = Static and dynamic added together
Scale factor to convert stresses to other units. The desirable
stress output is in lb/in2. Usually the nodal coordinates are in
inches and the material properties are in pounds and inches, so
the stresses automatically come out in lb/in2. [Default = 1]

Example
EOUT
1, 200, 1 I=1 O=1 S=1

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Eagdslide ENVELOPE Command


This is an output request for a listing of maximum and minimum principal
stresses at their times of occurrence during the earthquake. Output is to file
with extension .str.
O = opt
S = scale

Example
ENVELOPE
O=1 S=1

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Type of stress output


= 0 = Static stresses not included
= 1 = Static and dynamic stresses included
Scale factor to convert stresses to other units. The desirable
stress output is in lb/in2. Usually the nodal coordinates are
in inches and the material properties are in pounds and
inches, so the stresses automatically come out in lb/in2.
[Default = 1]

Eagdslide FOUT Command


This is an output request for frequency response functions. Output is to file with
extension .frf.
n1, n2, ninc
R=r
D=d

= First node number, last node number and node increment


= d = for displacement response
= a = for acceleration response
= x = Response in the horizontal direction
= y = Response in the vertical direction
= s = Sliding response

Example
FOUT
1,1,1 R=d D=x
1,1,1 R=a D=x
Notes:
Only the response at a crest node is necessary. When plotted, the frequency
response functions provide the frequency of the dam-foundation-reservoir
system. The Ritz vectors only provide the natural frequencies of the damfoundation system and the reservoir only.
36

Eagdslide NOUT Command (p1 of 2)


This is an output request for time-history response at nodes.
n1, n2, ninc
I=i

First node number, last node number, and node increment


Time step interval for output. A value of 1 outputs results at
every solution time step. [Default = 1]
O = optst, optd, opta = Output option to include various combinations:
optst
= Static displacements
= 0 = Static displacements not included
= 1 = Static displacements included
optd
= Displacement output due to the following combination:
= 1 = Dam deformation
= 2 = Dam and foundation deformations
= 3 = Dam, foundation, and sliding
opta
= Acceleration output due to the following effects
= 1 = Dam acceleration
= 2 = Dam and foundation acceleration
= 3 = Dam, foundation, and sliding acceleration
= 4 = Dam, foundation, sliding, and ground acceleration
S = scale
= Scale factor to convert displacements to other units.
37

Eagdslide NOUT Command (p2 of 2)


Example
NOUT
1,177,35 I=1 O=0, 2, 2 S=1
Notes:
Typically only a few nodes along the upstream face are needed. This way
the variation of displacement or acceleration along the height of the dam can
be captured. Accelerations at the spillway crest may be needed for the
Mechanical Group.

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Eagdslide WOUT Command (p2 of 2)


This is an output request for energy terms. Results are in file with the
extension .wrk.
I=i
S = scale
Example
WOUT
I = 1 S=1

39

Time step interval for output. A value of 1 outputs results at


every solution time step. [Default = 1]
= Scale factor to convert energy terms to other units.

Eagdslide END Command


END

40

Eagdslide Output files and File Extensions


EAGDSLIDE produces output files based on the F= parameter on the SYSTEM
command and adds the following file extensions:
.bas
.elm

.frf
.itr
.nod
.out
.rit
.sta
.wrk

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= Sliding response and forces at the base


= Stress history for selected elements on the EOUT command.
This file can be very large with output at the 9 nodes per element per
solution time step. Once EAGDSLIDEUNV is run, this file can be
deleted to save file space.
= Frequency response functions
= Summary of iterations
= Time history response at nodes
= Output file
= Ritz vectors or mode shapes.
= Static nodal displacements
= Energy terms

Solution Time Step


The solution time step is the increment in time when the
response of the dam is computed.

T = 1 / (2 F)
If F = 25 Hz, then T = 0.02 seconds
Recommended: T = 0.01 seconds

42

Parameters for the Fourier Transform


1. Fourier transforms are computed
for the total duration which is the
duration of response plus the
duration of the quite time
T = Tr + Tq
To reduce errors:
Tq 1.5 / (ns f1)
Where
ns = hysteretic damping for dam
f1 = natural frequency of dam
Example:
If, ns = 0.10 and f1 = 5.0 Hz
Tq = 3 sec minimum quiet time

43

Parameters for the Fourier Transform


Compute N:
where:
T
N
T
N

T = N x T

= The total duration of response (response + quiet)


= Number of frequencies in the Fourier transform
= Solution time step
= 2M

Solving:
M
= (log N) / (log 2), So M = [ log ( T / T) ] / ( log 2)
M
= Is an integer number making N > T
Example:
If T = 20 seconds, T = 0.01, M = 10.97, Rounding = 11

211 = 2048 > T = 20 / 0.01 = 2000

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Frequency increment small enough to


represent frequency response function
Recommended:

f = 1 / T f1 / 50

where:
f = frequency increment for the Fourier transform
T
= the total duration of the earthquake plus the quiet time
f1
= natural frequency of the dam
Example:
Say:
N
= 211
= 2048
T = 0.01 second solution time step
T
= N x T = 20.48 second total duration
f1
= 7 Hz natural frequency of the dam
Then:
f
f1

45

= 1 / T = 1 / 20.48 sec
= 7 Hz / 50
= 0.049 Hz 0.14 Hz

= 0.049 Hz
= 0.14 Hz
= Okay

Questions?

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