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Physics course

- Momentum Test Pre-AP 2012
- Davangere University Physics Syllabus (CBCS) 2016-17
- Physics - Exemplar class XI
- Stpm 2014 Trial p1 Set 2 q & A
- Unit 4 Revision Checklist
- Momentum
- Andhra Pradesh Ntse Stage1-2015
- conservation of
- 4092704-Res-Mathematics.doc
- Conservation of Momentum
- Dynamics
- Ch08 Direct Collisions
- 3B
- ap physics
- Lab Report 7
- Ball_Drop_activity.pdf
- rubegoldbergsummary 1
- Lesson Plan for Demo in Science 9
- Physic Lab Report 4 PHY130 Uitm
- Physics Lab6 (Collisons)

You are on page 1of 93

Linear Momentum

Linear momentum of a particle is defined to be the product of

the mass and velocity:

p = momentum

m = mass

v = velocity

describing objects in motion

If a particle is moving in an arbitrary direction, has three

components

px = m vx

py = m vy

pz = m vz

Momentum Facts

Momentum is a vector quantity!

Velocity and momentum vectors point in the same direction

Momentum is a conserved quantity

A net force is required to change a bodys momentum

Something big and slow could have the same momentum as

something small and fast.

The concept of momentum provides a quantitative distinction

between heavy and light particles moving at the same velocity.

For example, the momentum of a bowling ball is much greater

than that of a tennis ball moving at the same speed.

Momentum Examples

10 kg

3 m /s

10 kg

30 kg m /s

times longer than the velocity vector, since only vectors of the

same quantity can be compared in this way.

26

5g

p = 45 kg m /s

at 26 N of E

Equivalent Momentum

p = 1.44 105 kg m /s

Bus: m = 9000 kg; v = 16 m /s

p = 1.44 105 kg m /s

p = 1.44 105 kg m /s

The train, bus, and car all have different masses and speeds,

but their momenta are the same in magnitude. The massive

train has a slow speed; the low-mass car has a great speed;

and the bus has moderate mass and speed. Note: We can

only say that the magnitudes of their momenta are equal

since theyre arent moving in the same direction.

The difficulty in bringing each vehicle to rest-in terms of a

combination of the force and time required-would be the

same, since they each have the same momentum.

Force of a tennis serve.

For a top player, a tennis ball may

leave the racket on the serve with a

speed of 55 m/s (about 120 mi/h). If

the ball has a mass of 0.060 kg and

is in contact with the racket for about

4 ms (4 x 10-3 s), estimate the

average force on the ball. Would this

force be large enough to lift a 60-kg

person?

Washing a car: momentum change and force.

20 m/s and is aimed at the side of a car, which stops it.

(That is, we ignore any splashing back.) What is the

force exerted by the water on the car?

Momentum and kinetic energy both involve mass and

velocity.

There are major differences between them:

Kinetic energy is a scalar and momentum is a vector.

Kinetic energy can be transformed to other types of

energy.

There is only one type of linear momentum, so there

are no similar transformations.

Analysis models based on momentum are separate from

those based on energy.

This difference allows an independent tool to use in solving

problems.

Example

A 60-kg archer stands at rest on frictionless ice and fires

a 0.50-kg arrow horizontally at 50 m/s. With what velocity

does the archer move across the ice after firing the

arrow?

Angular Momentum

Angular momentum depends on linear

momentum and the distance from a particular

point. It is a vector quantity with symbol L. If r

and v are then the magnitude of angular

momentum w/ resp. to point Q is given by L = r

p = m v r. In this case L points out of the page.

If the mass were moving in the opposite

direction, L would point into the page.

r

Q

quantity. A torque is needed to change

L, just a force is needed to change p.

Anything spinning has angular has

angular momentum. The more it has,

the harder it is to stop it from spinning.

Angular Momentum

This formula works regardless of the angle. As you know

from our study of cross products, the magnitude of the

angular momentum of m relative to point Q is: L = r p sin =

m v r. In this case, by the right-hand rule, L points out of

the page. If the mass were moving in the opposite direction,

L would point into the page.

Moment of Inertia

Any moving body has inertia. (It wants to keep moving at constant v.). The

more inertia a body has, the harder it is to change its linear motion. Rotating

bodies possess a rotational inertial called the moment of inertial, I. The more

rotational inertia a body has, the harder it is change its rotation. For a single

point-like mass w/ respect to a given point Q, I = m r 2.

For a system, I = the sum of each mass

times its respective distance from the point

of interest.

m

r

m2

Q

I=mr2

I = mi ri 2

= m1 r12 + m2 r22

r1

r2

Q

Two merry-go-rounds have the same mass and are spinning with the same

angular velocity. One is solid wood (a disc), and the other is a metal ring.

Which has a bigger moment of inertia relative to its center of mass?

answer: I is independent of the angular speed. Since their masses and radii

are the same, the ring has a greater moment of inertia. This is because more

of its mass is farther from the axis of rotation. Since I is bigger for the ring, it

would more difficult to increase or decrease its angular speed.

Angular Acceleration

As you know, acceleration is when an object speeds up, slows down, or

changes directions. Angular acceleration occurs when a spinning object

spins faster or slower. Its symbol is , and its defined as:

=/t

Note how this is very similar to a = v / t for linear acceleration.

Ex: If a wind turbine spinning at 21 rpm speeds up to 30 rpm over 10 s due

to a gust of wind, its average angular acceleration is

9 rpm / 10 s. This means every second its spinning 9 revolutions per

minute faster than the second before. Lets convert the units:

Since a radian is really dimensionless (a length divided by a length), the SI

unit for angular acceleration is the per second squared (s-2).

9 rev 9 (2 rad)= 0.094 rad / s2

=

=

min 10 s = (60 s) 10 s

10 s

10 s

Newtons 2nd Law, as you know, is Fnet = m a

The 2nd Law has a rotational analog: net = I

A force is required for a body to undergo acceleration. A

turning force (a torque) is required for a body to undergo

angular acceleration.

The bigger a bodys mass, the more force is required to

accelerate it. Similarly, the bigger a bodys rotational inertia,

the more torque is required to accelerate it angularly.

Both m and I are measures of a bodys inertia

(resistance to change in motion).

If a net force acts on an object, it must accelerate, which means its

momentum must change. Similarly, if a net torque acts on a body, it

undergoes angular acceleration, which means its angular momentum

changes. Recall, angular momentums magnitude is given by

L=mvr

(if v and r are perpendicular)

v

m

velocity must change, which changes

angular momentum.

proof: net = r Fnet = r m a

=rmv/t=L/t

net force is the rate of change of linear momentum.

Linear Momentum, p

Tendency for a mass to

continue moving in a straight

line.

Parallel to v.

A conserved, vector quantity.

Magnitude is inertia (mass)

times speed.

Net force required to change

it.

The greater the mass, the

greater

the force needed to change

momentum.

Angular Momentum, L

Tendency for a mass to

continue rotating.

Perpendicular to both v & r.

A conserved, vector quantity.

Magnitude is rotational inertia

times angular speed.

Net torque required to change

it.

The greater the moment of

inertia, the greater the torque

needed to change angular

momentum.

Here is yet another pair of similar equations, one linear,

one rotational. From the formula v = r , we get

L = m v r = m r (r ) = m r 2 = I

This is very much like p = m v, and this is one reason I is

defined the way it is.

In terms of magnitudes, linear momentum is inertia times

speed, and angular momentum is rotational inertia times

angular speed.

L=I

p=mv

Whenever two or more particles in an isolated system

interact, the total momentum of the system remains constant.

The momentum of the system is conserved, not

necessarily the momentum of an individual particle.

In component form, the total momenta in each direction are

independently conserved.

p1ix + p2ix = p1fx + p2fx

p1iy + p2iy = p1fy+ p2fy

p1iz + p2iz = p1fz + p2fz

system equals its initial momentum.

Conservation of Momentum

Conservation of momentum

can also be derived from

Newtons laws. A collision

takes a short enough time that

we can ignore external forces.

Since the internal forces are

equal and opposite, the total

momentum is constant.

For more than two objects

The proof is based on Newtons 3rd Law. Whenever two objects collide (or

exert forces on each other from a distance), the forces involved are an

action-reaction pair, equal in strength, opposite in direction. This means

the net force on the system (the two objects together) is zero, since these

forces cancel out.

F

force on M due to m

F

force on m due to M

Since the force applied and the contact time is the same for each mass, they

each undergo the same change in momentum, but in opposite directions. The

result is that even though the momenta of the individual objects changes, p

for the system is zero. The momentum that one mass gains, the other loses.

Hence, the momentum of the system before equals the momentum of the

system after.

To handle a collision in 2-D, we conserve momentum in each dimension

separately.

Choosing down & right as positive:

m1

m2

2 v

2

v1

m1

va

m2

vb

before:

px = m1 v1 cos1 - m2 v2 cos2

py = m1 v1 sin1 + m2 v2 sin2

after:

px = -m1 va cosa + m2 vb cos b

py = m1 va sina + m2 vb sin b

m1 v1 cos1 - m2 v2 cos2 = -m1 va cosa + m2 vb cos b

m1 v1 sin1 + m2 v2 sin 2 = m1 va sina + m2 vb sin b

in the absence of external forces!

In the first two sample problems, we dealt with a frictionless

surface. We couldnt simply conserve momentum if friction

had been present because, as the proof on the last slide

shows, there would be another force (friction) in addition to the

contact forces. Friction wouldnt cancel out, and it would be a

net force on the system.

friction is to make it internal by including the tabletop, floor, or

the entire Earth as part of the system. For example, if a rubber

ball hits a brick wall, p for the ball is not conserved, neither is p

for the ball-wall system, since the wall is connected to the

ground and subject to force by it. However, p for the ball-Earth

system is conserved!

Conservation of Momentum

Railroad cars collide: momentum conserved.

m/s strikes an identical car, B, at rest. If the cars lock

together as a result of the collision, what is their common

speed immediately after the collision?

Conservation of Momentum

Momentum conservation works for a rocket as long as we

consider the rocket and its fuel to be one system, and

account for the mass loss of the rocket.

Rifle recoil: calculate the recoil velocity of a 5.0-kg rifle that

shoots a 0.020-kg bullet at a speed of 620 m/s.

In conservation of momentum, there is no statement

concerning the types of forces acting on the particles of the

system.

The forces are not specified as conservative or nonconservative.

There is no indication if the forces are constant or not.

The only requirement is that the forces must be internal to

the system.

This gives a hint about the power of this new model.

The momentum of a system changes if a net force from

the environment acts on the system.

For momentum considerations, a system is non-isolated

if a net force acts on the system for a time interval.

From Newtons Second Law,

Integrating to find the change in momentum over some

time interval.

I

t

dp

F

dt

dp Fdt

p pf pi Fdt I

f

ti

an object over t.

Impulse-Momentum Theorem

This equation expresses the impulse-momentum theorem:

The change in the momentum of a particle is equal to the

impulse of the new force acting on the particle.

p I

This is equivalent to Newtons Second Law.

This is identical in form to the conservation of energy

equation.

This is the most general statement of the principle of

conservation of momentum and is called the

conservation of momentum equation.

This form applies to non-isolated systems.

This is the mathematical statement of the nonisolated system (momentum) model.

The impulse due to all forces acting on an object (the net

force) is equal to the change in momentum of the object:

Fnet t = p

We know the units on both sides of the equation are the

same (last slide), but lets prove the theorem formally:

Fnet t = m a t = m ( v / t) t = m v = p

Impulse is a vector quantity.

The magnitude of the

impulse is equal to the area

under the force-time curve.

The force may vary with

time.

Dimensions of impulse are

ML/T

Impulse is not a property of

the particle, but a measure of

the change in momentum of

the particle.

Impulse

The impulse can also be found

by using the time averaged force.

I Ft

This would give the same

impulse as the time-varying force

does.

In many cases, one force acting

on a particle acts for a short time,

but is much greater than any

other force present.

The particle is assumed to move

very little during the collision

represent the momenta

immediately before and after the

collision.

Stopping Time

Ft =Ft

Imagine a car hitting a wall and coming to rest. The force on the car

due to the wall is large (big F ), but that force only acts for a small

amount of time (little t ). Now imagine the same car moving at the

same speed but this time hitting a giant haystack and coming to rest.

The force on the car is much smaller now (little F ), but it acts for a

much longer time (big t ). In each case the impulse involved is the

same since the change in momentum of the car is the same. Any

net force, no matter how small, can bring an object to rest if it has

enough time. A pole vaulter can fall from a great height without

getting hurt because the mat applies a smaller force over a longer

period of time than the ground alone would.

A 1.3 kg ball is coming straight at a 75 kg soccer player at 13 m/s

who kicks it in the exact opposite direction at 22 m/s with an

average force of 1200 N. How long are his foot and the ball in

contact?

answer: Well use Fnet t = p. Since the ball

changes direction, p = m v = m (vf - v0)

= 1.3 [22 - (-13)] = (1.3 kg) (35 m/s)

= 45.5 kg m /s. Thus, t = 45.5 / 1200

= 0.0379 s, which is just under 40 ms.

During this contact time the ball compresses substantially and

then decompresses. This happens too quickly for us to see,

though. This compression occurs in many cases, such as

hitting a baseball or golf ball.

Fnet (N)

Net area = p

6

t (s)

direction for 6 s, thereafter in the opposite direction. Since

impulse is Fnet t, the area under the curve is equal to the

impulse, which is the change in momentum. The net change in

momentum is the area above the curve minus the area below

the curve. This is just like a v vs. t graph, in which net

displacement is given area under the curve.

Impulse Units

J = F t shows why the SI unit for impulse is the Newton

second. There is no special name for this unit, but it

is equivalent to a kg m /s.

equivalent to a newton.

proof: 1 N s = 1 (kg m /s2) (s) = 1 kg m /s

units, which leads to a useful theorem.

Computing Impulse

Constant Force

Impulse = Average

Force x time

NonConstant Force

force-time curve

A soccer player imparts the force shown below on a soccer ball with a

mass of 0.43 kg and an initial velocity (Vi) of 0.0 m/s. After the force was

applied the ball had a final velocity (Vf) of 23.02 m/s. The average force

F of 90.8 N was applied for 0.109 s. Compute the impulse using both

average force and the change in momentum.

Example

In a particular crash test, a car of

mass 1 500 kg collides with a wall

as shown in Figure 9.4. The initial

and final velocities of the car are

and, respectively. If the collision

lasts 0.150 s, find the impulse

caused by the collision and the

average force exerted on the car.

Collision

The term collision represents an event during which two particles

come close to each other and interact by means of forces.

May involve physical contact, but must be generalized to

include cases with interaction without physical contact

The interaction forces are assumed to be much greater than any

external forces present.

This means the impulse approximation can be used.

Collisions are classified according to whether the kinetic energy

changes during the collision.

The two classifications are elastic and inelastic.

In an elastic collision the total kinetic energy of the system is the

same before and after the collision.

In an a perfectly inelastic collision the total kinetic energy is still

conserved but the two objects stick together and move with the

same velocity.

Collisions Example

Collisions may be the result of

direct contact.

The impulsive forces may vary in

time in complicated ways.

This force is internal to the

system.

Observe the variations in the

active figure.

Momentum is conserved.

The collision need not include

physical contact between the

objects.

There are still forces between the

particles.

This type of collision can be

analyzed in the same way as those

that include physical contact.

Types of Collisions

In an elastic collision, momentum and kinetic energy are

conserved.

Perfectly elastic collisions occur on a microscopic level.

In macroscopic collisions, only approximately elastic

collisions actually occur.

Generally some energy is lost to deformation, sound, etc.

These collisions are described by the isolated system model

for both energy and momentum.

There must be no transformation of kinetic energy into

other types of energy within the system.

In an inelastic collision, kinetic energy is not conserved, although

momentum is still conserved.

If the objects stick together after the collision, it is a

perfectly inelastic collision.

Collisions, cont.

In an inelastic collision, some kinetic

energy is lost, but the objects do not stick

together.

Elastic and perfectly inelastic collisions

are limiting cases, most actual collisions

fall in between these two types .

Momentum is conserved in all collisions

Momentum of an isolated system is

conserved in any collision, so the total

momentum before the collision is equal to

the total momentum of the composite

system after the collision.

Since the objects stick together, they

share the same velocity after the collision.

m1v1i m2 v2i m1 m2 vf

Elastic Collisions

Both momentum and kinetic

energy are conserved.

m1v1i m2 v 2 i

m1v1f m2 v 2f

1

1

m1v12i m2 v 22 i

2

2

1

1

m1v12f m2 v 22f

2

2

unknowns to solve for and so

you need two equations.

Section 9.4

The kinetic energy equation can be difficult to use.

With some algebraic manipulation, a different equation

can be used.

v1i v2i = v1f + v2f

This equation, along with conservation of momentum, can

be used to solve for the two unknowns.

It can only be used with a one-dimensional, elastic

collision between two objects.

Using this equation eliminates the need for using an

equation with quadratic terms (from the kinetic energy

equation).

Remember to use the appropriate signs for all velocities.

Example of some special cases:

m1 = m2 the particles exchange velocities

When a very heavy particle collides head-on with a

very light one initially at rest, the heavy particle

continues in motion unaltered and the light particle

rebounds with a speed of about twice the initial speed

of the heavy particle.

When a very light particle collides head-on with a very

heavy particle initially at rest, the light particle has its

velocity reversed and the heavy particle remains

approximately at rest.

Inelastic Collisions

With inelastic collisions, some of the initial kinetic

energy is lost to thermal or potential energy.

Kinetic energy may also be gained during

explosions, as there is the addition of chemical or

nuclear energy.

objects stick together afterward, so there is only

one final velocity.

Inelastic Collisions

Railroad cars again.

A 10,000-kg railroad car, A, traveling at a speed

of 24.0 m/s strikes an identical car, B, at rest. If

the cars lock together as a result of the collision,

how much of the initial kinetic energy is

transformed to thermal or other forms of energy?

Before collision

After collision

Inelastic Collisions

Ballistic pendulum.

The ballistic pendulum is a device

used to measure the speed of a

projectile, such as a bullet. The

projectile, of mass m, is fired into a

large block of mass M, which is

suspended like a pendulum. As a

result of the collision, the pendulum

and projectile together swing up to a

maximum height h. Determine the

relationship between the initial

horizontal speed of the projectile, v,

and the maximum height h.

Two-Dimensional Collisions

The momentum is conserved in all directions.

Use subscripts for

Identifying the object

Indicating initial or final values

The velocity components

If the collision is elastic, use conservation of kinetic

energy as a second equation.

Remember, the simpler equation can only be used for

one-dimensional situations.

Particle 1 is moving at velocity and particle 2 is at rest.

In the x-direction, the initial momentum is m1v1i.

In the y-direction, the initial momentum is 0.

After the collision, the

momentum in the x-direction is

m1v1f cos m2v2f cos

After the collision, the

momentum in the y-direction is

m1v1f sin m2v2f sin

The negative sign is due

to the component of the

velocity being downward.

If the collision is elastic,

apply the kinetic energy

equation.

This is an example of a

glancing collision.

perfectly elastic collision. Ball

A has a mass of 0.8 kg and

an initial velocity (uA) of 3

m/s, ball B has a mass of 0.3

kg and an initial velocity (uB)

of 2 m/s, determine the

velocity of each ball after the

collision.

an inelastic collision,

object A has a mass of 0.8

kg and an initial velocity

(uA) of 4 m/s, object B has

a mass of 0.4 kg and an

initial velocity (uB) of 2

m/s, determine the final

velocity of A and B.

On the last slide the boxes were drawn going in the opposite direction

after colliding. This isnt always the case. For example, when a bat

hits a ball, the ball changes direction, but the bat doesnt. It doesnt

really matter, though, which way we draw the velocity vectors in after

picture. If we solved the conservation of momentum equation (red

box) for vb and got a negative answer, it would mean that m2 was

still moving to the left after the collision. As long as we interpret our

answers correctly, it matters not how the velocity vectors are drawn.

v1

m1

v2

m2

m1 v1 - m2 v2 = - m1 va + m2 vb

va

m1

m2

vb

1. Conceptualize. Imagine the collision occurring in your

mind. Draw simple diagrams of the particles before and after

the collision and include appropriate velocity vectors. At first,

you may have to guess at the directions of the final velocity

vectors.

2. Categorize. Is the system of particles isolated? If so,

categorize the collision as elastic, inelastic, or perfectly

inelastic.

3. Analyze. Set up the appropriate mathematical

representation for the problem: inelastic, elastic. To find the

final velocities in this case, you will need some additional

information.

4. Finalize. Once you have determined your result, check to

see if your answers are consistent with the mental and

pictorial representations and that your results are realistic.

Example

A 1 500-kg car traveling east with a

speed of 25.0 m/s collides at an

intersection with a 2 500-kg van

traveling north at a speed of 20.0 m/s

as shown in Figure 9.12. Find the

direction and magnitude of the velocity

of the wreckage after the collision,

assuming the vehicles stick together

after the collision.

the speed of a fast-moving projectile such as a bullet. A

projectile of mass m1 is fired into a large block of wood

of mass m2 suspended from some light wires. The

projectile embeds in the block, and the entire system

swings through a height h. How can we determine the

speed of the projectile from a measurement of h?

with a speed of 4.00 m/s on a frictionless, horizontal track

collides with a spring attached to a second block of mass

m2 = 2.10 kg initially moving to the left with a speed of 2.50

m/s as shown in Fig.a. The spring constant is 600 N/m.

(A) Find the velocities of the two blocks after the

collision.

(B) During the collision, at the instant block 1 is moving to

the right with a velocity of 3.00 m/s as in Fig.b, determine

the velocity of block 2.

(C) Determine the distance the spring is compressed at that

instant.

Sample Problem 1

35 g

7 kg

700 m/s

v=0

A rifle fires a bullet into a giant slab of butter on a frictionless

surface. The bullet penetrates the butter, but while passing

through it, the bullet pushes the butter to the left, and the butter

pushes the bullet just as hard to the right, slowing the bullet

down. If the butter skids off at 4 cm/s after the bullet passes

through it, what is the final speed of the bullet? (The mass of the

rifle matters not.)

35 g

v=?

4 cm/s

7 kg

Lets choose left to be the + direction & use conservation of

momentum, converting all units to meters and kilograms.

= 24.5 kg m /s

35 g

v=?

4 cm/s

p before = p after

7 kg

v=0

7 kg

35 g

700 m/s

p after = 7 (0.04) + 0.035 v

= 0.28 + 0.035 v

v = 692 m/s

correct direction of the bullet in the after picture.

Sample Problem 2

7 kg

35 g

700 m/s

v=0

Same as the last problem except this time its a block of wood

rather than butter, and the bullet does not pass all the way

through it. How fast do they move together after impact?

v

7. 035 kg

v = 3.48 m/s

would be a frictional force on the wood in addition to that of the bullet, and the

system would have to include the table as well.

Sample Problem 3

An apple is originally at rest and then dropped. After falling a

short time, its moving pretty fast, say at a speed V. Obviously,

momentum is not conserved for the apple, since it didnt have

any at first. How can this be?

apple

m

F

v

Earth

M

apple, so momentum for it alone is not

conserved. To make gravity internal, we must

define a system that includes the other object

responsible for the gravitational force--Earth.

The net force on the apple-Earth system is

zero, and momentum is conserved for it.

During the fall the Earth attains a very small

speed v. So, by conservation of momentum:

F

mV = Mv

Sample Problem 4

A crate of raspberry donut filling collides with a tub of lime Kool Aid on a

frictionless surface. Which way on how fast does the Kool Aid rebound?

answer: Lets draw v to the right in the after picture.

3 (10) - 6 (15) = -3 (4.5) + 15 v

v = -3.1 m/s

Since v came out negative, we guessed wrong in drawing v to the right,

but thats OK as long as we interpret our answer correctly. After the collision

the lime Kool Aid is moving 3.1 m/s to the left.

before

3 kg

10 m/s

6 m/s

15 kg

after

4.5 m/s

3 kg

15 kg

Exploding Bomb

Acme

after

before

A bomb, which was originally at rest, explodes and shrapnel

flies every which way, each piece with a different mass and

speed. The momentum vectors are shown in the after picture.

Since the momentum of the bomb was zero before the

explosion, it must be zero after it as well. Each piece does

have momentum, but the total momentum of the exploded

bomb must be zero afterwards. This means that it must be

possible to place the momentum vectors tip to tail and form a

closed polygon, which means the vector sum is zero.

bomb were not zero, these

vectors would add up to the

original momentum vector.

152 g

before

40

0.3 kg 5

m/s

34

m/s

that was just passing by minding its own

business. Which way and how fast do they

move off together?

152 (34) sin 40 = 452 v sin

after

452

g

= 53.4908

Substituting into either of the first two equations :

v = 9.14 m/s

Why does a spinning ice skater speed up when she pulls her arms in?

Suppose Mr. Stickman is sitting on a stool

that swivels holding a pair of dumbbells. His

axis of rotation is vertical. With the weights

far from that axis, his moment of inertia is

large. When he pulls his arms in as hes

spinning, the weights are closer to the axis,

so his moment of inertia gets much smaller.

Since L = I and L is conserved, the

product of I and is a constant. So, when

he pulls his arms in, I goes down, goes

up, and he starts spinning much faster.

I= L = I

Since the time of the collision is often very short, we may be

able to use the average force, which would produce the same

impulse over the same time interval.

During a collision, objects are

deformed due to the large forces

involved.

Since

, we can

write

Integrating,

The impulse is equal to the change in momentum:

Karate blow.

Estimate the impulse and the

average force delivered by a karate

blow that breaks a board a few cm

thick. Assume the hand moves at

roughly 10 m/s when it hits the board.

Take the mass of the hand plus a

reasonable portion of the arm to be

1 kg; if the speed goes from 10 m/s

to zero in 1 cm the time is 2 ms.

Momentum in Collisions

Momentum is conserved

in all collisions.

Collisions in which kinetic

energy is conserved as

well are called elastic

collisions, and those in

which it is not are called

inelastic.

Collisions in 2 or 3 Dimensions

Conservation of energy and momentum can also be used to

analyze collisions in two or three dimensions, but unless the

situation is very simple, the math quickly becomes unwieldy.

Here, a moving object collides with an

object initially at rest. Knowing the

masses and initial velocities is not

enough; we need to know the angles as

well in order to find the final velocities.

Collisions in 2 or 3 Dimensions

Problem solving:

1. Choose the system. If it is complex, subsystems may be chosen

where one or more conservation laws apply.

2. Is there an external force? If so, is the collision time short enough that

you can ignore it?

3. Draw diagrams of the initial and final situations, with momentum

vectors labeled.

4. Choose a coordinate system.

5. Apply momentum conservation; there will be one equation for each

dimension.

6. If the collision is elastic, apply conservation of kinetic energy as well.

7. Solve.

8. Check units and magnitudes of result.

There is a special point in a system or object, called the

center of mass, that moves as if all of the mass of the

system is concentrated at that point.

The system will move as if an external force were applied

to a single particle of mass M located at the center of mass.

M is the total mass of the system.

This behavior is independent of other motion, such as

rotation or vibration, or deformation of the system.

This is the particle model.

The general motion of an object can be considered as the

sum of the translational motion of the CM, plus rotational,

vibrational, or other forms of motion about the CM.

xCM

m x

i

y CM

m y

M

The coordinates of the center of mass are

m z

M is the total mass of the system.

z

M

Use the active figure to observe effect of different masses

and positions.

i

CM

Similar analysis can be done

for an extended object.

Consider the extended object

as a system containing a large

number of small mass

elements.

Since separation between the

elements is very small, it can

be considered to have a

constant mass distribution.

The center of mass in three dimensions can be located by rCM

its position vector,

.

1

r

mi ri

M

ri xi i y i j zi k

ri

rCM

1

r dm

The center of mass of any symmetric object of

uniform density lies on an axis of symmetry and on

any plane of symmetry.

Center of Gravity

The center of gravity is the point at which the gravitational

force can be considered to act. It is the same as the

center of mass as long as the gravitational force does not

vary among different parts of the object.

The net effect of all these forces is equivalent to the effect

of a single force Mg acting through a point called the center

of gravity.

If is constant over the mass distribution, the center of

gravity coincides with the center of mass.

The center of gravity can be found experimentally

by suspending an object from different points. The

CM need not be within the actual objecta

doughnuts CM is in the center of the hole.

CM of three guys on a raft.

Three people of roughly equal masses m on a lightweight (airfilled) banana boat sit along the x axis at positions xA = 1.0 m,

xB = 5.0 m, and xC = 6.0 m, measured from the left-hand end.

Find the position of the CM. Ignore the boats mass.

CM of a thin rod.

(a) Show that the CM of a uniform thin rod of length l and

mass M is at its center. (b) Determine the CM of the rod

assuming its linear mass density (its mass per unit length)

varies linearly from = 0 at the left end to double that

value, = 20, at the right end.

CM of L-shaped flat object.

construction brace shown.

The total momentum of a system of particles is equal to the

product of the total mass and the velocity of the center of

mass.

The sum of all the forces acting on a system is equal to the

total mass of the system multiplied by the acceleration of the

center of mass:

objects) with total mass M moves like a single particle of

mass M acted upon by the same net external force.

A two-stage rocket.

A rocket is shot into the air as shown. At the moment it

reaches its highest point, a horizontal distance d from its

starting point, a prearranged explosion separates it into two

parts of equal mass. Part I is stopped in midair by the

explosion and falls vertically to Earth. Where does part II land?

Assume g = constant.

Example

A system consists of three particles located as shown in

Figure 9.18. Find the center of mass of the system.

a rod of mass M and length L lies

midway between its ends, assuming

the rod has a uniform mass per unit

length.

(B) Suppose a rod is nonuniform

such that its mass per unit length

varies linearly with x according to the

expression = x where is a

constant. Find the x coordinate of

the center of mass as a fraction of L.

Example

Summary

Momentum of an object:

Total momentum of an isolated system of objects is conserved.

During a collision, the colliding objects can be considered to be

an isolated system even if external forces exist, as long as they

are not too large.

Summary

Impulse:

In an elastic collision, total kinetic energy is also

conserved.

In an inelastic collision, some kinetic energy is

lost.

In a completely inelastic collision, the two objects

stick together after the collision.

which external forces can be considered to act.

Homework

(a) Find its x and y components of momentum.

(b) Find the magnitude and direction of its momentum.

2. A 65.0-kg boy and his 40.0-kg sister, both wearing roller blades, face each other at rest.

The girl pushes the boy hard, sending him backward with velocity 2.90 m/s toward the west.

Ignore friction.

(a) Describe the subsequent motion of the girl.

(b) How much chemical energy is converted into mechanical energy in the girls muscles?

(c) Is the momentum of the boy-girl system conserved in the pushing-apart process? How

can it be, with large forces acting? How can it be, with no motion beforehand and plenty of

motion afterward?

3. How fast can you set the Earth moving? In particular, when you jump straight up as high

as you can, what is the order of magnitude of the maximum recoil speed that you give to

the Earth? Model the Earth as a perfectly solid object. In your solution, state the physical

quantities you take as data and the values you measure or estimate for them.

4. (a) A particle of mass m moves with momentum of magnitude p. Show that the kinetic

energy of the particle is given by K = p2/2m. (b) Express the magnitude of the particles

momentum in terms of its kinetic energy and mass.

frozen lake that constitutes a frictionless, flat surface. The girl begins to walk

along the plank at a constant velocity of 1.50i m/s relative to the plank. (a)

What is the velocity of the plank relative to the ice surface? (b) What is the

girls velocity relative to the ice surface?

6. A neutron in a nuclear reactor makes an elastic head-on collision with the

nucleus of a carbon atom initially at rest. (a) What fraction of the neutrons

kinetic energy is transferred to the carbon nucleus? (b) The initial kinetic

energy of the neutron is 1.60 x 10-13J. Find it final kinetic energy and the

kinetic energy of the carbon nucleus after the collision (The mass of the

carbon nucleus is nearly 12.0 times the mass of the neutron.)

7. An unstable atomic nucleus of mass 17.010-27 kg initially at rest

disintegrates into three particles. One of the particles, of mass 5.0010-27 kg,

moves in the y direction with a speed of 6.00 x 106 m/s. Another particle, of

mass 8.40 x10-27 kg, moves in the x direction with a speed of 4.00106 m/s.

Find (a) the velocity of the third particle and (b) the total kinetic energy

increase in the process.

8. An object of mass 3.00 kg, moving with an initial velocity of 5.00 i m/s,

collides with and sticks to an object of mass 2.00 kg with an initial velocity of

3.00 j m/s. Find the final velocity of the composite object.

light spring is attached to one of them, and the blocks are pushed together with the

spring between them (Fig. P9.4). A cord initially holding the blocks together is burned;

after that happens, the block of mass 3M moves to the right with a speed of 2.00 m/s.

(a) What is the velocity of the block of mass M?

(b) Find the systems original elastic potential energy, taking M 0.350 kg. (c) Is the

original energy in the spring or in the cord? Explain your answer. (d) Is momentum of

the system conserved in the bursting-apart process? How can it be, with large forces

acting? How can it be, with no motion beforehand and plenty of motion afterward?

10. A friend claims that as long as he has his seat belt on, he can hold on to a 12.0kg child in a 60.0 mi/h head-on collision with a brick wall in which the car passenger

compartment comes to a stop in 0.050 0 s. Is his claim true? Explain why he will

experience a violent force during the collision, tearing the child from his arms.

Evaluate the size of this force. (A child should always be in a toddler seat secured

with a seat belt in the back seat of a car.)

11. An estimated forcetime curve for a baseball struck by a bat is shown in Figure

P9.7. From this curve, determine (a) the impulse delivered to the ball, (b) the average

force exerted on the ball, and (c) the peak force exerted on the ball.

12. A ball of mass 0.150 kg is dropped from rest from a height of 1.25 m. It rebounds

from the floor to reach a height of 0.960 m. What impulse was given to the ball by

the floor?

13. A 3.00-kg steel ball strikes a wall with a speed of 10.0 m/s at an angle of 60.0with

the surface. It bounces off with the same speed and angle (Fig. P9.9). If the ball

is in contact with the wall for 0.200 s, what is the average force exerted by the wall on

the ball?

14. A tennis player receives a shot with the ball (0.060 0 kg) traveling horizontally at

50.0 m/s and returns the shot with the ball traveling horizontally at 40.0 m/s in the

opposite direction. (a) What is the impulse delivered to the ball by the tennis racquet?

(b) What work does the racquet do on the ball?

15. A 10.0-g bullet is fired into a stationary block of wood (m = 5.00 kg). The bullet

imbeds into the block. The speed of the bullet-plus-wood combination immediately

after the collision is 0.600 m/s. What was the original speed of the bullet?

16. A railroad car of mass 2.50 x 104 kg is moving with a speed of 4.00 m/s. It collides

and couples with three other coupled railroad cars, each of the same mass as the

single car and moving in the same direction with an initial speed of 2.00 m/s. (a) What

is the speed of the four cars immediately after the collision? (b) How much energy is

transformed into internal energy in the collision?

17. Four railroad cars, each of mass 2.50 x 104 kg, are coupled together and

coasting along horizontal tracks at speed vi toward the south. A very strong movie

actor, riding on the second car, uncouples the front car and gives it a big push,

increasing its speed to 4.00 m/s southward. The remaining three cars continue

moving south, now at 2.00 m/s. (a) Find the initial speed of the cars. (b) How much

work did the actor do?

18. Four objects are situated along the y axis as follows: a 2.00-kg object is located at

3.00 m, a 3.00-kg object is at 2.50 m, a 2.50-kg object is at the origin, and a 4.00-kg

object is at 0.500 m. Where is the center of mass of these objects?

19. The mass of the Earth is 5.98 x 1024 kg, and the mass of the Moon is 7.36 x 1022

kg. The distance of separation, measured between their centers, is 3.84 x108 m.

Locate the center of mass of the EarthMoon system as measured from the center of

the Earth.

20. A uniform piece of sheet steel is shaped as shown in Figure P9.37. Compute the

x and y coordinates of the center of mass of the piece.

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