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DEPARTMENT OFCHEMICAL ENGINEERIN

PROJECT ON:

COURSE TITLE:

COURSE CODE:

PREPARED BY NETWORK THREE

NAME

IDNO

2. KIROS G/MEDHIN........................................................... RET0937/06

3. LETU DESALEGN ........................................................... RET0969/06

4. LICHIYA ALEM ............................................................... RET0971/06

5. MERESA HILUF .............................................................RET1578/06

6.ZERAY G/SLASIE.................................................. RET0748/06

SUBMITTED TO:

SUBMISSION DATE:

SECTION

ONE

ONE

ONE

ONE

ONE

ONE

Contents......................................................................................................................................Page

Acknowledgment......................................................................................................................................

Abstract......................................................................................................................................

List of figures......................................................................................................................................

List of tables......................................................................................................................................

1.INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................................

1.1 Back ground............................................................................................................................

1.2 Problem Statement..............................................................................................................

1.3 Objectives................................................................................................................................

1.3.1 General Objectives......................................................................................................

1.3.2 Specific Objectives...................................................................................................

1.4 Significance of the study...................................................................................................

2. LITERATURE REVIEW...............................................................................................

2.1 Design ......................................................................................................................................

2.2 Pressure vessel.............................................................................................................

2.2.1. Types of Pressure Vessels......................................................................................

2.2.2 Vessel Orientation...............................................................................................

2.2.3 Types of head Ends...................................................................................................

2.2.4 Support for Pressure Vessel................................................................................

2.2.5 Design Parameter of Pressure Vessel..............................................................

2.2.6. Factors Considered in Designing Pressure Vessels.........................................

3.1 Materials

3.2 Assumptions

3.3 Methodology

3.3.1 Design Specifications

3.4 Design Procedure Steps

3.4.1 Column Thickness Wall

3.4.2 Selection and Sizing of Vessel Heads

3.4.4 Wind Loading

3.4.5 Stress Analysis

3.4.6 Reinforcement of Openings and Required Area of Reinforcement

3.4.7 Standard Flanges

3.4.8 Mechanical Design for Skirt Support

3.4.9 Base ring/flange and anchor bolt design

5. CONCLUTION AND RECOMENDATIONS

ABSTRACT

A pressure vessel is a type of container which is used to store liquids or gases under a

pressure different from the ambient pressure. Different shapes of pressure vessels exist but most

generally cylindrical and spherical shapes are used. Spherical vessels are theoretically 2 times

stronger than cylindrical ones but due to the manufacturing difficulties, cylindrical ones are

generally preferred in the industry.

In this project we are designing vertical cylindrical pressure vessel. The main objective of this

project is to design and analysis of detail parts of the pressure vessel. This project work deals

with a detailed study and design procedure of pressure vessel such as shell thickness, closure

selection and thickness, skirt support design , flanges selection, design of nozzles and opening

reinforcement.

Analyses were carried out on head, shell, nozzle, and skirt support. The input parameters are

type of material, pressure, temperature, diameter, and height, position of nozzles and corrosion

allowance. Analysis performed the calculations of internal and external pressure, weight of the

element, allowable stresses, vessel longitudinal stress check, nozzle check and skirt support

check.

List of figures

Tables

CHAPTER ONE

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 back ground

Large pressure vessels were invented during industrial revolution particularly in Great

Britain, to be used as boilers to make steam to drive steam engines. Design and testing

standards came into being after some fatal accidents resulting due to boiler explosions.

Chemical engineering involves the application of sciences to the process industries, which

are primarily concerned, with the conversion of one material into another by chemical or

physical means. These processes require the handling or storing of large quantities of

materials in containers of varied constructions, depending upon the existing state of the

material, it's physical and chemical properties and the required operations, which are to be

performed. For handling such liquids and gases, a container or vessel is used. It is called a

pressure vessel, when they are containers for fluids subjected to pressure.They are leak proof

containers. They may be of any shape ranging from types of processing equipment. Most

process equipment units may be considered as vessels with various modifications necessary

to enable the units to perform certain required functions.

Pressure vessels are design in accordance with standard code such as ASME and British

standards. The code gives for thickness and stress of basic components, it is up to the

designer to select appropriate analytical as procedure for determining stress due to other

loadings. The designer must familiarize himself with the various types of stresses and

loadings in order to accurately apply the results of analysis. Designer must also consider

some adequate stress or failure theory in order to confine stress and set allowable stress

limits.

When pressure of operating fluid increases, increase in thickness of vessel. This increase

in thickness beyond a certain value possesses fabrication difficulties and stronger material for

vessel construction. The material of pressure vessel may be brittle such as cast iron or ductile

such as mild steel. Failure in Pressure vessel occurs due to improper selection of material,

defects in material, incorrect design data, design method, shop testing, improper or

insufficient fabrication process including welding. To obtain safety of pressure vessel and to

design Pressure vessel the selection of code is important. Corrosion allowance is the main

consideration in vessel design.

Any pressure vessel that is designed for many purpose must be follow the common standards

and codes. By following these common standards and codes we can calculate the following parts;

Selection and sizing of vessel heads

Design of Reinforcement of openings

design of nozzle and selection of flange

design of skirt support

But the pressure vessels that not follow any standard codes can be very dangerous. In fact many fatal

accidents have occurred in the history of their operation and development. They are many standards and

codes that vary from country to country. The common standards and codes that have been used are ASME

Boilers and Pressure Vessel Codes, API Standards, PD5500, British Standards, European Codes and

Standards and other International Codes. Even though there are computer aided pressure vessel design

available in the market, but due to business benefit, the system may not be saleable or pricey. In addition

the formulas and concepts applied in the system are always unknown by the users.

Vessel failures can be grouped into four major categories, which describe why a vessel failure occurs.

Design- Incorrect design data; inaccurate or incorrect de-sign methods; inadequate shop

testing.

Fabrication- Poor quality control; improper or insufficient fabrication procedures

including welding.

1.3 Objectives

1.3.1 General Objectives

The objective of this report is to design a pressure vessel. A sieve plate column that satisfied the

preliminary specifications summary given. Dimensional sketch of the design and column specification

sheet is expected.

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

To select and determine the plate thickness of end heads.

Compensation of opening on the pressure vessel.

To design the skirt support of the pressure vessel.

To design base ring of the pressure vessel.

f) Finally to draw the pressure vessel using AUTOCAD software

The significance of the study is not only the calculation of the detailed dimensions of a

member but rather is an all-inclusive term, incorporating:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

The reasoning that established the most likely mode of damage or failure.

The selection of pressure vessel orientation.

The selection of pressure vessel end closers.

The selection of suitable flanges.

The selection of suitable pressure vessel support.

The method of stress analysis employed and significance of results.

The selection of materials type and its environmental behavior.

Understanding the application of the pressure vessel in different industry.

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Design

Design is a creative activity, and as such can be one of the most rewarding and satisfying

activities undertaken by an engineer. It is the synthesis, the putting together, of ideas to achieve a

desired purpose. The design does not exist at the commencement of the project. The designer

starts with a specic objective in mind, a need, and by developing and evaluating possible

designs, arrives at what he considers the best way of achieving that objective; be it a better chair,

a new bridge, or for the chemical engineer, a new chemical product or a stage in the design of a

production process.

The stages in the development of a design, from the initial identication of the objective to the

nal design are the following steps.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Data collection and physical properties design methods

Generation of possible design

Selection and evaluation

Final design

The term pressure vessel referred to those reservoirs or containers, which are subjected to

internal or external pressure. The pressure vessels are used to store fluids under pressure.The

pressure vessels are used to store fluid such as liquid vapors and gases under pressure. Major

uses of pressure vessels are as follows:

Pressure vessels are also used in storage of chemical in chemical plants.

Use in storage of petroleum products (petrol, diesel etc.)

Following are the main types of pressure vessels:

A. According to the end construction

B. According to the dimensions

A. Pressure vessel according to the end construction:

According to the end construction, the pressure vessels are may be OPEN END or CLOSED

END.

A simple cylinder with a piston is an example of open-end vessel whereas a tank is an

example of closed end vessel. Due to the fluid pressure circumferential or hoop stresses are

include in case of open ended vessels whereas longitudinal stresses in addition to circumferential

stresses are induced in case of closed ended vessels.

B. Pressure vessels according to dimensions:

According to the dimensions pressure vessels may be of THIN SHELL or THICK SHELL.

The deciding factor among thin and thick shells is its wall thickness and shell diameter if the

ratio t/d is less than 1/10 the vessel is said to be THIN SHELL and if the ratio is greater than

1/10 it is said to be a THICK SHELL. Thin shell are used in boilers, tanks andpipes whereas

thick shells are used in high pressure cylinder, tanks gun barrels.

The types of vessel orientation are:

1. Horizontal

2. Vertical

1. Horizontal:

A horizontal Pressure Vessel is as shown in figure 2.2

The Vertical Pressure Vessel is as shown in the figure

There are many types of Dish Ends but only four types of Dish Ends are broadly used in

industries, which are:

1. Tori spherical

2. Semi-Ellipsoidal (2:1)

3. Hemispherical

4. Flat

1. Torispherical:

Torispherical heads are the most common type of head used for the manufacture of pressure

vessels and usually the most economical to form. Generally, the I.C.R (Inside Crown Radius) is

equal to 85% of I.D (Internal Diameter) of the head or less. The I.K.R (Inside Knuckle Radius)

needs to be around 18.85% of the I.D of the head. The S.F (Straight Face) is normally between

10mm and 30mm depending on the diameter and thickness of the head to be formed.

2. Semi-Ellipsoidal (2:1):

Semi-Ellipsoidal (2:1) heads are deeper than a Torispherical head and therefore stronger and

able to resist greater pressures. These heads are more difficult to form owning to the greater

depth required. As a result these are more expensive to form than a Torispherical head, but may

allow a reduction in material thickness as the strength is greater. The I.C.R is 80% of the O.D

(Outer Diameter) of the head. The I.K.R is 15.4% of the O.D of the head. The maximum

diameter we can form a 2:1 Semi-Ellipsoidal head to is 2310mm I.D. The S.F is normally

between 10mm and 30mm depending on the diameter and thickness of the head to be formed.

3. Hemispherical:

Hemispherical heads allow more pressure than any other head. However, the hemispherical head

is the most expensive to form, as they consists of a number of petals. The number of which

depends on the size of the head and the thickness of the plate to be used. The depth of the head is

half of the diameter.

4. Flat:

A flat end with a knuckled outer edge.Typically used as bases on vertical atmospheric tanks and

lids for smaller tanks. The I.K.R for most flat ends is usually 25mm, 32mm and 51mm

depending on the diameter, thickness and customer requirements. The S.F is normally between

10mm and 30mm depending on the diameter and thickness of the head.

Type of support used depends on the orientation and pressure of the pressure vessel. Support

from the pressure vessel must be capable of withstanding heavy loads from the pressure vessel,

wind loads andseismic loads. Pressure on pressure vessel design is not a consideration in

designing support. Temperature can be a consideration in designing the support from the

standpoint of material selection for the different thermal expansion.

Various types of support that used to support the pressure vessel are as follows:

1. Saddle Support

2. Leg Support

3. Lug Support

4. Skirt Support

1. Saddle Support: Horizontal pressure vessel (Fig2.8) is generally supported by two advocates

of saddle support. Wide saddle supports the weight of the ultimate burden on a large area on the

shell to prevent excessive local stresses on the shell above the supporting point. The width of the

saddle between the detail designs is determined based on the specific size and condition of the

pressure vessel design.

2. Leg Support: Small vertical pressure vessel is generally supported by the leg at the bottom of

the shell. Comparison between the maximum lengths of the support leg with a diameter of vessel

is usually 2:1. Ring reinforcement pad is used to provide additional reinforcement of local and

load distribution, where the local stresses occur on shell can be overdone. The sum of the leg is

needed depends on size and weight received vessel. Support leg is also commonly used in

pressurized.

3. Lug Support: Lug Support in a pressure vessel can also be used to support the vertical

pressure vessel. Lug Support is limited to a small vessel with a diameter of up to medium

diameter (10-10 ft). With a ratio of height to vessel diameter is 2:1 to 5:1. Lug often used to

support vessel located on top of steel structures. Lug usually bolted on the horizontal structure to

provide stability against the loads; however, bolt holes are often given the gap to provide radial

thermal expansion of freedom in the vessel.

4. Skirt Support: Vertical cylindrical pressure vessels which

are high are generally supported by the skirt. Skirt support is

part of a cylindrical shell, one of them at the bottom of the

body vessel or the bottom head (for the cylindrical vessel).

Skirts for spherical vessel on the vessel are closer to the

center of the shell.

The following are design parameters of pressure vessel

I.

II.

III.

IV.

V.

VI.

VII.

VIII.

I.

Material selection

Design pressure

Design temperature

Allowable stress

Welded joint efciency, and construction categories

Corrosion allowance

Design loads

Minimum practical wall thickness

Materials

Pressure vessels are constructed from plain carbon steels; low and high alloy steels, other alloys,

clad plate, and reinforced plastics. Selection of a suitable material must take into account the

suitability of the material for fabrication (particularly welding) as well as the compatibility of the

material with the Process environment. The pressure vessel design codes and standards include

lists of acceptable materials; In accordance with the appropriate material standards.

II.

Design Pressure

In the pressure vessels, three terms related to pressure are commonly used

Maximum Working pressure is the maximum pressure to which the pressure vessel is

subjected.

Design pressure is the pressure for which the pressure vessel designed

Hydrostatic test pressure is the pressure at which the vessel is tested. The pressure vessel is

finally tested by the hydrostatic test before it is put into operation.

The design pressure and the hydrostatic test pressure are obtained as follows

III.

Design temperature

The strength of metals decreases with increasing temperature so the maximum allowable

design stress will depend on the material temperature. The design temperature at which the

design stress is evaluated should be taken as the maximum working temperature of the

material, with due allowance for any uncertainty involved in predicting vessel wall

temperatures.

IV.

Allowable Stress

As per the IS Code and ASME Code, the allowable stress is based on the ultimate tensile

strength with a factor of safety of 3 and 4 respectively. As per the IS Code, the following stress

is obtained on the yield strength with a factor of safety of 1. Therefore,

Where, all = allowable tensile stress for the pressure vessel, N/mm2

Sut = ultimate tensile strength for the pressure vessel material, N/mm2

Syt = yield strength for pressure vessel material, N/mm2

Welded joint efciency, and construction categories

V.

The strength of a welded joint will depend on the type of joint and the quality of the

welding. The soundness of welds is checked by visual inspection and by non-destructive testing

(radiography). The possible lower strength of a welded joint compared with the virgin plate is

usually allowed for in design by multiplying the allowable design stress for the material by a

welded joint factor J. The value of the joint factor used in design will depend on the type of

joint and amount of radiography required by the design code

VI.

Corrosion Allowance

The walls of the pressure vessel are subjected to thinning due to corrosion which reduces the life

of the pressure vessel. The corrosion in pressure vessel is due to the following reasons:

Rusting due to atmospheric air and moisture.

High temperature oxidation.

Erosion due to flow of reagent over the wall surface at high velocities.

Every attempt should be made avoid the corrosion. However, this may not be always

possible. An allowance is, therefore, required to be made by suitable increase in wall thickness to

compensate for the thinning due to corrosion. Corrosion allowance is an additional thickness of

the pressure vessel wall over and above that required to withstand the internal pressure.

Guidelines for providing corrosion allowance:

1. For cast iron, plain carbon steel and low alloy steel component, the corrosion allowance of 1.5

mm is provided. However, in case of these chemical industries where severe conditions are

expected, the corrosion allowance may be 3mm

2. For high alloy steel and non-ferrous components, no corrosion allowance is necessary.

3. When the thickness of cylinder wall is more than 30mm, no corrosion allowance is necessary

Design loads

A structure must be designed to resist gross plastic deformation and collapse under all the

conditions of loading

Major loads

1. Design pressure: including any signicant static head of liquid.

2. Maximum weight of the vessel and contents, under operating conditions.

3. Maximum weight of the vessel and contents under the hydraulic test conditions.

4. Wind loads.

5. Earthquake (seismic) loads.

6. Loads supported by, or reacting on, the vessel.

Subsidiary loads

1. Local stresses caused by supports, internal structures and connecting pipes.

2. Shock loads caused by water hammer, or by surging of the vessel contents.

3. Bending moments caused by eccentricity of the centre of the working pressure relative to the

neutral axis of the vessel.

4. Stresses due to temperature differences and differences in the coefcient expansion of

materials.

5. Loads caused by uctuations in temperature and pressure.

A vessel will not be subject to all these loads simultaneously. The designer must determine

what combination of possible loads gives the worst situation, and design for that loading

condition.

1. Dimensions-Diameter, length and their limitations.

2. Operating conditions Pressure and temperature.

3. Economic consideration.

4. Corrosive nature of reactants and products.

5. Theories of failure.

6. Types of construction i.e. forged, welded or casted.

7. Method of Fabrication.

8. Fatigue, Brittle failure and Creep.

CHAPTER THREE

3. MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY

3.1 Materials

Materials that used to design this project are:

Stainless steel nozzle, unstabilised (304).

Carbon Steel skirt support, silicon killed.

50 sieve plates.

Access ladder with plat form.

Insulation mineral wool.

3.2 Assumptions

In order to develop a preliminary design, some assumptions are made and listed below.

Plates and plate supports design is negligible.

Material is double welded butt or equivalent and fully radiographed.

Assume flanges are standard flanges.

Earth quake loading need not be considered.

3.3 Methodology

3.3.1 Design Specifications

The design specification of asieve plate column is given below.

Table 3.3.1 Column Specification

Properties

Length of cylindrical section, L

Internal diameter, Di

Heads

Number of sieve plates, n

Design temperature, T

Design pressure, Pi

Corrosion allowance, C

Specifications

37 m

1.5 m

Standard ellipsoidal

50

150 0C

1200 KN/m2

2 mm

Properties

Feed

Vapour out

Bottom

Product

Specifications

At mid-point

At 0.7 m below top of cylindrical

Section

At Centre of vessel head

250 mm inside diameter

200 mm inside diameter

section

Table 3.3.3 other sieve plate column specification

Properties

Specifications

(manhole)

0.6 m

Thickness of insulation

2.5 m

50 mm thick

bottom

At 1.5 m below the top

of the

Column

3.4.1 Column Thickness Wall

Step 1: Determine the minimum column wall thickness of cylinder that withstand to the internal

pressure.

From the specifications and requirement provided previously data, the column wall thickness is

then calculated using the Equation

Where,

e = minimum plate thickness (mm)

Pi = design pressure (N/mm2)

Di = internal diameter (mm)

J = joint efficient factor

C = corrosion allowance (mm)

Comments

Since welding is present in this cylindrical section corrosion allowance is added to the

thickness.

Step 1: Select and size the vessel ends, using Torispherical and ellipsoidal heads.

The wall thicknesses of each heads are calculated as follows using Equation.

Torispherical head:

Where,

CS = Stress concentration factor for TorisphericalHeads

Where

Rc=crown radius

Rk= knuckle radius

Ellipsoidal head:

Comments

From the calculated thickness of both heads , Ellipsoidal head with smaller thickness

compared to the torispherical head is chosen to satisfy the specifications mentioned earlier.

However, there were also other factors considered when chosen the vessel head. Essentially, the

best vessel head should be able to withstand maximum stress with the least materials and

economically feasible .

Figure 3.4.2.1 shows the standard ellipsoidal head dimension .It had been mentioned before

that standard ellipsoidal heads are manufactured with a horizontal against vertical axis ratio of

2:1.

Diameter of the vessel, D = Di = 1500 mm

Height of the vessel head,

Step 1: Determine dead weight of the vessel

For preliminary calculations the approximate weight of a cylindrical steel vessel with domed

ends, and uniform wall thickness, can be estimated from the following equation:

Where,

Wv = Total weight of the shell.

Cv = A factor to account for the weight of nozzles, manways, internal supports

Dm = Mean Diameter,

Hv = Length of cylindrical section,

Since vessel is filled with 50 sieve plates with the same diameter as the column, which will

cause additional weight to the vessel. The weight of the plate is given by:

The weight of the insulation given by the following equation,

10-3

Where,

Weight of the insulation material, KN

Density of insulation materials, kg/m3=130 kg/m3

Volume of the insulation materials m3

=Gravitational Force, m/s

Minimum insulation thickness

At the last the weight of insulation is double in order to allowance of attachment fittings,

sealing and moisture absorption.

Step 4. Calculate the total dead weight

Total weight = Wv+Wp+WI

Where, Wv=weight of the vessel

Wp=weight of the plate

WI=weight of the insulation

Step 1: Determine wind loading per length.

The wind loading per length can be expressed by,

An allowance of 0.4 m should be addedto the formula below to find the effective

column diameter for a caged ladder(Coulson and Richardsons chemical engineering

Vol. 6)

10-3+ 0.4

Where,

= Wind loading per length (N/m)

=Wind Pressure(N/m2)

= Effective column diameter (m)

= Diameter of the vessel (m)

= Mean thickness of column (mm)

= Minimum insulation thickness (mm)

The bending moment, Mx can be calculated using the formula given below.

Where,

= Bending moment (Nm)

= Length of cylindrical section (m)

Step 1: Determine the longitudinal and circumferential stress at the bottom tangent

line due to pressure.

Where,

=Longitudinal stress, N/ mm2

=Internal diameter, mm

=Wall thickness at the bottom tangent line, mm

Step 2: Determine the dead weight direct stress.

The dead weight stress can be calculated by,

Where,

= Total Dead weight of empty vessel, KN

= Direct stress, N/ mm2

Step 3: Determine the bending stress.

The bending stress due to bending moment is given by,

Where,

= Bending stress (N/mm2)

=Second moment of area (mm4)

=Outer Diameter, mm

Step 4: Determine the resultant longitudinal stress.

The resultant longitudinal stress can be calculated as follow.

Step 5: Check its satisfactory design and elastic stability (buckling).

If the greater difference in downwind stress or upwind stress is much more less than the

maximum allowable stress, f = 130

this design with metal thickness is okay and

satisfactory.

Critical buckling stress can be calculated as:

Required Area of Reinforcement:

All process vessels will have openings for connections, man ways, and instrument fittings. The

presence of opening has its own drawback whereby it weakens the shell and gives rise to stress

concentrations. The stress at the edge of a hole will be higher than the average stress in

surrounding plate. Thus, in order to reduce this stress it is important that the opening is

compensated with increase of wall thickness in the region adjacent to the opening. In other

words, a reinforcement of opening will be done towards the hole in order to cope with a

sufficient stress that countered the weakening effect of the opening without.

Notation:

A = total cross-sectional area of reinforcement required in the plane under consideration

A1 = area in excess thickness in the vessel wall available for reinforcement

A2= area in excess thickness in the nozzle wall available for reinforcement

A3= area available for reinforcement when the nozzle extends inside the vessel wall

S = design stress at design temperature

d = finished diameter of circular opening under consideration

E = joint efficiency factor F = correction factor that compensates for the variation of in internal

pressure stresses on

different planes with respect to the axis of the vessel

t = specified vessel wall thickness

ti= nominal thickness of internal projection of the nozzle wall

tn = nozzle wall thickness

tr.n.= required thickness of seamless nozzle wall

fr1= strength reduction factor ( S

n/Sv for nozzle wall inserted through the vessel wall)

fr2= Sn/ Sv

Sn= allowable stress in nozzle

Sv = allowable stress in vessel

P = design pressure

D = diameter of manhole/access port

Di,n= internal diameter of nozzle

K1= spherical radius factor

c = corrosion allowance

h = height of ellipsoidal head

UTP = pipe under tolerance

Ri,n= Radius of the internal section of the nozzle

Access Port (or Manhole):

For design of internal pressure, the total cross-sectional area of reinforcement A required in

any given plane through the opening for a shell or formed head under internal pressure shall

not be less than

A=dtrF +2tntrF(1-fr1)

Now , start with preliminary calculations for thickness (tr,, tr.n. , t, ti, tn) and

distance (h)

i)The minimum required thickness under circumferential stress tr for seamless shell or head is

determined by , tr=

Note: tr is the thickness required for a seamless sphere with radius o K1D

A, tr.n=

B, The vessel wall thickness, t, it is determined as:

t=

+C

C, For the nominal thickness of internal projection of nozzle wall, ti, it is determined as follows:

ti = tn-2C

D, Distance nozzle projects beyond the inner surface of the vessel wall is as determined:

h=min(2.5t,2.5ti)

E, The diameter of the finished opening, d, is as determined

d=D+C

Note: The opening is in a corroded condition. Thus, a corrosion allowance is added to the

diameter of the opening.

Calculations of Area Required for Reinforcement

A=dtrF +2tntrF(1-fr1)

To determine whether additional reinforcement is necessary for the manhole, the actual area

available for reinforcement must be calculated and compare with the area required for

reinforcement. The following condition must be satisfied if no additional reinforcement is

required:

Check that,

Where, A1+A2+A3+A41+A43

A1(Largest)

A1=d(E1t-Ftr)-2tn(E1t-Ftr)(1-fr1) where, fr1= =

made up of the same material )Then the term , 2tn(E1t-Ftr)(1-fr1) will be cancel out.

A1=2(t+ t n)( E1t-Ftr)

A2(smallest):

A2: First of all, assuming fr2= fr1= 1 since they both have the same formula (Sn / Sv);

A2=5(tn-tr.n) fr2.t

A3 (smallest):

A3=5t (ti fr2)

Lastly by considering the condition

Nozzles and flanges can be categorized into several categories depending on their sizes, types and

other attachments to vessels. A nozzle is a relatively simple device, a cylindrical component that

penetrates the shell or heads of a pressure vessel (Sinott 2008). The main function of nozzles on the

plates is to transport fluids and allow the liquids and gas to disperse throughout the towers as the fluids

flow through the nozzles. On the other hand, flanges improve the strength of a structure and also apply

as a guide for keeping a particular object in place (Sinott 2008). Different column design requires

different standards and designs of the nozzles and flanges. Flanges are used for connecting pipe and

instruments to vessels, for removable vessel heads and manhole covers.

Dead weight stress for the test and operating conditions

Approximate weight =

Total weight = wv + Approximate weight

For test condition,

Formula given by,

Where,

Dead weight stress in the skirt for test condition

Total weight of the vessel with contents (water).

Where,

Dead weight stress in the skirt for operating condition

Total dead weight of vessel with heads

Resultant bending stress in the skirt.

For maximum:

For minimum:

Design criteria

If given the worst combination of both wind and dead-weight loading, the skirt thickness should

not exceed that of its design criteria, as shown below

From the specification table,

155 N/mm2

E = Youngs modulus (Sinnott. and Tower., 7.3.7. Effect of Temperature on the Mechanical

Properties 1999) =200,000 N/mm2

For the maximum:

Given the formula,

For minimum:

Given the formula,

New skirt thickness, ts: ts= (Old thickness of the skirt) + (Corrosion allowance)

For DS = 1.5 m

Determine the number of bolts required, N bolts

Since the measurements for the pitch diameter were not given, it was assumed that the

measurement of column diameter would be used to make an assumption for the pitch diameter.

An estimation of 10% allowance was then added to the pitch circle diameter column.

Number of bolts required N bolts given by the formula:

Where;

Ds = Internal column diameter = 1.5 m

Dp = Pitch circle diameter = Ds + (10% Ds)

Bolt area, Ab

The required bolt area, A given by the formula:

(

Where,

Number of bolts required = 12 Bolts

Bolt design stress = 125 N/mm2

Bending moment in skirt

Total dead weight of vessel with heads

Pitch circle diameter = 1.6 5m = 1,650 mm

Bolt root diameter, Dbolt

The bolt root diameter given by the formula:

Total compressive load on each base ring per unit length, Fbolt.

Where,

Total dead weight of vessel with heads ,

Internal column diameter

Total compressive load on the base ring per unit length = 1,196.40N/mm

Maximum allowable bearing pressure on the concrete foundation padbearing pressure 5

N/mm2

skirt base angle,

bolt spacing

Bolt spacing given the formula:

Where,

Bolt circle diameter

Number of bolts

New required bolt area, Ab

Bending moment in skirt

Number of bolts required

Bolt circle diameter

Bolt design stress

total compressive load on each base ring per unit length, Fbolt.

Where,

Total dead weight of vessel with heads

Bending moment in skirt

Flared skirt bottom diameter

minimum width of base ring, Lb

Given the formula:

N/mm2

actual bearing pressure on the concrete foundation,

Given the formula:

Actual width =Lr + ts + ti

Where,

ts = Skirt thickness = 19mm

ti = Insulation thickness = 50mm

Fbolt = Total compressive load on the base ring per unit length

Lr =Distance from the edge of the skirt to the outer edge of the ring = 178 mm (Sinnott., Coulson

& Richardson's Chemical Engineering 1999) :Using Bolt size 70 (BS 4190:1967)

base ring thickness, th

The base ring thickness given by the formula:

CHAPTER FOUR

4. RESULT AND DISCUTION

step.1 column thickness wall

Determine the minimum column wall thickness of cylinder that withstand to the internal

pressure.

From the specifications and requirement provided previously data, the column wall thickness

is then calculated using the Equation

+C

Step.1 Select and size the vessel ends, using Torispherical and ellipsoidal heads.

The wall thicknesses of each heads are calculated as follows using Equation

The wall thickness Torispherical Heads

t=

but,

= (3+ )

Rk= 0.06(1500)

=90mm

= (3+

) =1.77

t=

=12.16mm

mm

rounding off to 7 mm

Comments

From the calculated thickness of both heads , Ellipsoidal head with smaller thickness

compared to the torispherical head is chosen to satisfy the specifications mentioned earlier.

However, there were also other factors considered when chosen the vessel head. Essentially, the

best vessel head should be able to withstand maximum stress with the least materials and

economically feasible. The head resembles an ellipse with its radius varying continuously in its

cross section. The varying radius results in a smooth transition between the dome and cylindrical

section of the vessel. Its head is deeper than a comparable Torispherical head.

Now by taking the thickness of the ellipes for stability of the shell the column is divided into five

parts and thickness is increased from top to bottom of the shell, as 7 mm, 9 mm, 11 mm, 13 mm and 15

mm respectively. The approach we take in designing our column is that along the way from the base to

the top of the column, thickness must be thicker at the bottom than that at the top. Therefore, the column

is divided to 5-equal section and we increase it by 2 mm on each section. This is done to prevent buckling

7mm

9mm

11mm

13mm

15mm

For all other calculations, the average thickness is used can be calculated as;

Stress due to the dead weight of the vessel:

For a steel vessel

Take Cw = 1.15, vessel with plates

Dm = 1.5 + 11 x 10-3 = 1.511m

Hv = 37 m

= 11 mm

Wv = 240 CwDm (Hv + 0.8 Dm) t

Wv = 240 X 1.15 X 1.511 (37 + 0.8 X 1.511) 11

= 175,279 N

Wv = 175.3kN

Weight of a plate including liquid on it : 1.7kN/m2 X 1.77 m2 = 3.009 kN

50 plates = 50 X 3.009KN = 150.45KN

Weight of insulation

Mineral wool density = 130 kg/m3

Weight of insulation=

Approximate volume of insulation=

D

= x 1.5 x 37 x 50 x 10-3 = 8.72 m3

Double this to allow for fitting = 22.224 kN

Total weight:

Shell

175.3 kN

150.45 kN

22.224 kN

Insulation

Total

348kN

Take dynamic wind pressure as 1280 N/m2, corresponding to 160 kph (100 mph) for preliminary

design studies.

Mean diameter including thickness and insulation = Di + 2(ts +tins) x 10-3

= 1.5 + 2(11+50) x 10-3

Deff=1.622m

Loading (per linear meter), F W=Pw Deff

F W= 1280 N/m2 x 1.622 m = 2076.16 N/m

2

=1421131.52 Nm

Step.6 stress analysis

Longitudinal and circumferential stress:

At bottom tangent line, the pressure stresses are given by:

Longitudinal stress

(N/mm2)=

=30N/

Circumferential stress,

(N/mm2)=

=60N/

=2.4566 N/

Bending Stresses

b =

Iv =

4

o

-Di4), but

)

= Di + 2 x

=1500+(2 x15)= 1530 mm

Iv =

-15004)=2.048

b =

)=

N/

z = L + w b

w is compressive because ist is less than the longitudinal stress and circumferential stress

z (upwind) = L + w + b

=(30-2.4566+53.08)N/mm2

= 80.63 N/

z (downwind) = L + w - b

=(30-2.4566-53.08)N/

= -25.5 N/

Upwind

z= 80.63 N/

Downwind

60N/

60N/

z= 25.5 N/

Upwind

60N/

- 80 N/

downwind

= -20N/

60 N/

25.5 N/

= 85.5

) much more less than the maximum

allowable stress, f = 130

this design with metal thickness of 15 mm is okay and satisfactory.

( )=2

=196.08

b+ w < , 55.646<196.08 ,

Since the maximum resultant compressive resultant stress (55.646 N/mm2) less than that of

critical buckling stress (196.08). So the design procedure of the vessel is correct.

Required Area of Reinforcement:

Area reinforcement of opening is given by :

A=d

Such as tr , trn ,t,ti,tn & h

Step1.determine the required thickness under circumferential stress ,tr for seamless shell or head

is given by : tr=

Where tr=required thickness for a seamless sphere with radius of K1D, R=K1D

f=maximum stress allowance=130N/

j=joint factor=1

D= 600 mm =0.6m

tr=

5.012mm

Pi=1.2N/

K1=0.9

Step2. tn=50mm

Step3.determine the vessel wall thickness ,t is given by:

t=

where R= =

=750mm

c=corrosion allowance=2mm

t=

=8.96mm

Step4.determine the nominal thickness of internal projection of the nozzle wall , ti ,is given by:

ti=tn-2c=50-2(2)=46mm

Step5.determine the distance nozzle projects beyond the inner surface of the vesselwall ,h ,is

given by:

h=min(2.5t , 2.5ti)

h=(2.5

,2.5

=(22.5,115)

d=D + c=600+2=602mm

Note: the opening is in a corroded condition. Thus, a corrosion allowance is added to the

diameter of the opening.

Calculation of area required for reinforcement

Assuming correction factor=1 & d=D

A=d

A=600mm*5.0123mm*1+0

A=3007.38mm2

To determine whether additional reinforcement is necessary for the manhole, the actual area

available for reinforcement must be calculated and compare with the area required for

reinforcement. The following condition must be satisfied if no additional reinforcement is

required:

Check that,

A1(Largest)

Where, A1+A2+A3+A41+A43=

made up of the same material )Then the term , 2tn(E1t-Ftr)(1-fr1) will be cancel out.

Thus, A1=d(E1t-Ftr). But, E1=f=1=E

A1=d(t-tr)=602(9-5)=2408mm2

A1=2(t+ t n)( E1t-Ftr)-0=2(9+50) )( 9-5)

A1=472mm2 since,A1> A1,then ,A= A1=2408mm2

A2(smallest):

A2: First of all, assuming fr2= fr1= 1 since they both have the same formula (Sn / Sv);

A2=5(50-7)*(1*9)=1935 mm2

A2: A2=5(tn-tr.n) fr2tn, substituting the values,

A2=5(50-7)*(1*50)=10750 mm2, since, A2< A2,then,

A2= A2=1935 mm2

A3(smallest):

A3=5t(ti fr2)=5*9(46*1)=2070mm2

A3=5ti(ti fr2)=5*46*46*=10580mm2

A3=2h(ti fr2)=2*17.5(46*1)=1610mm2,

since A3< A3< A3.Then, A3= A3=1610mm2

For areas A41 and A43, they are not considered since the welds vary from fillet to butt weld type.

Thus, A41 = A43 = 0 mm2

Summing up from A1 to A3,

Given

A1 = 2408mm2

A2 = 1935 mm2

A3 = 1610mm2

So that,

By comparing both the required area for rein forcement, A and the area available for

reinforcement, A=3007.38mm2 and =5953 mm2.Finally, we can conclude that the condition

> A, which implies, 5953 mm2>3007.38mm2 is satisfied. Therefore, no additional

reinforcement will be required

A straight type skirt support is selected, where = 90o. Material of construction used is

carbon steel, silicon killed maximum allowable design stress, f=115 N/mm2 and Youngs

modulus, E =200,000N/mm2 at ambient temperature. The welding efficiency , E =0.85.

Maximum dead-weight load on the skirt will occur when the vessel is full of water. Since

hydrocarbon materials has density that is lower than water, then we use density of water to

complete our calculations.

The height of each ellipsoidal head

Hv(height of vessel)

Hv

Approximate weight

Total weight

X= Hv + Hs

= 37.75m + 2.5m =40.25m

Ms

As a first trial, take the skirt thickness as the same as that of the bottom of the vessel,

Bending stress in the skirt,

the

The resultant bending stress in the skirt will be

For maximum:

Foe minimum:

Take joint factor, J

( )

72

72

For minimum:

60.35

Since all the calculations and comparison above shows that the all design criteria were

fulfilled,add 2 mm for corrosion, gives a design thickness of new skirt thickness, ts:

New skirt thickness, ts:

ts= (Old thickness of the skirt) + (Corrosion allowance)

=15mm + 2mm= 17mm

For DS = 1.5 m

Step 1 .Determine the number of bolts required, N bolts

Since the measurements for the pitch diameter were not given, it was assumed that the

measurement of column diameter would be used to make an assumption for the pitch diameter.

An estimation of 10% allowance was then added to the pitch circle diameter column.

Number of bolts required N bolts given by the formula:

N bolts=

Where;

Ds = Internal column diameter = 1.5 m

Dp = Pitch circle diameter

Dp = Ds + (10% Ds)

= 1.5 + 0.1 x 1.5

= 1.65 m

= 1,650 mm

Thus, Nbolts=

=8.635mm

By taking the nearest multiple of 4, 12 is the nearest value to the number of bolts required,

Nbolts.

Step 2: Determine the required bolt area, Ab

The required bolt area, A given by the formula:

Ab=

-Wv)

Where,

N bolt=Number of bolts required = 12 Bolts.

fb = Bolt design stress = 125 N/mm2

Ms =Bending moment in skirt

Dp = Pitch circle diameter = 1.6 5m = 1,650 mm

Ab=

- Wvessel)

=

175.3

000)

=2601.12

Step 3: Determine the bolt root diameter, D bolt.

The bolt root diameter given by the formula:

D bolt =

=57.56mm

With the addition of base rings, the bolt should be sufficient enough to distribute the total

compressive load to the foundation.

Step 4: Determine the total compressive load on each base ring per unit length, Fbolt.

Given the formula:

Fbolt=

Where,

Wvessel=dead weight of vessel with heads = 175.3 KN

Ms=Bending moment in skirt = 1681754.48Nm

Ds=Internal column diameter = 1.5m

Fbolt=

= 988,878 N/m

Given by the formula:

Lb =

F bolt=Total compressive load on the base ring per unit length = 1,196.40N/mm

fc=Maximum allowable bearing pressure on the concrete foundation pad bearing pressure 5

N/

.

=197.8mm

Lb=

Due to the large base ring width, a flared skirt shall be used as an alternative to the design.

Therefore, the requirements and assumptions for the new skirt are:

Flared skirt bottom diameter, Ds = 2.5 m = 2500 mm

Bolt circle diameter, Dolt= Ds+ (10% of Ds)

= 2.5 m + (1.5

= 2.5 m + 0.15 m

= 2.65 m (Assumed)

= 2,650 mm

Number of bolt,

= but , D'p=D's+(10% s)

D'p=2.5+(10%2.5) = 2.75 m

= 2,750mm

=14.4mm

For Ds = 2.5m

Step 1: Determine the skirt base angle, s.

Skirt base angle, s (With Ds =2.5 m) given by,

s=

s=

= 78.7

Bolt spacing given the formula:

Bolt specing =

Where,

Dbolt'=Bolt circle diameter = 2650 mm

Nbolt'=Number of bolts =14.39

bolt specing=

=577.8 mm (satisfactory)

Given by the formula:

Ab=

Ms=Bending moment in skirt

Nbolt'=Number of bolts required = 14.4

Dbolt'=Bolt circle diameter = 2.650m = 2,650 mm

fb=Bolt design stress = 125 N/mm2

Ab=

= 255.2

Step 4: Determine the total compressive load on each base ring per unit length, Fbolt.

Given the formula:

Fbolt=

Where,

W vessel= dead weight of vessel with heads =175.3 KN

Ms= Bending moment in skirt = 1681754.48Nm

D's=Flared skirt bottom diameter=2.5m =2500mm

=365 N/mm=365000N/m

Lb=

Bearing pressure=5N/mm2

Lb=

= 73mm

Given the formula:

f'c=Fbolt'/(Actual width)

Actual width =Lr + ts + ti

Where,

ts = Skirt thickness = 17mm

ti = Insulation thickness = 50mm

Lr =Distance from the edge of the skirt to the outer edge of the ring = 178 mm

Using Bolt size 70 (BS 4190:1967)

Actual width = 178 + 17 +50 = 245mm

=

N/mm2

The base ring thickness given by the formula:

tb = Lr

tb=178

Conclusion

The pressure vessel is successfully designed so that it with stand all the mechanical stresses

acting on it. The pressure vessel is analyzed under various conditions of operation. The various

forces analyzed are pressure exerted by water on the shell, weight of the fluid and wind force.

The stresses in above-mentioned conditions are found out and thickness of various parts is

selected such that the stresses produced in each member are within the maximum allowable

range. All the selected have been successfully verified and hence the design of pressure vessel is

safe.

Recommendation

We recommended for this design of pressure vessel it should be design based on standard codes

to simplify the design analysis and to use standard pressure vessel dimensions.

yy

yy

_y

_y

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