You are on page 1of 54

ADIGRAT UNIVERSITY

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


DEPARTMENT OFCHEMICAL ENGINEERIN
PROJECT ON:
COURSE TITLE:
COURSE CODE:
PREPARED BY NETWORK THREE
NAME

IDNO

1. ETAY HAILU ...................................................... ..RET0457/06


2. KIROS G/MEDHIN........................................................... RET0937/06
3. LETU DESALEGN ........................................................... RET0969/06
4. LICHIYA ALEM ............................................................... RET0971/06
5. MERESA HILUF .............................................................RET1578/06
6.ZERAY G/SLASIE.................................................. RET0748/06

SUBMITTED TO:
SUBMISSION DATE:

SECTION
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE

List of table content


Contents......................................................................................................................................Page
Acknowledgment......................................................................................................................................
Abstract......................................................................................................................................

List of figures......................................................................................................................................

List of tables......................................................................................................................................
1.INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................................
1.1 Back ground............................................................................................................................
1.2 Problem Statement..............................................................................................................
1.3 Objectives................................................................................................................................
1.3.1 General Objectives......................................................................................................
1.3.2 Specific Objectives...................................................................................................
1.4 Significance of the study...................................................................................................

2. LITERATURE REVIEW...............................................................................................
2.1 Design ......................................................................................................................................
2.2 Pressure vessel.............................................................................................................
2.2.1. Types of Pressure Vessels......................................................................................
2.2.2 Vessel Orientation...............................................................................................
2.2.3 Types of head Ends...................................................................................................
2.2.4 Support for Pressure Vessel................................................................................
2.2.5 Design Parameter of Pressure Vessel..............................................................
2.2.6. Factors Considered in Designing Pressure Vessels.........................................

3. MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY.....................................................

3.1 Materials
3.2 Assumptions
3.3 Methodology
3.3.1 Design Specifications
3.4 Design Procedure Steps
3.4.1 Column Thickness Wall
3.4.2 Selection and Sizing of Vessel Heads
3.4.4 Wind Loading
3.4.5 Stress Analysis
3.4.6 Reinforcement of Openings and Required Area of Reinforcement
3.4.7 Standard Flanges
3.4.8 Mechanical Design for Skirt Support
3.4.9 Base ring/flange and anchor bolt design

4. RESULT AND DISCUTION


5. CONCLUTION AND RECOMENDATIONS

ABSTRACT
A pressure vessel is a type of container which is used to store liquids or gases under a
pressure different from the ambient pressure. Different shapes of pressure vessels exist but most
generally cylindrical and spherical shapes are used. Spherical vessels are theoretically 2 times
stronger than cylindrical ones but due to the manufacturing difficulties, cylindrical ones are
generally preferred in the industry.
In this project we are designing vertical cylindrical pressure vessel. The main objective of this
project is to design and analysis of detail parts of the pressure vessel. This project work deals
with a detailed study and design procedure of pressure vessel such as shell thickness, closure
selection and thickness, skirt support design , flanges selection, design of nozzles and opening
reinforcement.
Analyses were carried out on head, shell, nozzle, and skirt support. The input parameters are
type of material, pressure, temperature, diameter, and height, position of nozzles and corrosion
allowance. Analysis performed the calculations of internal and external pressure, weight of the
element, allowable stresses, vessel longitudinal stress check, nozzle check and skirt support
check.

List of figures

Tables

CHAPTER ONE
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 back ground
Large pressure vessels were invented during industrial revolution particularly in Great
Britain, to be used as boilers to make steam to drive steam engines. Design and testing
standards came into being after some fatal accidents resulting due to boiler explosions.
Chemical engineering involves the application of sciences to the process industries, which
are primarily concerned, with the conversion of one material into another by chemical or
physical means. These processes require the handling or storing of large quantities of
materials in containers of varied constructions, depending upon the existing state of the
material, it's physical and chemical properties and the required operations, which are to be
performed. For handling such liquids and gases, a container or vessel is used. It is called a
pressure vessel, when they are containers for fluids subjected to pressure.They are leak proof
containers. They may be of any shape ranging from types of processing equipment. Most
process equipment units may be considered as vessels with various modifications necessary
to enable the units to perform certain required functions.
Pressure vessels are design in accordance with standard code such as ASME and British
standards. The code gives for thickness and stress of basic components, it is up to the
designer to select appropriate analytical as procedure for determining stress due to other
loadings. The designer must familiarize himself with the various types of stresses and
loadings in order to accurately apply the results of analysis. Designer must also consider
some adequate stress or failure theory in order to confine stress and set allowable stress
limits.
When pressure of operating fluid increases, increase in thickness of vessel. This increase
in thickness beyond a certain value possesses fabrication difficulties and stronger material for
vessel construction. The material of pressure vessel may be brittle such as cast iron or ductile
such as mild steel. Failure in Pressure vessel occurs due to improper selection of material,
defects in material, incorrect design data, design method, shop testing, improper or
insufficient fabrication process including welding. To obtain safety of pressure vessel and to
design Pressure vessel the selection of code is important. Corrosion allowance is the main
consideration in vessel design.

1.2 Problem Statement


Any pressure vessel that is designed for many purpose must be follow the common standards
and codes. By following these common standards and codes we can calculate the following parts;

Design of Column wall thickness


Selection and sizing of vessel heads
Design of Reinforcement of openings
design of nozzle and selection of flange
design of skirt support

But the pressure vessels that not follow any standard codes can be very dangerous. In fact many fatal
accidents have occurred in the history of their operation and development. They are many standards and
codes that vary from country to country. The common standards and codes that have been used are ASME
Boilers and Pressure Vessel Codes, API Standards, PD5500, British Standards, European Codes and
Standards and other International Codes. Even though there are computer aided pressure vessel design
available in the market, but due to business benefit, the system may not be saleable or pricey. In addition
the formulas and concepts applied in the system are always unknown by the users.
Vessel failures can be grouped into four major categories, which describe why a vessel failure occurs.

Material- Improper selection of material; defects in material.


Design- Incorrect design data; inaccurate or incorrect de-sign methods; inadequate shop
testing.
Fabrication- Poor quality control; improper or insufficient fabrication procedures
including welding.

1.3 Objectives
1.3.1 General Objectives
The objective of this report is to design a pressure vessel. A sieve plate column that satisfied the
preliminary specifications summary given. Dimensional sketch of the design and column specification
sheet is expected.

1.3.2 Specific Objectives


a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

To determine cylindrical section of pressure vessels plate thickness.


To select and determine the plate thickness of end heads.
Compensation of opening on the pressure vessel.
To design the skirt support of the pressure vessel.
To design base ring of the pressure vessel.
f) Finally to draw the pressure vessel using AUTOCAD software

1.4 Significance of the study


The significance of the study is not only the calculation of the detailed dimensions of a
member but rather is an all-inclusive term, incorporating:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

The reasoning that established the most likely mode of damage or failure.
The selection of pressure vessel orientation.
The selection of pressure vessel end closers.
The selection of suitable flanges.
The selection of suitable pressure vessel support.
The method of stress analysis employed and significance of results.
The selection of materials type and its environmental behavior.
Understanding the application of the pressure vessel in different industry.

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Design
Design is a creative activity, and as such can be one of the most rewarding and satisfying
activities undertaken by an engineer. It is the synthesis, the putting together, of ideas to achieve a
desired purpose. The design does not exist at the commencement of the project. The designer
starts with a specic objective in mind, a need, and by developing and evaluating possible
designs, arrives at what he considers the best way of achieving that objective; be it a better chair,
a new bridge, or for the chemical engineer, a new chemical product or a stage in the design of a
production process.
The stages in the development of a design, from the initial identication of the objective to the
nal design are the following steps.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Objective of the design


Data collection and physical properties design methods
Generation of possible design
Selection and evaluation
Final design

2.2 Pressure vessel


The term pressure vessel referred to those reservoirs or containers, which are subjected to
internal or external pressure. The pressure vessels are used to store fluids under pressure.The
pressure vessels are used to store fluid such as liquid vapors and gases under pressure. Major
uses of pressure vessels are as follows:

Pressure vessels are used in steam boilers.


Pressure vessels are also used in storage of chemical in chemical plants.
Use in storage of petroleum products (petrol, diesel etc.)

Figure 2.1: horizontal pressure vessel

2.2.1. Types of Pressure Vessels:


Following are the main types of pressure vessels:
A. According to the end construction
B. According to the dimensions
A. Pressure vessel according to the end construction:
According to the end construction, the pressure vessels are may be OPEN END or CLOSED
END.
A simple cylinder with a piston is an example of open-end vessel whereas a tank is an
example of closed end vessel. Due to the fluid pressure circumferential or hoop stresses are
include in case of open ended vessels whereas longitudinal stresses in addition to circumferential
stresses are induced in case of closed ended vessels.
B. Pressure vessels according to dimensions:
According to the dimensions pressure vessels may be of THIN SHELL or THICK SHELL.
The deciding factor among thin and thick shells is its wall thickness and shell diameter if the
ratio t/d is less than 1/10 the vessel is said to be THIN SHELL and if the ratio is greater than
1/10 it is said to be a THICK SHELL. Thin shell are used in boilers, tanks andpipes whereas
thick shells are used in high pressure cylinder, tanks gun barrels.

2.2.2 Vessel Orientation


The types of vessel orientation are:
1. Horizontal
2. Vertical

1. Horizontal:
A horizontal Pressure Vessel is as shown in figure 2.2

Figure 2.2: horizontal pressure vessel

2. Vertical Pressure Vessel:


The Vertical Pressure Vessel is as shown in the figure

Figure 2.3: vertical pressure vessel

2.2.3 Types of head Ends:


There are many types of Dish Ends but only four types of Dish Ends are broadly used in
industries, which are:
1. Tori spherical
2. Semi-Ellipsoidal (2:1)

3. Hemispherical
4. Flat
1. Torispherical:
Torispherical heads are the most common type of head used for the manufacture of pressure
vessels and usually the most economical to form. Generally, the I.C.R (Inside Crown Radius) is
equal to 85% of I.D (Internal Diameter) of the head or less. The I.K.R (Inside Knuckle Radius)
needs to be around 18.85% of the I.D of the head. The S.F (Straight Face) is normally between
10mm and 30mm depending on the diameter and thickness of the head to be formed.

Figure 2.4: Torispherical head


2. Semi-Ellipsoidal (2:1):
Semi-Ellipsoidal (2:1) heads are deeper than a Torispherical head and therefore stronger and
able to resist greater pressures. These heads are more difficult to form owning to the greater
depth required. As a result these are more expensive to form than a Torispherical head, but may
allow a reduction in material thickness as the strength is greater. The I.C.R is 80% of the O.D
(Outer Diameter) of the head. The I.K.R is 15.4% of the O.D of the head. The maximum
diameter we can form a 2:1 Semi-Ellipsoidal head to is 2310mm I.D. The S.F is normally
between 10mm and 30mm depending on the diameter and thickness of the head to be formed.

Figure 2.5: ellipsoidal head

3. Hemispherical:
Hemispherical heads allow more pressure than any other head. However, the hemispherical head
is the most expensive to form, as they consists of a number of petals. The number of which
depends on the size of the head and the thickness of the plate to be used. The depth of the head is
half of the diameter.

Figure 2.6: hemispherical head

4. Flat:
A flat end with a knuckled outer edge.Typically used as bases on vertical atmospheric tanks and
lids for smaller tanks. The I.K.R for most flat ends is usually 25mm, 32mm and 51mm
depending on the diameter, thickness and customer requirements. The S.F is normally between
10mm and 30mm depending on the diameter and thickness of the head.

Figure 2.7 flat head

2.2.4 Support for Pressure Vessel:


Type of support used depends on the orientation and pressure of the pressure vessel. Support
from the pressure vessel must be capable of withstanding heavy loads from the pressure vessel,
wind loads andseismic loads. Pressure on pressure vessel design is not a consideration in
designing support. Temperature can be a consideration in designing the support from the
standpoint of material selection for the different thermal expansion.
Various types of support that used to support the pressure vessel are as follows:
1. Saddle Support
2. Leg Support
3. Lug Support
4. Skirt Support
1. Saddle Support: Horizontal pressure vessel (Fig2.8) is generally supported by two advocates
of saddle support. Wide saddle supports the weight of the ultimate burden on a large area on the
shell to prevent excessive local stresses on the shell above the supporting point. The width of the
saddle between the detail designs is determined based on the specific size and condition of the
pressure vessel design.

Figure 2.8 saddle support


2. Leg Support: Small vertical pressure vessel is generally supported by the leg at the bottom of
the shell. Comparison between the maximum lengths of the support leg with a diameter of vessel
is usually 2:1. Ring reinforcement pad is used to provide additional reinforcement of local and
load distribution, where the local stresses occur on shell can be overdone. The sum of the leg is
needed depends on size and weight received vessel. Support leg is also commonly used in
pressurized.

Figure 2.9 leg support


3. Lug Support: Lug Support in a pressure vessel can also be used to support the vertical
pressure vessel. Lug Support is limited to a small vessel with a diameter of up to medium
diameter (10-10 ft). With a ratio of height to vessel diameter is 2:1 to 5:1. Lug often used to
support vessel located on top of steel structures. Lug usually bolted on the horizontal structure to
provide stability against the loads; however, bolt holes are often given the gap to provide radial
thermal expansion of freedom in the vessel.

Figure 2.10: Lug support


4. Skirt Support: Vertical cylindrical pressure vessels which
are high are generally supported by the skirt. Skirt support is
part of a cylindrical shell, one of them at the bottom of the
body vessel or the bottom head (for the cylindrical vessel).
Skirts for spherical vessel on the vessel are closer to the
center of the shell.

2.2.5 Design Parameter of Pressure Vessel


The following are design parameters of pressure vessel
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
I.

Material selection
Design pressure
Design temperature
Allowable stress
Welded joint efciency, and construction categories
Corrosion allowance
Design loads
Minimum practical wall thickness

Materials

Pressure vessels are constructed from plain carbon steels; low and high alloy steels, other alloys,
clad plate, and reinforced plastics. Selection of a suitable material must take into account the
suitability of the material for fabrication (particularly welding) as well as the compatibility of the
material with the Process environment. The pressure vessel design codes and standards include
lists of acceptable materials; In accordance with the appropriate material standards.
II.

Design Pressure

In the pressure vessels, three terms related to pressure are commonly used

Maximum Working pressure is the maximum pressure to which the pressure vessel is
subjected.
Design pressure is the pressure for which the pressure vessel designed
Hydrostatic test pressure is the pressure at which the vessel is tested. The pressure vessel is
finally tested by the hydrostatic test before it is put into operation.
The design pressure and the hydrostatic test pressure are obtained as follows

III.

Design temperature
The strength of metals decreases with increasing temperature so the maximum allowable
design stress will depend on the material temperature. The design temperature at which the
design stress is evaluated should be taken as the maximum working temperature of the
material, with due allowance for any uncertainty involved in predicting vessel wall
temperatures.
IV.
Allowable Stress
As per the IS Code and ASME Code, the allowable stress is based on the ultimate tensile
strength with a factor of safety of 3 and 4 respectively. As per the IS Code, the following stress
is obtained on the yield strength with a factor of safety of 1. Therefore,

Allowable stress, all = Sut/3 or all= Syt/ (1.5)


Where, all = allowable tensile stress for the pressure vessel, N/mm2
Sut = ultimate tensile strength for the pressure vessel material, N/mm2
Syt = yield strength for pressure vessel material, N/mm2
Welded joint efciency, and construction categories

V.

The strength of a welded joint will depend on the type of joint and the quality of the
welding. The soundness of welds is checked by visual inspection and by non-destructive testing
(radiography). The possible lower strength of a welded joint compared with the virgin plate is
usually allowed for in design by multiplying the allowable design stress for the material by a
welded joint factor J. The value of the joint factor used in design will depend on the type of
joint and amount of radiography required by the design code
VI.

Corrosion Allowance

The walls of the pressure vessel are subjected to thinning due to corrosion which reduces the life
of the pressure vessel. The corrosion in pressure vessel is due to the following reasons:

Chemical attack by reagents on the inner wall surface of the vessel.


Rusting due to atmospheric air and moisture.
High temperature oxidation.
Erosion due to flow of reagent over the wall surface at high velocities.

Every attempt should be made avoid the corrosion. However, this may not be always
possible. An allowance is, therefore, required to be made by suitable increase in wall thickness to
compensate for the thinning due to corrosion. Corrosion allowance is an additional thickness of
the pressure vessel wall over and above that required to withstand the internal pressure.
Guidelines for providing corrosion allowance:
1. For cast iron, plain carbon steel and low alloy steel component, the corrosion allowance of 1.5
mm is provided. However, in case of these chemical industries where severe conditions are
expected, the corrosion allowance may be 3mm
2. For high alloy steel and non-ferrous components, no corrosion allowance is necessary.
3. When the thickness of cylinder wall is more than 30mm, no corrosion allowance is necessary
Design loads
A structure must be designed to resist gross plastic deformation and collapse under all the
conditions of loading

Major loads
1. Design pressure: including any signicant static head of liquid.
2. Maximum weight of the vessel and contents, under operating conditions.
3. Maximum weight of the vessel and contents under the hydraulic test conditions.
4. Wind loads.
5. Earthquake (seismic) loads.
6. Loads supported by, or reacting on, the vessel.
Subsidiary loads
1. Local stresses caused by supports, internal structures and connecting pipes.
2. Shock loads caused by water hammer, or by surging of the vessel contents.
3. Bending moments caused by eccentricity of the centre of the working pressure relative to the
neutral axis of the vessel.
4. Stresses due to temperature differences and differences in the coefcient expansion of
materials.
5. Loads caused by uctuations in temperature and pressure.
A vessel will not be subject to all these loads simultaneously. The designer must determine
what combination of possible loads gives the worst situation, and design for that loading
condition.

2.2.6. Factors Considered in Designing Pressure Vessels


1. Dimensions-Diameter, length and their limitations.
2. Operating conditions Pressure and temperature.
3. Economic consideration.
4. Corrosive nature of reactants and products.
5. Theories of failure.
6. Types of construction i.e. forged, welded or casted.

7. Method of Fabrication.
8. Fatigue, Brittle failure and Creep.

CHAPTER THREE
3. MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 Materials
Materials that used to design this project are:

Stainless steel vessel, unsterilised (304).


Stainless steel nozzle, unstabilised (304).
Carbon Steel skirt support, silicon killed.
50 sieve plates.
Access ladder with plat form.
Insulation mineral wool.

3.2 Assumptions
In order to develop a preliminary design, some assumptions are made and listed below.

No significant loading from piping and external equipment.


Plates and plate supports design is negligible.
Material is double welded butt or equivalent and fully radiographed.
Assume flanges are standard flanges.
Earth quake loading need not be considered.

3.3 Methodology
3.3.1 Design Specifications
The design specification of asieve plate column is given below.
Table 3.3.1 Column Specification
Properties
Length of cylindrical section, L
Internal diameter, Di
Heads
Number of sieve plates, n
Design temperature, T
Design pressure, Pi
Corrosion allowance, C

Specifications
37 m
1.5 m
Standard ellipsoidal
50
150 0C
1200 KN/m2
2 mm

Table 3.3.2 Nozzles Specification


Properties
Feed
Vapour out
Bottom
Product

Specifications
At mid-point
At 0.7 m below top of cylindrical
Section
At Centre of vessel head

200 mm inside diameter


250 mm inside diameter
200 mm inside diameter

At 1.0 m below top of cylindrical 200 mm inside diameter


section
Table 3.3.3 other sieve plate column specification

Properties

Specifications

Diameter of Access ports


(manhole)

0.6 m

Height of support skirt


Thickness of insulation

2.5 m
50 mm thick

At 1.0 m above the


bottom
At 1.5 m below the top
of the
Column

3.4 Design Procedure Steps


3.4.1 Column Thickness Wall
Step 1: Determine the minimum column wall thickness of cylinder that withstand to the internal
pressure.
From the specifications and requirement provided previously data, the column wall thickness is
then calculated using the Equation

Where,
e = minimum plate thickness (mm)
Pi = design pressure (N/mm2)
Di = internal diameter (mm)
J = joint efficient factor

f = maximum allowable working or design stress (N/mm2)


C = corrosion allowance (mm)
Comments
Since welding is present in this cylindrical section corrosion allowance is added to the
thickness.

3.4.2 Selection and Sizing of Vessel Heads


Step 1: Select and size the vessel ends, using Torispherical and ellipsoidal heads.
The wall thicknesses of each heads are calculated as follows using Equation.

Torispherical head:

Where,
CS = Stress concentration factor for TorisphericalHeads

Where
Rc=crown radius
Rk= knuckle radius
Ellipsoidal head:

Comments
From the calculated thickness of both heads , Ellipsoidal head with smaller thickness
compared to the torispherical head is chosen to satisfy the specifications mentioned earlier.
However, there were also other factors considered when chosen the vessel head. Essentially, the

best vessel head should be able to withstand maximum stress with the least materials and
economically feasible .

Dimension of Ellipsoidal Heads


Figure 3.4.2.1 shows the standard ellipsoidal head dimension .It had been mentioned before
that standard ellipsoidal heads are manufactured with a horizontal against vertical axis ratio of
2:1.

Figure 3.4.2.1 Standard Ellipsoidal Head


Diameter of the vessel, D = Di = 1500 mm
Height of the vessel head,

3.4.3 Design Loads


Step 1: Determine dead weight of the vessel
For preliminary calculations the approximate weight of a cylindrical steel vessel with domed
ends, and uniform wall thickness, can be estimated from the following equation:

Where,
Wv = Total weight of the shell.
Cv = A factor to account for the weight of nozzles, manways, internal supports
Dm = Mean Diameter,
Hv = Length of cylindrical section,

tave = Mean wall thickness,

Step 2: Determine dead weight of the plate.


Since vessel is filled with 50 sieve plates with the same diameter as the column, which will
cause additional weight to the vessel. The weight of the plate is given by:

Step 3: Calculate the dead weight of insulation


The weight of the insulation given by the following equation,

10-3
Where,
Weight of the insulation material, KN
Density of insulation materials, kg/m3=130 kg/m3
Volume of the insulation materials m3
=Gravitational Force, m/s
Minimum insulation thickness
At the last the weight of insulation is double in order to allowance of attachment fittings,
sealing and moisture absorption.
Step 4. Calculate the total dead weight
Total weight = Wv+Wp+WI
Where, Wv=weight of the vessel
Wp=weight of the plate
WI=weight of the insulation

3.4.4 Wind Loading


Step 1: Determine wind loading per length.
The wind loading per length can be expressed by,

An allowance of 0.4 m should be addedto the formula below to find the effective
column diameter for a caged ladder(Coulson and Richardsons chemical engineering
Vol. 6)
10-3+ 0.4
Where,
= Wind loading per length (N/m)
=Wind Pressure(N/m2)
= Effective column diameter (m)
= Diameter of the vessel (m)
= Mean thickness of column (mm)
= Minimum insulation thickness (mm)

Step 2: Determine the bending moment, Mx.


The bending moment, Mx can be calculated using the formula given below.

Where,
= Bending moment (Nm)
= Length of cylindrical section (m)

3.4.5 Stress Analysis


Step 1: Determine the longitudinal and circumferential stress at the bottom tangent
line due to pressure.

Where,
=Longitudinal stress, N/ mm2

= Circumferential stress, N/ mm2


=Internal diameter, mm
=Wall thickness at the bottom tangent line, mm
Step 2: Determine the dead weight direct stress.
The dead weight stress can be calculated by,

Where,
= Total Dead weight of empty vessel, KN
= Direct stress, N/ mm2
Step 3: Determine the bending stress.
The bending stress due to bending moment is given by,

Where,
= Bending stress (N/mm2)
=Second moment of area (mm4)
=Outer Diameter, mm
Step 4: Determine the resultant longitudinal stress.
The resultant longitudinal stress can be calculated as follow.

is compressive therefore it is negative.


Step 5: Check its satisfactory design and elastic stability (buckling).

If the greater difference in downwind stress or upwind stress is much more less than the
maximum allowable stress, f = 130
this design with metal thickness is okay and
satisfactory.
Critical buckling stress can be calculated as:

3.4.6 Reinforcement of Openings and Required Area of Reinforcement


Required Area of Reinforcement:
All process vessels will have openings for connections, man ways, and instrument fittings. The
presence of opening has its own drawback whereby it weakens the shell and gives rise to stress
concentrations. The stress at the edge of a hole will be higher than the average stress in
surrounding plate. Thus, in order to reduce this stress it is important that the opening is
compensated with increase of wall thickness in the region adjacent to the opening. In other
words, a reinforcement of opening will be done towards the hole in order to cope with a
sufficient stress that countered the weakening effect of the opening without.
Notation:
A = total cross-sectional area of reinforcement required in the plane under consideration
A1 = area in excess thickness in the vessel wall available for reinforcement
A2= area in excess thickness in the nozzle wall available for reinforcement
A3= area available for reinforcement when the nozzle extends inside the vessel wall
S = design stress at design temperature
d = finished diameter of circular opening under consideration
E = joint efficiency factor F = correction factor that compensates for the variation of in internal
pressure stresses on
different planes with respect to the axis of the vessel
t = specified vessel wall thickness
ti= nominal thickness of internal projection of the nozzle wall
tn = nozzle wall thickness

tr= required thickness of seamless shell based on circumferential stress


tr.n.= required thickness of seamless nozzle wall
fr1= strength reduction factor ( S
n/Sv for nozzle wall inserted through the vessel wall)
fr2= Sn/ Sv
Sn= allowable stress in nozzle
Sv = allowable stress in vessel
P = design pressure
D = diameter of manhole/access port
Di,n= internal diameter of nozzle
K1= spherical radius factor
c = corrosion allowance
h = height of ellipsoidal head
UTP = pipe under tolerance
Ri,n= Radius of the internal section of the nozzle
Access Port (or Manhole):
For design of internal pressure, the total cross-sectional area of reinforcement A required in
any given plane through the opening for a shell or formed head under internal pressure shall
not be less than
A=dtrF +2tntrF(1-fr1)
Now , start with preliminary calculations for thickness (tr,, tr.n. , t, ti, tn) and
distance (h)
i)The minimum required thickness under circumferential stress tr for seamless shell or head is
determined by , tr=
Note: tr is the thickness required for a seamless sphere with radius o K1D

A, tr.n=
B, The vessel wall thickness, t, it is determined as:
t=

+C

C, For the nominal thickness of internal projection of nozzle wall, ti, it is determined as follows:
ti = tn-2C
D, Distance nozzle projects beyond the inner surface of the vessel wall is as determined:
h=min(2.5t,2.5ti)
E, The diameter of the finished opening, d, is as determined
d=D+C
Note: The opening is in a corroded condition. Thus, a corrosion allowance is added to the
diameter of the opening.
Calculations of Area Required for Reinforcement
A=dtrF +2tntrF(1-fr1)
To determine whether additional reinforcement is necessary for the manhole, the actual area
available for reinforcement must be calculated and compare with the area required for
reinforcement. The following condition must be satisfied if no additional reinforcement is
required:
Check that,

Where, A1+A2+A3+A41+A43

A1(Largest)
A1=d(E1t-Ftr)-2tn(E1t-Ftr)(1-fr1) where, fr1= =

=1 ,(since both the nozzle and the vessel are

made up of the same material )Then the term , 2tn(E1t-Ftr)(1-fr1) will be cancel out.
A1=2(t+ t n)( E1t-Ftr)
A2(smallest):
A2: First of all, assuming fr2= fr1= 1 since they both have the same formula (Sn / Sv);
A2=5(tn-tr.n) fr2.t

A2: A2=5(tn-tr.n) fr2tn


A3 (smallest):
A3=5t (ti fr2)
Lastly by considering the condition

> A , if it is satisfy this condition there is no additional

reinforcement will be required

3.4.7 Standard Flanges


Nozzles and flanges can be categorized into several categories depending on their sizes, types and
other attachments to vessels. A nozzle is a relatively simple device, a cylindrical component that
penetrates the shell or heads of a pressure vessel (Sinott 2008). The main function of nozzles on the
plates is to transport fluids and allow the liquids and gas to disperse throughout the towers as the fluids
flow through the nozzles. On the other hand, flanges improve the strength of a structure and also apply
as a guide for keeping a particular object in place (Sinott 2008). Different column design requires
different standards and designs of the nozzles and flanges. Flanges are used for connecting pipe and
instruments to vessels, for removable vessel heads and manhole covers.

3.4.8 Mechanical Design for Skirt Support


Dead weight stress for the test and operating conditions
Approximate weight =
Total weight = wv + Approximate weight
For test condition,
Formula given by,

Where,
Dead weight stress in the skirt for test condition
Total weight of the vessel with contents (water).

For operating condition,

The formula given by,

Where,
Dead weight stress in the skirt for operating condition
Total dead weight of vessel with heads
Resultant bending stress in the skirt.
For maximum:
For minimum:
Design criteria
If given the worst combination of both wind and dead-weight loading, the skirt thickness should
not exceed that of its design criteria, as shown below
From the specification table,
155 N/mm2
E = Youngs modulus (Sinnott. and Tower., 7.3.7. Effect of Temperature on the Mechanical
Properties 1999) =200,000 N/mm2
For the maximum:
Given the formula,
For minimum:
Given the formula,

New skirt thickness, ts: ts= (Old thickness of the skirt) + (Corrosion allowance)

3.4.9 Base ring/flange and anchor bolt design


For DS = 1.5 m
Determine the number of bolts required, N bolts
Since the measurements for the pitch diameter were not given, it was assumed that the
measurement of column diameter would be used to make an assumption for the pitch diameter.
An estimation of 10% allowance was then added to the pitch circle diameter column.
Number of bolts required N bolts given by the formula:

Where;
Ds = Internal column diameter = 1.5 m
Dp = Pitch circle diameter = Ds + (10% Ds)
Bolt area, Ab
The required bolt area, A given by the formula:
(
Where,
Number of bolts required = 12 Bolts
Bolt design stress = 125 N/mm2
Bending moment in skirt
Total dead weight of vessel with heads
Pitch circle diameter = 1.6 5m = 1,650 mm
Bolt root diameter, Dbolt
The bolt root diameter given by the formula:


Total compressive load on each base ring per unit length, Fbolt.

Where,
Total dead weight of vessel with heads ,
Internal column diameter

Bending moment in skirt

Minimum width of base ring, Lb.

Total compressive load on the base ring per unit length = 1,196.40N/mm
Maximum allowable bearing pressure on the concrete foundation padbearing pressure 5
N/mm2
skirt base angle,

Skirt base angle,

(With Ds =2.5 m) given by,

bolt spacing
Bolt spacing given the formula:

Where,
Bolt circle diameter
Number of bolts
New required bolt area, Ab

Total dead weight of vessel with heads


Bending moment in skirt
Number of bolts required
Bolt circle diameter
Bolt design stress
total compressive load on each base ring per unit length, Fbolt.

Where,
Total dead weight of vessel with heads
Bending moment in skirt
Flared skirt bottom diameter
minimum width of base ring, Lb
Given the formula:

Maximum allowable bearing pressure on the concrete foundation padBearing pressure = 5


N/mm2
actual bearing pressure on the concrete foundation,
Given the formula:
Actual width =Lr + ts + ti
Where,
ts = Skirt thickness = 19mm
ti = Insulation thickness = 50mm
Fbolt = Total compressive load on the base ring per unit length

Lr =Distance from the edge of the skirt to the outer edge of the ring = 178 mm (Sinnott., Coulson
& Richardson's Chemical Engineering 1999) :Using Bolt size 70 (BS 4190:1967)
base ring thickness, th
The base ring thickness given by the formula:

CHAPTER FOUR
4. RESULT AND DISCUTION
step.1 column thickness wall
Determine the minimum column wall thickness of cylinder that withstand to the internal
pressure.
From the specifications and requirement provided previously data, the column wall thickness
is then calculated using the Equation

+C

step.2 calculation of the minimum thickness of the heads


Step.1 Select and size the vessel ends, using Torispherical and ellipsoidal heads.
The wall thicknesses of each heads are calculated as follows using Equation
The wall thickness Torispherical Heads

t=
but,

= (3+ )

Rc, crown radius (radius of sphere)=Di=1500 mm

Rk, knuckle radius (radius of torus) =0.06Rc


Rk= 0.06(1500)
=90mm

= (3+

) =1.77

t=

=12.16mm

The wall thickness of ellipsoidal

mm
rounding off to 7 mm

Comments
From the calculated thickness of both heads , Ellipsoidal head with smaller thickness
compared to the torispherical head is chosen to satisfy the specifications mentioned earlier.
However, there were also other factors considered when chosen the vessel head. Essentially, the
best vessel head should be able to withstand maximum stress with the least materials and
economically feasible. The head resembles an ellipse with its radius varying continuously in its
cross section. The varying radius results in a smooth transition between the dome and cylindrical
section of the vessel. Its head is deeper than a comparable Torispherical head.
Now by taking the thickness of the ellipes for stability of the shell the column is divided into five
parts and thickness is increased from top to bottom of the shell, as 7 mm, 9 mm, 11 mm, 13 mm and 15
mm respectively. The approach we take in designing our column is that along the way from the base to
the top of the column, thickness must be thicker at the bottom than that at the top. Therefore, the column
is divided to 5-equal section and we increase it by 2 mm on each section. This is done to prevent buckling

7mm
9mm
11mm
13mm
15mm

For all other calculations, the average thickness is used can be calculated as;

The average thickness = ts

Step.3 Dead weight of vessel


Stress due to the dead weight of the vessel:
For a steel vessel
Take Cw = 1.15, vessel with plates
Dm = 1.5 + 11 x 10-3 = 1.511m
Hv = 37 m
= 11 mm
Wv = 240 CwDm (Hv + 0.8 Dm) t
Wv = 240 X 1.15 X 1.511 (37 + 0.8 X 1.511) 11
= 175,279 N
Wv = 175.3kN

Step.4 Weight of plates

Plates area = /4 X 1.52 = 1.77 m2


Weight of a plate including liquid on it : 1.7kN/m2 X 1.77 m2 = 3.009 kN
50 plates = 50 X 3.009KN = 150.45KN

Weight of insulation
Mineral wool density = 130 kg/m3
Weight of insulation=
Approximate volume of insulation=

D
= x 1.5 x 37 x 50 x 10-3 = 8.72 m3

Weight = 8.72 m3 x 130 kg/m3 x 9.81 m/s2 = 11,112 N


Double this to allow for fitting = 22.224 kN
Total weight:

Shell

175.3 kN
150.45 kN
22.224 kN

Plates & contents


Insulation
Total

348kN

Step.5 Wind loading


Take dynamic wind pressure as 1280 N/m2, corresponding to 160 kph (100 mph) for preliminary
design studies.
Mean diameter including thickness and insulation = Di + 2(ts +tins) x 10-3
= 1.5 + 2(11+50) x 10-3
Deff=1.622m
Loading (per linear meter), F W=Pw Deff
F W= 1280 N/m2 x 1.622 m = 2076.16 N/m
2

Bending moment at bottom tangent line = Mx =

=1421131.52 Nm
Step.6 stress analysis
Longitudinal and circumferential stress:
At bottom tangent line, the pressure stresses are given by:

Longitudinal stress
(N/mm2)=

=30N/

Circumferential stress,
(N/mm2)=

Dead weight stress

=60N/

=2.4566 N/

Bending Stresses

b =
Iv =

4
o

-Di4), but

)
= Di + 2 x
=1500+(2 x15)= 1530 mm

Iv =

-15004)=2.048

b =

)=

N/

The resultant longitudinal stress

z = L + w b
w is compressive because ist is less than the longitudinal stress and circumferential stress
z (upwind) = L + w + b
=(30-2.4566+53.08)N/mm2

= 80.63 N/
z (downwind) = L + w - b
=(30-2.4566-53.08)N/
= -25.5 N/

Upwind

z= 80.63 N/

Downwind

60N/

60N/

z= 25.5 N/

Upwind
60N/

- 80 N/

downwind

= -20N/

60 N/

25.5 N/

= 85.5

Since the greater difference in downwind stress (85.5 N/


) much more less than the maximum
allowable stress, f = 130
this design with metal thickness of 15 mm is okay and satisfactory.

Step.7 Check elastic stability (buckling)


( )=2

=196.08

b+ w < , 55.646<196.08 ,
Since the maximum resultant compressive resultant stress (55.646 N/mm2) less than that of
critical buckling stress (196.08). So the design procedure of the vessel is correct.

Step.8 Reinforcement of Opening calculation


Required Area of Reinforcement:
Area reinforcement of opening is given by :
A=d

Preliminary calculation of thickness & distance


Such as tr , trn ,t,ti,tn & h

Step1.determine the required thickness under circumferential stress ,tr for seamless shell or head
is given by : tr=
Where tr=required thickness for a seamless sphere with radius of K1D, R=K1D
f=maximum stress allowance=130N/
j=joint factor=1
D= 600 mm =0.6m

tr=

5.012mm

Pi=1.2N/
K1=0.9

Step2. tn=50mm
Step3.determine the vessel wall thickness ,t is given by:
t=

where R= =

=750mm

c=corrosion allowance=2mm
t=

=8.96mm

Step4.determine the nominal thickness of internal projection of the nozzle wall , ti ,is given by:
ti=tn-2c=50-2(2)=46mm
Step5.determine the distance nozzle projects beyond the inner surface of the vesselwall ,h ,is
given by:
h=min(2.5t , 2.5ti)
h=(2.5

,2.5

=(22.5,115)

Step6.determine diameter of finished opening d, is given by :


d=D + c=600+2=602mm
Note: the opening is in a corroded condition. Thus, a corrosion allowance is added to the
diameter of the opening.
Calculation of area required for reinforcement
Assuming correction factor=1 & d=D
A=d
A=600mm*5.0123mm*1+0
A=3007.38mm2
To determine whether additional reinforcement is necessary for the manhole, the actual area
available for reinforcement must be calculated and compare with the area required for
reinforcement. The following condition must be satisfied if no additional reinforcement is
required:
Check that,
A1(Largest)

Where, A1+A2+A3+A41+A43=

A1=d(E1t-Ftr)-2tn(E1t-Ftr)(1-fr1) where, fr1= =

=1 ,(since both the nozzle and the vessel are

made up of the same material )Then the term , 2tn(E1t-Ftr)(1-fr1) will be cancel out.
Thus, A1=d(E1t-Ftr). But, E1=f=1=E
A1=d(t-tr)=602(9-5)=2408mm2
A1=2(t+ t n)( E1t-Ftr)-0=2(9+50) )( 9-5)
A1=472mm2 since,A1> A1,then ,A= A1=2408mm2
A2(smallest):
A2: First of all, assuming fr2= fr1= 1 since they both have the same formula (Sn / Sv);

A2=5(tn-tr.n) fr2.t, sbstituting the values


A2=5(50-7)*(1*9)=1935 mm2
A2: A2=5(tn-tr.n) fr2tn, substituting the values,
A2=5(50-7)*(1*50)=10750 mm2, since, A2< A2,then,
A2= A2=1935 mm2
A3(smallest):
A3=5t(ti fr2)=5*9(46*1)=2070mm2
A3=5ti(ti fr2)=5*46*46*=10580mm2
A3=2h(ti fr2)=2*17.5(46*1)=1610mm2,
since A3< A3< A3.Then, A3= A3=1610mm2
For areas A41 and A43, they are not considered since the welds vary from fillet to butt weld type.
Thus, A41 = A43 = 0 mm2
Summing up from A1 to A3,
Given
A1 = 2408mm2
A2 = 1935 mm2
A3 = 1610mm2

A41 = A43 = 0 mm2


So that,

2408mm2+ 1935 mm2+ 1610mm2=5953 mm2

By comparing both the required area for rein forcement, A and the area available for
reinforcement, A=3007.38mm2 and =5953 mm2.Finally, we can conclude that the condition
> A, which implies, 5953 mm2>3007.38mm2 is satisfied. Therefore, no additional
reinforcement will be required

step.9 mechanical design for skirt support


A straight type skirt support is selected, where = 90o. Material of construction used is
carbon steel, silicon killed maximum allowable design stress, f=115 N/mm2 and Youngs
modulus, E =200,000N/mm2 at ambient temperature. The welding efficiency , E =0.85.
Maximum dead-weight load on the skirt will occur when the vessel is full of water. Since
hydrocarbon materials has density that is lower than water, then we use density of water to
complete our calculations.
The height of each ellipsoidal head
Hv(height of vessel)

Hv
Approximate weight

Weight of the vessel


Total weight

X= Hv + Hs
= 37.75m + 2.5m =40.25m
Ms

As a first trial, take the skirt thickness as the same as that of the bottom of the vessel,
Bending stress in the skirt,

the
The resultant bending stress in the skirt will be
For maximum:

Foe minimum:

Bending stress for the skirt


Take joint factor, J
( )

For the maximum:


72
72
For minimum:
60.35

Since all the calculations and comparison above shows that the all design criteria were
fulfilled,add 2 mm for corrosion, gives a design thickness of new skirt thickness, ts:
New skirt thickness, ts:
ts= (Old thickness of the skirt) + (Corrosion allowance)
=15mm + 2mm= 17mm

Step.10 Base ring/flange and anchor bolt design


For DS = 1.5 m
Step 1 .Determine the number of bolts required, N bolts
Since the measurements for the pitch diameter were not given, it was assumed that the
measurement of column diameter would be used to make an assumption for the pitch diameter.
An estimation of 10% allowance was then added to the pitch circle diameter column.
Number of bolts required N bolts given by the formula:
N bolts=
Where;
Ds = Internal column diameter = 1.5 m
Dp = Pitch circle diameter
Dp = Ds + (10% Ds)
= 1.5 + 0.1 x 1.5
= 1.65 m
= 1,650 mm
Thus, Nbolts=

=8.635mm

By taking the nearest multiple of 4, 12 is the nearest value to the number of bolts required,
Nbolts.
Step 2: Determine the required bolt area, Ab
The required bolt area, A given by the formula:
Ab=

-Wv)

Where,
N bolt=Number of bolts required = 12 Bolts.
fb = Bolt design stress = 125 N/mm2
Ms =Bending moment in skirt

Wvessel= dead weight of vessel with heads


Dp = Pitch circle diameter = 1.6 5m = 1,650 mm
Ab=

- Wvessel)
=

175.3

000)

=2601.12
Step 3: Determine the bolt root diameter, D bolt.
The bolt root diameter given by the formula:
D bolt =

=57.56mm

With the addition of base rings, the bolt should be sufficient enough to distribute the total
compressive load to the foundation.
Step 4: Determine the total compressive load on each base ring per unit length, Fbolt.
Given the formula:
Fbolt=

Where,
Wvessel=dead weight of vessel with heads = 175.3 KN
Ms=Bending moment in skirt = 1681754.48Nm
Ds=Internal column diameter = 1.5m

Fbolt=

= 988,878 N/m

Step 5: Determine minimum width of base ring, Lb.


Given by the formula:
Lb =
F bolt=Total compressive load on the base ring per unit length = 1,196.40N/mm

fc=Maximum allowable bearing pressure on the concrete foundation pad bearing pressure 5
N/
.

=197.8mm

Lb=

Due to the large base ring width, a flared skirt shall be used as an alternative to the design.
Therefore, the requirements and assumptions for the new skirt are:
Flared skirt bottom diameter, Ds = 2.5 m = 2500 mm
Bolt circle diameter, Dolt= Ds+ (10% of Ds)
= 2.5 m + (1.5

= 2.5 m + 0.15 m

= 2.65 m (Assumed)
= 2,650 mm
Number of bolt,

= but , D'p=D's+(10% s)

D'p=2.5+(10%2.5) = 2.75 m
= 2,750mm

=14.4mm

For Ds = 2.5m
Step 1: Determine the skirt base angle, s.
Skirt base angle, s (With Ds =2.5 m) given by,
s=

s=

= 78.7

Step 2: Determine bolt spacing.


Bolt spacing given the formula:
Bolt specing =

Where,
Dbolt'=Bolt circle diameter = 2650 mm
Nbolt'=Number of bolts =14.39
bolt specing=

=577.8 mm (satisfactory)

Step 3: Determine new required bolt area, Ab


Given by the formula:
Ab=

Wv essel=l dead weight of vessel with heads = 175.3 KN


Ms=Bending moment in skirt
Nbolt'=Number of bolts required = 14.4
Dbolt'=Bolt circle diameter = 2.650m = 2,650 mm
fb=Bolt design stress = 125 N/mm2
Ab=

= 255.2

Step 4: Determine the total compressive load on each base ring per unit length, Fbolt.
Given the formula:
Fbolt=

Where,
W vessel= dead weight of vessel with heads =175.3 KN
Ms= Bending moment in skirt = 1681754.48Nm
D's=Flared skirt bottom diameter=2.5m =2500mm

=365 N/mm=365000N/m

Step 5: Determine minimum width of base ring, Lb

Given the formula:

Lb=

fc=Maximum allowable bearing pressure on the concrete foundation pad


Bearing pressure=5N/mm2

Lb=

= 73mm

Step 6: Determine the actual bearing pressure on the concrete foundation,


Given the formula:
f'c=Fbolt'/(Actual width)
Actual width =Lr + ts + ti
Where,
ts = Skirt thickness = 17mm
ti = Insulation thickness = 50mm

= Total compressive load on the base ring per unit length

Lr =Distance from the edge of the skirt to the outer edge of the ring = 178 mm
Using Bolt size 70 (BS 4190:1967)
Actual width = 178 + 17 +50 = 245mm
=

N/mm2

Step 7: Determine the base ring thickness, tb


The base ring thickness given by the formula:

tb = Lr
tb=178

Conclusion
The pressure vessel is successfully designed so that it with stand all the mechanical stresses
acting on it. The pressure vessel is analyzed under various conditions of operation. The various
forces analyzed are pressure exerted by water on the shell, weight of the fluid and wind force.
The stresses in above-mentioned conditions are found out and thickness of various parts is
selected such that the stresses produced in each member are within the maximum allowable
range. All the selected have been successfully verified and hence the design of pressure vessel is
safe.

Recommendation
We recommended for this design of pressure vessel it should be design based on standard codes
to simplify the design analysis and to use standard pressure vessel dimensions.

Appendix A: Maximum Allowable Joint Efficiency

Appendix B: Typical Design Stresses for Plates

Appendix C: Typical Standard Flange Design

Appendix D: Dimension with Different Bolt Size

yy
yy
_y
_y