Sie sind auf Seite 1von 73

SET - Production Processes and

Efficiency Measures
Overview of textile production processes and energy efficiency measures for machineries,
technologies and equipment researched on by the SET project team to develop an Energy
Saving and Efficiency Tool (ESET)

Leading author: CITEVE


Date: December 2014

Table of contents
Table of contents ....................................................................................................................2
Acknowledgments ..................................................................................................................3
1 Executive summary .........................................................................................................4
2 - Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 5
3 - Textile production processes ....................................................................................... 7
4 - Energy in the textile industry.................................................................................... 11
4.1 - Energy use in yarn production, main factors affecting energy consumption and
reference values ...................................................................................................................... 12
4.2 - Energy use in fabric production, main factors affecting energy consumption and
reference values ...................................................................................................................... 14
4.3 - Energy use in finishing, main factors affecting energy consumption and reference
values ...................................................................................................................................... 16

5 - Energy efficiency measures ....................................................................................... 21


5.1 - Energy efficiency measures for Yarn Production process ............................................... 23
5.2 - Energy efficiency measures for Fabric Production process ............................................ 26
5.3 - Energy efficiency measures for Finishing process........................................................... 28
5.4 - Cross-cutting energy efficiency measures ...................................................................... 44

6 Conclusions and Next Steps ....................................................................................... 72


7 - Reference.......................................................................................................................... 73

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Disclaimer
The sole responsibility for the content of this publication lies with the authors. It does not
necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Union or of any of the organization
mentionedunless explicitly stated. Neither the EASME nor the European Commission are
responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.
This document is updated until December 2014, however contents are simplifield and
provided for general information purposes only. By no mean the contents provided in this
document shall be considred exausitve.
Legal and or official documentation released at EU level or the national legislation shall be
consulted.

Acknowledgments
The SET project (contract n IEE/13/557/SI2.675575) is co-funded by the IEE Intelligent Energy
Europe programme of the European Union managed by EASME, the European Commission
executive agency for SMEs.

www.euratex.eu/set

3/73

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

1 Executive summary
This document is the report of the work performed by the SET project team coordinated
by CITEVE for the purpose of 1) defining and structure the targeted basic textile
production processes, 2) collecting energy efficiency measures for machineries,
technologies and equipment, and 3) identify newly developed processes with potential to
replace traditional ones with gains in energy consumption.
Three levels of textile processes classification were defined. The first level corresponds to
the three value creation steps defined early in the project Spinning (later replaced by
Yarn Production), Fabric Production and Finishing. The second level (phase) provides
more specific processes or steps inside the three main groups and in the third level (subphase) are listed the most significant machineries, equipments or very specific processes,
in terms of energy use.
A list of 117 cross-cutting measures and 105 specific energy efficiency measures were
created, mostly based on Hasenbeigi [1](specific measures) and ARTISAN project (cross
cutting measures). This is far above the targeted 60 specific and 60 cross cutting. Each of
the identified specific measure was linked to a process or machinery listed on the second
or third level of process classification, respectively.
Newly developed processes can be found as measures for energy savings in Energy
Efficiency Measures chapter (e.g. Microwave Dyeing).
For the collection of these measures, teams were defined as in the following table:
Table 1 Composition of the SET project teams collecting energy efficiency measures

Team
1
2

Type of measures
Specific
Specific

Process
Yarn production
Fabric production

Specific

Finishing

Cross cutting

Organizations
DITF (DE) / IVGT (DE) / Centexbel (BE)
TMTE (HU)/ IVGT (DE)
CITEVE (PT) / IVGT (DE)/ Inotex ATOK
(CZ)
ENEA (IT)

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

2 - Introduction
The need of reduce / rationalize energy consumption has assumed huge importance
during the last years with the growth of energy prices, environmental constraints and, in
some countries, legal obligations.
The rational use of energy calls for a broad application of energy efficiency technologies in
the various industrial sectors where energy is wasted. One of these energy intensive
industrial sectors to be considered to improve efficiency through the introduction of
energy conservation technologies and techniques is the textile industry.
Over the past decade there has been a decrease in the energy consumption of this industry
in the European Union (figure 1), which is mainly due to the economic situation but also
some improvements in energy efficiency. However, there is still room for further
improvements since the situation varies significantly within the EU members.

Energy consumption on (10 3 toe)

12.000
10.000

8.000
6.000

4.000
2.000

0
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Year

Figure 1 Energy consumption on Textile and Leather industries in EU (Source: Eurostat 29/10/2014)

The representation of energy costs, compared to the total costs of the company, in the case
of a vertical textile company, based in a study in Portugal, is estimated to be between 15%
to 25% [2]. Developing an understanding of how energy is used in a textiles plant is an
important component of improving the energy management. Knowing what the major

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

end-users of energy in a plant are helps to identify what priorities need to be for energy
efficiency improvements.
Energy-efficiency improvement opportunities in the textile industry include opportunities
for process specific improvements, which includes retrofit/process optimization as well as
the complete replacement of the current machinery with state-of-the-art new technology,
and opportunities for cross cutting improvements in steam and/or thermal fluid boilers,
compressed air, conditioning, lighting, electrical motors and pumps, etc.

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

3 - Textile production processes


The textile industry is one of the most complex industrial chains in the manufacturing
industry because of the wide variety of textile products, substrates, processes, machinery
and components used, and finishing steps undertaken. Different types of fibers, methods
of yarn and fabric production, and finishing processes combinations (preparation,
printing, dyeing, chemical/mechanical finishing, etc), all interrelate in producing a finished
fabric. The combination of processes and process parameters is almost infinite and has a
considerable influence on energy efficiency.
Before collecting energy efficiency measures it was fundamental to develop a description
of the processes to be used on this project, from the huge variety available, to represent
the textile industry, taking mainly into account the energy consumption.
First, the major textile processes were defined for a first level of classification:
Yarn production1
Fabric Production
Finishing
Within these main processes, two more specific levels of classification of processes used
on the textile industry were defined - second level of classification or phase and third level
of classification or subphase. This classification was based on ITMA 2015 Index of
Products [3], which is recognized and accepted by the textile sector.
The following tables represent the classification of textiles processes in the three different
levels to be considered in the next steps of this project and the associated hierarchical
identification.

Table 2 - Description of processes and equipments for Yarn Production


1

The expression Yarn production has replaced the original term Spinning in the first level of
classification in order to avoid repetition of terms in different levels, since Spinning was also
being used in the second level of classification.

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Process
(Level 1)

Phase
(Level 2)

Subphase
(Level 3)
Opening for cotton (1.1.1)
Cards (1.1.2)

Spinning Preparation for

Drawing machines for cotton (1.1.3)

cotton fibers (1.1)

Lap winders (1.1.4)


Combing machines for cotton (1.1.5)
Roving frames (1.1.6)
Opening lines for raw wool (1.2.1)
Raw wool scouring lines (1.2.2)
Carbonising lines (1.2.3)
Opening for wool (1.2.4)
Worsted cards (1.2.5)

Spinning Preparation for wool

Semi-worsted cards (1.2.6)

fibers (1.2)

Woollen cards (1.2.7)


Drawing machines for wool (1.2.8)
Combing machines for wool (1.2.9)
Back washing machines (1.2.10)
Finishers (1.2.11)

Yarn production (1)

Roving frames for worsted yarn (1.2.12)


Production of man-made

Extruders (1.3.1)

filaments and fibres (1.3)

Winding (1.3.2)
Ring-spinning (1.4.1)
Compact spinning (1.4.2)

Spinning (1.4)

Rotor spinning (1.4.3)


Air-jet spinning (1.4.4)
Other Spinning machines (1.4.5)

Winding, reeling and covering


(1.5)

Winding machines (1.5.1)


Reeling machines (1.5.2)
Covering machines (1.5.3)
Autoclaves for steaming (1.6.1)

Yarn steaming, setting,

Heat-setting machines (1.6.2)

moistening and coating (1.6)

Moistening machines (1.6.3)


Yarn coating machines (1.6.4)

Texturing, bulking and

Texturing machines (1.7.1)

crimping (1.7)

Bulking and crimping machines (1.7.2)

Doubling and twisting (1.8)

Doubling machines (1.8.1)


Twisting machines (1.8.2)

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Table 3 - Description of processes and equipments for Fabric Production

Process
(Level 1)

Phase
(Level 2)

Subphase
(Level 3)
Sectional warping (2.1.1)
Beam warping (2.1.2)

Weaving preparation (2.1)

Draw-warping (2.1.3)
Beaming machines (2.1.4)
Sizing/slashing (2.1.5)
Indigo warp dyeing lines (2.1.6)
Rapier weaving (2.2.1)
Projectile weaving (2.2.2)
Air jet weaving (2.2.3)

Weaving (2.2)
Fabric production (2)

Water jet weaving (2.2.4)


Shuttle looms (2.2.5)
Circular weaving (2.2.6)
Narrow fabrics weaving (2.2.7)

Preparation for knitting (2.3)

Beam warping (2.3.1)


Sectional warping (2.3.2)
Circular knitting machines (2.4.1)
Flat knitting machines (2.4.2)

Knitting (2.4)

Warp knitting machines (2.4.3)


Knitting machines for special purposes
(2.4.4)

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Table 4 - Description of processes and equipments for Finishing

Process
(Level 1)

Phase
(Level 2)

Pretreatment (3.1)

Dyeing (3.2)

Finishing (3)

Water extraction and drying


(3.3)

Finishing machines (3.4)

Printing (3.5)

Subphase
(Level 3)
Carbonising (3.1.1)
Singeing (3.1.2)
Crabbing (3.1.3)
Desizing (3.1.4)
Bleaching batch (3.1.5)
Continuous Bleaching (3.1.6)
Yarn washing (3.1.7)
Rope washing (3.1.8)
Open-width washing (3.1.9)
Solvent washing (3.1.10)
Milling/fulling (3.1.11)
Yarn Mercerising (3.1.12)
Fabric Mercerising (3.1.13)
Yarn continuous dyeing (3.2.1)
Fabric continuous dyeing (3.2.2)
Autoclaves (3.2.3)
Hank (3.2.4)
Jet (3.2.5)
Overflow (3.2.6)
Winch becks (3.2.7)
Jiggers (3.2.8)
Other dyeing machines (3.2.9)
Centrifugal hydro-extractors (3.3.1)
Stenter (3.3.2)
Yarn Dryers (3.3.3)
Fabric Dryers (3.3.4)
Other Dryers (3.3.5)
Tumblers (3.3.6)
Mechanical finishing (3.4.1)
Decatising (3.4.2)
Calenders (3.4.3)
Singeing machines (3.4.4)
Knitwear ironing presses (3.4.5)
Tumblers (3.4.6)
Sanfor (3.4.7)
Other finishing machines (3.4.8)
Top and yarn printing (3.5.1)
Flat screen printing (3.5.2)
Rotary screen printing (3.5.3)
Inkjet Printing (3.5.4)
Other printing machines (3.5.5)

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

4 - Energy in the textile industry


In general, energy in the textile industry is mostly used in the forms of: electricity, as a
common power source for machinery, cooling and temperature control systems, lighting,
office equipment, conditioning, etc., and fuels for steam and thermal fluid boilers and
direct fired equipments.
In the next figure is represented a breakdown of energy consumption by type of energy for

the European Union (28 countries) for textile and leather industries in 2012.

Share of energy consumption by type in Textile and


Leather industries (EU28)
Waste
0%

Solid Fuels
Petroleum
1%
8%

Electricity
40%
Natural Gas
46%

Renewables
0%

Heat
5%

Figure 2 - Breakdown of energy consumption by type of energy for the textile and leather industries in the
European Union on 2012 (source: Eurostat 29/10/2014)

Finishing processes have higher energy consumption than the yarn and fabric production.
Most of the energy used on those processes is thermal. Yarn and Fabric production mostly
use electricity as power source of the machines motors.
The following points present a slightly more detailed description of energy consumption
in each of the first level textile production processes: Yarn Production, Fabric Production

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

and Finishing, main variables affecting that consumption and reference values (when
available) for the consumption of each subphase.

4.1 - Energy use in yarn production, main factors affecting


energy consumption and reference values
Electricity is the major type of energy used in spinning plants. As an example, if the
spinning plant just produces raw yarn in a cotton spinning system, and does not dye or
fix the produced yarn, the fuel may just be used to provide steam for the humidification
system in the cold seasons for preheating the fibers before spinning them together [1].
The factors (triggers) which are most affecting the energy consumption for a
determined textile process in yarn production are presented in the following table, as
well as reference values of energy consumption (when available) for the processes
defined in the previous chapter.
Table 5 Triggers and relevant product groups and benchmarks for Yarn Production

Phase
(Level 2)

Subphase
(Level 3)

Triggers

Opening for cotton


(1.1.1)
Cards (1.1.2)
Spinning

Drawing machines for

Preparation for

cotton (1.1.3)

cotton fibers (1.1) Lap winders (1.1.4)

Speed of machine

Relevant product
groups and
benchmarks for
relevant triggercombinations
Opening of natural fibers
and manmade fiber bales

Speed of machine
Speed of machine
Speed of machine

Combing machines for


cotton (1.1.5)
Roving frames (1.1.6)
Opening lines for raw
wool (1.2.1)
Spinning
Preparation for
wool fibers (1.2)

Speed of machine
Speed of machine, yarn
count
Speed of machine

Raw wool scouring lines


(1.2.2)

Speed of machine

Carbonising lines (1.2.3) Speed of machine,


temperature
Opening for wool (1.2.4) Speed of machine

high eveness and tension

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Phase
(Level 2)

Subphase
(Level 3)
Worsted cards (1.2.5)

Triggers

Relevant product
groups and
benchmarks for
relevant triggercombinations

Speed of machine

Semi-worsted cards
(1.2.6)
Woollen cards (1.2.7)

Speed of machine
Speed of machine

Drawing machines for


wool (1.2.8)
Combing machines for
Spinning

wool (1.2.9)

Preparation for

Back washing machines

wool fibers (1.2)

(1.2.10)
Finishers (1.2.11)
Roving frames for
worsted yarn (1.2.12)

Production of
man-made
filaments and
fibres (1.3)

Speed of machine,
temperature
Speed of machine

Winding (1.3.2)

Speed of machine

Ring-spinning (1.4.1)

Yarn count, twist factor,


Speed of machine

High yarn tension and


elongation

Yarn count, twist factor,


Speed of machine

Smooth yarn surface, fine


count

Rotor spinning (1.4.3)


Air-jet spinning (1.4.4)
Other Spinning
machines (1.4.5)
Winding machines
(1.5.1)

and covering (1.5)

Speed of machine,
temperature

Speed of machine,
temperature, number of
nozzles

(1.4.2)

Winding, reeling

Speed of machine

Extruders (1.3.1)

Compact spinning

Spinning (1.4)

Speed of machine

Yarn count, twist factor,


Speed of machine
Yarn count, twist factor,
Speed of machine

Smooth yarn surface,


Special soft yarn with high
hairiness, low tension

Variable, depending on
the type of machine
Yarn count, Speed of
machine

Reeling machines (1.5.2) Yarn count, Speed of


machine
Covering machines
Yarn count, Speed of
(1.5.3)
machine

Yarn steaming,

Autoclaves for steaming

setting,

(1.6.1)

Speed of machine, type


of fibre, temperature

Cotton

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Phase
(Level 2)

Subphase
(Level 3)

moistening and

Heat-setting machines

coating (1.6)

(1.6.2)
Moistening machines
(1.6.3)
Yarn coating machines
(1.6.4)

Texturing,
bulking and
crimping (1.7)

Texturing machines
(1.7.1)
Bulking and crimping
machines (1.7.2)
Doubling machines

Doubling and

(1.8.1)

twisting (1.8)

Twisting machines
(1.8.2)

Triggers

Speed of machine, type


of fibre, temperature

Relevant product
groups and
benchmarks for
relevant triggercombinations
Polyester

Speed of machine, type


of fibre, temperature
Speed of machine, type
of fibre, temperature

Yarns for circular knitting

Speed of machine, type


of fibre, temperature
Speed of machine, type
of fibre
Yarn count, Speed of
machine

Increase of yarn tension,


multi-material mix

Yarn count, twist factor,


Speed of machine

4.2 - Energy use in fabric production, main factors affecting


energy consumption and reference values
The weaving sector consumes almost only electricity. This sector is a major consumer
of compressed air, particularly when the looms are air jet. The amount of energy
consumed by each loom during its weaving operation can be estimated from the motor
capacity and weaving speed. Across the different weaving technologies, weft insertion
systems consume a large share of the total electricity use of the equipment. Usually,
the lighting has a great weight in terms of electricity consumption, because the
weaving sections have many lighting fixtures installed [5]. On the other hand, some
amount of thermal energy is consumed in sizing, as one of the possible preparatory
operations for weaving.
The energy consumption is not necessarily high for the knitting process. However, of
the main production facilities for this process, knitting machines have also been
undergoing a shift towards high speed and large capacity and fine gauge features; the

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

current industry trend is for high added-value goods and multi-line, small-volume
production based on advanced systems such as computer-controlled pattern making
mechanisms. Therefore, a potential tendency for increased energy consumption
should be taken into account [6].
The factors (triggers) which are most affecting the energy consumption for a
determined textile process in fabric production are presented in the following table, as
well as reference values of energy consumption (when available) for the processes
defined in the previous chapter.
Table 6 Triggers and relevant product groups and benchmarks for Fabric Production

Phase
(Level 2)

Subphase
(Level 3)
Sectional warping
(2.1.1)

Triggers
Repeatable patterns in
warp direction,
multicolor yarns

Beam warping (2.1.2)


Weaving
preparation (2.1)

Draw-warping (2.1.3)

PES/PA filament yarns


only

Relevant product
groups and
benchmarks for
relevant triggercombinations
Clothing, home textiles,
technical textiles with
patterns
High-speed production
for uncolored warps
Technical textile warp

Beaming machines
(2.1.4)
Sizing/slashing (2.1.5)

Staple fiber yarns

Indigo warp dyeing lines


(2.1.6)

Water jet weaving


(2.2.4)

Speed in bpm, width,


warp/weft density ,
shading motion or
Jacquard
Speed in bpm , width ,
warp/weft density ,
shading motion or
Jacquard
Speed in bpm , width ,
warp/weft density ,
shading motion or
Jacquard
Yarn material which
dont take-up liquid

Shuttle looms (2.2.5)

Tubular fabrics

Rapier weaving (2.2.1)

Projectile weaving
(2.2.2)
Weaving (2.2)
Air jet weaving (2.2.3)

Yarns with a high


hairiness, or
electrostatic clamping
Denim/jeans production
only
Different yarn counts
and appearance (flame
yarn)

Even yarn count and


same material

High production and


even yarn caracteristic
Filament yarns, tapes
Small quantities or
specialized yarns

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Phase
(Level 2)

Preparation for
knitting (2.3)

Knitting (2.4)

Subphase
(Level 3)
Circular weaving (2.2.6)
Narrow fabrics weaving
(2.2.7)
Beam warping (2.3.1)
Sectional warping
(2.3.2)
Circular knitting
machines (2.4.1)
Flat knitting machines
(2.4.2)
Warp knitting machines
(2.4.3)

Knitting (2.4)

Relevant product
groups and
benchmarks for
relevant triggercombinations

Triggers

Tubular fabrics

Filtersacks
Tape and fabrics <30cm
For warp knitting only
Repateable patterns

Clothing
High production, thick
yarn diameter, spacer
fabrics

Home textiles, technical


textiles

Knitting machines for


special purposes (2.4.4)

4.3 - Energy use in finishing, main factors affecting energy


consumption and reference values
Finishing is the major energy consumer in the textile industry because it uses a high
amount of thermal energy in the forms of both steam, thermal fluid, heat and gas for
direct fired equipments. The energy used in this process depends on various factors
such as the form of the product being processed (fiber, yarn, fabric), the machine type,
the specific process type, the combinations of processes, the state of the final product,
etc.
A significant share of thermal energy in a dyeing plant is lost through wastewater
discharge, heat released from equipment, exhaust gas loss, idling, evaporation from
liquid surfaces, un-recovered condensate, loss during condensate recovery, and during
product drying (e.g. by over-drying).
The factors (triggers) which are most affecting the energy consumption for a
determined textile process in fabric production are presented in the following table, as
well as reference values of energy consumption (when available) for the processes
defined in the previous chapter.
Table 7 Triggers and relevant product groups and benchmarks for Finishing

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Phase
(Level 2)

Subphase
(Level 3)
Carbonising (3.1.1)

Pretreatment
(3.1)

Singeing (3.1.2)

Crabbing (3.1.3)

Desizing (3.1.4)

Triggers
Speed of machine,
temperature field
Speed of gassing,
machine type, type of
fiber
Velocity of machine,
specific weight of fabric
g/m2, temperature and
pressure of the rollers
Liquor Ratio (L.R.) in
discontinuous
processes, type of fiber,
machine type

Bleaching batch
(3.1.5)

Liquor Ratio (L.R.), type


of fiber, machine type

Continuous
Bleaching (3.1.6)

Type of fiber, machine


type

Pretreatment
(3.1)

Process temperature,
type of fiber, machine
type
Liquor Ratio (L.R.), Bath
Rope washing (3.1.8) temperature, type of
fiber, machine type
Yarn washing (3.1.7)

Relevant product
groups and
benchmarks for
relevant triggercombinations

[1]
Desize unit - Desizing Energy requirement
(GJ/tonne output): 1,0 3,5
[1]
Kier - Scouring/Bleaching Energy requirement
(GJ/tonne output): 6,0 7,5
Jig/ winch - Bleaching Energy requirement
(GJ/tonne output): 3,0 6,5
[1]
Open width range Scouring/bleaching Energy requirement
(GJ/tonne output): 3,0 7,0

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Phase
(Level 2)

Subphase
(Level 3)

Open-width washing
(3.1.9)

Solvent washing
(3.1.10)
Milling/fulling
(3.1.11)
Yarn Mercerising
(3.1.12)
Pretreatment
(3.1)

Fabric Mercerising
(3.1.13)
Yarn continuous
dyeing (3.2.1)

Dyeing (3.2)
Fabric continuous
dyeing (3.2.2)

Triggers

Process temperature,
type of fiber, machine
type

Relevant product
groups and
benchmarks for
relevant triggercombinations
[1]
5 hot standing tanks before
bleaching 7,5 GJ/tonne
4 tanks, fully counter flow,
with heat exchanger before
bleaching- 2,8 GJ/tonne
5 tanks, fully counter flow,
with heat exchanger before
scouring/bleaching- 3,0
GJ/tonne
4 tanks counter flow and 1
cold standing tank before
dyeing 6,6 GJ/tonne
4 hot counter flow and 3
cold individual flow before
printing 10,5 GJ/tonne
4 hot counter flow with
heat exchanger and 3 cold
individual flow before
printing 5,5 GJ/tonne

Type of machine,
velocity of machine,
solvent flow rate, drying
temperature
Type of fiber, machine
type
Process temperature,
type of fiber, machine
type
Process temperature,
type of fiber, machine
type
Process temperature,
type of fiber, machine
type

Process temperature,
type of fiber, machine
type

[1]
Continuous/Thermosol Dyeing - Energy
requirement (GJ/tonne
output): 7,0 20,0
Pad/Batch - Dyeing Energy requirement
(GJ/tonne output): 1,5 4,5
[4]
Woven dyeing - average
energy specific
consumption 1235,4
kgoe/tonne

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Phase
(Level 2)

Subphase
(Level 3)

Autoclaves (3.2.3)

Liquor Ratio (L.R.), Bath


temperature, type of
fiber, machine type

Hank (3.2.4)

Liquor Ratio (L.R.), Bath


temperature, type of
fiber, machine type

Jet (3.2.5)

Liquor Ratio (L.R.), Bath


temperature, type of
fiber, machine type

Overflow (3.2.6)
Winch becks (3.2.7)

Dyeing (3.2)

Water extraction
and drying (3.3)

Triggers

Relevant product
groups and
benchmarks for
relevant triggercombinations
[4]
Yarn dyeing - Average
energy specific
consumption 1070,2
kgoe/tonne
[1]
Hank - Dyeing - Energy
requirement (GJ/tonne
output): 10,0 16,0
[1]
Jet - Dyeing - Energy
requirement (GJ/tonne
output): 3,5 16,0
[4]
Dyeing of knitted fabricAverage energy specific
consumption 671,5
kgoe/tonne

Liquor Ratio (L.R.), Bath


temperature, type of
fiber, machine type
Liquor Ratio (L.R.), Bath
temperature, type of
fiber, machine type

Jiggers (3.2.8)

Liquor Ratio (L.R.), Bath


temperature, type of
fiber, machine type

[1]
Jig - Dyeing - Energy
requirement (GJ/tonne
output): 1,5 7,0

Other dyeing
machines (3.2.9)

Liquor Ratio (L.R.), Bath


temperature, type of
fiber, machine type

[1]
Beam - Dyeing - Energy
requirement (GJ/tonne
output): 7,5 12,5

Centrifugal hydroextractors (3.3.1)

Moisture of the fabric at


the entrance, type of
fiber

Stenter (3.3.2)

Specific weight of fabric


g/m2, moisture of the
fabric at the entrance,
type of fiber, drying
temperature fields,
velocity of machine

Yarn Dryers (3.3.3)

Moisture of the yarn at


the entrance, type of
fiber, drying
temperature

[1]
Stenter - Drying - Energy
requirement (GJ/tonne
output): 2,5 7,5
Stenter - Heat Setting Energy requirement
(GJ/tonne output): 4,0 9,0
[1]
Hank - Drying - Energy
requirement (GJ/tonne
output): 4,5 6,5

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Phase
(Level 2)

Subphase
(Level 3)

Fabric Dryers (3.3.4)

Other Dryers (3.3.5)

Tumblers (3.3.6)
Mechanical finishing
(3.4.1)
Decatising (3.4.2)
Calenders (3.4.3)
Singeing machines
(3.4.4)
Finishing
machines (3.4)

Knitwear ironing
presses (3.4.5)
Tumblers (3.4.6)
Sanfor (3.4.7)
Other finishing
machines (3.4.8)
Top and yarn
printing (3.5.1)

Printing (3.5)

Triggers
Specific weight of fabric
g/m2, moisture of the
fabric at the entrance,
type of fiber, drying
temperature fields
Specific weight of fabric
g/m2, moisture of the
fabric at the entrance,
type of fiber, drying
temperature fields
Type of fiber, drying
temperature fields,
speed of machine
Machine type, speed of
machine
Speed of machine, type
of fiber, steam pressure
Temperature and
pressure of the rollers,
speed of machine
Speed gassing, machine
type
Temperature and
pressure of the rollers,
speed of machine
Type of fiber, drying
temperature fields
Specific weight of fabric
g/m2, type of fiber,
drying temperature
fields, machine type
Variable, depending on
the type of machine

Relevant product
groups and
benchmarks for
relevant triggercombinations

[1]
Steam cylinders - Drying Energy requirement
(GJ/tonne output): 2,5 4,5

Velocity of machine

Flat screen printing


(3.5.2)

Drying temperature
fields, machine type

Rotary screen
printing (3.5.3)

Drying temperature
fields, machine type

Inkjet Printing
(3.5.4)
Other printing
machines (3.5.5)

Number of colors, drying


temperature
Variable, depending on
the type of machine

[4]
Printing - Average energy
specific consumption 411,1
kgoe/tonne
[1]
Rotary Screen - Printing Energy requirement
(GJ/tonne output): 2,5 8,5

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

5 - Energy efficiency measures


In this section is presented the list with the state of the art in energy efficiency
measures applicable within the textile industry. The list is divided in four main groups,
three of them complying the specific energy efficiency measures for Yarn Production,
Fabric Production and Finishing and also a group of cross cutting measures.
Specific energy efficiency measures include mostly retrofit/process optimization
measures but also measures considering the complete replacement of the current
machinery with state-of-the-art new technology.
At the end, 105 process specific and 117 cross cutting measures were obtained, mostly
based on Hasenbeigi [1](specific measures) and ARTISAN project (cross cutting
measures). The collected process specific energy efficiency measures result from case
studies around the world published in technical papers, some new available technologies
and the experience and knowledge of SET partners with textile companies. Cross cutting
measures were mostly compiled from ARTISAN (http://www.artisan-project.eu/) and
SESEC (http://www.euratex.eu/sesec/) projects. Based in scientific evidences and with
widespread application (with exception of new technologies), the measures here
presented are a useful guide of good practices to be used by textile companies to increase
their energy efficiency. The applicability of the proposed measures is represented in tables
8 and 9.
Table 8 Number of specific energy efficiency measures per textile process (process and phase)

Process / Phase
(Level 1/ Level 2)
Yarn production (1)
Spinning Preparation for cotton fibers (1.1)
Spinning Preparation for wool fibers (1.2)
Production of man-made filaments and fibres (1.3)
Spinning (1.4)
Winding, reeling and covering (1.5)
Yarn steaming, setting, moistening and coating (1.6)
Texturing, bulking and crimping (1.7)
Doubling and twisting (1.8)
Fabric production (2)
Weaving preparation (2.1)
Weaving (2.2)

N of measures
Process
optimization

Newly developed
processes

2
20
2
2
1
2
3
7

1
4
1

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Process / Phase
(Level 1/ Level 2)
Preparation for knitting (2.3)
Knitting (2.4)
Finishing (3)
Pretreatment (3.1)
Dyeing (3.2)
Water extraction and drying (3.3)
Finishing machines (3.4)
Printing (3.5)

N of measures
Process
optimization

Newly developed
processes

3
11
20
18
1
-

2
4
1
-

Table 9 Number of cross cutting energy efficiency measures per applicability

Measure applicability

N of measures

Reduction of peak power


Heating/Air conditioning
Electric motor
Compressed air
Pumping systems
Fan systems
Lighting
Steam systems
Vacuum systems
Cross cutting - general

2
10
8
17
17
10
10
24
3
16

The list of energy efficiency measures are presented in the following tables, together
with a short description of the measure, the applicable process, reference values of
energy savings (fuel and electricity) and an approach of the required investment cost
and the resulting payback period.

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

5.1 - Energy efficiency measures for Yarn Production process


Table 10 Energy efficiency measures Yarn Production process

Measure (Action)
Efficient Spindle Oil

Measure description
Use energy efficient spindle
oil

Installation of electronic
Installation of electronic
Roving end-break stop-motion
Roving end-break stopdetector instead of pneumatic
motion detector
system
New machine can be
High speed carding machine
applied for Card
Optimum oil level in spindle
Optimum oil level
bolsters
Optimum oil level in spindle
Optimum oil level
bolsters
Replacement of lighter
spindle in place of
Replacement spindle
conventional spindle in Ring
frame
Replacement of lighter
spindle in place of
Replacement spindle
conventional spindle in Ring
frame
Synthetic sandwich tapes for
Synthetic sandwich tapes for
Ring frames
Ring frames
Synthetic sandwich tapes for
Synthetic sandwich tapes for
Ring frames
Ring frames
Optimization of ring diameter
with respect to yarn count in
Optimization of ring diameter
ring frames

Applied for

Fuel Savings

Electricity savings Investment

Payback
period
(years)

Ring-spinning (1.4.1 )

no

3-7% of ring frame


energy use

Roving frames (1.1.6)

no

3,2
MWh/year/machine

138/roving
machine

Cards (1.1.2)

no

yes

77000/card
<2
ing machine

Ring-spinning (1.4.1 )

no

yes

Compact spinning
(1.4.2)

no

yes

Ring-spinning (1.4.1 )

no

23 MWh/year/ring
frame

10500/ ring
8
frame

Compact spinning
(1.4.2)

no

23 MWh/year/ring
frame

10500/ ring
8
frame

Ring-spinning (1.4.1 )

no

Compact spinning
(1.4.2)

no

4.4-8 MWh/ ring


frame/ year
4,4-8 MWh/ ring
frame/ year

415-525/
ring frame
415-525/
ring frame

Ring-spinning (1.4.1 )

no

10% of ring frame


energy use

1230/ ring
frame

<1

1-2
1-2
2

NOTE: The energy efficiency measures highlighted in bold are referent to newly developed processes.

23

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)
Optimization of ring diameter
with respect to yarn count in
ring frames
False ceiling in Ring spinning
section
False ceiling in Ring spinning
section
Installation of energy efficient
motor in ring frame
Installation of energy efficient
motor in ring frame
Installation of energyefficient excel fans in place of
conventional aluminum fans
in the suction of Ring Frame
Installation of energyefficient excel fans in place of
conventional aluminum fans
in the suction of Ring Frame
The use of light weight bobbins
in Ring frame
The use of light weight bobbins
in Ring frame
High- speed ring spinning
frame
Installation of soft starter on
motor drive of Ring frame

Measure description

Applied for

Fuel Savings

Electricity savings Investment

Payback
period
(years)
2

Compact spinning
(1.4.2)

no

10% of ring frame


energy use

Ring-spinning (1.4.1 )

no

8 KWh/ year/spindle 0.54/spindle 1,2

Compact spinning
(1.4.2)

no

8 KWh/ year/spindle 0,54/spindle 1,2

Ring-spinning (1.4.1 )

no

Compact spinning
(1.4.2)

no

Installation of energyefficient excel fans

Ring-spinning (1.4.1 )

Installation of energyefficient excel fans

Optimization of ring diameter


False ceiling in Ring spinning
section
False ceiling in Ring spinning
section
Installation of energy
efficient motor
Installation of energy
efficient motor

1230/ ring
frame

6,3-18,83
MWh/year/motor
6,3-18,83
MWh/year/motor

15001700/motor
15001700/motor

no

5,8-40 MWh/year/
ring frame

150-240/
fan

<1

Compact spinning
(1.4.2)

no

5,8-40 MWh/year/
ring frame

150-240/
fan

<1

Use of light weight bobbins

Ring-spinning (1.4.1 )

no

Use of light weight bobbins

Compact spinning
(1.4.2)

no

500/ ring
frame
500/ ring
frame

High- speed ring spinning


frame

Ring-spinning (1.4.1 )

no

Installation of soft starter on


motor drive

Ring-spinning (1.4.1 )

no

10,8 MWh/year/ring
frame
10,8 MWh/year/ring
frame
10%-20% of ring
frame energy use
1-5,2
MWh/year/ring
frame

Installation of Variable
Installation of Variable
Frequency Drive in Autocorner
Frequency Drive
machine

Winding machines (1.5.1


no
)

331,2
MWh/year/plant

2-4
2-4

<1
<1

2
15000/plant

<1

NOTE: The energy efficiency measures highlighted in bold are referent to newly developed processes.

24

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)
Intermittent mode of
movement of empty bobbin
conveyor in the
Autocorner/cone winding
machines
Modified outer pot in Tow-ForOne (TFO) machines
Optimization of balloon setting
in Tow-For-One (TFO)
machines
Replacing the electrical heating
system with steam heating
system for the yarn polishing
machine

Measure description

Applied for

Fuel Savings

Electricity savings Investment

Payback
period
(years)
<1

Intermittent mode of
movement

Winding machines (1.5.1


no
)

49,4
MWh/year/plant

Modified outer pot in TowFor-One (TFO) machines


Optimization of balloon
setting in Tow-For-One (TFO)
machines

Doubling machines
(1.8.1 )

no

4% of TFO energy
use

Doubling machines
(1.8.1 )

no

yes

Replacing the electrical


heating system

Heat-setting machines
(1.6.2)

increased 31.7
19,5
tonnes
MWh/year/machine
steam/year/machine

Grinding of Tambour

Sharpening of the surface

Spinning Preparation for


no
cotton fibers (1.1)

yes

Reduce room temperature

Use machine heat for room


heating by bypassing the
suction exhaust

Rotor spinning (1.4.3)

no

yes

Cleaning spin box

Rotor spinning (1.4.3)

no

yes

<1

Cleaning wastebox
Cleaning nozzle
Fitting of airfree compact on
ringframe

Rotor spinning (1.4.3)


Air-jet spinning (1.4.4)

no
no

yes
yes

<1
<1

Ring-spinning (1.4.1 )

no

yes

Yarn steaming, setting,


moistening and coating
(1.6)

Dont need steaming

Monitoring and cleaning of


rotor
Cleaning of suction van
Cleaning of spinnvalve
Use airfree compact
Store yarn for 24 hours

Relaxation of yarn

850/plant

750/humidif
<1
ication plant
150/card

11,5/spindle

<1

<1

NOTE: The energy efficiency measures highlighted in bold are referent to newly developed processes.

25

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

5.2 - Energy efficiency measures for Fabric Production process


Table 11 Energy efficiency measures Fabric Production process

Payback
Measure (Action)

Measure description

Applied for

Fuel Savings

Electricity savings Investment

period
(years)

Replace gripper

Maintenance with every


article change
Replace gripper

Replace gripper

Replace projectile gripper

Reduce steam temperature

Reduce steam temperature,


use of pre-wetting and
additional dry cylinder.

Sizing/slashing (2.1.5)

Use of cold size agent

Use of cold size agent

Sizing/slashing (2.1.5)

Use of cold size agent

use of cold size agent during


Sectional warping
beaming can cut out standard
(2.1.1)
sizing for low hairy yarns

Install automated pressure


control valves

Pressure control valve

Start periodic maintenance

Update nozzle software


Use on-loom fabric inspection

Software update to optimize


the pressure distribution
during weft insertion
install a on-loom inspection
system to minimize fabric
inspection after weaving

Fabric production (2)


Rapier weaving (2.2.1)
Projectile weaving
(2.2.2)

Air jet weaving (2.2.3)

no steam for size box


necessary
no need of separate
sizing

6000/beamin
g machine

<2

300/loom

<2

1000/loom

<2

Air jet weaving (2.2.3)


Weaving (2.2)

NOTE: The energy efficiency measures highlighted in bold are referent to newly developed processes.

26

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Payback
Measure (Action)

Measure description

Applied for

Fuel Savings

Electricity savings Investment

period
(years)

Replace air picker with


Install mechanic selvage picker
mechanic picker
Replace single width loom
Install lower roof

Install double width loom


for high volume articles
Reduce roof height to
minimize the air volume of
the room

Air jet weaving (2.2.3)


Weaving (2.2)

reduce 1/3 of
compressed air
consumption per
loom

800/loom

<2

30000/loom

<3

Weaving (2.2)

NOTE: The energy efficiency measures highlighted in bold are referent to newly developed processes.

27

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

5.3 - Energy efficiency measures for Finishing process


Table 12 Energy efficiency measures Finishing process

Measure (Action)

Measure description

Applied for

Fuel Saving

Electricity
Savings

Combine Preparatory
Treatments in wet
processing

Combine preparatory treatments


Pretreatment
in order to lead to a reduction in
(3.1)
process steps.

up to 80% of
Preparatory
Treatments energy
use

Cold-Pad-Batch
pretreatment

Embed hydrogen peroxide into


the fabric using a padder, and the
fabric is then stored to allow
Continuous
complete reaction between the
Bleaching (3.1.6)
fabric and chemicals prior to
rinse.

up to 50% of
up to 38% of
pretreatment
pretreatment fuel use
electricity use

Bleach bath recovery


system

Recycling and reuse of bleach


bath.

Bleaching batch
(3.1.5)

30000 -93000
saving (net annual
operating savings
(average per plant)
which includes
energy and nonenergy savings)

Use of Counter-flow
Current for washing

In this system, as the fabric runs


through the washing
compartments from entry to exit,
clean water is passed through the Open-width
plant from the back to the front.
washing (3.1.9)
This means that the cleanest
fabric comes into contact with
the cleanest washing liquor.

41% - 62% of
washing energy use

Investment
Cost

Payback
period
(years)

NOTE: The energy efficiency measures highlighted in bold are referent to newly developed processes.

28

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)

Installing Covers on Nips


and Tanks in continuous
washing machine

Installing automatic
valves in continuous
washing machine

Installing heat recovery


equipment in continuous
washing machine

Reduce live steam


pressure in continuous
washing machine

Measure description
The losses at nips are
considerable. Hence, it is
important to cover them as well
as the hot tanks. Any fitted covers
should be easily removable to
allow quick access.
Automatic stop valves which link
the main drive systems of
machines to water flows can save
considerable amounts of energy
and water by shutting off water
flow as soon as a stoppage
occurs.
Installing heat recovery
equipment on a continuous
washer is usually a simple but
very effective measure since
water inflow and effluent outflow
are matched and this eliminates
the need for holding tanks.
A reduction in live steam
pressure can prevent steam
breakthroughs, thus improving
heat transfer efficiency in direct
steam heating applications.
Similarly, reducing steam
pressure in closed coils will have
take advantage of the fact that
lower pressure steam has higher
latent heat content.

Applied for

Fuel Saving

Open-width
washing (3.1.9)

36%

Open-width
washing (3.1.9)

Yes

Open-width
washing (3.1.9)

Yes

Open-width
washing (3.1.9)

Yes

Electricity
Savings

Investment
Cost

Payback
period
(years)

< 0,5

NOTE: The energy efficiency measures highlighted in bold are referent to newly developed processes.

29

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)

Introducing Point-of-Use
water heating in
continuous washing
machine

Interlocking the running


of exhaust hood fans with
water tray movement in
the yarn mercerizing
machine
Energy saving in cooling
blower motor by
interlocking it with fabric
gas singeing machine's
main motor
Energy saving in shearing
machine's blower motor
by interlocking it with the
main motor
Enzymatic removal of
residual hydrogen
peroxide after bleach

Enzymatic scouring

Measure description
Point-of-use gas-fired water
heaters can be used to enable
processes to be run
independently of plant central
boiler systems. This means that
boiler and distribution losses
associated with centralized
systems can be eliminated.
Electrically interlock the exhaust
hood fans with the forward
movement of the water tray, as
the fans usually have to remove
the fumes generated during the
washing phase only.
Interlock the cooling blower
motor with the singeing
machines main motor, thereby
saving energy.
The interlocking of blower
motors with the machines main
motor can be implemented in
fabric shearing machines.
Rinsing steps after peroxide
bleaching can be reduced with
enzymatic peroxide removal
(normally only one rinsing
step with hot water is
necessary).
With the use of enzymes the
alkaline scouring process can
be replaced.

Applied for

Open-width
washing (3.1.9)

Fuel Saving

Electricity
Savings

<50%

Investment
Cost

Payback
period
(years)

High

Yarn Mercerising
(3.1.12)

12,3
MWh/year/machine

<0,5

Singeing (3.1.2)

2,43
MWh/year/machine

< 0,5

Mechanical
finishing (3.4.1)

2,43
MWh/year/machine

< 0,5

Bleaching batch
2780 GJ/year/plant
(3.1.5)

Bleaching batch
Yes
(3.1.5)

NOTE: The energy efficiency measures highlighted in bold are referent to newly developed processes.

30

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)

Measure description

Variable frequency drives (VFDs)


can be installed on the pump
Installation of Variable
motor of the top dyeing machine
Frequency Drive on pump
in order to save energy by setting
motor of Top dyeing
the speed of the pump motor
machines
based on the dyeing process
requirements.
Insulation of pipes, valves, tanks
and machines is a general
principle of good housekeeping
practice that should be applied in
all steam consuming processes in
Heat Insulation of high
textile plants.
temperature/ high
The insulation material may be
pressure dyeing machines exposed to water, chemicals and
physical shock. Any insulation
should, therefore, be covered or
coated with a hard-wearing,
chemical/water resistant outer
layer.

Applied for

Fuel Saving

Autoclaves
(3.2.3)

Autoclaves
(3.2.3)

Electricity
Savings

26,9
MWh/year/machine

Investment
Cost

2400 /machine

Payback
period
(years)

1,5

2% in steam
consumption per
kilogram of dyed
yarn

NOTE: The energy efficiency measures highlighted in bold are referent to newly developed processes.

31

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)

Measure description

Applied for

Insulation of pipes, valves, tanks


and machines is a general
principle of good housekeeping
practice that should be applied in
all steam consuming processes in
Heat Insulation of high
textile plants.
temperature/ high
The insulation material may be
Jet (3.2.5)
pressure dyeing machines exposed to water, chemicals and
physical shock. Any insulation
should, therefore, be covered or
coated with a hard-wearing,
chemical/water resistant outer
layer.

Automatic preparation and


Automated preparation
dispension of chemicals generate
and dispensing of
a reduction of consumption of
Dyeing (3.2)
chemicals in dyeing plants chemicals, energy and water and
an increase of reproducibility.

Fuel Saving

4 GJ/tonne
fabric/plant

Yes

Electricity
Savings

6,3 kWh/tonne
fabric

Investment
Cost

Payback
period
(years)

4/tonne of fabric

Chemical
Dispensing System:
117500 -698000
;
Dye Dissolving and 1,3 - 6,2 ;
Distribution:
4 - 5,7 ;
78500 - 313750; 3,8 - 7,5
Bulk Powder
Dissolution and
Distribution:
59500 - 470500

NOTE: The energy efficiency measures highlighted in bold are referent to newly developed processes.

32

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)

Measure description

Automatic dye machine


controllers offer an effective
means for enhanced control over
dyeing processes, based on
microprocessors, allowing for
Automatic dye machine
feedback control of process
controllers
parameters such as pH, color, and
temperature. They analyze
process parameters continuously
and respond more quickly and
accurately than manually
controlled systems.
Cooling water and condensate
Cooling water recovery in
water can be pumped to hot
batch dyeing machines
water storage tanks for reuse in
(Jet, Beam, Package, Hank,
functions where heated water is
Jig and Winches)
required.
Impregnate the fabric with liquor
containing premixed fiberreactive dyestuff and alkali.
Excess liquid is squeezed out on a
device known as a mangle. The
Cold-Pad-Batch dyeing
fabric is then batched onto rolls
system
or into boxes and covered with
plastic film to prevent absorption
of CO2 from the air and
evaporation of water. The fabric
is then stored for 2 12 hours.

Applied for

Fuel Saving

Electricity
Savings

Investment
Cost

Payback
period
(years)

Dyeing (3.2)

Yes

44700 117600/system

1-5

Dyeing (3.2)

1,6 - 2,1 GJ/tonne


fabric

112000 166000/system

1,3 - 3,6

Fabric
continuous
dyeing (3.2.2)

16,3 GJ/tonne of
dyed fabric

953000/ system

1,4 - 3,7

NOTE: The energy efficiency measures highlighted in bold are referent to newly developed processes.

33

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)

Discontinuous dyeing
with airflow dyeing
machine

Installation of VFD on
circulation pumps

Dyebath Reuse

Measure description

Applied for

Airflow dyeing machines have


lower liquor ratios than
conventional jet dyeing
machines. To achieve those
low liquor ratios, within the jet
dyeing machine the fabric is
moved by moisturized air or a Jet (3.2.5)
mixture of steam and air only
(no liquids), aided by a winch.
The prepared solutions of the
dyestuffs, auxiliaries and basic
chemicals are injected into the
gas stream.
Circulation pumps are used to
circulate chemicals in machine
chambers in the dye house. VFDs
Dyeing (3.2)
can be installed instead of ball
valves for flow control, thereby
saving energy.
Dyebath reuse is the process by
which exhausted hot dyebaths
are analyzed for residual colorant
Dyeing (3.2)
concentrations, replenished, and
reused to dye additional batches
of material.

Fuel Saving

Electricity
Savings

Payback
period
(years)

149500 284000/machin
e

up to 60% of
machine's fuel use

138
MWh/year/plant

3500 saving/ dye


machine

Investment
Cost

1800/plant

<1

18800 26600/dye
machine

NOTE: The energy efficiency measures highlighted in bold are referent to newly developed processes.

34

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)

Single-rope flow dyeing


machines

Measure description

Applied for

The way in which these


machines handle the fabric and
the dyeing cycle is very
different from conventional
rope dyeing machines. First,
Other dyeing
there is only one fabric rope
machines
which passes through all flow
(3.2.9)
groups and compartments,
returning to the first
compartment after the lap is
complete.

Fuel Saving

2,5 kg steam /kg


fabric

Electricity
Savings

0,16 - 0,20 kWh/kg


fabric

Investment
Cost

Payback
period
(years)

<1

NOTE: The energy efficiency measures highlighted in bold are referent to newly developed processes.

35

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)

Measure description

Microwave dyeing equipment


employs microwaves for rapid,
efficient and energy-saving
dispersion and penetration of
dyes and chemicals into fabric.
Since microwave irradiation
generates heat through
dielectric losses, the heat is
absorbed by objects having
large losses, and thus fabric
containing moisture is heated
without heating of the
Microwave dyeing
surrounding air and
equipment
equipment itself. Furthermore,
in contrast to the case of
moisture (dyeing solution)
penetrating the fabric, the
fabric itself becomes a steam
generator through internal
heating, and penetration and
dispersion of dyes and
chemicals occurs rapidly and
uniformly, ensuring suitability
for continuous dyeing in mass
production.
A reduction in the process
Reducing the process
temperature may also be
temperature in wet batch achieved in wet batch pressurepressure-dyeing machines dyeing machines by introducing
alternative processes.

Applied for

Fuel Saving

Other dyeing
machines
(3.2.9)

96% reduction
compared to beam
dyeing

Dyeing (3.2)

Yes

Electricity
Savings

90% reduction
compared to beam
dyeing

Investment
Cost

Payback
period
(years)

353000/
machine

NOTE: The energy efficiency measures highlighted in bold are referent to newly developed processes.

36

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)

Measure description

In older batch dyeing machines


like winches and jiggers,
dyebaths are traditionally heated
Use of steam coil instead
by sparging with raw steam. This
of direct steam heating in is a very inefficient use of steam
batch dyeing machines
for heating the dyebath. A steam
(Winch and Jigger)
coil submerged in the dyebath
now allows for the recycling of
the condensate, resulting in
significant fuel savings.
Processing times can sometimes
Reducing the process time
be reduced simply by making
in wet batch pressuremodifications to the temperature
dyeing machines
profiles of certain dyeing cycles.
Installation of covers or
Using covers or hoods can reduce
hoods in atmospheric wet evaporative losses by
batch machines
approximately half.
Careful control of
Better temperature control in
temperature in
order to decrease steam
atmospheric wet batch
comsuption when the process
machines
temperature is reached.

Applied for

Fuel Saving

Dyeing (3.2)

4580 GJ/year/plant

Dyeing (3.2)

Yes

Dyeing (3.2)

Yes

Jiggers (3.2.8)

27 - 91 kg
steam/hour

Electricity
Savings

Investment
Cost

Payback
period
(years)

130000/plant

NOTE: The energy efficiency measures highlighted in bold are referent to newly developed processes.

37

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)

Jiggers with a variable


liquor ratio

Heat recovery of hot


waste water in Autoclave

Insulation of un-insulated
surface of Autoclave

Reducing the need for reprocessing in dyeing


Recover heat from hot
rinse water

Measure description
A new generation of jiggers
with a variable liquor ratio has
been developed in order to be
able of processing. These
jiggers make use of a heat
exchanger, allowing the heat to
be removed and applied
elsewhere in the plant. In each
passage, the length of the cloth
is measured, so extra fabric at
the end of the batch can be
avoided.
Installation of a heat exchanger
and surrounding equipment like
water tanks and pumps for
recovering heat from hot waste
water as a heat source.
All the hot surfaces should be
insulated, including those of the
main vessel, air vent tank, heat
exchanger and water circulation
piping. Water-resistant, easypaste type insulation material is
usually recommended.
Improving process control either
mannually through better staff
training or using specific
software.
Capture the heat from the rinse
water and use it for pre-heating
the incoming water for the next
hot rinse.

Applied for

Fuel Saving

Jiggers (3.2.8)

26% reduction
compared to
conventional jigger

Autoclaves
(3.2.3)

554 MJ/batch
product

Autoclaves
(3.2.3)

15 MJ/batch product

Dyeing (3.2)

10% -12%

Dyeing (3.2)

1,4 - 7,5 GJ/tonne


fabric rinsed

Electricity
Savings

Investment
Cost

34500 -74500

Payback
period
(years)

< 0,5

NOTE: The energy efficiency measures highlighted in bold are referent to newly developed processes.

38

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)

Measure description

After discontinuous dyeing, the


final-step rinse water is hardly
Reuse of washing and
contaminated and can possibly
rinsing water
be reused for the first rinsing
step of the next dyeing process.
Reduce temperature of rinse
Reduce rinse water
water for rinsing after dyeing to
temperature
about 50C can be done without
degrading product quality.
Mechanical pre-drying methods
such as mangling, centrifugal
drying, suction slot or air knife
Introduce Mechanical Prede-watering are used to reduce
drying
drying costs by removing some of
the water from the fabric prior to
contact drying in cylinder dryer.
Since a large amount of steam is
used in cylinder dryer, there is
also a significant amount of
condensate that should be
recovered and returned to the
Recover Condensate and
boiler house. In addition, flash
Flash Steam
steam which is produced when
condensate is reduced to
atmospheric pressure can be
recovered as low-pressure steam,
and used to heat water or other
low-pressure steam processes.
Insulation of end sections of the
End Panel Insulation
cylinder dryers.

Applied for

Fuel Saving

Dyeing (3.2)

Yes

Dyeing (3.2)

10%

Water extraction
and drying (3.3)

Yes

Other Dryers
(3.3.5)

Yes

Other Dryers
(3.3.5)

Yes

Electricity
Savings

Investment
Cost

Payback
period
(years)

NOTE: The energy efficiency measures highlighted in bold are referent to newly developed processes.

39

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)
Avoid Intermediate
Drying

Avoid Overdrying

Reduce Idling Times and


Use Multiple Fabric
Drying
Maintenance of the
cylinder dryer
The use of radio
frequency dryer for
drying acrylic yarn
The use of Low Pressure
Microwave drying
machine for bobbin
drying instead of drysteam heater

Measure description
There are systems which allow
finishes to be applied wet on
wet to avoid intermediate drying
between processes.
Control the speed of the drying
cylinders so that the equilibrium
moisture level of the fibre is not
exceeded.
Careful scheduling of fabric
batches arriving at the cylinders
to reduce idling time, and make
cylinders extra wide to allow two
batches of narrow fabric to run
side by side.
Avoid steam leaks performing
adequate maintenance.
The steam heated dryer, which is
used to dry dyed acrylic yarn
skeins, can be replaced by a radio
frequency dryer.
Switching the drying of bobin
products from dry-steam
heaters to low pressure (LP)
microwave drying.

Applied for

Fuel Saving

Water extraction
and drying (3.3)

Yes

Other Dryers
(3.3.5)

Yes

Other Dryers
(3.3.5)

Yes

Electricity
Savings

Investment
Cost

Payback
period
(years)

Other Dryers
(3.3.5)
Yarn Dryers
(3.3.3)

35300 saving/plant

Yarn Dryers
(3.3.3)

Yes

157000/plant

107 kWh/tonne
yarn

392000/plant

<3

NOTE: The energy efficiency measures highlighted in bold are referent to newly developed processes.

40

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)

Conversion of Thermic
Fluid heating system to
Direct Gas Firing system
in Stenters and dryers

Introduce Mechanical Dewatering or Contact


Drying Before Stenter
Avoid Overdrying
Close Exhaust Streams
during Idling
Proper Insulation

Measure description
Replace thermal fluid heaters by
direct gas firing systems. In the
new system, air is directly heated
by gas fired burners and the
required temperature is obtained
by circulating hot air through the
chambers.
This measure provides savings
on fuel consumption with the
reduced heat losses and on the
electricity required for pumping
the thermic fluid.
Use mechanical water extraction
equipment such as mangles,
centrifuges, suction slots and air
knives; or contact drying using
heated cylinders.
Control the speed of the stenter
so that the equilibrium moisture
level of the fibre is not exceeded.
Perform proper scheduling to
minimize machine stops and
close exhausts during idling
times.
Proper insulation of stenter
envelopes reduces heat losses to
a considerable extent.

Applied for

Fuel Saving

Stenter (3.3.2)

11000 GJ/year/plant

Stenter (3.3.2)

13% - 50% of stenter


energy use

Stenter (3.3.2)

Yes

Stenter (3.3.2)

Yes

Stenter (3.3.2)

20% of stenter
energy use

Electricity
Savings

120
MWh/year/plant

Investment
Cost

39200/plant

Payback
period
(years)

NOTE: The energy efficiency measures highlighted in bold are referent to newly developed processes.

41

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)

Optimize Exhaust
Humidity

Install Heat Recovery


Equipment
Install Heat Recovery
Equipment

Efficient burner
technology in Direct Gas
Fired systems

Measure description
In order to optimize drying rates
and energy use, air flows through
the oven (and therefore the
exhaust rate) must be carefully
controlled, analysing the
moisture content of the exhaust
air.
Heat-recovery air/air: Uses
exhaust air heat to heat up fresh
air supplied to the stenter
Heat-recovery air/water: Uses
exhaust air heat to heat up
service water for wet finishing
(for example washing, dyeing,
and bleaching.)
Optimized firing systems and
sufficient maintenance of burners
in direct gas-fired stenters can
minimize methane emissions,
which is important because
methane emissions from burners
greatly determine actual burner
capacity. Stenters should receive
general maintenance by
specialized companies at regular
intervals. There should also be
routine checking of the burner air
inlet for blockings by lint or oil,
cleaning of pipe works to remove
precipitates and adjusting of
burners by specialists.

Applied for

Fuel Saving

Stenter (3.3.2)

20 - 80% of stenter
energy use

Stenter (3.3.2)

Yes

Stenter (3.3.2)

30% of stenter
energy use

Stenter (3.3.2)

Yes

Electricity
Savings

Investment
Cost

60400 361000/system

Payback
period
(years)

1,5-6,6

NOTE: The energy efficiency measures highlighted in bold are referent to newly developed processes.

42

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)

Measure description

Install sensors and control


systems such as: Exhaust
humidity measurement; Residual
The Use of Sensors and
moisture measurement; Fabric
Control Systems in Stenter
and air temperature
measurement; Process
visualization systems
Replace the manual steam
Automatic steam control
control system with an automatic
valves in Desizing, Dyeing, one, which controls the steam
and Finishing
supply to each process according
to its needs.
Recover the condensate to return
it to the boiler and convert it
The recovery of
back into new steam or use it as
condensate in wet
a water supply for washing or
processing plants
desizing, thereby recovering both
water and heat.
Recover the energy of heated
Utilization of heat
waste water from rinsing in the
exchanger for heat
desizing, scouring, and bleaching
recovery from wetsteps of continuous preparation
processes wastewater
ranges as well as in dyeing
machines.

Applied for

Fuel Saving

Electricity
Savings

11% of stenter
electricity use

Investment
Cost

Payback
period
(years)

moisture humidity
controllers: 15700
172500;
dwell time controls:
63000 314000

moisture
humidity
controllers:
1,5 - 5 ;
dwell time
controls: 4 6,7

Stenter (3.3.2)

22% of stenter fuel


use

Finishing (3)

3250 GJ/year/plant

4000/plant

Finishing (3)

1,3 - 2 GJ/tonne
fabric

800 - 12500

Finishing (3)

1,1 1,4 GJ/tonne


finished fabric

258000 / system

1-6

NOTE: The energy efficiency measures highlighted in bold are referent to newly developed processes.

43

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

5.4 - Cross-cutting energy efficiency measures


Table 13 Cross cutting energy efficiency measures

Measure (Action)

Measure description

Applied for

Fuel Saving

0% (no energy saving, but


there may be economic
saving)

Reconsideration of
It is an economic measure
electric supply contract.
Reconsideration of
thermal supply contract
It is an economic measure
/ cost of used
combustibles.
Shifting of energivorous
processes towards
lower price time slots.

0% (no energy
saving, but there
may be economic
saving)
0% (no energy saving, but
there may be economic
saving)

Reduction of
peak power

Use of work-shifts.

Reduction of
peak power

Removal of covering /
impediments from
heating appliances and
air conditioners.

Heating/Air
conditioning

from 0 to 1% of
factory thermal
consumption

Heating/Air
conditioning

from 0 to 20% of
thermal
consumption in
shed building with
window frames in
polycarbonate and
where the heat is
only used for
building heating

Adoption of high
efficiency window
frames.

Electricity Savings

from 0 to 1% of factory
electrical consumption

Investment Cost

Payback
period
(years)

Negligible

Immediate

Negligible

Immediate

Slight

Immediate

Low/Medium

Immediate

Slight

Short Short/Medium
- Medium

Low/Medium

Medium

44

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)

Measure description

Applied for

Fuel Saving

Electricity Savings

Investment Cost

Payback
period
(years)

Exterior Insulation and


Finishing System
(EIFS).

Heating/Air
conditioning

from 0 up to 50%
of thermal
consumption in
case of heat used
only for building
heating

Limitation of heated /
conditioned volumes (it
can be sufficient to
spread a nylon sheet).

Heating/Air
conditioning

up to 3% of factory
thermal
consumption

up to 2% of factory electric
Low - Low/Medium
consumption

Medium Variable

Heating/Air
conditioning

Variable,
A typical value is <
= 1% of factory
thermal
consumption

Variable
A typical value is 1,5% of
factory electrical
consumption

immediate

Heating/Air
conditioning

Variable
< = 1% of factory
thermal
consumption

Variable
< = 1% of factory electrical Slight
consumption

immediate

Variable
< = 1% of factory electrical Null
consumption

immediate

Variable
< = 1% of factory
electrical consumption

immediate

Set thermostats to
minimum for comfort
(20C in winter and
25C in summer).
Guarantee closed
passages between
acclimatized and non
acclimatized areas.
Use heat/cooling only
when area is occupied.
Clean and effective
heaters/coolers. Verify
dirt deposition in all
heat transfer surfaces.

Minimise loss of hot/cold air.


Use air curtains when
passages from climatized and
non climatized areas are
usually and inevitably open.
Applies for comfort areas,
technical areas such as server
rooms, display rooms, etc.
should be analyzed seperatly.

Heating/Air
conditioning
Heating/Air
conditioning

Variable
< = 1% of factory
thermal
consumption
Variable
< = 1% of factory
thermal
consumption

Medium/High

Null

Negligible

Medium Medium/Long

45

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)

Measure description

Applied for

Adoption of
sunbreakers / curtains.

Heating/Air
conditioning

Adoption of high
efficiency electric
engine.

Electric motor

Adoption of inverters
for electric motor.

Adjustable-speed drives
better match speed to load
requirements for motor
operations, and therefore
ensure that motor energy use
is optimized to a given
application.

Electric motor

Fuel Saving

Electricity Savings
from 0 to 1% of factory
electrical consumption
(energy savings related to
lower use of the airconditioning)
from 0 up to 10% of
factory electrical
consumption in case of
obsolete engines

2% - 60%

Investment Cost

Payback
period
(years)

Low

Short/Medium

High

Medium Medium/Long

Medium

from 0,8 to 2,8


years

46

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)

Adoption of motor
management plan.

Measure description

Applied for

Fuel Saving

Electricity Savings

Investment Cost

Payback
period
(years)

A motor management plan is


an essential part of a plants
energy management strategy.
Having a motor management
plan in place can help
companies realize long-term
motor system energy savings
and will ensure that motor
failures are handled in a quick
and cost effective manner.
The Motor Decisions Matter
Campaign suggests the
following key elements for a
sound motor management
plan (CEE, 2007):
1. Creation of a motor survey Electric motor
and tracking program.
2. Development of guidelines
for proactive repair/replace
decisions.
3. Preparation for motor
failure by creating a spares
inventory.
4. Development of a
purchasing specification.
5. Development of a repair
specification.
6. Development and
implementation of a
predictive and preventive
maintenance program.

47

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)

Maintenance of motors.

Rewinding of motors.
Proper motor sizing.

Power factor
correction.

Measure description
The purposes of motor
maintenance are to prolong
motor life and to foresee a
motor failure.
In some cases, it may be costeffective to rewind an existing
energy-efficient motor,
instead of purchasing a new
motor.

Applied for

Electric motor

Fuel Saving

Electricity Savings

Investment Cost

Payback
period
(years)

2% - 30% of motor system


energy use

Electric motor

Electric motor
The power factor can be
corrected by minimizing idling
of electric motors (a motor
that is turned off consumes no
energy), replacing motors
with premium-efficient
Electric motor
motors, and installing
capacitors in the AC circuit to
reduce the magnitude of
reactive power in the system
(U.S. DOE, 1996).

48

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)

Measure description

Minimizing voltage
unbalances.

Fuel Saving

Electricity Savings

Investment Cost

Leaks cause an increase in


compressor energy and
maintenance costs. The most
common areas for leaks are
couplings, hoses, tubes,
fittings, pressure regulators,
open condensate traps and
shut-off valves, pipe joints,
disconnects and thread
sealants.

Payback
period
(years)
The typical
payback
period for
voltage
controller
installation on
lightly loaded
motors in the
U.S. is 2,6
years (U.S.
DOE-IAC,
2006)

Electric motor

Reduction of demand
throught reduction of
compressed air
production pressure.

Reduction of leaks in
compressed air pipes
and equipment.

Applied for

Compressed air

from 0 to 1% of electrical
consumption if the
compressed air is used
improperly for cleaning
reasons
from 0 to 0,1% in other
cases

Null

Immediate

Compressed air

up to 20% of compressed
air system energy use

Low

Short Short/Medium

49

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)
Installation of
compressed air
accumulation tanks.
Recovery of heat from
compressors.
Install low-cost
solenoid valves on air
supply lines to
individual machines.
Switch off compressed
air supply as soon as
machine is switched off.
Use lowest air intake
temperature possible in
compressors. Duct air
intake to ensure coolest
possible and/or precool it.
Check on correct
pressure setting
regularly to reduce the
demand.
Replace pneumatic
tools by electrical tools
to reduce the demand.
Do not use compressed
air for cleaning
operations. Use of
vacuum cleaner instead
of compressed air.

Measure description

Applied for

Fuel Saving

Electricity Savings

Investment Cost

Payback
period
(years)

Compressed air

about 0%

Low - Low/Medium

Short Short/Medium

Compressed air

up to 20% of compressed
air system energy use

Medium

<1

Compressed air

Variable
< = 1% of electrical
consumption

Low

Short

each 3C reduction will


save 1% compressor
energy use

Low/Medium

<5

Compressed air

< = 1% of electric
consumption

Null

immediate

Compressed air

< = 1% of electric
consumption

Low/Medium

Short

Compressed air

Variable
< = 1% of electrical
consumption

Negligible

immediate

Reducing the inlet air


temperature reduces energy
used by the compressor. In
many plants, it is possible to
Compressed air
reduce this inlet air
temperature by taking suction
from outside the building.

50

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)

Maintenance of
compressed air plant.

Monitoring of
compressed air plant.

Measure description

Applied for

Fuel Saving

Electricity Savings

Investment Cost

Payback
period
(years)

Inadequate maintenance can


lower compression efficiency,
increase air leakage or
pressure variability and lead
to increased operating
Compressed air
temperatures, poor moisture
control and excessive
contamination. Better
maintenance will reduce these
problems and save energy.
Maintenance can be supported
by monitoring using proper
instrumentation, including
(CADDET, 1997):
Pressure gauges on each
receiver or main branch line
and differential gauges across
dryers, filters, etc.
Temperature gauges across
the compressor and its cooling
Compressed air
system to detect fouling and
blockages.
Flow meters to measure the
quantity of air used.
Dew point temperature
gauges to monitor the
effectiveness of air dryers.
kWh meters and hours run
meters on the compressor
drive.

51

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)

Adoption of electronic
condensate drain traps
(ECDTs) for
compressed air plant.

Maximizing allowable
pressure dew point at
air intake in
compressed air system.

Measure description

Applied for

Fuel Saving

Electricity Savings

Investment Cost

Payback
period
(years)

Due to the necessity to


remove condensate from the
system, continuous bleeding,
achieved by forcing a receiver
drain valve to open, often
becomes the normal operating
practice, but is extremely
wasteful and costly in terms of Compressed air
air leakage. Electronic
condensate drain traps
(ECDTs) offer improved
reliability and are very
efficient as virtually no air is
wasted when the condensate
is rejected.
Choose the dryer that has the
maximum allowable pressure
dew point, and best efficiency.
A rule of thumb is that
desiccant dryers consume 7 to
14% and refrigerated dryers
consume 1 to 2% of the total
energy of the compressor
Compressed air
(Ingersoll-Rand, 2001).
Consider using a dryer with a
floating dew point. Note that
where pneumatic lines are
exposed to freezing
conditions, refrigerated dryers
are not an option.

52

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)

Measure description

Applied for

Fuel Saving

Some plants have installed


modular systems with several
smaller compressors to match
compressed air needs in a
modular way (Cergel et al.,
2000). In some cases, the
Optimizing the
pressure required is so low
compressor to match its that the need can be met by a Compressed air
load.
blower instead of a
compressor which allows
considerable energy savings,
since a blower requires only a
small fraction of the power
needed by a compressor
(Cergel et al., 2000).
Proper pipe sizing for
Compressed air
compressed air plant.
When there are strong
variations in load and/or
Adoption of inverters
ambient temperatures there
for electric motors of
Compressed air
will be large swings in
compressed air plant.
compressor load and
efficiency.
Remove/isolate "deadlegs" and redundant
Compressed air
Pipework of
compressed air system.
Use of high efficiency
Pumping
< = 1% of electrical
pump for sewages.
systems
consumption

Electricity Savings

up to 3% of compressed
air system energy use
Implementing adjustable
speed drives in rotary
compressor systems has
saved 15% of the annual
compressed air system
energy consumption

Investment Cost

Payback
period
(years)

Medium

Variable

Variable

53

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)

Maintenance of
pumping systems.

Measure description

Applied for

Inadequate maintenance
lowers pump system
efficiency, causes pumps to
wear out more quickly and
increases costs. Better
maintenance will reduce these
problems and save energy.
Proper maintenance includes
the following (Hydraulic
Institute, 1994; U.S. DOE,
1999):
Replacement of worn
impellers, especially in caustic
or semi-solid applications.
Bearing inspection and
Pumping
repair.
systems
Bearing lubrication
replacement, once annually or
semiannually.
Inspection and replacement
of packing seals.
Inspection and replacement
of mechanical seals.
Wear ring and impeller
replacement.
Pump/motor alignment
check.
The largest opportunity is
usually to avoid throttling
losses.

Fuel Saving

Electricity Savings

2% - 7% of pumping
electriccity use

Investment Cost

Payback
period
(years)

<1

54

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)

Monitoring of pumping
systems.

Measure description

Applied for

Fuel Saving

Electricity Savings

Investment Cost

Payback
period
(years)

Monitoring in conjunction
with operations and
maintenance can be used to
detect problems and
determine solutions to create
a more efficient system.
Monitoring can determine
clearances that need be
adjusted, indicate blockage,
impeller damage, inadequate
suction, operation outside
preferences, clogged or gasfilled pumps or pipes, or worn
out pumps. Monitoring should Pumping
include:
systems
Wear monitoring
Vibration analyses
Pressure and flow
monitoring
Current or power
monitoring
Differential head and
temperature rise across the
pump (also known as
thermodynamic monitoring)
Distribution system
inspection for scaling or
contaminant build-up

55

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)

Controls for pumping


systems.

Reduction of demand
for pumping systems.

Measure description
The objective of any control
strategy is to shut off
unneeded pumps or to reduce
the load of individual pumps.
Remote controls enable
pumping systems to be started
and stopped relatively quickly
and accurately, and reduce the
required labor with respect to
traditional control systems.
Holding tanks can be used to
equalize the flow over the
production cycle, enhancing
energy efficiency and
potentially reducing the need
to add pump capacity. In
addition, bypass loops and
other unnecessary flows
should be eliminated. Energy
savings may be as high as 510% for each of these steps
(Easton Consultants, 1995).

Applied for

Fuel Saving

Electricity Savings

Investment Cost

Payback
period
(years)

Pumping
systems

Pumping
systems

Adoption of more
efficient pumps.

Pumping
systems

Proper pump sizing.

Pumping
systems

2% - 10% of pumping
electricity use
Correcting for pump
oversizing can save 15%
to 25% of electricity
consumption for pumping
(on average for the U.S.
industry) (Easton
Consultants, 1995).

<1

56

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)

Multiple pumps for


varying loads.

Impeller trimming (or


shaving sheaves) for
pumping systems.

Adjustable speed drives


(ASDs) for pumping
systems.

Measure description

Applied for

Fuel Saving

Electricity Savings

Pumping
systems

The installation of parallel


systems for highly variable
loads on average would
save 10% to 50% of the
electricity consumption
for pumping for the U.S.
industry (Easton
Consultants, 1995).

Trimming reduces the


impellers tip speed, which in
turn reduces the amount of
energy imparted to the
pumped fluid; as a result, the
pumps flow rate and pressure Pumping
both decrease. A smaller or
systems
trimmed impeller can thus be
used efficiently in applications
in which the current impeller
is producing excessive heat
(U.S. DOE-OIT, 2005).

In the food processing,


paper and petrochemical
industries, trimming
impellers or lowering gear
ratios is estimated to save
as much as 75% of the
electricity consumption
for specific pump
applications (Xenergy,
1998).

Pumping
systems

Investment Cost

Payback
period
(years)

20% - 50% of pumping


electricicy use

57

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)

Avoiding throttling
valves for pumping
systems.

Proper pipe sizing for


pumping plant.
Replacement of belt
drives in pumping
systems.
Precision castings,
surface coatings or
polishing in pumping
systems.

Measure description

Applied for

Fuel Saving

Electricity Savings

Investment Cost

Payback
period
(years)

Variable speed drives or onoff regulated systems always


save energy compared to
throttling valves (Hovstadius,
2002).The use of these valves Pumping
should therefore be avoided.
systems
Extensive use of throttling
valves or bypass loops may be
an indication of an oversized
pump (Tutterow et al., 2000).
Pumping
systems
Pumping
systems
The use of castings, coatings
or polishing reduces surface
roughness that in turn,
increases energy-efficiency. It
may also help maintain
efficiency over time. This
measure is more effective on
smaller pumps.

up to 8% of pumping
electricity use

< 0,5

Pumping
systems

58

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)

Measure description

Applied for

Fuel Saving

Electricity Savings

Investment Cost

Payback
period
(years)

Seal failure accounts for up to


70% of pump failures in many
applications (Hydraulic
Institute and Europump,
2001). The sealing
Improvement of sealing arrangements on pumps will
Pumping
in pumping systems.
contribute to the power
systems
absorbed. Often the use of gas
barrier seals, balanced seals,
and no-contacting labyrinth
seals can help to optimize
pump efficiency.
Repair leaks in
ventilation pipework.

Fan systems

Minimizing pressure in
fun systems.

Fan systems

Control density in fun


systems.

Fan efficiency.
Proper fan sizing.
Adjustable speed drives
(ASDs) for fan systems.

Temperature, moisture,
molecular weight, elevation,
and the absolute pressure in
the duct or vessel affect the
density of the transporting
gas. A density change may
affect the hardware
requirements for the system.

Variable
< = 1% of electrical
consumption

Low

Short

Fan systems

Fan systems
Fan systems
Fan systems

1-5%
14% - 49% of fan system
electricity use

59

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)

High efficiency belts


(cogged belts) for fan
systems.
Adoption of proximity
sensors for not
permanently used
places.
Substitution of
mercury-vapor lamps
with fluorescent tubes
in low buildings.

Measure description

Applied for

Standard Vbelts tend to


stretch, slip, bend and
compress, which lead to a loss
of efficiency. Replacing
Fan systems
standard V-belts with cogged
belts can save energy and
money, even as a retrofit.

Electricity Savings

Investment Cost

2% of fan system
electricity use

Payback
period
(years)

1- 3 years

Lighting

from 0 to 2% of factory
electrical consumption

Slight

<2

Lighting

from 0 to 3% of factory
electrical consumption

Low - Low/Medium Medium

Short

from 0 to 5% of factory
electrical consumption
from 0 to 5% of factory
electrical consumption
Variable
A typical value is 1,1% of
factory electrical
consumption

Medium Medium/High

Medium

Variable

Variable

Slight

immediate

Adoption of LED Lamps.

Lighting

Down lamps or lower


the ceiling.

Lighting

Maintain lamps and


fixtures clear of lightblocking dust and dirt.

Lighting

Make the best use of


daylight.

Fuel Saving

In addition to optimizing the


size of the windows, a
transparent sheets can be
installed at the roof in order to
Lighting
allow more sunlight to
penetrate into the production
area. This can reduce the need
for lighting during the day.

Variable
< = 1% of factory electrical Variable
consumption

Short/Medium

60

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)

Measure description

Applied for

Avoid the absorption of


light by the
surroundings (lightcoloured wall, ceilings,
and floors).

Lighting

Replace magnetic
ballasts with electronic
ballasts.

A ballast is a mechanism that


regulates the amount of
electricity required to start a
Lighting
lighting fixture and maintain a
steady output of light.

Optimization of plant
lighting (lux
optimization) in
production and nonproduction
departments.
Adoption of dimmer to
reduce the use of
artificial light.

Fuel Saving

Electricity Savings
Variable
A typical value is 1,5% of
factory electrical
consumption

Investment Cost

Payback
period
(years)

Low

Short

Electronic ballasts save 12


25% of electricity use
compared to magnetic
ballast.

Lighting

Lighting

Reduction of steam
production pressure.

Steam systems

up to 2% of factory
thermal
consumption

Null

Immediate

Installation of steam
accumulation tanks.

Steam systems

about 0%

Low - Low/Medium

Immediate

61

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)

Heat recovery from the


boiler / steam
generator smokes.

Measure description

Applied for

Heat from flue gases can be


used to preheat boiler feed
water in an economizer. By
preheating the water supply,
the temperature of the water
Steam systems
supply at the inlet to the boiler
is increased, reducing the
amount of heat necessary to
generate steam thus saving
fuel.

Fuel Saving

5%

up to 3% of
thermal
consumption
up to 1% of electric
consumption
from 0 to 4% of
factory thermal
consumption (in
Italy)
and up to 20% in
disadvantaged
backgrounds

Electricity Savings

Investment Cost

Payback
period
(years)

Low - Low/Medium

2 - 4 years

Variable

1 years

Medium/High

Medium

Improvement of
insulation of water /
steam pipes.

Steam systems

Adoption of high
efficiency boilers /
steam generators.

Steam systems

Condensates recovery
in steam system.

Steam systems

up to 5%

Variable

1 years

Steam systems

0%
(no energy savings,
but efficiency at the
country level and
economic saving
for the company)

High

Medium/Long

Installation of
cogeneration plant.

62

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)
Reduce excess
combustion air to
minimum by CO2/O2
measurement.
Maximise completeness
of combustion by
Soot/CO measurement.
Maintain boiler
cleanliness (soot/scale)
by monitor for rise in
flue gas temperature.
Repair (replace) boiler
and feedwater tank
insulation.
Replace steam traps
with sensor controlled
magnetic valves
(Condensate output on
demand with minimum
loss of fresh steam.).
Insert valves to isolate
"periodic-use" items in
steam system.
Remove/isolate "deadlegs" and redundant
pipework of steam
distribution system

Measure description

Electricity Savings

Investment Cost

Payback
period
(years)

Applied for

Fuel Saving

Steam systems

on average 2,3% of
factory thermal
consumption

Low

<1

Steam systems

< = 1% of factory
thermal
consumption

Low

<1

Steam systems

< = 1% of factory
thermal
consumption

Low

Short

Steam systems

6% - 26% of boiler
energy use

Low/Medium

Short

Steam systems

on average 1,5% of
factory thermal
consumption

Medium

Medium

Steam systems

< = 1% of factory
thermal
consumption

Low/Medium

Medium

Steam systems

< = 1% of factory
thermal
consumption

Low/Medium

Medium

63

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)
Eliminate uneconomic
hot standby periods,
maintain heat supply
only if absolutly
necessary.
Demand matching for
steam generation.

Measure description

Applied for

Fuel Saving

Steam systems

Variable
A typical value is
1,1% of factory
thermal
consumption

A boiler is more efficient in


Steam systems
the high-fire setting.
Systems containing multiple
boilers offer energy-saving
opportunities by using proper
Boiler allocation control boiler allocation strategies.
Steam systems
for steam generation.
This is especially true if
multiple boilers are operated
simultaneously at low-fire
conditions.
Where boilers are regularly
shut down due to load
changes, the heat lost to the
chimney can be significant. A
solution to stop this loss of hot
Flue shut-off dampers
air is to fit fully closing stack
Steam systems
for steam generation.
dampers, which only operate
when the boiler is not
required. Another alternative
is to fit similar gas tight
dampers to the fan intake
(CADDET, 2001).

Electricity Savings

Investment Cost

Slight

Payback
period
(years)
Short

<2

64

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)

Maintenance of steam
system.

Optimization of boiler
blowdown rate.

Measure description

In the absence of a good


maintenance system, the
burners and condensate
return systems can wear or
get out of adjustment.

Applied for

Steam systems

Fuel Saving

up to 10% of boiler
energy use

Electricity Savings

Investment Cost

Payback
period
(years)
The
establishment
of a
maintenance
schedule for
boilers has an
average
payback time
of 0,3 years
(U.S. DOE-IAC,
2006).

Steam systems

Recovery of heat from


boiler blowdown.

Steam systems

Proper pipe sizing for


steam distribution
plant.

Steam systems

The use of
heat from
boiler blow
down on
average has
payback
period of 1,6
years (U.S.
DOE-IAC,
2006).

65

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)

Measure description

Applied for

Fuel Saving

Electricity Savings

Investment Cost

Payback
period
(years)
On average
leak repair has
a payback
period of 0,4
years (U.S.
DOE-IAC,
2006).

Reduction of
distribution pipe leaks
in steam plant.

Steam systems

Repair leaks in vacuum


pipework.

Vacuum
systems

Variable
< = 1% of factory electrical Low
consumption

Short

Use a central vacuum


system with variable
speed and pressotatic
control and with
several delivery points
equipped with
dampers.

Vacuum
systems

< = 1% of factory electrical


Medium/High
consumption

Medium/Long

66

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)
Use dedicated vacuum
systems in machines
with low work regime
or geografically offset
from central system.
Applies to machines
with frequent changes,
variable workhours
and/or far from
centralized system. if all
machines suffer from
such variancy,
dedicated systems are
more efficient than
centralized ones.
Adoption of solar
thermal collector.

Replacement of fossil
fuels with renewable
fuels.
Replacement of
electrical heater with
fire heater.

Measure description

Applied for

Fuel Saving

Electricity Savings

Investment Cost

Variable
< = 1% of factory electrical Variable
consumption

Vacuum
systems

from 0 to 4% of
thermal
consumption for
building heating
0%
(no energy savings,
but efficiency at the
country level and
economic saving
for the company)
from 0 to 1% of
overall thermal
consumption

Payback
period
(years)

Variable

Low

Short

Variable

Variable

Variable

Variable

67

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)

Measure description

Applied for

Fuel Saving
0%
(no energy savings,
but efficiency at the
country level and
economic saving
for the company)

Installation of
trigeneration plant.
Switch off the machines
and turn off the lights
during the lunch break.

Establish Energy
Monitoring and Energy
Management System.

Electricity Savings

Develop and implement a


system to monitor the energy
consumption in the
enterprise. Establish an
Energy Management System
(ofthe the easiest way is to
integrate it into existing
quality management systems).
Set up the sensors, which are
needed to monitor the
imporrant consumptions.

Variable

Investment Cost

High

Payback
period
(years)
Long

< = 1% of factory electrical


Negligible
consumption

Immediate

Variable

Varible

Medium/High

68

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)

Identify excess nonvariant consumption


and turn off unneeded
capacity.

Raise awareness of
energy saving in all
workers.
Reduce the amount of
ventilation by control
optimization with a
timer switch and/or
occupancy sensor.

Measure description
Analyse the relation between
consumption and production
output. You can do this using
the SESEC-Benchmark Tools.
In general the energy
consumption consist of a fixed
part (like heating of buildings,
lighting of offices) and a
variable part, depending on
the utilization of machines. A
high fixed part may be
reduced. A curve which
increases more than linear
might hint some productionplanning optimizations
potentials. It might be
necessary to have a look at the
departments seperately.
Train all staff to operate
manual controls, to watch for
energy saving opportunities,
use posters, switch-offand
save-it stickers as a tool of
good housekeeping.

Applied for

Fuel Saving

Electricity Savings

Investment Cost

Payback
period
(years)

Variable
< = 1% of electrical
and thermal
consumption

Variable
< = 1% of electrical and
thermal consumption

Slight

Varible

< = 1% of electrical
and thermal
consumption

< = 1% of electrical and


thermal consumption

Low/Medium

Short

Variable
< = 1% of factory electrical Low
consumption

Medium

69

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)

Use free-cooling
whenever possible.

Preheating boiler feed


water with heat from
flue gas (economizer)
Replacement of nozzles
with
energy efficient mist
nozzles in yarn
conditioning room
Installation of Variable
Frequency Drive
(VFD) for washer pump
motor in Humidification
plant
Replacement of the
existing Aluminium
alloy fan impellers with
high efficiency F.R.P
(Fobreglass Reinforced
Plastic) impellers in
humidification fans and
cooling tower fans

Measure description

Applied for

Fuel Saving

Avalilable when the outside


temperature is lower than the
inside and cooling is rquired,
ex. cooling production plant in
winter. Cold tab-water maybe
used to cool machines and get
waremd up at the same time.

Electricity Savings

Investment Cost

< = 1% of factory electrical


Variable
consumption

5% - 10% of boiler
energy use

Payback
period
(years)

Medium

Preheating water

Steam systems

<2

Replacement of nozzles

Heating/Air
conditioning

31
1310/humidification
MWh/year/humidification
plant
plant

<1

Installation of VFD

Pumping
systems

20
850/humidification
MWh/year/humidification
plant
plant

<1

Replacement of the existing


Aluminium
alloy fan

Fan systems

55,5 MWh/year/fan

<1

500/fan

70

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

Measure (Action)
Installation of VFD on
Humidification system
fan motors for the flow
control
Installation of VFD
on Humidification
system pumps
Energy efficient control
system
for humidification
system
Energy conservation
measures
in Overhead Travelling
Cleaner (OHTC)
Energy efficient blower
fans
for Overhead
Travelling Cleaner
(OHTC)
Improving the Power
Factor of
the plant (Reduction of
reactive power)
Replacement of
ordinary 'V-Belts' by
Cogged 'V-Belts'

Measure description

Applied for

Fuel Saving

Electricity Savings

Investment Cost

Payback
period
(years)

Installation of VFD

Fan systems

18-105 MWh/year/fan

1450-6660/fan

1-2

Installation of VFD

Pumping
systems

35 MWh/year/
humidification
plant

5460/humidification
plant

2,7

Energy efficient control


system

50
5615MWh/year/humidification 9380/humidification
plant
plant

2-3,5

Energy conservation
measures

5,3-5,8 MWh/year/OHTC

140-750 OHTC

0,5-2,5

2 MWh/year/fan

77/fan

<1

Improving the Power Factor

24,1 MWh/year/plant

2540/plant

1,8

Replacement of ordinary 'VBelts' by


Cogged 'V-Belts'

1,5 MWh/yar/belt

9,4/belt

<1

Energy efficient blower fans

Fan systems

71

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

6 Conclusions and Next Steps


The exercise resulting in this document allows the SET project team coordinated by
CITEVE to define textile processes and a list of energy efficiency measures, both
process specific and cross cutting, to be used in the SET project. Within these
efficiency measures, some newly developed technologies were also presented. The
amount of collected measures (105 process specific and 117 cross cutting) is far above
the targeted 60 of each.
The work performed during this task and the information collected and created are
very important for the upcoming project developments. The contents of this document
will be used in the development of ESET (Energy Saving and Efficiency Tool)
methodology and as guide of best practices for textile companies. Information
contained in this report is also expected to be used for training and dissemination
purposes at least throughout 2015 and 2016.

www.euratex.eu/set

72/73

SET Production Processes and Efficiency Measures

7 - Reference
[1] Hasanbeigi, A., 2010. Energy-Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Textile
Industry. Berkeley, CA: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
[2] CITEVE, 2012, EFINERG Project, Plano sectorial de melhoria da eficincia
energtica em PME Sector txtil e do vesturio
[3] ITMA 2015, General Regulations and Index of Products
[4] CITEVE, 2012, Competitividade Responsvel Project, Guia de boas prticas para a
eficincia energtica no Setor Txtil e do Vesturio
[5] Renovare Project, 2007, Guia de boas prticas de medidas de racionalizao de
energia (URE) e energias renovveis (ER)
[6] United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), 1992. Energy
Conservation in Textile Industry-Handy manual

www.euratex.eu/set

73/73