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Integral University, Lucknow

Question Bank
Course Code : IEC 609
Date : ________________

Credits : _____

Course Name : ANALOG & DIGITAL COMUNICATION


Units to be covered in Mid-Sem Exam 1 : ___________
2 : ___________

Mid-Sem Exam

Difficulty Index: easy (A); moderate (B); difficult (C)

UNIT-1

Unit Q. No.
1

Question

Max.
mark
s

Difficulty
Index

Amplitude modulation is the process of


a. superimposing a low frequency on a high
frequency
b. superimposing a high frequency on a low
frequency
c. carrier interruption
d. frequency shift and phase shift

Indicate the false statement. Modulation is used to


a. reduce the bandwidth used
b. separate differing transmissions
c. ensure that intelligence may be transmitted over
long distances
d. allow the use of practicable antennas

1
Indicate the false statement. The need for
modulation can best be exemplified by the
following.
a. Antenna lengths will be approximately /4
long
b. An antenna in the standard broadcast AM band is
16,000 ft
c. All sound is concentrated from 20 Hz to 20 kHz
d. A message is composed of unpredictable
variations in both amplitude and frequency

If the carrier of a 100 percent modulated AM wave


is suppressed, the
percentage power saving will be
a. 50
b. 150
c. 100
d. 66.66

The modulation index of an AM wave is changed


from 0 to 1. The
transmitted power is
a. unchanged
b. halved
c. doubled
d. increase by 50 percent

Vestigal sideband modulation (C3F) is normally


used for
a. HF point-to-point communications
b. m onoaural broadc asting
c. TV broadcasting
d. stereo broadcasting

In a low-level AM system, amplifiers following the


modulated stage must
be
a. linear devices
b. harmonic devices
c. class C amplifiers
d. nonlinear devices

A carrier is simultaneously modulated by two sine


waves with modulation
indices of 0.3 and 0.4; the total modulation index
a. is 1
b. cannot be calculated unless the phase relations
are known
c. is 0.5
d. is 0.7

In a broadcast superheterodyne receiver, the


a. local oscillator operates below the signal
frequency
b. mixer input must be tuned to the signal

frequency
c. local oscillator frequency is normally double the
IF
d. RF amplifier normally works at 455 kHz above
the carrier frequency
10

One of the following cannot be used to


remove the unwanted sideband in
SSB. This is the
a. filter system
b. phase-shift method
c. third method
d. balanced modulator

11

A superheterodyne receiver with an IF of 450 kHz


is tuned to a signal at 1200 kHz. The image
frequency is 2100 kHz

12

An AM signal is represented by x(t) =


(20+4sin500t)cos(2x105t)V. The
modulation
index is 0.2
An AM signal is represented by x(t) =
(20+4sin500t)cos(2x105t)V. The total
signal
power is 204 W
In a DSB-SC system with 100% modulation,
the power saving is 66%

15

The bandwidth of DSB-SC is than SSBSC

16

In envelope detector,the charging time constant


RsC is very small when compared to the carrier
period 1/fc (RsC << 1/fc) .Where Rs = internal
resistance of the voltage source,C = capacitor and
fc = carrier frequency
Envelope detector consists of a diode and a

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resistor-capacitor filter.
Suppressed carrier modulation systems require
the minimum transmitter power and minimum
transmission bandwidth
The modulated signal s (t) undergoes a phase
reversal whenever the message
signal m (t) crosses zero.
3

20

The transmission bandwidth required by DSBSC modulation is the same as


that for amplitude modulation which is twice
the bandwidth of the message
signal, 2W

21
22
23

Define modulation and demodulation?


What are the types of modulation?
Define depth of modulation (or) modulation
index of AM wave..
What is the power saving in DSB-SC-AM and
SSB-SC AM?
What is FDM?
What are the advantages of VSB-AM?
Compare AM with DSB-SC and SSB-SC.
The antenna current of an AM transmitter is
8A when only carrier is sent. It increases to
8.93A when the carrier is modulated by a
single sine wave. Find the percentage
modulation

2
2
2

A
A
B

2
2
4
4

C
C
A
A

29

What are the types of AM detectors?

30

If a 10KW amplitude modulated transmitter


is modulated sinusoidally by 50%, what is
the total RF power delivered?
What is image frequency? Explain with
suitable example.
What is the need for modulation?
Explain the generation of AM signals using
square law modulator.
Explain the detection of AM signals using
envelope detector.
Draw the circuit diagram of Ring modulator
and explain with its operation?
Explain the generation of SSB using
balanced modulator.
What is amplitude modulation? Draw the
Amplitude Modulation Wave Forms with
Modulation Index (m) =1, m<1, m>1.If the
antenna current of an AM broadcast
transmitter, modulated to depth of 40 % by
an audio sine wave, is 11 A. It increases to
12 A as a result of simultaneous modulation
by another audio sine wave. Find the
modulation index due to this second sine
wave.
Discus the coherent detection of DSB-SC
modulated wave with a block diagram of

4
8

C
A

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detector and Explain.


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40

UNIT-2

Unit Q. No.
2

Define standard form amplitude


modulation and explain each term. Also
describe the AM both in time and
frequency domain with proper diagram.
Explain the super hetero dyne receiver for
AM signal with proper block diagram and
equations.

Question

Max.
marks

Difficulty
Index

An FM signal with modulation index is passed


through frequency tripler. The wave
in the output of the tripler will have a
modulation index of
(A) mf/3 (B) mf
(C) 3 mf (D) 9 mf

Power in an FM signal is dependent on


(A) the amplitude of the carrier (B) both
amplitude and frequency of the carrier
(C) amplitude and frequency of the carrier (D)
none of the above

The difference between phase and frequency


modulation
a. is purely theoretical because they are the same

in practice
b. is too great to make the two system compatible
c. lies in the poorer audio response of phase
modulation
d. lies in the different definitions of the
modulation index
4

When the modulating frequency is doubled, the


modulation index is
halved, and the modulating voltage remains
constant. The modulation system
is
a. amplitude modulation
b. phase modulation
c. frequency modulation
d. any of the three

In commercial FM broadcasting, the


maximum frequency deviation is
(A) 75KHz (B) 200KHz
(C) 5KHz (D) 15KHz

Indicate the noise whose source is in a category


different from that of
the other three.
a. Solar noise
b. Cosmic noise
c. Atmospheric noise
d. Galactic noise
Indicate the false statement. The square of the
thermal noise voltage
generated by a resistor is proportional to
a. its resistance
b. its temperature
c. Boltzmanns constant
d. the bandwidth over which it is measured

Space noise generally covers a wide frequency


spectrum, but the
strongest interference occurs
a. between 8 MHz and 1.43 GHz
b. below 20 Mhz
c. between 20 to 120 MHz

d. above 1.5 GHz


When dealing with random noise calculations it
must be remembered that
a. all calculations are based on peak to peak
values
b. calculations are based on peak values
c. calculations are based on average values
d. calculations are based on RMS values

10

1
The modulating frequency in frequency
modulation is increased from 10KHz to
20KHz the bandwidth
(A) decreases by 20KHz (B) increases by
20KHz
(C) decreases by 10KHz (D) increases by 10KHz

11

An FM signal with a deviation d is passed


through a mixer, and has its frequency reduced
fivefold. The deviation in the output of the mixer
is d

12
13

PLL can be used as FM.


The broad cast FM band is ..(88-108
Mhz)
The intermediate frequency used in a
stereo FM receiver is (10.7 Mhz)
PM wave can be generated by first
differentiating m(t) and then using the
result as the input to a frequency
modulator.
The envelope of an FM wave is constant,
so that the average power of such a wave
dissipated in a 1-ohm resistor is also
constant.
When < <1 radian then it is called as
narrowband FM consisting essentially of a
carrier, an upper side-frequency
component, and a lower side-frequency
component.

2
2

A
B

figure of merit = SNRo/SNRi


The Foster-Seely Discriminator is a widely
used for FM detection
The SNR is used to measure the performance
of the Analog

2
2

B
B

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15

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communication systems, whereas the


probability of error is used as a
performance measure of digital
communication systems
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Define modulation index of frequency


modulation.
Define phase and frequency modulation.
What do you mean by Narrow Band and
Wide band FM?
What are the advantages of Angle
Modulation?
Define noise temperature.
What is transmission bandwidth of FM?
Compare AM to FM.
Give the classification of noise.
State the Carsons rule.
Write the expression for the spectrum of a
single tone FM Signal.
What is Frequency multiplication? Explain
it.
Define Noise figure and Noise equivalent
Bandwidth.
Derive the equation for FM waves. Define
modulation index, maximum deviation and
bandwidth of a FM signal .
Define angle modulation. Describe with
the help of block diagrams, schemes for
generating
i) FM wave using PM ii) PM wave using FM
Explain the Armstrong method of
generating FM.
Explain the demodulation of FM wave
using Foster-Seely Discriminator method.

2
2

A
B

2
2
4
4
4
4

C
C
A
A
B
B

Explain different types of noises in communication


system.
The first stage of a two-stage amplifier has a
voltage gain of 10, a 600 ohm input resistor, a
1600 ohm equivalent noise resistance and a 27 kiloohm output resistors. For the second stage these
values are 25, 81 ,10 kilo-ohm and 1 mega ohm
respectively. Calculate the equivalent input-noise
resistance of the two stage amplifier.

A angle modulated signal is described by

xc(t) = 10cos[2(106 )t+0.1sin (103 ) t].(i)


Consider xc(t) as a PM signal with kp =10 ,find
m(t).
].(ii) Consider xc(t) as a FM signal with kf =10
,find m(t).
8

40

Question

Max.
marks

Difficulty
Index

If sampling is done at the rate of 10 kHz.


The bandwidth
required is
A. 35 kHz
B. 70 kHz
C. 10 kHz
D. 1280 kHz

PAM stands for


A. Pulse Analogue Modulation
B. Phase Analogue Modulation
C. Pulse Amplitude Modulation
D. Phase Amplitude Modulation

The modulation techniques used to convert 1

A angle modulated signal is described by


8

xc(t) = 10cos[210 t+200cos2 10 t].


Obtain the bandwidth of the signal.

UNIT-3

Unit Q. No.
3

analog signal into digital signal are


a) Pulse code modulation
b) Delta modulation
c) Adaptive delta modulation
d) All of the above
4

The sequence of operations in which PCM

is done is
a) Sampling, quantizing, encoding
b) Quantizing, encoding, sampling
c) Quantizing, sampling, encoding
d) None of the above
5

In PCM, the parameter varied in


accordance with the amplitude of the
modulating signal is
9

a) Amplitude
b) Frequency
c) Phase
d) None of the above
6

. One of the disadvantages of PCM is

The expression for bandwidth BW of a PCM 1

a) It requires large bandwidth


b) Very high noise
c) Cannot be decoded easily
d) All of the above

system, where v is the number of bits per


sample and fm is the modulating
frequency, is given by
a) BW> = vfm
b) BW< = vfm
c) BW> = 2 vfm
d) BW> = 1/2vfm
8

In Delta modulation,

a) One bit per sample is transmitted


b) All the coded bits used for sampling are
transmitted
c) The step size is fixed
d) Both a) and c) are correct
9

In digital transmission, the modulation


technique that requires minimum bandwidth is
a) Delta modulation
b) PCM
c) DPCM
d) PAM

10

10

In Delta Modulation, the bit rate is

In sampling process if < 2 ,then


sampled spectrum will overlap and cannot
be recovered back. This is called aliasing
effect
Bandwidth requirement of DM is less on
compared to PCM.
In a DM (Delta Modulation) system, the
granular (idling) noise occurs when
modulating signal remains constant
In PPM scheme position of high frequency
carrier pulse is changed in accordance
with the sampled values of message
signal.

Audio frequency range lies between 20Hz


and 20kHz
PAM signal can be demodulated by using

a) N times the sampling frequency


b) N times the modulating frequency
c) N times the nyquist criteria

11

d) None of the above


Granular noise occurs when

b) Step size is too large

12

The digital modulation scheme in which the


step size is not fixed is
b) Adaptive delta modulation

13

In Adaptive Delta Modulation, the slope error


reduces and
b) Quantization error increases

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a low pass filter

20

In Differential Pulse Code Modulation


techniques, the decoding is performed by
a) Accumulator

11

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25

What is Nyquist rate?


What is Aperture effect?
Interpret the use of pre-filtering done
before sampling?
What is Pulse Position modulation?

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2
2

A
A
B

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2

B
C

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4

C
A

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B
B
C
C
A

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8

B
B

8
Consider a sinusoidal signal m(t)= A cosm t
applied to delta modulator with step size S. Show
that slope overload distortion will occur if

What is quantization error?

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What is advantage of DPCM ?


What can you say about slope overload
and granular noise?
Write the operating principle of PCM and
also List disadvantages of PCM.
Explain the generation of PAM.
Explain the generation of PPM.
Explain the Pulse code modulation system.
Explain the Delta Modulation .
Given the signal
m(t)=10 cos1000t * cos8000t
(a) What is minimum sampling rate based
on low pass uniform sampling theorem?
(b)Repeat (a) based on band pass
sampling theorem?
Compare the PAM, PWM and PPM with
suitable waveforms.
Compare PCM ,DM,ADM and DPCM .

Explain the generation and


demodulation of PWM.
In a binary PCM system, the output signal
to quantization ratio is to be held to a
minimum of 40 dB. Determine the number
of required level, and find the
corresponding output signal to
quantization-noise ratio.
State and proof the sampling theorem for
low pass signal.

A>(S/mTs)
Where Ts is the sampling frequency.
40

Find the Nyquist rate and Nyquist interval for


each of the following signals
(i)m(t)=5cos1000t * cos4000t
12

sin200 t
(ii) m(t)=
t
sin200 t
(iii) m(t)=(
t

Unit Q. No.
4

)2

Question

Max.
marks

13

Difficulty
Index

UNIT-4

In On- Off keying, the carrier signal is


transmitted with signal value 1 and '0'
indicates
a) No carrier
b) Half the carrier amplitude
c) Amplitude of modulating signal
d) None of the above

Q2. ASK modulated signal has the


bandwidth
a) Same as the bandwidth of
baseband signal
b) Half the bandwidth of baseband signal
c) Double the bandwidth of baseband
signal
d) None of the above
Coherent detection of binary ASK signal
requires
a) Phase synchronization
b) Timing synchronization
c) Amplitude synchronization
d) Both a) and b)
The probability of error of DPSK is
______________ than that of BPSK.
a) Higher
b) Lower
c) Same
d) Not predictable
. In Binary Phase Shift Keying system, the
binary symbols 1 and 0 are represented by
carrier with phase shift of
a) 900
b)1800
c) 3600
d) 00
BPSK system modulates at the rate of
a) 1 bit/ symbol
b) 2 bit/ symbol
c) 4 bit/ symbol
d) None of the above
The BPSK signal has +V volts and -V volts
respectively to represent
a) 1 and 0 logic levels
b) 11 and 00 logic levels
c) 10 and 01 logic levels
d) 00 and 11 logic levels
The binary waveform used to generate

14

BPSK signal is encoded in


a) Bipolar NRZ format
b) Manchester coding
c) Differential coding
d) None of the above
9

10

11

The bandwidth of BFSK is ______________


than BPSK.
a) Lower
b) Same
c) Higher
d) Not predictable
In Binary FSK, mark and space
respectively represent
a) 1 and 0
b) 0 and 1
c) 11 and 00
d) 00 and 11
The frequency shifts in the BFSK usually
lies in the range

a) 50 to 1000 Hz
12

The spectrum of BFSK may be viewed as


the sum of
a) Two ASK spectra

13

The maximum bandwidth among ASK,BPSK


and FSK is occupied by

c) FSK

14

QPSK is a modulation scheme where each


symbol consists of
b) 2 bits

15

The data rate of QPSK is ___ Twice ________

. Minimum shift keying is similar to Continuous

2
2

C
A

phase frequency shift keying


Gaussian minimum shift keying is used reduce

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of BPSK
QPSK system uses a phase shift of900

15

the side band power.

19

PSK--------------modulation requires the lowest


bandwidth

20

Bit rate is defined as the number of bits


per second. Baud rate is defined as the
number of signal units per second. Baud
rate is less than or equal to the bit rate.
An analog signal carries 4 bits in each
signal unit. If 1000 signal units are sent
per second, find the baud rate and the bit
rate.
Very Short Answer Question
Very Short Answer Question
Very Short Answer Question
Very Short Answer Question

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A
B
B
C
C
A
A
B
B
C
C
A

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8
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8

A
B
B
B

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Describe the generation of ASK.


Describe the generation of PSK.
Describe the generation of FSK.
Explain the coherent detection of ASK
Explain the coherent detection of FSK
Explain the coherent detection of PSK
Draw the block diagrams of a ASK
modulator and demodulator. State various
advantages & disadvantages of this
system of digital modulation format.
Explain the Non-Coherent detection of FSK
Long Answer/Long Numerical Question
Long Answer/Long Numerical Question
Compare the ASK,FSK and PSK with
suitable waveform
Explain coherent binary PSK with
diagrams.

39

Illustrate the features of the PSK modulation format


and briefly describe the coherent detection of BPSK

40

What is FSK? With a neat block schematic


describe the implementation for
noncoherent FSK detection that uses
bandpass filters and envelope detectors.

16

UNIT-5

Uni
t5

Q.
No.

Question

Max.
mark
s

Difficul
ty
Index

The number of voice channels that can be


accommodated for transmission in T1 carrier
system is
a) 24
b) 32
c) 56
d) 64
The maximum data transmission rate in T1 carrier
system is
a) 2.6 megabits per second
b) 1000 megabits per second
c) 1.544 megabits per second
d) 5.6 megabits per second
T1 carrier system is used
a) For PCM voice transmission
b) For delta modulation
c) For frequency modulated signals
d) None of the above
The expected information contained in a message
is called
a) Entropy
b) Efficiency
c) Coded signal
d) None of the above

The information I contained in a message with probability

17

of occurrence is given by (k is constant)


a) I = k log21/P
b) I = k log2P
c) I = k log21/2P
d) I = k log21/P2
6

Code rate r, k information bits and n as total bits,


is defined as
a) r= k/n
b) k=n/r
c) r=k*n
d) n=r*k
The technique that may be used to increase
average information per bit is
a) Shannon-Fano algorithm
b) ASK
c) FSK
d) Digital modulation techniques
For a binary symmetric channel, the random bits
are given as
a) Logic 1 given by probability P and logic 0
by (1-P)
b) Logic 1 given by probability 1-P and logic 0 by P
c) Logic 1 given by probability P2 and logic 0 by 1P
d) Logic 1 given by probability P and logic 0 by (1P)2

11

The average information per source symbol in a particular


interval is called entropy

12

The channel described by a channel matrix with only one


nonzero element in each
column is called a lossless channel.

The memory less source refers to


a) No previous information
b) No message storage
c) Emitted message is independent of
previous message
d) None of the above
Information rate is defined as
a) Information per unit time
b) Average number of bits of information per second
c) r *H
d) all of the above

10

18

13

A channel described by a channel matrix with only one


nonzero element in each row is
called a deterministic channel and this element must be
unity.

14

The maximum information transmitted by one symbol over

15

the channel is known as channel capacity


For M equally likely messages, the average

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2
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2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
4

C
A
B
B
C
A
A
B
B
C
C
A

4
4
4

B
C
C

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amount of information H is H= log2M


The capacity of Gaussian channel is

Voice signal are band limited to -----------------

8KHz

Fill in the blank


Fill in the blank
Fill in the blank
What do you mean by information rate?
Define the Entropy .

State shannons Hartley law .


What is Commutator ?
Why guard bands are used in FDM?
Why sync pulse is required in TDM?
Consider a discrete memoryless source with a
source alphabet A = { so, s1, s2} with respective
probs. p0 = , p1 = , p2 = . Find the entropy of
the source.
An event has six possible outcomes with
probabilities 1/2.1/4,1/8,1/16,1/32,1/32. Find
the entropy of the system.
Consider an AWGN channel with 4-kHz bandwidth
and noise power spectral density is 10-12 W/Hz. The
signal power required at receiver is 0.1 mW.
Calculate the capacity of this channel.
Explain the Principal of Time division multiplexing.
What is channel associated signaling ? Explain it.
Show that the entropy is maximum when all the
messages are equi-probable.
Six message signal each of bandwidth 5 kHz are
time division multiplexed and transmitted
.Calculate the signaling rate and channel
bandwidth of PAM/TDM channel.
Calculate the bit rate, bandwidth and duration of
each bit in T1 system.
Consider Gaussian channel with 2-MHz bandwidth
and signal power to noise spectral density is 10 5
Hz. Calculate the capacity of this channel and also
find the maximum information rate.
Construct binary code for the following probability
symbols using Huffman procedure and calculate
19

entropy of the source, average code Length,


efficiency, and redundancy.
0.2, 0.18, 0.12, 0.1, 0.1, 0.08, 0.06, 0.06, 0.06,
0.04
37

Explain the TDM PCM hierarchy(T1 System)


with suitable diagram.

38

State and prove continuous channel capacity


theorem.
Encode the following source using Huffman coding
procedures

39

X
P(X)

40

X1
0.3

X2
0.1

X3
0.4

X4
0.08

X5
0.12

Encode the following source using Shannon-Fano


coding
X

X1

X2

P(X)

0.4

0.2

X3
0.1
2

X4
0.0
8

X5
0.0
8

X6
0.0
8

X7
0.0
4

Important Notes:
1. Complete syllabus shall be covered and none of the questions
should be repeated.
2. Diversity of questions like short notes, differentiation etc. shall be
followed.
3. Provide answer-key for questions #1-20.
20

4. Provide questions in the same pattern for each Unit covering the
complete syllabus.
5. Mention Unit numbers to be asked for Mid-Semester Exam-1/2.
6. Improvement Exam shall cover the complete syllabus.
7. Feedback on the questions from external experts will be taken and
some questions could also be replaced from End Semester exam
database.
8. All HoDs are requested to positively bring the course-wise question
papers in the pen drive.
9. Last date for submission of question paper through the HOD is: 18-122016.

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