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Socialization, orientation and developing employees

Socialization is the process of adapting the norms, values, culture, beliefs and
working procedure adapted by the organization. Applicants may or may not know
different methods, procedures, acceptable behavior and normal flow of work in the
organization. Therefore, management first should make them familiar in
organizational working environment. The process of making newly appointed
candidates familiar in the working setup, culture, tradition, norms and working
procedure of organization is called socialization.
For our purpose, socialization is the process of interacting personal norms, values,
beliefs and understanding with organizational norms, values, beliefs and
understanding and accepting the organizational one. This makes individual
acceptable to the organizational working culture. This takes place conveying
important information into three ways i.e. general information about job
responsibility, review of organizational history, and detailed presentation of
organizational policies and procedures. Socialization process becomes complete
when organizational culture is accepted as individual personality.
Purpose or Importance of Socialization:
Main purpose of socialization is to make newly selected employees familiar with the
organization's norms, culture and tradition. It has the following objectives.
1. Employee orientation:
The primary purpose of socialization is to orient newly appoint employees in the
organization. Such employees do not have sufficient information and know how
about organizational norms, values, culture and normal workflow. This should be
clear to the employees for effective flow of work. Socialization through
orientation makes employees clear about their responsibility and accountability.
2. Improved performance:
Socialization helps to understand the organization's culture, norms and values. It
helps to understand the working process and techniques adopted in
organization. Socialization maintains the harmonious environment among the
employees and management. All these things help to improve the performance
of organization.
3. Employee satisfaction:
Other purpose of socialization is to increase employee satisfaction. Harmonious
relation in the organization, two way communication, mutual understandings
among employees, etc. help to improve the employee satisfaction.

4. Organizational stability:
Satisfied employees improve the organizational performance. Better
organizational performance helps to improve the profitability and provides the
opportunities of organizational growth and development. This improves the
organizational stability.
5. Harmonious relation:
For organizational prosperity, there must be harmonious relation between
employees - management and employees - employees. Socialization maintains
open environment in the organization. This makes the close bond in between all
level employees and managers. It is possible to maintain mutual trust and
cooperation among all parties in the organization.

Socialization process
Socialization aims to change individual behavior into socially accepted organizational
behavior. Employees should fully accept the common organizational norms, values and
tradition. For this, they take time. During socialization process, employees have to pass
through different stages which are commonly known as socialization process. Socialization
process consists of following stages:
1. Pre-arrival stage:
This stage is also known as pre-entry stage. Employees know the basic information,
knowledge, rules and regulation regarding the job responsibilities before they join the
organization. They accept organizational values, norms and work ethics from their prior job
experience. They get information regarding the organization through the recruitment and
entire selection process as well. Likewise, nowadays many training institution or programs
also provide basic socialization. From all these events, employees accept the common
organizational norms with changing their own values and norms. Thus, employees get
socialization before they join the organization which is known as pre-arrival stage.
2. Encounter Stage:
Individual may not have the clear understanding about organizational norms, culture and
values before joining the organization. They may have accepted the common job related
behaviors but organization may have different organizational culture. Their common
understanding and organizational work set up may not match. This situation brings the
situation of confrontation. Thus, the stage of confronting personal values, norms,
understanding and perception with the organizational norms, values and culture in
socialization process is known as encounter stage.

In this stage, employees compare their prior perceptions about organization, job and working
environment with the reality. Following three different condition will result the encounter

If the prior expectations or perceptions match the reality, there will be no

need of socialization.
If the prior perceptions or expectations do not match with reality,
socialization becomes essential. Employees require to learn new norms,
values and culture.
Employees disillusioned with the reality, they resign from the job.

In conclusion, in this stage of socialization, employees fight their own prior

perception and expectation with the organizational reality. This stage provides
strength to learn new working culture, new norms and values. If employees will be
motivated to learn new knowledge, they will enter into the next stage of
socialization but if they become rigid in their own perception, they quit the job.
3. Metamorphosis stage:
This stage is also called change stage. In this stage, employee unlearn the old
norms, values and culture to learn new one. Employees fully accept the
organizational norms and values. They change their behavior and mind set- up.
Employees become comfortable to the organizational environment. They internalize
each and every work ethics and guidance to complete their job responsibilities.
They voluntarily accept any changes in their responsibilities, procedure and
technology. Successful metamorphosis stage can be observed with increased
productivity, greater commitment and profitability. This leads decrease in
employee's grievance and misunderstanding between employees and management
as well as employee turnover ratio.
Socialization process completes with the completion of metamorphosis process. This
will be complete by making new employees.
Comfortable with organization and job responsibility
Feel accepted in the organizational society with full of trust and values
Understanding and accepting organizational norms and value
Feeling self confident and capable of doing the assign job
Understanding the evaluation process and criteria
Extending level of commitment

Employee Orientation
Employee orientation is part of a long-term investment in a new employee. It is an
initial process that provides easy access to basic information, programs and
services, gives clarification and allows new employees to take an active role in their

Introduce new employees to their new environment

Make new employees feel welcome and comfortable
Retain a pool of new, capable employees

What should employee orientation programs include?

An orientation program helps the employee understand their assigned duties, terms and
conditions of employment as well as the organizational culture. It provides the following

Orientation to business:

mission statement
goals and objectives
organizational structure, e.g. own job description and relationship of position to other positions
future plans
Company policies and procedures, for example:
dress code
reporting procedures
smoking restrictions
expense claims
Why is Orientation Important?
Faculty Orientation is important because it lays a foundation for the new employees entire
career with the department. First impressions are important since they establish the basis for
everything that follows. Without orientation, a new employee sometimes feels uncomfortable in
his/her new position and takes longer to reach his/her full potential.
Orientation is important because it:
Provides the new employee with concise and accurate information to make him/her more
comfortable in the job;
Encourages employee confidence and helps the new employee adapt faster to the job;

Contributes to a more effective, productive workforce;

Improves employee retention; and
Promotes communication between the supervisor and the new employee.
Employee handbook
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An employee handbook, sometimes also known as an employee manual or staff handbook, is a
book given to employees by an employer. Usually, the employee handbook contains information
about company policies and procedures.
The employee handbook can be used to bring together employment and job-related information
which employees need to know, such as holiday arrangements, company rules and disciplinary
and grievance procedures.[1] It can also provide useful source of information to new staff as part
of the induction process. A written employee handbook gives clear advice to employees and
creates a culture where issues are dealt with fairly and consistently.

Employee Training
Employee training and development is a broad term covering multiple kinds of employee
Training is a program that helps employees learn specific knowledge or skills to improve
performance in their current roles. Development is more expansive and focuses on employee
growth and future performance, rather than an immediate job role.
TNA is the process of identifying the gap between employee training and needs of training.
Training needs analysis is the first stage in the training process and involves a procedure to
determine whether training will indeed address the problem which has been identified. Training
can be described as the acquisition of skills, concepts or attitudes that result in improved
performance within the job environment.[citation needed] Training needs analysis looks at each
aspect of an operational domain so that the initial skills, concepts and attitudes of the human
elements of a system can be effectively identified and appropriate training can be specified.[1]
Training needs analysis is most often used as part of the system development process. Due to the
close tie between the design of the system and the training required, in most cases it runs
alongside the development to capture the training requirements.

Training methods
On-the-job training Methods:

Under these methods new or inexperienced employees learn through observing peers or
managers performing the job and trying to imitate their behaviour. These methods do not cost
much and are less disruptive as employees are always on the job, training is given on the same
machines and experience would be on already approved standards, and above all the trainee is
learning while earning. Some of the commonly used methods are:
1. Coaching:
Coaching is a one-to-one training. It helps in quickly identifying the weak areas and tries to
focus on them. It also offers the benefit of transferring theory learning to practice. The biggest
problem is that it perpetrates the existing practices and styles. In India most of the scooter
mechanics are trained only through this method.
2. Mentoring:
The focus in this training is on the development of attitude. It is used for managerial employees.
Mentoring is always done by a senior inside person. It is also one-to- one interaction, like
3. Job Rotation:
It is the process of training employees by rotating them through a series of related jobs. Rotation
not only makes a person well acquainted with different jobs, but it also alleviates boredom and
allows to develop rapport with a number of people. Rotation must be logical.
4. Job Instructional Technique (JIT):
It is a Step by step (structured) on the job training method in which a suitable trainer (a) prepares
a trainee with an overview of the job, its purpose, and the results desired, (b) demonstrates the
task or the skill to the trainee, (c) allows the trainee to show the demonstration on his or her own,
and (d) follows up to provide feedback and help. The trainees are presented the learning material
in written or by learning machines through a series called frames. This method is a valuable
tool for all educators (teachers and trainers). It helps us:
a. To deliver step-by-step instruction
b. To know when the learner has learned
c. To be due diligent (in many work-place environments)
5. Apprenticeship:
Apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of practitioners of a skill. This method of
training is in vogue in those trades, crafts and technical fields in which a long period is required
for gaining proficiency. The trainees serve as apprentices to experts for long periods. They have
to work in direct association with and also under the direct supervision of their masters.

The object of such training is to make the trainees all-round craftsmen. It is an expensive method
of training. Also, there is no guarantee that the trained worker will continue to work in the same
organisation after securing training. The apprentices are paid remuneration according the
apprenticeship agreements.
6. Understudy:
In this method, a superior gives training to a subordinate as his understudy like an assistant to a
manager or director (in a film). The subordinate learns through experience and observation by
participating in handling day to day problems. Basic purpose is to prepare subordinate for
assuming the full responsibilities and duties.

Off-the-job Training Methods:

Off-the-job training methods are conducted in separate from the job environment, study material
is supplied, there is full concentration on learning rather than performing, and there is freedom of
expression. Important methods include:
1. Lectures and Conferences:
Lectures and conferences are the traditional and direct method of instruction. Every training
programme starts with lecture and conference. Its a verbal presentation for a large audience.
However, the lectures have to be motivating and creating interest among trainees. The speaker
must have considerable depth in the subject. In the colleges and universities, lectures and
seminars are the most common methods used for training.
2. Vestibule Training:
Vestibule Training is a term for near-the-job training, as it offers access to something new
(learning). In vestibule training, the workers are trained in a prototype environment on specific
jobs in a special part of the plant.
An attempt is made to create working condition similar to the actual workshop conditions. After
training workers in such condition, the trained workers may be put on similar jobs in the actual
This enables the workers to secure training in the best methods to work and to get rid of initial
nervousness. During the Second World War II, this method was used to train a large number of
workers in a short period of time. It may also be used as a preliminary to on-the job training.
Duration ranges from few days to few weeks. It prevents trainees to commit costly mistakes on
the actual machines.
3. Simulation Exercises:

Simulation is any artificial environment exactly similar to the actual situation. There are four
basic simulation techniques used for imparting training: management games, case study, role
playing, and in-basket training.
(a) Management Games:
Properly designed games help to ingrain thinking habits, analytical, logical and reasoning
capabilities, importance of team work, time management, to make decisions lacking complete
information, communication and leadership capabilities. Use of management games can
encourage novel, innovative mechanisms for coping with stress.
Management games orient a candidate with practical applicability of the subject. These games
help to appreciate management concepts in a practical way. Different games are used for training
general managers and the middle management and functional heads executive Games and
functional heads.
(b) Case Study:
Case studies are complex examples which give an insight into the context of a problem as well as
illustrating the main point. Case Studies are trainee centered activities based on topics that
demonstrate theoretical concepts in an applied setting.
A case study allows the application of theoretical concepts to be demonstrated, thus bridging the
gap between theory and practice, encourage active learning, provides an opportunity for the
development of key skills such as communication, group working and problem solving, and
increases the trainees enjoyment of the topic and hence their desire to learn.
(c) Role Playing:
Each trainee takes the role of a person affected by an issue and studies the impacts of the issues
on human life and/or the effects of human activities on the world around us from the perspective
of that person.
It emphasizes the real- world side of science and challenges students to deal with complex
problems with no single right answer and to use a variety of skills beyond those employed in a
typical research project.
In particular, role-playing presents the student a valuable opportunity to learn not just the course
content, but other perspectives on it. The steps involved in role playing include defining
objectives, choose context & roles, introducing the exercise, trainee preparation/research, the
role-play, concluding discussion, and assessment. Types of role play may be multiple role play,
single role play, role rotation, and spontaneous role play.
(d) In-basket training:

In-basket exercise, also known as in-tray training, consists of a set of business papers which may
include e-mail SMSs, reports, memos, and other items. Now the trainer is asked to prioritise the
decisions to be made immediately and the ones that can be delayed.
4. Sensitivity Training:
Sensitivity training is also known as laboratory or T-group training. This training is about making
people understand about themselves and others reasonably, which is done by developing in them
social sensitivity and behavioral flexibility. It is ability of an individual to sense what others feel
and think from their own point of view.
It reveals information about his or her own personal qualities, concerns, emotional issues, and
things that he or she has in common with other members of the group. It is the ability to behave
suitably in light of understanding.
A groups trainer refrains from acting as a group leader or lecturer, attempting instead to clarify
the group processes using incidents as examples to clarify general points or provide feedback.
The group action, overall, is the goal as well as the process.