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8.

Technical Heat Treatment

8. Technical Heat Treatment

95
When welding a workpiece, not only the weld

6
cm
4

300C
400C

6
cm
4

600C 700C
800C
900C

500C

-2

-2

-4

-4

itself, but also the surrounding base material

600C
700C

(HAZ) is influenced by the supplied heat


quantity. The temperature-field, which appears around the weld when different welding

-6
-12

-10

-8

-6

-4

-2

temperature

-6
-14

500C
400C
300C

cm

-8

-6

-4

-2

0 cm 2

procedures are used, is shown in Figure 8.1.

C
1750

Figure 8.2 shows the influence of the material

1250
1000
723C

properties on the welding process. The de-

oxy-acethylene welding

750
manual metal
arc welding

500

termining factors on the process presented in


this Figure, like melting temperature and -

250
-60 mm

-40

-20

20

40

mm

interval, heat capacity, heat extension etc,

60

distance from weld central line

depend greatly on the chemical composition


heat affected zone during
oxy-acethylene welding

of the material. Metallurgical properties are

heat affected zone during


manual metal arc welding

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here characterized by e.g. homogeneity,

ISF 2002

Temperature Distribution of
Various Welding Methods

structure and texture, physical properties like


heat extension, shear strength, ductility.

Figure 8.1

Structural changes, caused by the heat input

(process 1, 2, 7, and 8), influence directly the mechanical properties of the weld. In addition,
the chemical composition of the weld metal and adjacent base material are also influenced
by the processes 3 to 6.

Heating and melting the welding


consumable

Specific heat, melting temperature and interval, melt


heat, boiling temperature (metal, coating)

Melting parts of base material

Specific heat, melt temperature and interval, heat


conductivity, heat expansion coefficient, homogeneity, time

Reaction of passing welding


consumable with arc atmosphere

Compositionof atmosphere, affinity, pressure,


temperature, dissotiation, ionisation, reaction speed

Reaction of passed welding consumable


with molten base material

Solubility relations, temperature and pressure under


influence of heat source, specific weight,
weld pool flux

Interaction between weld pool and solid


base material (possibly weld passes)

Diffusion and position change processes, time,


boundary formation, ordered - unordered structure

Reaction of metal and flux


with atmosphere

Affinity, temperature, pressure, time

Solidification of weld pool and slag

Melt heat, cooling conditions, density and


porosity of slag, solidification interval

Cooling of welded joint in


solid condition

Phase diagrams (time dependent), heat conductivity,


heat coefficient, shear strength, ductility

10

Post-weld heat treatment


if necessary

Phase diagrams (time dependent), texture by warm


deformation, ductility, module of elasticity

10

Sustainable alteration of
material properties

Phase diagrams, operating temperature, mechanical


and chemical strain, time

Based on the binary system,


the formation of the different
structure zones is shown in
Figure 8.3. So the coarse
grain zone occurs in areas
1

of

intensely

elevated

austenitising temperature for

7
8

example. At the same time,


hardness peaks appear in

5
9

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these
greatly

areas

because

reduced

of

Classification of Welding Process Into


Individual Mechanisms

critical

cooling rate and the coarse

Figure 8.2

8. Technical Heat Treatment

96

austenite grains. This zone of the weld is the area, where the worst toughness values are
found.
In Figure 8.4 you can see how much the forma-

hardness peak

hardness sink

weld bead

can be influenced.

1500
incomplete melt

C
1300

width is achieved. Using a three pass tech-

standard
transformation

ences in the formation of heat affected zones

800

recrystallisation

With the use of different procedures, the differ-

1147

1000
G

incomplete
crystallisation

nique, the HAZ is reduced to only 8 mm.

1200

ageing
blue brittleness

mm thick plate, a HAZ of approximately 30 mm

Temperature

coarse grain

723

P
600

400

300
100
0,2

2,06

Applying an electroslag one pass weld of a 200

0,8

zones of unfavourable mechanical properties

Hardness

tion of the individual structure zones and the

1
2 % 3
carbon content

heat affected zone


(visible in macro section)

become even clearer as shown in Figure 8.5.


These effects can actively be used to the ad-

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ISF 2002

Microstructure Zones of a Weld Relation to Binary System

vantage of the material, for example to adjust


calculated mechanical properties to one's
choice or to remove negative effects of a weld-

Figure 8.3

ing. Particularly with high-strength fine grained steels and high-alloyed materials, which are
specifically optimised to achieve special quality, e.g. corrosion resistance against a certain
attacking

medium,

this

post-weld heat treatment is


of great importance.
Figure 8.6 shows areas in
the Fe-C diagram of different heat treatment methods. It is clearly visible that
the carbon content (and
also the content of other
alloying elements) has a
distinct influence on the
Figure 8.4

level of annealing tempera-

8. Technical Heat Treatment

97

tures like e.g. coarse-grain heat treatment or normalising.


It can also be seen that the start of martensite formation (MS-line) is shifted to continuously
decreasing temperatures with increasing C-content. This is important e.g. for hardening
processes (to be explained later).

metastable system iron-carbon (partially)


1600

100

1536
C

d - solid solution

electron beam welding

A4 1392
cbc
atomic lattice

1600

melt +
d - solid solution

1493C

H
B
d - solid
solution + austenite
N

melt

1400 heat colors


melt + austenite

1300 yellow white

1300

1200

diffusion heat treatment

2,06

1100
coarse grain
heat treatment

1000

40

submerged arc welding


pass / capped pass

stress relieving

600
cbc
500
atomic lattice

dark red
brown red

300

0,5
5

eutektoidic
steel

0
Fe
0

200

hypereutectoidic steel

hypoeutectoidic steel

ISF 2002

cherry-red

700

dark brown

MS

100

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light red

800

500

tempering

hardening

200

20

yellow red

900

400

300

gas metal
arc welding

yellow

1000

600

recrystallisation heat treatment


Q

400

12

light yellow

cm

cfc
no
atomic lattice
rm
A3 911 G ha alis
rde ing
austenite
nin +
austenite
austenite + secondary
g
(g - Mischkristalle)
+ ferrite
cementite (Fe3C)
A2 800M 769C
O
S
K
A1
P 723C
soft annealing
ferrite700
(a-solid solution) recrystallisation heat treatment

1200
1147
1100

100

0,8
1,5
1
Carbon content in weight %

10
15
20
25
Cementite content in weight %

20

30

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ISF 2002

Metallurgical Survey of
Heat Treatment Methods

Development of Heat Affected Zone of


EB, Sub-Arc, and MIG-MAG Welding

Figure 8.5

Figure 8.6

As this diagram does not


cover the time influence,
only constant stop-temperaC

tures can be read, predic-

intense
heating

austenite

long time
several hours

900

possible. Thus the individual

Temperature

cooling-down rates are not

austenite
+ ferrite

A3
A1

Temperature

tions about heating-up and


700

ferrite +
perlite
500

heat treatment methods will


be explained by their temperature-time-behaviour

in

300
0,4
0,8
C-Content

Time
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the following.

Coarse Grain Heat Treatment

Figure 8.7

8. Technical Heat Treatment

98

Figure 8.7 shows in the detail to the right a T-t course of coarse grain heat treatment of an
alloy containing 0,4 % C. A coarse grain heat treatment is applied to create a grain size as
large as possible to improve machining properties. In the case of welding, a coarse grain is
unwelcome, although unavoidable as a consequence of the welding cycle. You can learn
from Figure 8.7 that there are two methods of coarse grain heat treatment. The first way is to
austenite at a temperature close above A3 for a couple of hours followed by a slow cooling
process. The second method is very important to the welding process. Here a coarse grain is
formed at a temperature far above A3 with relatively short periods.
Figure 8.8 shows schemati-

900

mecha-

nisms, they must not be

500
400
300

used as reading off examples.

To

determine

t8/5,

distribution,

MS

200
100
2

hardness values, or microstructure

bainite

structure

martensite

running

A1
perlite

600

ferrite

(Note: the curves explain

700

A3

e lin

haviour in a TTT-diagram.

austenite

ferrit

Temperature

cally time-temperature be-

0
0,1

are

3
1

10

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Time

4
10

6
s

1: Normalizing
2: Simple hardening
3: Broken hardening
4: Hot dip hardening
5: Bainitic annealing
6: Patenting (isothermal
annealing)

10
ISF 2002

TTT-Diagram With Heat Treatment Processes

TTT-diagrams always read


continuously or isothermally.
Mixed types like curves 3 to

Figure 8.8

6 are not allowed for this purpose!).


The most important heat treatment methods can be divided into sections of annealing, hardening and tempering, and these single processes can be used individually or combined. The
normalising process is shown in Figure 8.9. It is used to achieve a homogeneous ferriteperlite structure. For this purpose, the steel is heat treated approximately 30C above Ac3
until homogeneous austenite evolves. This condition is the starting point for the following
hardening and/or quenching and tempering treatment. In the case of hypereutectoid steels,
austenisation takes place above the A1 temperature. Heating-up should be fast to keep the
austenite grain as fine as possible (see TTA-diagram, chapter 2). Then air cooling follows,
leading normally to a transformation in the ferrite condition (see Figure 8.8, line 1; formation
of ferrite and perlite, normalised micro-structure).

8. Technical Heat Treatment

99
To harden a material, austenisation and homogenisation is carried out also at

austenite

transformation and homogenizing


of g-solid solution (30-60 min)
at 30C above A3

900

this case one must watch

A3
A1

Temperature

Temperature

austenite
+ ferrite

30C above AC3. Also in

700
ferrite +
perlite

that the austenite grains

quick heating

remain as small as possi-

500

air cooling

ble. To ensure a complete


300

transformation to marten0,4

0,8
C-Content

Time

site, a subsequent quench-

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ing

Normalizing

follows

until

the

temperature is far below


Figure 8.9

the Ms-temperature, Figure


8.10. The cooling rate dur-

ing quenching must be high enough to cool down from the austenite zone directly into the
martensite zone without any further phase transitions (curve 2 in Figure 8.8). Such quenching
processes build-up very high thermal stresses which may destroy the workpiece during hardening. Thus there are variations of this process, where perlite formation is suppressed, but
due to a smaller temperature gradient thermal stresses remain on an uncritical level (curves
3 and 4 in Figure 8.8). This
can be achieved in practice
for example- through stopa

water

quenching

process at a certain temcooling with a milder cooling


medium (oil). With longer
holding on at elevated tem-

about 30C above A3

900
austenite
+ ferrite
Temperature

perature and continuing the

austenite

ferrite +
perlite

quenching
in water

500
start of martensite
formation

start of martensite
formation

300
0,4

0,8
C-Content

Time

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Hardening

through in the bainite area


(curves 5 and 6).

A1

700

perature level, transformations can also be carried

A3
Temperature

ping

Figure 8.10

8. Technical Heat Treatment

100

Figure 8.11 shows the quenching and tempering procedure. A hardening is followed by another heat treatment below Ac1. During this tempering process, a break down of martensite
takes place. Ferrite and cementite are formed. As this change causes a very fine microstructure, this heat treatment leads to very good
mechanical properties like
austenite

hardening and tempering

ness.

A3
A1

Temperature

austenite
+ ferrite
Temperature

e.g. strength and tough-

about 30C above A3

900

700
ferrite +
perlite

quenching
slow
cooling

500

Figure 8.12 shows the procedure of soft-annealing.

300
0,4

Time

0,8
C-Content

Here we aim to adjust a


ISF 2002

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soft and suitable micro-

Hardening and Tempering

structure
Figure 8.11

for

machining.

Such a structure is characterised by mostly globular

formed cementite particles, while the lamellar structure of the perlite is resolved (in Figure
8.12 marked by the circles, to the left: before, to the right: after soft-annealing). For hypoeutectic steels, this spheroidizing of cementite is achieved by a heat treatment close below A1.
With these steels, a part of the cementite bonded carbon dissolves during heat treating close
below A1, the remaining cementite lamellas transform with time into balls, and the bigger
ones grow at the expense of
the smaller ones (a transfor-

time dependent on workpiece

mation is carried out because

thermodynami-

cally more favourable condition).

Hypereutectic

austenite
+ ferrite

oscillation annealing
+ / - 20 degrees around A1

10 to 20C
below A1

A3
A1

Temperature

reduced

900

Temperature

the surface area is strongly

austenite

700
ferrite +
perlite

or

500

steels
300

have in addition to the lamel-

0,4

lar structure of the perlite a


cementite

network

on

0,8
C-Content

Time
cementite

the
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grain boundaries.

Soft Annealing

Figure 8.12

8. Technical Heat Treatment

101

Spheroidizing of cementite is achieved by making use of the transformation processes during


oscillating around A1. When exceeding A1 a transformation of ferrite to austenite takes place
with a simultaneous solution of a certain amount of carbon according to the binary system Fe
C. When the temperature drops below A1 again and is kept about 20C below until the transformation is completed, a
re-precipitation of cementite on existing nuclei takes
C

place. The repetition of this

austenite

900

process leads to a step-

A3
A1

Temperature

Temperature

austenite
+ ferrite
700
ferrite +
perlite

wise spheroidizing of ce-

time dependent on workpiece

between
450 and
650 C

500

mentite and the frequent


transformation

avoids

grain coarsening. A soft-

300
0,4

0,8
C-Content

annealed

Time

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Stress Relieving

microstructure

represents frequently the


delivery condition of a material.

Figure 8.13

Figure 8.13 shows the principle of a stress-relieve heat treatment. This heat treatment is
used to eliminate dislocations which were caused by welding, deforming, transformation etc.
to improve the toughness of a workpiece. Stress-relieving works only if present dislocations
are able to move, i.e. plastic structure deformations must be executable in the micro-range. A
temperature increase is the
commonly used method to
Stress releaving

Heat treatment at a temperature below the lower transition point A1 , mostly


between 600 and 650C, with subsequent slow cooling for relief of internal
stresses; there is no substantial change of present properties.

Normalising

Heating to a temperature slightly above the upper transition point A3


(hypereutectoidic steels above the lower transition point A1 ), followed by
cooling in tranquil atmosphere.

Hardening (quench
hardening)

Acooling from a temperature above the transition point A3 or A1 with such a


speed that an clear increase of hardness occurs at the surface or across
the complete cross-section, normally due to martensite development.

Quenching and
tempering

Heat treatment to achieve a high ductility with defined tensile stress by


hardening and subsequent tempering (mostly at a higher temperature.

should not cause any other

Solution or
quenching heat
treatment

Fast cooling of a workpiece. Also fast cooling of austenitic steels from high
temperature (mostly above 1000C) to develop an almost homogenuous
micro-structure with high ductility is called 'quenching heat treatment'.

change to properties, so that

Tempering

Heating after previous hardening, cold working or welding to a temperature


between room temperature and the lower transformation point A1; stopping
at this temperature and subsequent purposeful cooling.

make

such

deformations

possible because the yield


strength limit decreases with
increasing temperature. A
stress-relieve heat treatment

tempering steels are heat


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treated

below

tempering
Type and Purpose of Heat Treatment

temperature.
Figure 8.14

8. Technical Heat Treatment

102

Figure 8.14 shows a survey of heat treatments which are important to welding as well as their
purposes.
Figure 8.15 shows princi-

Types of heat treatments


related to welding

heat
treatment
before
welding

combination

accompanying
heat treatment

pally the heat treatments in


heat treatment
after welding
(post-weld heat
treatment)

combination

connection with welding.


Heat treatment processes

simple
step-hardening
welding

annealing

stress
releaving

stress
releaving

combination

preheating

simple
preheating

local
preheating

increase of
working
temperature

preheating of the
complete workpiece

pure
step hardening
welding

constant
working
temperature
isothermal
welding

modified
step hardening
welding

are divided into: before,

annealing hardening quenching


and
tempering

solution tempering
heat
treatment

Normally a stress-relieving

postheating
(post weld heat
treatment)

heat treatment
of the complete
workpiece

during, and after welding.


or normalizing heat treat-

local heat
treatment

ment

is

applied

before

welding to adjust a proper


ISF 2002

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material condition which for


Heat Treatment in Connection With Welding

welding. After welding, almost any possible heat

Figure 8.15

treatment can be carried


out. This is only limited by workpiece dimensions/shapes or arising costs. The most important section of the diagram is the kind of heat
800

treatment which accom-panies the welding.

C
700

The most important processes are explained in


600

Figure 8.16 represents the influence of differ-

Temperature T

the following.

500

400

ent accompanying heat treatments during

300

welding, given within a TTT-diagram. The fast-

200

est cooling is achieved with welding without

TA

MS

(1)

(2)

(3)

100

preheating, with addition of a small share of


0
0

bainite, mainly martensite is formed (curve 1,

10

102
Time t

103

104

105

tH

analogous to Figure 8.8, hardening). A simple


heating before welding without additional stopping time lowers the cooling rate according to

(1): Welding without preheating,


(2): Welding with preheating up to 380C, without stoppage time
(3): Welding with preheating up to 380C and about 10 min. stoppage time
TA: Stoppage temperature, tH: Dwell time

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ISF 2002

TTT-Diagram for
Different Welding Conditions

curve 2. The proportion of martensite is reduced in the forming structure, as well as the
Figure 8.16

8. Technical Heat Treatment

103

level of hardening. If the material is hold at a temperature above MS during welding (curve 3),
then the martensite formation will be completely suppressed (see Figure 8.8, curve 4 and 5).

To explain the temperature-time-behaviours

seam

start

used in the following, Figure 8.17 shows a su-

end

TS

perposition of all individual influences on the


A3

the HAZ. As an example, welding with simple


preheating is selected.
The plate is preheated in a period tV. After re-

Temperature T

materials as well as the resulting T-T-course in

transformation
range

A1

TV

moval of the heat source, the cooling of the


workpiece starts. When tS is reached, welding

Time t

starts, and its temperature peak overlays the


cooling curve of the base material. When the
welding is completed, cooling period tA starts.
The full line represents the resulting tempera-

tV

tS

TV: Preheat temperature,


TS: Melting temperature of material,
tV: Preheat time,
tS: Welding time,
tA: Cooling time (room temperature),
MS: Martensite start temperature
A3: Upper transformation temperature,
A1: Lower transformation temperature

tA
Course of resulting
temperature in the
area of the heat
affected zone of
the base material.
Temperature
distribution by
preheating,
Course of
temperature
during welding.

ture-time-behaviour of the HAZ.


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Temperature-Time-Distribution
During Welding With Preheating

The temperature time course during welding


with simple preheating is shown in Figure 8.18.

ISF 2002

Figure 8.17

During a welding time tS a


drop of the working temTemperature T

A3

perature TA occurs. A further air cooling is usually

A1

carried out, however, the


TV

cooling rate can also be

TA

reduced by covering with

Time t
tV

tS

TV: Preheat temperature,


TA: Working temperature,
tV: Preheat time,
tS: Welding time,
tA: Cooling time (room temperature)

heat insulating materials.

tA

Temperature of workpiece,
Temperature of weld point

Another variant of welding


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Welding With Simple Preheating

with preheating is welding


at

Figure 8.18

constant

temperature.

working
This

is

8. Technical Heat Treatment

104
achieved through further
warming during welding to

A3
Temperature T

avoid a drop of the working


A1

temperature. In Figure 8.19


is this case (dashed line,

TV
TA

MS

TA needs not to be above


MS) as well as the special

Time t
tS
tV

tH = 0

TV: Preheat temperature,


TA: Working temperature,
tV: Preheat time,

case of isothermal welding

tA

tH

illustrated. During isother-

tS: Welding time,


tA: Cooling time (room temperature),
tH: Dwell time

mal welding, the workpiece


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is heated up to a working

Welding With Preheating and


Stoppage at Working Temperature

temperature

Figure 8.19

above

MS

(start of martensite formation) and is also held there

after welding until a transformation of the austenitised areas has been completed. The aim of
isothermal welding is to cool down in accordance with curve 3 in Figure 8.16 and in this way,
to suppress martensite formation.
1. Post-heating

Figure 8.20 shows the T-T course during


treatment, see Figure 8.15). Such a treatment
can be carried out very easy, a gas welding

A3
Temperature T

welding with post-warming (subsequent heat

A1
TN

torch is normally used for a local preheating.


Time t

In this way, the toughness properties of some

tS
tN

steels can be greatly improved. The lower

tA

2. Pre- and post-heating

sketch shows a combination of pre- and poststeels which have such a strong tendency to

Temperature T

heat treatment. Such a treatment is applied to

A3
A1
TN

TV

TA

hardening that a cracking in spite of a simple


Time t

preheating before welding cannot be avoided,


if they cool down directly from working temperature. Such materials are heat treated

tV

tS

TV: Preheat temperature,


TA: Working temperature,
TN: Postheat temperature,
tV: Preheating time,

tN

tR

tS:
tA:
tN:
tR:

tA

Welding time,
Cooling time (room temperature),
Postheat time
Stoppage time

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ISF 2002

Welding With
Pre- and Post-Heating

immediately after welding at a temperature


between 600 and 700C, so that a formation
Figure 8.20

8. Technical Heat Treatment

105

of martensite is avoided and welding residual stresses are eliminated simultaneously.


Aims of the modified stephardening

Temperature T

THa

not be discussed here, Fig-

A1

ure 8.21. Such treatments


are used for transformation-

TAnl

inert materials. The aim of

MS
TAnl

the figure is to show how

Time t

complicated a heat treatment

tS
tH

tA

tH

tHa

tAnl

tA

can become for a material in

tAb
TA: Working temperature,
TAnl: Tempering temperature,
TH: Hardening temperature,

should

A3

TA

TSt

welding

TSt: Step temperature,


tA: Cooling time,
tAb: Quenching time,

tAnl: Tempering time,


tH: Dwell time,
tS: Welding time

Temperature of workpiece,
Temperature of weld point

combination with welding.

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Modified Step Weld Hardening

Figure 8.22 shows temperature distribution during multi-

Figure 8.21

pass welding. The solid line


represents the T-T course of a point in the HAZ
in the first pass. The root pass was welded
without preheating. Subsequent passes were

weld pass
heat affected zone

welded without cooling down to a certain temperature. As a result, working temperature in-

4
3
weld pass
2
1
observed point

TS

second pass is welded under a preheat temperature which is already above martensite
start temperature. The heat which remains in

Temperature T

creases with the number of passes. The


A3

TV
MS

the workpiece preheats the upper layers of the


Time t

weld, the root pass is post-heat treated through

tS
tV

tA

the same effect. During welding of the last


pass, the preheat temperature has reached
such a high level that the critical cooling rate
will not be surpassed. A favourable effect of

TV: Preheat temperature,


TS: Melting temperature of material,
tV: Preheat time,
tS: Welding time
tA: Cooling time (room temperature),
A3: Upper transformation temperature,
MS: Martensite start temperature
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multi-pass welding is the warming of the HAZ

Temperature-Time Distribution
During Multi-Pass Welding

of each previous pass above recrystallisation


temperature with the corresponding crystallisa-

ISF 2004

Figure 8.22

8. Technical Heat Treatment

106

tion effects in the HAZ. The coarse grain zone with its unfavourable mechanical properties is
only present in the HAZ of the last layer. To achieve optimum mechanical values, welding is
not carried out to Figure 8.22. As a rule, the same welding conditions should be applied for all
passes and prescribed t8/5 times must be kept, welding of the next pass will not be carried
out before the previous pass has cooled down to a certain temperature (keeping the interpass temperature). In addition, the workpiece will not heat up to excessively high temperatures.
Figure 8.23 shows a nomogram where working temperature and minimum and maximum
heat input for some steels can be interpreted, depending on carbon equivalent and wall thickness.
If e.g. the water quenched and tempered fine grain structural steel S690QL of 40 mm wall
thickness is welded, the following data can be found:
- minimum heat input between 5.5 and 6 kJ/cm
- maximum heat input about 22 kJ/cm
- preheating to about 160C
- after welding, residual stress relieving between 530 and 600C.
Steels which are placed in
the hatched area called
soaking

area,

must

be

treated with a hydrogen


relieve annealing. Above
this area, a stress relieve
annealing must be carried
out. Below this area, a
post-weld heat treatment is
not required.

Figure 8.23