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Last Updated: Mon Jan 27 11:18:09 UTC 2014

PLA Cruise Missiles


PLA Air - Surface Missiles
T echnical Report APA-T R-2009-0803
Dr Carlo Kopp, AFAIAA, SMIEEE, PEng
Dr Martin Andrew, RAAF(Retd)
August 2009
Updated December, 2009
Updated August, 2010
Updated April, 2012

T ext 2008 - 2012 Carlo Kopp, Martin Andrew

The ground launched CJ-10 Long Sword is a strategic cruise missile modelled on the United States BGM-109G
GLCM and Soviet RK-55 Relief, the latter both scrapped under treaty obligations. Chinese sources credit this
missile with a range of up to 1,100 nautical miles. It carries a range of different 770 lb or 1,100 lb warheads. The
PLA Second Artillery Force has currently up to 30 deployed TELs (Chinese internet).
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Background
T actical Cruise Missiles
HIAC C-101 / YJ-16 / CSS-C-5 Saples
CHET A HY-1 / CSS-C-2 Silkworm
CHET A SY-1/FL-1 Flying Dragon / CSS-N-1 Scrubbrush
CHET A C-201/HY-2 / CSS-N-2 / CSS-C-3 Seersucker/Silkworm
HAIC SY-2/SY-2A/FL-2 / CSS-N-5 Sabot
CHET A C-201W / HY-4/HY-4A/G / HY-41 / CSS-C-7 Sadsack
C-301 / FL-3 / CSS-C-6 Sawhorse
CHET A YJ-6/C-601 / YJ-61/C-611 / CAS-1 Kraken
CHET A YJ-63/KD-63
CASIC YJ-62/C-602
CHET A C-701/C-701KD, C-704/C-704KD, C-705
CHET A YJ-8/YJ-81/C-801, YJ-82/C-802, YJ-83/C-803 and KD-88
KD-88 Air Launched Anti-Ship Cruise Missile
Strategic Cruise Missiles
CJ-10 Long Sword / DH-10
Notes/Sources

Background
The P L A is a major user of cruise missile technology, and China both manufactures and
exports a wide range of cruise missiles in all categories.
The P L A's preoccupation with cruise missiles reflects the historical reality that until the
advent of the modern Su-30MK K/MK2 and FH-7 fighters, China lacked aircraft capable of
penetrating any defences.
China's first generation of cruise missiles were based on the Soviet Styx, and derivatives of
this 1950s design remain in production. More recent Chinese designs are modelled on the
W estern Exocet, Harpoon and Tomahawk families of missiles.
In addition to domestically built cruise missiles, China also operates the imported Russian
supersonic 3M80E Moskit / SS-N-22 Sunburn, and the 3M54/3M14 Klub/Kalibr / SS-N-27
Sizzler missiles.
Soviet/Russian Cruise Missiles [Click here ...]

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Tactical Cruise Missiles


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HIAC C-101 / YJ-16 / CSS-C-5 Saples

The C-101 is China's first indigenous supersonic cruise missile. This design is analogous to
Soviet first generation supersonic cruise missiles, but is a unique design employing ramjet
propulsion in an arrangement most akin to the Bristol Bloodhound SAM.
The missile uses a pair of jettisonable solid rocket boosters which accelerate it up to Mach
1.8. upon which the 180 kN ramjet sustainers are started and the missile accelerates up to
its cruise speed of ~Mach 2.0. The sustainers are fuelled with 200 kg of aviation kerosene.
The cruise altitude is programmed at 50 metres A MSL, and terminal closure to target from a
distance of 5 km to impact is at 5 metres AMSL. Range is cited at 45 km.
Two variants exist, one for air launch, the other for surface combatants.
Launch Weight [kg]
Length [m]
Diameter [m]
Span [m]

Ship Launch Variant


1,850
6.5
0.54
1.62

Air Launch Variant


1,500
7.5
0.54
1.62

The pulse Doppler active radar seeker operates in the 2 centimetre band. A 300 kg semiarmour piercing warhead is employed. Hydraulically actuated canards are used for pitch
control, and tail surfaces for roll and yaw control. An unusual feature are the dorsal and
smaller ventral vertical stabiliser fins.
I O C was achieved during the 1990s, with the weapon used as a replacement for the H Y-2
and Y J-6 while the P L A awaited the delivery of newer Russian missiles. The surface launched
C-101 has been reported deployed on Heku/Komar class and other fast missile boats, the air
launched variant on the H-6 Badger, H-5 Beagle and SH-5 LRMP.

CHETA HY-1 / CSS-C-2 Silkworm


CHETA SY-1/FL-1 Flying Dragon / CSS-N-1 Scrubbrush

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PLA warship launching an HY-1 missile.

The H Y-1 is a reverse engineered P -15 Termit / SS-N-2 Styx. Development of this clone
commenced during the early 1960s, after the Sino-Soviet split, using samples of Soviet
supplied weapons. The missile was eventually certified for production in 1974. The SY-1 is
launched like the Styx from a tube launcher on a missile boat, the H Y-1 from an elevating
launcher on a turntable, either carried by warship or trailer in coastal battery variants. The
missile is carried on Luda class DDGs and Jianghu class FFGs, as well as fast missile boats.
The H Y-1A is an improved variant with a more compact warhead and slightly increased fuel
payload and range.
W hile the Styx family of cruise missiles is widely regarded to be obsolete today, and too
large and slow to penetrate modern defences on warships, the missile remains strategically
important, due to its lethality and wide deployment. U sed against transports, tankers,
amphibious ships and other targets without defensive systems, the missile is highly lethal.
Not only does it carry a large warhead, but the unburned hypergolic fuel produces
considerable incendiary effect.

PLA Silkworm (Styx) coastal defence battery.

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CHETA C-201/HY-2 / CSS-N-2 / CSS-C-3 Seersucker/Silkworm

Fuelling up a HY-2 missile. The toxic and corrosive AK-20F/TG-02 propellant mix necessitates the use of chemical
suits, a major operational encumbrance for this family of missiles.

Commonly labelled as the Silkworm, the H Y-2 Seersucker is a re-engineered and stretched
H Y-1 Silkworm, and remains one of China's most widely exported weapon systems. The ~1.5
metre fuselage extension provides ~700 kg larger fuel capacity than the Styx series, roughly
doubling range to ~110 N MI. The weapon retains the 513 kg full fuselage diameter shaped
charge warhead of the original Styx. The missile will cruise at 300 - 1,000 ft A MSL until its
seeker acquires the target, upon which it descends to ~25 - 100 ft A MSL, depending on
variant, for the terminal homing approach to the target.
Known variants include the:
A. H Y-2A - the conscan active radar seeker was replaced with a scanning infrared terminal
seeker.
B. HY -2A-II - improved HY -2A.
C. H Y-2B - the conscan active radar seeker was replaced with an improved monopulse
seeker with better jam resistance and clutter rejection.
D. HY -2B-II - improved HY -2B.
E. HY -2C - the conscan active radar seeker was replaced with a television terminal seeker.
F. HY -2G - an improved radar altimeter was employed for more precise altitude control.
G. HY -2J - variant exported to Iraq during the 1980s.
The weapon is reported to have been exported to Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Albania, Zaire, Pakistan,
Bangladesh, Myanmar, and North Korea, with the latter reported to have a manufacturing
capability for the weapon. There are claims that Iran's H Y-2s were supplied via North Korea.
Numerous sources also claim Iran is manufacturing its own H Y-2 missiles, using production
plant supplied by the PRC.
W hile the Styx family of cruise missiles is widely regarded to be obsolete today, and too
large and slow to penetrate modern defences on warships, the missile remains strategically
important, due to its lethality and wide deployment. U sed against transports, tankers,
amphibious ships and other targets without defensive systems, the missile is highly lethal.
Not only does it carry a large warhead, but the unburned hypergolic fuel produces
considerable incendiary effect.

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Late model HY-2J operated by the Baathist regime in Iraq, captured by Coalition forces. Note the access panels
(US DoD).

HY-2G variant.

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Iranian HY-2 coastal battery towed launcher (FARS).

HAIC SY-2/SY-2A/FL-2 / CSS-N-5 Sabot

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The SY-2 / CSS-N-5 Sabot is a solid rocket powered derivative of the Styx. It is readily distinguished by the
cylindrical fuselage shape and pair of small horizontal surfaces at the base of the vertical stabiliser.

The SY-2 is the replacement missile for the earlier SY-1 cloned Styx, intended for
deployment from surface combatants and coastal batteries. W hile it is a Styx derivative, it
is a substantial redesign with a solid propellant rocket motor rather than the cumbersome
liquid propellant design of the Styx. It is often mislabelled in the literature as one of the
two earlier liquid propellant variants.
W hile the basic airframe configuration is the same, and the wings and anhedralled tail likely
identical, the new fuselage is cylindrical but longer. Development of this weapon was
initiated during the 1970s and I O C achieved during the 1990s. There are claims that the
improved SY-2A has a turbojet powerplant, but little material is available on this weapon.
The basic version has a cited range of 50 - 130 km.
The SY-2 is deployed on a number of surface combatants previously armed with Styx
variants.
The export variant of this missile is the FL-2. This weapon is believed to have been exported
to Iran, as pictures of it appear frequently on Iranian websites.
W hile the Styx family of cruise missiles is widely regarded to be obsolete today, and too
large and slow to penetrate modern defences on warships, the missile remains strategically
important, due to its lethality and wide deployment. U sed against transports, tankers,
amphibious ships and other targets without defensive systems, the missile is highly lethal.

Display model of export FL-2 variant.

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FL-2 coastal battery self-propelled launcher of the PLA.

CHETA C-201W / HY-4/HY-4A/G / HY-41 / CSS-C-7 Sadsack


Iranian FL-2 coastal battery self-propelled launcher (FARS).

The C-201W / H Y-4 / CSS-C-7 Sadsack is the first turbojet powered derivative of the Styx
family of cruise missiles, and is a unique Chinese development. The engine is reported to be
the W S-11 which is also used in some P L A UAVs. This design is a clone of the U S TeledyneRyan CA E J69-T-41A engine, rated at 880 lbf at 22,600 rpm, used in the A Q M-34 Firebee
reconnaissance UAV, numerous examples of which strayed into Chinese airspace during the

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Vietnam conflict. The US engine itself a licenced version of the French Turbomeca Marbore.
The H Y-4 uses guidance components from later variants of the H Y-2, and the basic
configuration employs the common monopulse active radar seeker. The standard 512 kg
shaped charge warhead is retained. Cited range performance is 135 - 150 km.
The HY -41/XW -41 is an improved variant, with a cited range performance of 200 - 300 km.
The H Y-4 was exported during the 1990s. Iran is reported to have been a major recipient,
with an indigenous variant now being publicly displayed. The stretched Raad cruise missile
is claimed to have a range of 350 km / 190 NMI, and an indigenous DB-38 seeker.

Export HY-4 have been marketed as the C-201W.

The XW-41 is an improved HY-4.

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C-301 / FL-3 / CSS-C-6 Sawhorse


Iranian propaganda image of the Raad, a stretched and re-engineered HY-4 Sadsack cruise missile, with a claimed
range of 350 km / 190 NMI, and an indigenous DB-38 seeker. The self-propelled launcher is also of Iranian design.
Note the dorsal inlets.

The C-301 is a Chinese analogue to the Russian Shaddock/Sandbox family of supersonic


anti-ship cruise missiles, but employs ramjet rather than the turbojet propulsion used in the
Russian designs.
The missile is based on similar technology to the C-101, but is significantly faster, and
claimed to be much longer ranging. The C-301 does not appear to have been deployed in
significant numbers, and was only produced in the coastal defence variant due to its large
size.

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CHETA YJ-6/C-601 / YJ-61/C-611 / CAS-1 Kraken

The CAS-1 Kraken series of missiles are air launched derivatives of the C-201/H Y-2 / CSS-N2 / CSS-C-3 Seersucker cruise missile. The basic weapon is in most respects identical to the
HY -2, with necessary modifications for air launch such as dorsal hardpoints.
The Kraken is most frequently seen carried in pairs by the H-6D Badger variant operated by
the P L A-N, and exported in small numbers to the Middle East. The H-6D is largely identical
to the baseline H-6A/B variants, but is equipped with the Type 245 attack radar, itself based
on the Soviet Square Tie fire control radar developed for the Styx armed Komar and O sa
boats.
The Kraken has also been reported on the H-5 Beagle, which carries a single round.
The Y J-61/C-611 is an improved variant. It has a slightly extended fuselage, and is claimed
to use a higher energy density propellant mix and better engine design. Cited range for the
Y J-6/C-601 is ~100 km, for the Y J-61/C-611 ~200 km. Terminal phase altitudes are cited at
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50, 70 and 500 metres AMSL.


W hile the Styx family of cruise missiles is widely regarded to be obsolete today, and too
large and slow to penetrate modern defences on warships, the missile remains strategically
important, due to its lethality and wide deployment. U sed against transports, tankers,
amphibious ships and other targets without defensive systems, the missile is highly lethal.

CAS-1 Kraken on a H-6D Badger (PLA-N).

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H-5 Beagle of the PLA-AF.

CHETA YJ-63/KD-63

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The recently revealed Y J-63/KD-63 is a derivative of the air-breathing HY -4 Sadsack. W hile it


retains the delta wing and fuselage shape of the H Y-4, it uses a new cruciform tail design,
and includes a television / datalink terminal guidance package, with a reported satellite
aided inertial midcourse guidance package. More recently images have emerged of a variant
with a dielectric nose radome, equipped with a radar or anti-radiation seeker.
It is thus a dual role weapon, capable of precision strikes against land and maritime targets.
It is carried by the newly designed H-6H Badger variant, replacing the pair of CAS-1 Krakens
carried by earlier variants. Range is cited at around 100 nautical miles.

CASIC YJ-62/C-602

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Launch of a 'Tomahawk-like' PLA-N YJ-62/C-602 cruise missile .

The Y J-62 cruise missile is a P L A N analogue to the anti-shipping variants of the RGM-109
Tomahawk/MRASM. The weapon has a similar general configuration to the Tomahawk family,
but employs a unique fixed scoop inlet for the air breathing engine.
Claims for this weapon include an active radar homing seeker with a monopulse antenna,
GP S/Glonass/inertial midcourse guidance, alternate turbojet and turbofan engines, and ship,
sub, coastal battery and air launch configurations.
Cited specifications include a length of 6.1/7.0 metres, launch mass of 1,140/1,350 kg,
warhead mass of 300 kg, cruise speed of 0.9 Mach, range for turbojet variant of 280 km /
150 N MI, and dual mode anti-ship and coastal target capability similar to later blocks of
the Harpoon.
The Y J-62 is claimed to have been deployed on the Type 052C Luyang II destroyer.

Detail of YJ-62/C-602 cruise missile at Zhuhai 2008 (images 2009, Zhenguan Studio).

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Detail of YJ-62/C-602 cruise missile at Zhuhai 2008 (images 2009, Zhenguan Studio).

Detail of YJ-62/C-602 cruise missile at Zhuhai 2008 (images 2009, Zhenguan Studio).

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Detail of YJ-62/C-602 cruise missile at Zhuhai 2008 (images 2009, Zhenguan Studio).

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YJ-62 radome in test (CASIC).

YJ-62 CONOPS diagram for baseline turbojet variant (CASIC).

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YJ-62 three round TEL on 8 x 8 vehicle (Chinese internet).

YJ-62 three round TEL on 8 x 8 vehicle (Chinese internet).

YJ-62 three round TEL on 8 x 8 vehicle (Chinese internet).

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YJ-62 three round TEL on 8 x 8 vehicle (Chinese internet).

CHETA C-701/C-701KD, C-704/C-704KD, C-705

Above C-704 cruise missile with active radar seeker (images 2009, Zhenguan Studio).

The C-701 and C-704 missiles are analogues to the French Exocet family of missiles,
available with a range of active radar and electro-optical terminal seekers.

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C-704KD Electro-Optical variants with gimballed TV and IIR seekers, at Zhuhai 2008. The IIR version uses a
Magnesium Fluoride window (images 2009, Zhenguan Studio).

C-701 anti-ship cruise missile with active radar seeker displayed at Zhuhai 2008 (image 2009, Zhenguan
Studio).

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C-701KD variant with Electro-Optical seeker.

The C-705 is a planar wing derivative of the C-701/704 family of weapons. It was first displayed at Zhuhai 2008
(image 2009, Zhenguan Studio).

CHETA YJ-8/YJ-81/C-801, YJ-82/C-802, YJ-83/C-803 and KD-88

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YJ-82/C-802A cruise missile at Zhuhai 2008 (image 2009, Zhenguan Studio).

China's indigenous response to the Exocet and Harpoon lies in the Y J-8 (CSS-N-4 Sardine)
family of missiles, available in ship, sub, land and air launch variants. The basic air launch
rocket powered Y J-8K achieves 27 N MI (50 km) range, the improved Y J-81 cca 43 N MI (80
km), the turbojet Y J-82 (CSS-N-8 Saccade) cca 65 N MI (120 km), and the recently trialed Y J83 variant around 135 N MI (250 km). These are the primary weapon of many P L A-N
warships, and the FH-7 maritime fighter carrying four rounds. The most recent air launched
variant is designated the KD-88.
The most notable export of this weapon has been to Iran, who operate naval and coastal
battery variants.

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Aft view of YJ-82/C-802A cruise missile at Zhuhai 2008 (image 2009, Zhenguan Studio).

Ship launched C-801 variant.

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Air launched C-801K on FH-7 maritime strike fighter.

C-802 launch from an Iranian surface combatant (FARS).

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Iranian C-802 coastal battery launcher (FARS).

KD-88 Air Launched Anti-Ship Cruise Missile

KD-88 ASCM loaded on a JH-7 Flounder.

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KD-88 ASCM loading on a JH-7 Flounder.

Strategic Cruise Missiles

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Undesignated PLA cruise missile, possibly a DH-10 or HN series prototype.

China has had a long running program aimed at developing strategic land attack cruise
missiles suitable for aerial, sub and ship deployment. Reports abound claiming the P RC has
actively shopped the Middle East for debris from expended or failed Tomahawk rounds. More
recently credible reports emerged claiming China has purchased tooling for the Raduga Kh65SE, the reduced range export variant of the Kh-55 (AS-15 Kent) which is Russia's answer
to the Boeing A GM-86B A LCM. There is also a wealth of documentary evidence covering a
covert operation in which China procured from the U kraine multiple Kh-55 rounds and test
equipment.
Many sources claim that the P L A now operates the indigenous H N-1 (320 N MI/600 km), H N-2
(800+ N MI/1,500+ km) and the H N-3 (1,350 N MI/2,500 km). The sole good quality image to
emerge suggests these weapons are clones of the B GM-109 Tomahawk, suitable for naval
CJ-10 Long
DH-10operational, also resembles a
and aerial launch. The CJ-10/DH-10
cruise Sword
missile, /
declared
Tomahawk.
Given the availability of Russian
technology, the only issue for the
availability to power a genuine
submarines, surface warships and
The recently unveiled H-6H variant

T ERCO M, DSMA C, Glonass, W estern GP S and computer


P L A will lie in good quality 12 inch 600 lb class turbofan
A GM-86/B GM-109 class strategic cruise missile. W ith
H-6H Badgers, there is no shortage of launch platforms.
with four wing pylons is clearly intended for such a role.

Chinese sources report the ground launched CJ-10 to be the GLCM variant of the DH-10 design, carried on a three
round TEL (Chinese Internet).

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The Chang Jian (Long Sword) CJ-10 long range cruise missile system is reported to have
started trials with the Second Artillery Force in 2004 and as of September 2009, between 50
and 250 missiles had been deployed along with between 20 and 30 launch vehicles. [4] Their
existence was initially revealed by Chinese media during the practice parade for 60th
anniversary of the Peoples Republic of China. The system is identified by three long launch
canisters, of octagonal cross section, mounted on the rear of the Chinese W S 2400 8 x 8
Transporter Erector Launcher (T EL), the missile has a reported range of over 1,500 km
(~800 NMI) and up to 2,000 km (~1,100 NMI).
Identified in the 2008 Annual Report to Congress Military P ow er of the P eoples Republic of
China as the DH-10, it is a land based derivative of the Kh-55/AS-15 Kent, at least six being
illegally transferred in 2000 from the U kraine to China.[5] A Chinese article on the CJ-10
commented on W estern military analysts comparing the CJ-10 to the defunct U nited States
B GM-109G Gryphon, and its Soviet equivalent, the 3,000 km (~1,600 N MI) range RK-55 /
SSC-X-4 Slingshot which they claim was developed from the Kh-55 - this is only partly
correct, insofar as the RK-55 Relief / SSC-4 Slingshot was derived from the naval S-10 / 3M10 / RK-55 Granat / SS-N-21 Sampson airframe. [6] It also discussed W estern observers
commenting on the illegal transfer of the Kh-55 and did not deny that, nor that the CJ-10 is
based on the Kh-55.
The missile uses both GLO N ASS and GP S satellite systems for guidance, with four different
types of warheads available; a heavy variant weighing 500kg, and three 350kg variants:
high explosive blast, submunition and earth penetrator. [7]
The W S2400 series 20 tonne 8 x 8 cross-country vehicles are for all intents and purposes
copies of the Russian MA Z-543/7910 8 x 8 T EL, also used previously for the RK-55. W hen
used as the T EL for the CJ-10, it is designated as the P H L-03 and has a maximum road
speed of 60 km/hr with a maximum range of 650km using sealed roads. It can climb a 57%
slope and cross water up to 1.1. metres deep. [8]
Compared to the defunct U nited States GLCM, the CJ-10 has one less missile, and the three
missiles are in separate canisters following the Russian model, whereas on the GLCM
system they were in a single quad-pack launcher. The Russian SSC-X-4 had six launch tubes
on the same T EL so the number of CJ-10 launch canisters could be doubled to six without
unusual difficulty.
The CJ-10, along with the introduction of the Y J-62/C-602 dual-role long-range cruise missile
and the satellite guided DF-15D Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile, is another reason why
Russia would like to scrap the INF Treaty.

DH-10 Cruise Missile illustration.

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References
1. Norman Friedman, The Naval Institute guide to world naval weapons systems, 1997-1998, URI:
http://books.google.com.au/

2. Congressional Report, SELECT COMMITTEE ON U.S. NATIONAL SECURITY AND MILITARY/COMMERCIAL


3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

CONCERNS WITH THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA, 25th May 1999, URI:
http://www.fas.org/spp/starwars/congress/1999_r/cox/ch10bod.htm
SinoDefence.com website, URI: http://www.sinodefence.com/navy/shipboard-system.asp
Zhenmi zhishuai zai puguang ___ Cong Guoqing 60 zhuonian Dayuebing kan jiefang dier paobing budui,
Tanke Zhuangjia Cheliang, 2009 Niandi,11 Qi, Zhongdi 295 Qi,pp. 22-25.
Kopp, Carlo. Bypassing the NMD: China and the Cruise Missile Proliferation Problem, International
Assessment and Strategy Center, http://www.strategycenter.net/research/pubID.112/pub_detail.asp, 22
June 2006, accessed 10 February 2009.
Lingshou bian guojia youlu zhongliang ___ haiwai pojie Zhongguo CJ-10 luji xunhang daodan, Tanke
Zhuangjia Cheliang, 2009 Niandi,12 Qi, Zhongdi 297 Qi,pp. 15-18.
Ibid.
Ibid.

Imagery Sources: US DoD, PLA, Manufacturers, Chinese Internet.


Line Artwork: 2000, 2007, 2008, 2009 Carlo Kopp

T echnical Report APA-T R-2009-0803

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