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Introduction

The Taon Strait is located in the Central Visayas, which is considered as the epicenter of global marine
shorefish diversity with the richest concentration of marine life on the entire planet (Carpenter &
Springer, 2005). Taon Strait is an important migration corridor for whale sharks (Rhincodontypus),
dolphins and other marine mammals. It serves as a breeding, nursery, feeding, and resting grounds to at
least 14 species of cetaceans, the most interesting of which are the dwarf sperm whales (Kogiasimus)
and melonheaded whales (Peponocepalaelectra). This site serves as their breeding, nursery, feeding,
and resting grounds. The Strait is also a distinct habitat of the chambered nautilus (Nautilus pompilius).
Taon Strait is one of this regions seven distinct fisheries ecosystems (i.e. Visayan Sea, Camotes Sea,
Danajon Bank, Bohol Sea, Cebu Strait, East Sulu Sea, and Taon Strait). It has an estimated 18,830 ha of
coral reefs and 650 ha of mangrove forest along the Negros and Cebu coastline (Green et al. 2004). It is a
popular destination for whale-watchers, scuba divers, conservationists and wildlife enthusiasts.

The Taon Strait has long been regarded as an important migration corridor for whales, dolphins and
other marine organisms. It is a favoured destination for whale-watchers, conservationists and wildlife
enthusiasts. The strait serves as an economic corridor in the Visayas Area for hosting vital industries
such as shipbuilding, power generation and manufacturing and also serves as a vital link between
Western Visayas and Central Visayas. It similarly serves as a transit point between Manila (Luzon) and
the vital coastal cities in Southern Negros, Siquijor and Northern Northeastern Mindanao.
The Taon Strait is one of the world's natural heritage and one of the country's rich fishing grounds. It
was declared a Protected Seascape by Presidential Proclamation 1234 by then President Fidel V. Ramos
in 1998 in due recognition of the extraordinary abundance and diverse assemblage of dolphins and
whales and its known importance as feeding, breeding, and resting grounds for these marine mammals.
It is mandated that all protected areas covered under the NIPAS Act of 1992 should have a General
Management Plan (GMP).

The Taon Strait Protected Seascape - General Management Plan (TSPS-GMP) has been crafted to
provide a sustainable framework in management and rational decision making for the TSPS today and in
the future. It also endeavours to establish a consistent vision for the protection of the marine mammals,
and the coastal resources such as mangrove areas, sea grass beds, and coral reefs in the area including
the fish and the invertebrates in order to prevent unsustainable utilization of these resources and at
the same time to come up with strategies to provide daily sustenance to the increasing human
population in the area while also contributing to the economy of the area and the region.

Description of Protected Area


Taon Strait is the body of water that separates the islands of Cebu and Negros in the Visayas Region of
central Philippines. The strait is narrow but deep and connects the Visayan Sea to Bohol Sea/Sulu Sea. It
is about 160 km long extending up to the Visayan Sea in the north to the Bohol Sea/Sulu Sea on the
south. Its width varies from 5 to 27 km, with the narrowest point in the south between Liloan,

Santander, Cebu and Sibulan, Negros Oriental. It has an approximate area of 518, 221 hectares and an
approximate perimeter of 684 km. In the north-northwest, the strait is closed off by the Bantayan Group
of Islands and in the north-northeast by the Visayan Sea (reckoned from the tip of DaanBantayan Cebu).
It is relatively deep with its deepest point at 509 meters.
The coastal areas are mostly characterized by rugged terrain and narrow coastal plains, some areas have
flat to rolling terrain, undulating and sloping and low grooved mountain ranges which mostly lie close to
the shoreline.
The boundary of TSPS based on Proclamation No. 1234 begins in the north in Bantigue Point of the
shoreline of Barangay Agujo, Daanbantayan where the line crossed the Strait in northwesterly direction
to Buntay Point in the shoreline of Madridejos, Bantayan Island. Then going south following the eastern
shoreline of Bantayan Island to Sulangan Point in the shoreline of Sta. Fe. Crossing the Strait southwest
to Tuong Point of the eastern shoreline of Barangay Tuong, Sagay City, Negros Occidental and then
going south following the eastern shoreline of Negros Island up to Colang-colang Point of the shoreline
of Barangay Cangmating, Sibulan, Negros Oriental. Then crossing the Strait in a north-easterly direction
to Taon Point in the shoreline of Barangay Liloan, Santander, Cebu. Finally closing the traverse, the line
goes up north following the western shoreline of the Province of Cebu back to Bantique Point (see Table
1).
Table 1 Technical description of the boundaries of the TSPS

Point

Latitude

Longitude

Direction & Distance

Point 1

11 17' 37?

123 43' 48?

S 84 15' 50? E,
31,067 meters to Point 2

Point 2

11 15' 53?

124 00' 47?

Following Cebu west shoreline on a


southwest direction,
239,430 meters to Point 3

Point 3

9 25' 06?

123 20' 04?

S 38 08' 00? W,
9,386 meters to Point 4

Point 4

9 21' 06?

123 16' 53?

Following Negros east shoreline on a


northeast direction,
139,035 meters to Point 5

Point 5

10 55' 22?

123 31' 41?

N 43 10' 54? E,
30,753 meters to Point 6

123 43' 16?

Following Bantayan east shoreline on a


northeast-west direction,
29,187 meters to Point 1

Point 6

11 07' 31?

Climate
Cebu and Negros Islands (between which the TSPS is situated) have a tropical climate.

The climatic patterns in the Taon Strait are determined primarily by the two monsoons of the Asiatic
mainland. The southwest monsoon from April or May through September or October is characterized by
southwest winds that are due to low pressure systems that develop over the Asian continental land
mass through summer heating of the land surface. The northeast monsoon from October or November
through January produces northeast winds caused by air movement from the polar anticyclone centered
near Lake Baikal. During the months of February, March, and April neither monsoon has much effect,
and the climate is dominated by the monsoon and trade winds. The climate may, however, be strongly
modified locally by the interaction of the monsoon winds with local geographic and orographic features.
The monsoon winds produce the general annual climatic pattern of Negros, but the monsoon is only
superficially a very orderly phenomenon and minor or major changes in the timing of events, along with
the occurrence of severe cyclonic storms, make the actual climatic pattern of any given year
unpredictable. Shifts in the position of high and low pressure systems may cause great changes in
weather over large areas (Heideman& Erickson, 1987).

Average rainfall for Cebu and southern Negros Oriental is between 451-900mm during the period from
April to September. For northern Negros Oriental during the same period it is between 901-1800mm.
During the period from October to March, average rainfall for most of Cebu and Negros Oriental is
between 451-900mm, while it is between 901-1800mm at the northern tip of the two provinces (Hilario
et al, 2009).

Prevailing Winds
Prevailing winds from June to September is the southwest monsoon (Habagat), while the northeast
monsoon or Amihan occur in the months of November to February. Variable wind is observed from
March to May. The waves are wind-driven based on the prevailing monsoon wind. The surface of TSPS is
relatively calm during the southwest monsoon and becomes choppy to rough during the northeast
monsoon.
Typhoon Frequencies
Generally, Taon Strait basks outside the typhoon belt. The surrounding islands (Cebu, Negros)
backbone of high mountain ranges breaks the full effects of the southwest monsoon and keeps weather
generally fair all year round. However, there are events during the year where typhoons hit Taon Strait
during the months of December and January. These typhoons are those that are coming from the Bicol
region or Central Luzon in a north-easterly and those coming from the Surigao-Samar area.

Biological diversity
The Strait is a distinct habitat of the chambered Nautilus (Nautiluspompilius, local name taklong) and a
migration route of 14 species of marine mammals. Hence, the strait was designated as a priority area
for conservation of marine mammals (cetaceans) and was proclaimed as a Protected Seascape under
Proclamation No. 1234 signed by President Fidel Ramos on May 27, 1998. (Official Gazette of the
Republic of the Philippines)

The Taon Strait is relatively small (15-27km wide and 220 km long), yet it belongs to the ecoregion with
the highest marine biological diversity in the world. It is home to a diversity of fish, molluscs and

crustaceans. Its narrow shelf is fringed with intermittent strands of coral reefs, mangroves and seagrass.
It has a thriving squid fishery and an abundant Nautilus population (Hayasaka et. al 1983).
Marine mammals
The archipelagic nature of the Philippines provides diversity in marine habitat. Many of the islands in the
country are surrounded by deep oceanic waters, and cetacean species which are thought to be typically
oceanic can be found near shore (Jefferson 1995 citation/paper cannot be found). The characteristics
of the Strait - narrow, semi-enclosed area with terraced slopes coupled with deep oceanic waters close
to shore, and shallow flat areas contiguous to the deep waters of the Sulu Sea - make cetaceans move
freely between them (Dolar et al 2006).

Although small cetaceans have been extensively studied in the tropical marine habitat, very little is
known about these animals in the tropical Southeast Asian region, as most of the literature on cetaceans
in this region deals with occurrence and distribution based on strandings, sightings, fishery catches.
Cetaceans are often incidentally caught during various fishing operations (Dolar 1994; Dolar 1999a). The
effect of this, coupled with habitat degradation, on cetacean populations is unknown (Perrin et. al. 25
paper cannot be found).
In studies by Dolar (1996b) and Perrin (1995) fourteen species of cetaceans were observed in the Sulu
Sea and Taon Strait in a survey using the line transect method developed to estimate abundance of
small cetaceans in the eastern tropical Pacific (Holt, 1987; Wade and Gerodette, 1993). This number
constitutes 54% of the total number of cetaceans known from the Philippine waters and 47% of the total
number of cetacean species recorded in Southeast Asia (Dolar 1999b; Perrin 1995). It is thought that
species travel both sites in order to feed, rest and breed. Table 2 gives a list of species of marine
mammals that have been positively sighted within the waters of the TSPS. Many other cetaceans have
been spotted in areas near the TSPS (Bohol Sea, Sulu Sea, Visayan Sea, etc.) and so it is probable that
these species may also enter the TSPS but have not yet been spotted by reliable/expert witnesses.
Table 2 List of species of cetaceans that have been sighted within the TSPS (extracted from Alava et al, 2012)

Species
Feresaattenuate
Globicephalascammoni
Grampus griseus
Lagenodelphishosei

Peponocephalaelectra
Stenellagraffmani

Stenellalongirostrislongirost
ris
Stenellalongirostrisroseivent
ris

English
pygmy killer whale
short-finned pilot
whale
Risso's dolphin
Fraser's dolphin

Common Name
Tagalog
balyena

Visayan
lumba-lumba
ambuhutan,
bugansiso
tiw

lumba-lumba

-tiw

melon-headed whale
Pantropical spotted
dolphin
Gray's spinner dolphin

lumba-lumba
lumba-lumba
lumba-lumba

lumba-lumba,
mayahon, lumod
Pakatang
lumba-lumba, lumod,
balakiki
Lumod

dwarf spinner dolphin

lumba-lumba

Lumod

Species
Tursiopsaduncus

Tursiopstruncates

Kogiasima
Ziphiuscavirostris

English
Indo-Pacific
bottlenose dolphin
common bottlenose
dolphin
dwarf sperm whale
Cuvier's beaked whale

Common Name
Tagalog
lumba-lumba

Lumod

lumba-lumba

lumba-lumba, lumod

Visayan

Nautilus
Nautiluses are the last living genera of externally shelled cephalopods (Ward 1983 and 1987, CephBase
2002). Nautiluses have been on the planet for 500 million years these slow moving Cephalopods are
considered primitive compared to their faster moving relatives (octopus and squid), and the external
shell of these animals provides both protection and rigid open spaces that can be filled with gas for
buoyancy. Nautiluses usually inhabit depths of several hundred metres. It has long been believed that
the Nautilus rises at night to feed, mate and lay eggs (Carlson et al, 1984). The greatest depth at which a
Nautilus has been sighted is 703 m the N. pompilius (Dunstan et al, 2011). Taon Strait has a thriving
and abundant population of Nautilus (Hayasaka et. al 1983). Unfortunately they are harvested for their
shell it is a well-known fact that Nautilus have been exported by the thousands (Talavera and Faustino,
1931). Fishermen trap Nautilus at about 200m, but at times reach a maximum depth at about 525 m
(Hayasaka et. al. 2009). Fishing is done usually during the night and several traps are used. One reason
Nautiluses are not protected by CITES is that there is not much scientific information on them.

Other important organisms in the Taon Strait


No comprehensive study for the Taon Strait as a whole has been conducted for the resources to be
enumerated below . All of the information below has either been gathered from separate studies
conducted in various areas within the TSPS, or estimated from the information gathered from these
studies.
Coral Reefs
Taon Strait has about 188.3 km2 (18,830 ha) of coral reefs, mostly fringing reefs along the Negros and
Cebu coastline (Green et al. 2004). Based on the CRM Plans of the respective LGUs in the TSPS, coral
cover of municipalities along Taon Strait averages from 25% (poor condition) to 85% (excellent
condition)1.
Reef Fish
Basing from different surveys conducted for the CRM plans of the LGUs, reef fish abundance within the
Taon Strait ranges from 4,000 to 10,000 individuals per hectare belonging to over 24 fish families. The
main targets of these surveys were commercially valuable fish such as triggerfish, sweetlips, emperors,
snappers, soldier fish, and goatfish, although a few pelagic species were also accounted for such as
1

Hard coral cover category standard (Gomez, et al, 1994)

anchovies, billfish, mackerels and tuna, which also play an important role in livelihood of some fishers in
Taon Strait.

Mangroves
In Taon Strait the area of mangrove forests is 650 ha (Green et. al. 2004).
The Philippines mangrove species biodiversity is very high. Of the worlds more than 70 mangrove
species, around 46 are known to occur in the country (DENR website), and 26 are known to occur in the
Taon Strait.
Seagrasses
Based on the CRM Plans surveyed, Taon Strait has a total of seven species of seagrasses and
Thallasiasp, Enhalussp and Cymodoceasp being the three most dominant species. Seagrass cover ranges
from 30% to 50%.

Cultural and Socioeconomic background


Population
As of 2010 data, Taon Strait has a population of 1,165,821 with Cebu contributing the most to the
numbers with 684,795, followed by Negros Oriental with 253,510 and Negros Occidental with 227,516
individuals.

The most densely populated areas are in Toledo-Balamban and Badian-Moalboal in Cebu Province, BaisTanjay -Amlan and San Jose-Sibulan in Negros Oriental and San Carlos City and Escalante City in Negros
Occidental.

Sources of Livelihood
Taon Strait is one of the major fishing grounds of Central Visayas. Based on the survey of the BFAR and
CRMP, there are about 26,850 fishers operating in the area with more than 12,000 motorized and nonmotorized boats. Studies show that fisherfolk plying Taon Strait have a high number of active fishing
gears such as gillnets (kurantay/drift gillnets, palabay/bottom gillnets, patuloy/surface-set gillnets), and
passive gears such as hook-and-lines (pamasol) and squid jigs. Beach seining (sahid/baling) is also
practiced in Taon Strait, which is tolerated despite being officially illegal.
Religion
Christianity is the predominant religion in Taon Strait Protected Strait with Roman Catholicism as the
biggest single denomination. Other denominations include mainline and evangelical Protestant groups,
the Iglesia Ni Cristo, the Seventh-day Adventists, Jehovah's Witnesses and the Aglipayan Church, also
known as the Philippine Independent Church. Adherents of Islam and Buddhism constitute a minority of
the population.
Education and Literacy
Cebu is the main educational institute in the central region of the country. Dumaguete City, the
provincial capital of Negros Oriental, is known as a university town due to the existence of several
universities and colleges in the city.

Literacy is classified into simple or basic and functional literacy. Simple literacy rate, which comprises
basic reading and writing skills, was computed at 93.9 per cent while functional literacy rate, that
includes basic reading, writing skills and computational ability, was computed at 83.3 per cent.
Health
The three provinces of Cebu and Negros Oriental and Occidental all have existing preventive health
programs.

The local government units (LGUs) continually strive to improve the quality and accessibility of health
services and tap locally available resources to strengthen LGU capacity and knowledge. Hospitals
normally conduct preventive and promote activities as they go about their daily routine.

Local Infrastructure, Development Services and Government Service


Political Subdivision
The TSPS covers a total of 3 provinces, Cebu, Negros Occidental and Negros Oriental; 7 congressional
districts; 35 municipalities; 7 cities and 298 coastal barangays. In Cebu province, the coastal community
is comprised of 3 congressional districts, 23 municipalities, 1 City and 167 barangays. In Negros Oriental,
it covers 2 congressional districts, 10 municipalities, 3 cities and 99 barangays, while in Negros
Occidental, the TSPS covers 2 congressional districts, 2 municipalities, 3 cities and 32 barangays.

The component cities and municipalities belonging to the Taon Strait Protected Seascape from the 3
provinces are shown in Table 3, Table 4 and Table 5 below.
Table 3 Cities and Municipalities of Cebu province that are within the TSPS

No. of Coastal
Barangays per
City/Municipality

Municipalities and Cities of Cebu


Province

Santander
Samboan
Ginatilan
Malabuyoc
Alegria
Badian
Moalboal
Alcantara
Ronda
Dumanjug
Barili
Aloguinsan
Pinamungahan
Toledo City
Balamban
Asturias
Tuburan
Tabuelan

2
7
5
6
4
12
7
3
4
8
10
4
7
11
9
7
10
5

No. of MPAs

2
1
2
4
5
6
6
3
1
4
4
4
1
3
1
3
4
3

No. of Coastal
Barangays per
City/Municipality

Municipalities and Cities of Cebu


Province

San Remegio
Medellin
Sta. Fe
Bantayan Island
Madridejos
DaanBantayan
TOTAL

14
14
7
6
4
5
167

No. of MPAs

9
2
5
18
5
96

Table 4Cities and Municipalities of Negros Oriental province that are within the TSPS

No. of Coastal
Barangays per
City/Municipality

Cities/Municipalities of Negros
Oriental
Sibulan
San Jose
Amlan
Tanjay City
Bais City
Manjuyod
Bindoy
Ayungon
Jimalalud
La Libertad
Guihulngan
Vallehermoso
Tayasan
TOTAL

6
6
5
9
13
10
6
8
6
6
10
7
7
99

No. of MPAs

3
2
3
1
3
3
5
8
1
2
1
32

Table 5Cities and Municipalities of Negros Occidental province that are within the TSPS

Cities/Municipalities of Negros
Occidental

Calatrava
Escalante City
Sagay City
San Carlos City
Toboso
TOTAL

No. of Coastal
Barangays per City/
Municipality
14
6
4
6
2
32

No. of MPAs

1
1
2
2 (proposed)
3

Transportation
The TSPS is accessible from all major cities in Central and Western Visayas regions. From Cebu City, the
protected area can be reached by any vehicles via major routes or highways that link the city to the
western side of Cebu Island. In same manner, it is accessible in the Negros side through any route from
Bacolod or Dumaguete City. Small ferries ply the strait on an hourly basis from different points located
along coastal municipalities of Taon Strait linking directly Negros and Cebu islands. Daily flights
connect Manila to Dumaguete, Bacolod and Cebu City.
Airports
As Cebu is the international gateway to Visayas and Mindanao, daily flights to and from the island have
been increasing both for cargoes and passengers. The international airport is being run by the MactanCebu International Airport Authority (MCIAA), which is set to implement an expansion program to
accommodate more flights. Philippine Airlines and Cebu Pacific are taking care of most domestic flights,
while Silk Air, Qatar Airlines and Korean Air, among others, provide the comfort of travel to destinations
in other parts of the world.

The Dumaguete City Airport is the only major airport in Negros Oriental serving daily domestic flights to
and from Manila and Cebu with two airline companies, namely Philippine Air Lines/Air Philippines and
Cebu Pacific. With facilities for all weather conditions, the Dumaguete Airport is actually located in the
town of Sibulan, just a few kilometers outside the city (about 5 minutes away).

Seaports
History has always seen Cebu as a natural port even before Spanish colonization. At present, several
shipping companies service inter-island and international destinations: Sulpicio Lines, Gothong Southern
Shipping, Cebu Ferries Corporation, Cokaliong Shipping Lines, George & Peter Lines, Inc., Lite Shipping
Corporation, Negros Navigation Co., Inc. Ocean Fast Ferries, Inc. WG&A Super Ferry and Trans-Asia
Shipping Lines. As the city of Cebu is centrally located in the country, the port of Cebu serves as an
important transshipmentcenter. It functions as the base for more the 80% of inter-island vessels of
Philippines.

The Dumaguete seaport is a major link to Central Visayas making it part of the Tourism Highway and
Mindanao traffic, where it plays an important role in the Strong Republic Nautical Highway route.
Another seaport in Guihulngan caters mainly to small vessels ferrying passengers between the
Guihulngan Port and Tangil, Dumanjug, Cebu. There is another pair of ports connecting Toledo City,
Cebu and San Carlos City, Negros Oriental.
Power Generation
The Leyte Geothermal Power Plant is the main source of power for the city of Cebu which is supplied
through an interconnection grid. The Visayas Electric Company (VECO) provides electricity to Cebu. A
coal-fired power plant exists in Toledo City supplying additional power to the province of Cebu.
Negros Oriental's primary source of power is the geothermal energy harnessed from the geothermal
fields in Palinpinon, Valencia. There are two power plants generating electricity with a combined
capacity of 192.5 megawatts.

Ecotourism
The TSPS is surrounded by beautiful beaches, freshwater springs, and other natural attractions. As such,
the municipalities and cities around the TSPS each have their own ecotourism programs and
destinations within their respective jurisdictions. The ecotourism activity that cuts across political
boundaries in the TSPS is dolphin- and whale-watching. Bais City in Negros Oriental is the main
springboard for this activity for most of Taon Strait.

This greatly contributed to the income generation for the residents in the area. The establishment of the
necessary infrastructures and man power support has become a priority for the respective LGUs in order
to maximize the eco-tourism potentials, also so that the TSPS will become a major ecotourism
destination.

Legal and institutional framework


As mentioned above, the Taon Strait was created as a Protected Seascape through Proclamation 1234
(1998), pursuant to RA 7586 or the NIPAS Act of 1992. The NIPAS Act defines a protected
landscape/seascape as areas of national significance which are characterized by the harmonious
interaction of man and land while providing opportunities for public enjoyment through recreation and
tourism within the normal lifestyle and economic activity of these areas.
The TSPS was declared a protected seascape mainly due to the abundance and diverse assemblage of
cetaceans (dolphins and whales) and the uniqueness of associated habitats.

As a NIPAS area, the Department of Environment and Natural Resources has jurisdiction over the TSPS
with management authority by the DENR Secretary, the Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau and the
created Protected Area Management Board (PAMB). The PAMB is composed of representatives from
the component local government units and stakeholders within the TSPS and given the size of the area,
the PAMB for TSPS has close to 300 members. Programs and activities within the PA are coordinated by
the Protected Area Office under the Protected Area Superintendent (PASu) and 5 Assistant PASus. The
current organizational set-up is shown in Figure 1 below.
Financing for the TSPS is guided by RA 7586 Section 16 of the DAO No 25 series of 1992, which
respectively provides for the establishment of the IPAF (Integrated Protected Areas Fund) for the
purpose of promoting the sustained financing system.

TSPS generated PhP 11,707,000 for 2013 from fees and collections from facilities user fees, resource
user fees and concession fees. This revenue goes to the national fund of which 25% or 3M will go back
to TSPS.
Organizational set up within the legal framework
Aside from the NIPAS Act, management of the TSPS is also governed by several other laws and
regulations. These are given in Figure 1, which also shows the inter-relationship between the
management units (LGU, TSPS and DENR) and the laws and regulations governing them.

Fisheries Code

Local Govt. Code

Local Fishery,
Environment, Ecotourism
and Taxation Ordinances

WORKING
COMMITTEES

DENR REGIONAL
EXECUTIVE
DIRECTOR/Chairperson
PAMB

PAMB - EXECOM
PAMB - SMUs

LGU
ENRO/CRMO

PASu
PARTNERS

Cebu
ASSISTANT PASu

Deputized LGU
COASTAL LAW
ENFORCERS

Wildlife Act

Other
environmental
laws, rules and
regulations

PA GMP, Policies

PAMB - ENBANC
LGU CHIEF EXECUTIVES

Forestry Code

NIPAS Act

Negros Oriental
Negros Occidental

Protected Area Staff

Figure 1The organizational setup of the TSPS and the inter-relationship between the units co-managing the TSPS (PAMB,
LGUs, DENR) and the laws and regulations governing the management of the TSPS.

Co-management scheme
Although the over-all management of the TSPS is done by the TSPS-PAMB, the everyday detailed
decision-making and nitty-gritty is done via a co-management scheme between the PAMB and the
respective LGUs within the TSPS.Each of the LGUs share management of the TSPS within the respective
management areasapportioned to them the Municipal Coastal Waters. Figure 2 shows which aspects
of the management are handled by the PAMB and which are handled by the individual LGUs.

DENR - PAMB
Tenure

Permitting

Provincial-City-Municipal-Barangay LGUs

SAPA
PACBRMA

Permit to Operate

Fees System

Users Fees
(SAPA, etc)

Law
Enforcement

PA Rangers

Building Permit

Fishing/Gear Permit

Business Permit

Mariculture Permit

Business Tax

Users Fees (individual


specific areas)

Income Tax

e.g. entrance fees to ecotourism


areas

Fish Wardens

LGU officials

Other law enforcement agencies (PNP, CoastGuard


Development
Programs and
Projects

Conservation

Conservation

Protection

Protection

Livelihood

Livelihood

Other National Govt Agencies


(BFAR,DSWD)

Figure 2 Delineation of the scope of the duties and responsibilities and the sharing of revenues from the TSPS by the PAMB,
LGUs and the government agencies concerned with the management and protection of the resources in the TSPS

Situational Analysis (including key management issues and concerns)


A workshop was conducted on June 19, 2013 and attended by members of the TSPS-PAMB and invited
experts and resource personsto analyse the current situation within the TSPS, identify problems and
help out draw out suggestions for courses of action to take to help alleviate those problems.

Table 6 summarizes the problems and perceived causes in management of the TSPS as were discussed
during the workshop.
Table 6 Problems and perceived causes in the management of the TSPS

Problem

Perceived Cause

Baseline information
No baseline resource information on coastal
habitat, fishery stock and diversity, and fisherfolk,
boats and gear

No resource assessment, lack of funds and not


prioritized

Problem

Lack of Fish/MPA connectivity research


Livelihood
No access to funds from the IPAF for livelihood
opportunities
Lack of other livelihood opportunity (CRM base)
Low Income
Illegal structures
Existence of illegal structures along the coastline

Perceived Cause
Not a priority of the LGU
No guidelines to fund access
Not a priority and not identified
Limited access to livelihood opportunities

Non-compliance to CNC, ECC and Building


permits

Tourism

No proper data on tourist arrival


Negative impacts of tourism
Local tourism not developed despite the presence
of healthy coral reefs and beaches
Habitat degradation
Low fish catch

Intrusion of commercial fishing operations and


illegal fishing practices TSPS
Non-functional MPAs/paper parks
Habitat degradation, specifically mangrove
ecosystem s and coral reefs
Unregulated deployment of Fish Coral, Fish Cage,
Fish Pen, Fish Attracting Device and Seaweeds

Most of the tourism officers are not qualified


No proper orientation, education
Lack of development and promotion of
potential tourist sites

Increase in number of fishers, intrusion of


commercial vessels into municipal fishing zones
(boundaries of Cebu and Negros Occidental)
Unclear policies and lack of Coastal Law
Enforcement;
non-functional designs
Increasing populations in coastal area, COT
infestation
No implementation of zoning

Farm

Pollution
Reported incidents pollution from industrial waste

Improper waste disposal


No segregation of waste at source
Liquid waste from household and establishments
Unregulated use of plastic
Dumping of waste along the shores
Finance mechanisms
No sharing mechanism of the Users Fee
Laws and law enforcement
Laws and policies by and between the PAMB and
LGUs not properly harmonized
Resource use conflict
Lack of coordination and lack of harmonious
relationships between and among institutions and
LGUs

No monitoring team for industries in terms of


compliance on waste disposal
Lack of enforcement
Inefficiency of garbage collection
No monitoring of compliance in ECC
No regulation
Lax enforcement and poor awareness of RA
9003

Generated funds not properly reported


Misconception/misunderstanding of its roles
and functions
No policy on zoning
Conflicting directives of NIPAS, RA 8550, RA
7160

Problem

Lack of political will

Lack of institutional arrangements and


partnerships with different stake holders
Inadequate knowledge on coastal law
enforcement and some LGUs have no assigned
Fishery Officer
Inadequate prosecution of cases
Lack/Weak Enforcement
Lack of knowledge in environment laws, and
enforcement strategies

Perceived Cause
Politicians not aware of environmental
governance
Lack of initiatives

Lack of trainings on coastal law enforcement


and lack of funds
slow and long litigation process
inefficient enforcement
Lack of knowledge sharing

The Strengthening the Marine Protected Areas in Conserving Key Marine Biodiversity Areas Project
(2013) did SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) and stakeholder analyses on the
TSPS. The following sections on the situational and stakeholder analyses are taken from their report.

SWOT Analysis (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats)


The SWOT assessment focuses on three components: Policy and Institutional Arrangements, MPA
Financing, Strengthening of MPAs and MPA Networks and Capacity-Building.

In terms of the Policy and Institutional Arrangements, the major strength is TSPS supported by a national
law and the support mechanisms and provisions that ideally go with it. Another strength identified was
the strength of existing local initiatives in coastal and marine management as well as the openness of
both levels of authority to co-manage the area together. Major weaknesses are mainly the unclear
and/or misinterpretation of policies, protocols, and lack of information which stems mainly from lack of
venues for communication and clarification.
At the MPA Financing level, there were more strengths identified given that the TSPS has ample sources
of revenue and influx of external support is seen in the offing. The major weakness identified was the
lack of support policies for revenue-generation and sharing.

For the MPAs and an MPA networking, there is a lack of policy on establishing and operating networks
and alliances, coupled with a lack of scientific basis to support policy. However, networks may be built
on the already established LGU alliances, MPA management bodies, and organized community
stakeholder groups found in all and between the 42 cities and municipalities in the TSPS.
In terms of capacity development the cities and municipalities have already developed and established
skills and capacities on coastal and marine management, such as in law enforcement, community
organizing, CEPA (communication, education and public awareness), and planning and resource
monitoring. Building on and enhancing these capacities as well as improving other capacities (e.g.
monitoring and evaluation, sustainable financing), coupled with a data-management/data-banking
system were identified as needs.

Opportunities and threats to the TSPS as well as recommendations were also identified. Details of the
SWOT analysis are given in Table 7.
Table 7 SWOT analysis for the TSPS, result of a workshop conducted on May 22-23, 2013 by the Strengthening the Marine
Protected Areas in Conserving Key Marine Biodiversity Areas Project. Taken from the Strengthening the Marine Protected
Areas in Conserving Key Marine Biodiversity Areas Project
Areas for
Assessment
1. Policy and
Institutional
Arrangements

Strength
- Presidential
Proclamation of TS
as Protected
Seascape
- Initial TSPS
Management Plan
- LGU adoption of
coastal and fisheryrelated ordinances
and plans by some
municipalities
- Coastal
management units in
place in LGUs
- Capable PASu for
TSPS
- PAMB and Execom
is existing
- Existing resolution
for the comanagement of the
TSPS
- No representation
in EIS process for
development
projects and
activities in TSPS

2. MPA
Financing

- Implementing the
IPAF financing
scheme

Opportunities

- No clear stand of
TSPS on some
policies, e.g.
commercial fishing in
TSPS, FLAs,
abandoned
fishponds, research,
tourism practices

- New players in TS
that may support
policy-formulation
(ADB-RETA, UNDP)

- Policies allowing
exploration of
mineral and other
resources

- Champions for
TSPS (LGU officials,
congressmen, etc.)

- No clear protocol
on TSPS membership
to the PAMB

Recommendations
- Tap into research
institutions for studies
that could
enhance/strengthen
TSPS programs and
policies
- Explore policies for
mechanisms to
guarantee that
research institutions
and researches are
shared with the TSPS,
LGUs (e.g. guarantee
fund for research)

- Lack of clear
protocol on
access/release/utiliz
ation of funds

- Set-up database
management
mechanism at the
PMO

- PASu position is
only a designation

- Finalize TSPS GMP


- Creating a committee
for monitoring within
the PAMB by SMUs

- PAMB is too large


which makes it
difficult to pass
resolutions, approve
plans, etc.

- No legal policies for


revenue generation
(endowment, etc.)

- Funds available to
establish new

MPAs

- Income from TSPS


(P33M)

- Bottom -up
budgeting

- Wide array of
revenue sources for
TSPS

- Strong business
sector that may be
tapped

- LGUs implementing
their own financing
scheme for MPAs to
generate funds

- Revenue
generation from
research activities

- Presence of funding
donors

Threats

Weakness

- Engage the tourism


sector for
partnership/collaborat
ion in TSPS
programs/activities
- TSPS comes up with a
marketing strategy to
promote TSPS as a
tourism destination
which provides the
LGUs with
opportunities for
income generation
from tourism
- Capacity-building on
sustainable financing,
business planning,
cost-effectiveness,

Areas for
Assessment

Strength

Weakness

Recommendations

Threats

Opportunities

M&E

3.
Strengthening
of MPAs and
MPANs

- Local networks:
ABATMAN, South
Cebu cluster, others
- MPA management
bodies at the LGU
level
- Community-based
management of
MPAs in some LGUs

4. Capacity
development

- Some LGUs are


capacitated on
coastal and marine
management,
enforcement,
organizing, planning,
IEC
- Local capacities for
resource monitoring

- Lack of researches
that could support
policies and
management of TSPS
(e.g. biophysical
studies)
- No comprehensive
data sets for TSPS
describing resources,
etc.; unconsolidated
data

- Available
guidelines and
protocols on
fishery/coastalrelated use (e.g.
marine mammal
monitoring,
aquaculture
practices, etc.)

-Over-population in
the coastal areas
-unmanaged waste

(SW, poultry, hograising)

- Consolidate all
available information
on TSPS
- Come up with a
comprehensive profile
of TSPS, including
biophysical, socioeconomic profiles

- Institutions with
data (e.g. CCEF.
Physalus) for MPAs
in parts of TSPS)

- No data
management
mechanism and lack
of capacity to
manage data

Capacity-building on
sustainable financing,
business planning,
cost-effectiveness, M
&E

- No regular surveys,
monitoring systems
(biophysical)

Capacitate the PA
Office

- Lack of capacity on
project/program
evaluation

Stakeholder analysis
A total of 86 groups were identified as stakeholders in the TSPS. This includes provincial LGUs (3), city
and municipal LGUs (42), government agencies (14), non-government organizations (8), donor and
special government projects (7), peoples' organizations and fishery councils (3), special interest groups
(4), and academic institutions (5). Table 8 shows which stakeholders are positively or negatively
affected, what their current roles in MPA management are and how or where these groups may be
engaged.
Table 8Stakeholder analysis for the TSPS, result of a workshop conducted on May 22-23, 2013 by the Strengthening the
Marine Protected Areas in Conserving Key Marine Biodiversity Areas Project. Taken from the Strengthening the Marine
Protected Areas in Conserving Key Marine Biodiversity Areas Project
Name of
Stakeholder groups

Positively
affected

Negatively
Affected

Current Role in MPA


management

Proposed Strategies for


Stakeholder Engagement

Name of
Stakeholder groups

Negatively
Affected

Positively
affected

Current Role in MPA


management

Proposed Strategies for


Stakeholder Engagement

LGUs

1. Cebu PLGU

2. Negros Oriental
PLGU

Increased number
of managers;
strengthened
collaboration
between partners

National policies
sometimes
override
provincial plans

Provincial Governor is the


Presiding Officer of the SMU

Ex-officio
representative
does not provide
feedback to PLGU

Mediator/arbiter between TSPS


and LGUs

Providing funding to the LGU

Planning is not coordinated with


the LGUs-strengthen coordination
with the TSPS and LGUs
Strengthen capacity of PENRO for
TSPS implementation
Meaningful representation to the
PAMB (permanent
representative)

Provides technical assistance to


LGUs

Needs: VA capacity-development,
marine mammal stranding
response and protocol (Physalus
as potential active partner, also
see available guidelines available)

Capacitating LGUs/TA (e.g. biomonitoring)

Recommend an alternate for


representative to the PAMB

CO, trainer, facilitator, IEC


programs (for local communities
in place/ institutionalized)

To continue the
institutionalization of the
mechanism for IEC

Helps manage 27 MPAs (TA,


establishment)

3. Negros
Occidental PLGU

Problems: language barrier,


regionalistic tradition, distance of
Neg.Occ from PAMB meeting
venues

Reconnect/reorient province re
TSPS
Reestablish SMU in Neg. Occ.

Roles: attend Execom,


collaboration programs (had a
permanent member but now
needs to be oriented)
4. M/CLGUs in TSPS

One common
framework/ policy
in managing
resources

jurisdictional
issues between
MLGUs and TSPS

Law Enforcers (based on 8550)

MPA managers
LGUs provide a check and balance
to policies and protocols

Implementers of conservation and


protection programs

For LGUs to communicate to TSPS


managers re. focal persons for
TSPS concerns and for PASu to
write to LGUs asking for names of
representatives to TSPS and for
PASu to identify specific focal
person in letters/invitations

Changes to LGU representatives


to the PAMB: (Mayors for
appointments);
For PAMB to review guidelines
and protocols for discussion
Government Agencies
1. DENR

Manager of TSPS

2. BFAR

Partner in fisheries and


aquaculture, enforcement
capacity-building

Name of
Stakeholder groups

Positively
affected

Negatively
Affected

Current Role in MPA


management

3. MARINA

Permitting and boat registration

4. Coast Guard

CLE, pollution
regulation/enforcement

5. PNP

Enforcement

6. DILG

Policy-making

7. DOT

Tourism development, promotion,


regulation

8. PPA

Ports development, monitoring,


regulation

9. DPWH

Infra development (dikes,


seawalls, etc)

10. DOJ

Prosecution, CLE, judicial support

11. DepED

Communication, Education and


Public Awareness (CEPA)

12. DOH

Population management

13. DSWD

Livelihood, mainstreaming of
environmentaleducation/CEPA

14. DOE

Energy exploration, submarine


cable regulation

Proposed Strategies for


Stakeholder Engagement

Non-Government Organizations

1. CCEF

SPR monitoring (every 4 years),


fisheries-related research, MPA
monitoring and training

2. Physalus

Monitoring of large marine


invertebrates, training for
stranding response

3. World Vision

Community organizing, capacitybuilding (Moalboal, Badian,


Alcantara)

4. Tambuyog

Community organizing, capacitybuilding (Negros)

5. SUAKCREM

Research (Negros and Cebu)

For PASu to write letters to


research
institutions/organizations to share
information/data/studies and to
get clearances/permits and
inform them of protocols

Name of
Stakeholder groups

Positively
affected

Negatively
Affected

Current Role in MPA


management

6. RAFI

Mangrove reforestation,
cooperative development

7. St. Catherine
Family Helpers

Capacity-building, planning

8. RARE

Social marketing, IEC, MPA TA


(ABATMAN area)

Donor and
Government
Special Projects

1. UNDP

MPA Networking, capacitybuilding, sustainable financing

2. ADB CTI-RETA

Capacity-building, management
planning, livelihood assistance

3. GIZ-PAME

Terrestrial PA management,
Capacity-building

4. SCREMP

IEC, Livelihood

5. US Peace Corps

6. ICRMP

7. Japan
Development
Volunteer

Peoples
Organizations/Fish
ery Councils

1. ICRMP POs

Mangrove rehab

2. FARMCs

Fishery policy recommending


body

3. CBFMA holders
(San Remigio,
Badian)

CB Mangrove forest management

Special Interest
Groups

Proposed Strategies for


Stakeholder Engagement

Conduct meetings with partners


and explore partnership and
complementation of programs

Include in planning and


consultation activities, also
enforcement activities

Name of
Stakeholder groups
1. Commercial
Fishers (Barili,
Toledo, Alegria,
Ginatilan)

2. Fishpond
Operators

3. Tourism
Operators (resorts,
dive shop
operators, tour
operators, etc)

Positively
affected

Negatively
Affected

Current Role in MPA


management

Clarify stand/policy of TSPS re.


commercial fishing (to be settled
within the next 4 years)

Concern: activities destructive to


coastal area

Assist in the protection

Proposed Strategies for


Stakeholder Engagement

Use of areas for tourism

IEC and capacity-development on


responsible tourism (Green Fins)

Commercial fishing issue to be


addressed in PAMB/planning
session
To meet with fishpond operators
re. concerns o destructive
practices

To review and recommend


policies re. FLAs
Move to formalize partnerships
and consider their representation
in PAMB. At the immediate, invite
them

Tap for IEC, data -collection for


marine mammal monitoring and
sightings, as well as illegal
activities

4. Shipping sector

Academic
Institutions

1. Cebu
Technological
University

Research, CO

2. UPMSI

Research, TA

3. Silliman
University-IEMS

Research, CO

4. University of San
Carlos

Research (mangrove research in


Toledo)

5. NORSU

CO, mangrove rehab

Tap these institutions for research


and data-sharing

The General Management Plan of the


Taon Strait Protected Seascape
Vision, Mission, Goals & Objectives
Vision
A Taon Strait Protected Seascape with natural biological diversity and integrity2, which is enjoyed by
the population, and whose coastal and marine resourcesand habitats are managed harmoniously and
utilized sustainably.

Mission
Conserve and sustainably manage the coastal and marine resources and habitats of the TSPS using
science- and evidence-based and participative decision making so that all stakeholders get to enjoy the
benefits of the seascape and also making the seascape more resilient to climate change and use a
system of management that is based on partnership, collaboration, transparency and a harmonized
policy between the different stakeholders.

Goals
The management goals for the TSPS for the next three years will be to:
1. Establish the current state of the protected area
2. Enhance the resource and habitat management systems of the TSPS as a whole and of the
specific core zones within the TSPS
3. Strengthen the Protected Area Office to enhance the mechanisms of co-management,
delineation and harmonization of the roles of the stakeholders in management
4. Continue and improve on the strategies being implemented for the conservation and
management of the coastal and marine resources of the TSPS

*GOAL to manage resources and manage the people

Objectives

Biological integrity refers to a system's wholeness, including presence of all appropriate elements and occurrence
of all processes at appropriate rates (Angermeier& Karr, 1994).

1. Collate all CRM Plans of 42 LGUs and integrate to support the preparation of a GMP

What does the TSPS management need to do in order to attain the goals stated above? Listed below are
the specific objectives leading to the attainment of the each of the goals of the TSPS management for
the next three years.

Goal 1. Establish the current state of the protected area


1. To obtain information on and establish with reasonable certainty the areas that are frequented
by the different species of cetaceans within the Taon Strait.
2. To obtain information on the status of the Nautilus population and endangered species (turtles,
sharks)within the TSPS.
3. To obtain information on the status of the coastal resources of the Taon Strait.
a. Coral reefs
b. Seagrass beds
c. Mangrove stands
d. Other habitats
4. To obtain information of the vulnerability of the TSPS to climate change and its associated risks.
5. To obtain information on the extent of resource use and the extent of illegal activities, if any,
associated with the use of the resources.
6. Obtain information on the socio-economic situation of the area
7. To establish a databank where all the information will be deposited

Goal 2. Enhance the resource and habitat management systems of the TSPS as a whole and of the
specific core zones within the TSPS

1. Fisheries Management
2. Resource Management
3. Foreshore Management
4. Large scale biodiversity monitoring
- Consolidation of data/ gray literature
5. Law enforcement - inter-agency trainings/ refresher

- Create adjudication board will be composed of PAMB EXECOM members


4. Cap dev for PASu/ APASu/ Protected Area Staff/ Partners and Stakeholders

8. Alternative/ Supplemental Livelihood


9. Climate change adapatation

Goal 3. Implement the established mechanisms of co-management, delineation and harmonization of


the roles of the stakeholders in management
1. To enhance the Protected Area Office, improve capacity of staff to implement plan and
programs
- Establish Protected Area Office
- Create PAO Organizational Structure
- Institutionalize implementation mechanisms
2. To increase awareness of the TSPS, its mechanisms of management and the roles of its
stakeholders among the public and the stakeholders and management of the TSPS
3. To strengthen or establish/formalize institutional arrangements and partnerships with the
different stake holders/management sectors of the TSPS
4. To Expand networks, build partnerships

Goal 4. Continue and improve on the strategies being implemented for the management of the coastal
and marine resources of the TSPS
1. To build up the capacity of the different sectors in the TSPS to improve the management of the
area
2. Revenue generation (generation of the IPAF) and Fund Management
3. Establish Guidelines/ Protocol Systems for Ecotourism, SAPA Applications, etc.
4. 1. IEC/ CEPA (Communication, Education and Public Awareness)
- Harmonization and consultation of different laws and policies between adjacent LGUs Formulate blanket prescriptions

Management Strategies/Interventions
In all sections where the conduct of research is an activity/intervention, unless explicitly stated that a
team is to be created to conduct the particular study, it is the intent of the TSPS-PAMB that if and
whenever possible these research activities be channelled /conducted through or by means of the
dissertations/theses of graduate students of recognized universities and colleges of the country and the
region. This is done to
1. Ensure quality of the work by tapping the additional expertise of the dissertation/thesis advisers
and panel members of the respective graduate students
2. Have a higher assurance that the work gets completed as the graduate student will have a
higher stake in regards to the studys completion and

3. Build the capacity of the incoming/existing workforce in the country with the recognition that a
significant percentage of the graduate students will continue working within the area after they
finish their studies.

As such, and unless explicitly mentioned otherwise, the PAMB will strive to support the conduct of such
studies through:
1. Help secure funding for the study, and (expand statement and identify different modalities)
2. Provide logistical support during the conduct of the study. (Representatives from TSPS will
participate in every study)

Results of all research conducted in TSPS will be provided/ submitted to TSPS PAMB before 6 months
after the end of the study.

Establishing the state of the protected area


Objective 1.To obtain information on and establish with reasonable certainty the areas that
are frequented by the different species of cetaceans within the Taon Strait.
The TSPS management will sponsor and/or support research directed towards determining with
reasonable certainty the abundance and distribution by the different species of cetaceans within the
Taon Strait. This is to facilitate the protection and zoning of these areas in the future, if deemed
necessary in the study to protect the well-being and safeguard the future of these species within the
Strait.
Objective 2.To obtain information on the status of the Nautilus population and other
endangered fishery species within the TSPS.
The presence of the Nautilus fishery is one of the reasons why the TSPS was protected. Since protection,
however, the status of this fishery has not been studied. As such, the TSPS management will sponsor
and/or support a study on the Nautilus, placing heavier priority and more importance on the
determination of the current status of this important fishery.

*dolphins and sharks are used as bait to catch the nautilus. Nautilus are carnivores and are attracted to
flesh and blood. Conserving the dolphins and sharks will conserve the Nautilus. Research was done in
Bohol there is a paper on this Dr. Al

*references from sir Raul


Objective 3.To obtain information on the status of the coastal resources of the Taon Strait.
The lack of baseline information is a problem that all the sectors acknowledge and find important. This
lack of information hampers management and decision-making. The TSPS management therefore will
support and/or sponsor the following studies:

Study on the ecosystems


What is the status of the marine ecosystems within the TSPS (reword into a statement)?The proposed
activities to address this question are as follows:
1. Somebody (reword)is to collect all the studies, unpublished reports, data sets on the Taon
Strait and publish them.
2. Create team s to conduct baseline resource assessment/inventory
a. Submit proposals for funding to the Protected Area Office. TSPS can support small
studies that feed into data needs of the TSPS.
b. Give special attention to gaps/areas that were unstudied as determined by the
collection of secondary data mentioned in the previous item
c. Conduct study

Study on fishery stock and diversity


What is the status of the fishery stock within the TSPS and how diverse is it? The proposed activities to
address this question are as follows:
1. Create team to conduct baseline resource assessment/inventory/profiling
a. Submit proposals for funding
b. Conduct study

Objective 4.To obtain information of the vulnerability of the TSPS to climate change and its
associated risks.
Conduct a vulnerability assessment (expand statement) vulnerability to tourism, carrying capacity
studies?, identify most hazard prone areas, focus on storm surges, sea level rise

Objective 5. To obtain information on the extent of resource use and the extent of illegal
activities, if any, associated with the use of the resources.
An inventory of resource users has also been seen as an essential set of information lacking in the
present set up. The TSPS management will sponsor and/or support studies answering the following
questions (numbered items) and will also conduct/support specific activities aimed at answering these
questions (lettered items).

(reword statements no questions)


1. Is there encroachment and other illegal activities?
a. Inventory all existing coastal structures within the TSPS.
b. Create monitoring team to check compliance on waste disposal rules and regulations,
prioritizing industrial waste
2. How many fisherfolk operate within the TSPS, and how many and what type of boats and gear
do they use?
a. Conduct inventory in collaboration with the LGUs

b. Conduct fishery resource assessment/profiling (including CPUE and related parameters).


This item is linked with the fishery resource/stock assessment study mentioned under
Goal 1, Objective 3.
3. How many tourists arrive at the TSPS?
a. Properly note the arrival of tourists in the different tourism sites within the TSPS (mainly
a function of tourism officers)
b. Train tourism officers on their function
4. How much does tourism impact the natural resources within the TSPS?
a. Conduct research on the impacts of tourism
gather info on socio-economics

Enhance the resource and habitat management systems of the TSPS as a whole
and of the specific core zones within the TSPS
To fulfil this objective, the TSPS management will see to it that the activities listed below are conducted.
These activities will be conducted by tapping resource persons or qualified organizations to provide the
expertise, if necessary.
1. Establish guidelines for sustainable tourism
2. Certify eco-tourism guides/operators (incorporate Green Fins)
3. Assess and evaluate status of all core zones (both LGU and PAMB managed) and redesign if
found deficient (directly if PAMB managed, through LGU if LGU managed)

Addressing habitat degradation


To check the degradation of the ecosystems within the TSPS, the management support the following
activities:
1. Implementation of protection, rehabilitation and recovery strategies
2. Development of community-based coral reef resiliency and recovery protocols
3. Mangrove Rehabilitation Programs
6. Fisheries Management
7. Resource Management
8. Foreshore Management
9. Large scale biodiversity monitoring
- Consolidation of data/ gray literature

10. Law enforcement - inter-agency trainings/ refresher

- Create adjudication board will be composed of PAMB EXECOM members


4. Cap dev for PASu / APASu/ Protected Area Staff/ Partners and Stakeholders

10. Alternative/ Supplemental Livelihood


11. Climate change adapatation

Implement the established mechanisms of co-management, delineation and


harmonization of the roles of the stakeholders in management
Objective 1. To increase awareness of the TSPS, its mechanisms of management and the roles
of its stakeholders among the public and the stakeholders and management of the TSPS
The TSPS management will support and/or sponsor the following activities to fulfil this objective:
1. Conduct a Communication, Education and Public Awareness (CEPA) program
2. Conduct environmental governance workshops, targeting (directly or indirectly) the key decision
makers within the TSPS (i.e. the members of the PAMB and other implementors)

- Hire legal experts on environmental policies to facilitate harmonization of laws and policies in TSPS
Objective 2.To strengthen or establish/formalize institutional arrangements and
partnerships with the different stake holders/management sectors of the TSPS
To achieve this objective, the TSPS management will aim to establish Memoranda -of-Agreement (MOAs)
with the different management sectors of the TSPS. And replicate on-going good practices in
institutional partnership.

Continue and improve on the strategies being implemented for the


management of the coastal and marine resources of the TSPS
Objective 1.To build up the capacity of the different sectors in the TSPS to improve the
management of the area
The TSPS management will support the following activities for the following sectors:
The Protected Area Rangers
1. Deputation of the LGU Wardens
2. Definition of their roles and responsibilities
3. If possible, assist in providing incentives for the enforcers
4. Increase the number of members.
5. Create Large Marine Vertebrates Rescue Teams and Network
Law enforcement and area management units
1. The conduct of Knowledge-sharing seminars on the best practices in enforcement strategies
and to provide deeper understanding of the environmental laws of the country and its
mechanisms
2. The offering of eco-governance courses targeted (directly or indirectly) at the key decision
makers within the TSPS (i.e. the members of the PAMB) (this is linked to the activities in Goal 3)

Coastal tourism

The TSPS will take the lead in the formulation of a TSPS-wide coastal tourism development plan/ general
ecotourism guidelines.

PROGRAMS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

FISHERIES MANAGEMENT
HABITAT MANAGEMENT
LAW ENFORCEMENT
MANAGEMENT PROGRAM OF PEOPLE

STRATEGY ON HOW TO GENERATE FUNDS TO SUPPORT PROGRAMS

-MAKE A STUDY ON REVENUE GENERATION PES, WTP, VALUATION STUDY

Objective 2 .Revenue generation


To continue operations of the TSPS, revenues need to be generated to fund working expenses and other
costs. Table 9 gives a breakdown of the fees to be collected by the TSPS management.

TSPS to formulate policy on resource utilization (with consideration on social equity).


Table 9Fees to be collected by the PAMB through the office of the PASu

FEES/CHARGES
SAPA Industrial/Commercial
Annual Users Fee

AMOUNT (Php)

10.00/square meter

-come up with guidelines in the next

=> Area x P10/sqm = payment

three years on how to compute the


annual users fee ie average value of lot
be used in the computation instead of
fixing fee at P10/sqm

=> Area x LGU Assessed value of adjacent area =


payment
=>Or whichever is higher

Development Fee

Miscellaneous Fee (for areas beyond

1% of the total project cost paid only once for


the 25-year tenure
In the case of additional developments,

FEES/CHARGES
AMOUNT (Php)
foreshore)
SAPA/ Fish Pond
5,000/hectare/yr
OTHER USERS FEE
SAPA / MOA Application Processing Fee
500.00/application
Permit to Operate (Annual) (passenger
1,000.00/year
ships/pump boats (3 tons above) operating
within Taon Strait)
Residential (for Tenured migrants ONLY) other use
Annual Users Fee
2.00/square meter

Management Zones within the TSPS


Municipal Coastal Waters
Municipal Coastal Waters are areas within the TSPS that are managed by the respective LGUs within the
framework given in Figure 2. These waters are defined by the PAMB as areas/zones which follow the
delineations of municipal waters as defined by the Philippines Fisheries Code of 1998 (RA 8550). All
areas outside of these LGU -managed areas are managed directly by the TSPS-PAMB.
The zones
There are two types of zones or categories of protection within the TSPS, following the Revised
Implementing Rules and Regulations of the NIPAS Act of 1992 (DENR Administrative Order 2008-26).
These are:
1. Strict protection zones
a. Core zones
i. Marine (coral reefs, seagrass beds, cetacean migration routes, etc.)
ii. Estuarine (mangroves)
b. Buffer zones
2. Multiple use zones

Strict Protection Zones

The Core Zones


These are areas which have been identified as such for reasons of their unique physical and biological
significance, and which are managed to enhance biological diversity and protect against destructive
human exploitation. In these areas there are no or limited human activities and are considered as notake zones. Marine protected areas that have been established by the LGUs and mangrove forests falls
under this category.
I.STRICT PROTECTION ZONE

MARINE PROTECTED AREA

ALLOWED ACTIVITES
tourism activities like

PROHIBITED ACTIVITES
all fishing activities and

I.STRICT PROTECTION ZONE

ALLOWED ACTIVITES
swimming, diving with
or without breathing
apparatus with fees
gleaning and diving for
research purposes as
allowed by the proper
supervising and
monitoring agencies
assessment, monitoring
and evaluation
artificial reefs

MANGROVE

gleaning, hook and line


fishing
passive gear fishing
research
fry and fingerlings
gathering
mangrove reforestation
ecotourism i.e. river
tour, mangrove walk,
boardwalk, canopy
walk, bird watching

PROHIBITED ACTIVITES
methods (except those
expressly allowed by the
management)
pollutant inducing
activities, use of
poisonous and noxious
substances
passage of pumpboats,
jet skis, and boats,
anchoring inside the
sanctuary
removal of corals and
other marine organism
not intended for research
and similar studies

cutting of mangroves
mangrove reclamation
destruction and removal
of corals and seagrass
use of push nets, gill nets
and beach seine
quarrying of sand and
gravel
any use of poisonous
substances

Buffer Zones
These are areaswhich were delineated to provide a social fence to prevent encroachment into the core
zonesof the MPAs established by the LGUs (within the TSPS). Buffer zones are treated as an integral
part of the protected area where some traditional fishing and tourism activities are allowed. The
individual MPAs established by the LGUs may or may not have buffer zones depending on the
management strategy chosen by the respective LGUs.

II. BUFFER ZONE

ALLOWED ACTIVITES
hook and line fishing
within the buffer zone,
reef gleaning that do not
break and crush corals,
stir-up sediments while
walking,
activities that are

PROHIBITED ACTIVITES
use of poisonous noxious
substances

ALLOWED ACTIVITES
allowed within the core
zone

PROHIBITED ACTIVITES

Multiple Use Zone


This is the area where settlements, traditional and/or sustainable resource use, including agriculture,
agroforestry, extraction, and other means of generating income or livelihood are allowed, such as fish
corrals, fish cage, fish pen, sea culture (seaweed, fish, sea ranching).

However, in establishing Fish Corrals, Fish Cages/Fish Pens, Sea Culture structures the following
requirements must be met:
-

the applicant must be a registered fisherfolk/organization,


applicants must secure a municipal permit,
the allowable fish net has eyes ofat least 3 cm in diameter, and
the structure must not obstruct the navigational zone.

Specific requirements must also be met for the different establishments:(a) the maximum allowable
area for Fish corral is 50 x 50 meters, (b) for Fish Cage/ Pen the maximum allowable area is 20 x 20
meters, with no expansion of any existing fish cages and pens and with the operator submitting an
annual sediments report, and (c) as for Sea Culture the maximum area allowable is 10 square meters per
applicant and this should not obstruct fishing activities or ways.

III. MULTIPLE USE ZONE

ALLOWED ACTIVITES
establishment of fish
corrals, fish cage, fish
pen, sea culture
(seaweed, fish, sea
ranching)
swimming, scuba diving,
snorkeling, hook and line
fishing
designated areas for
docking of boats,
anchoring, dry docking
of boats/ ships for
repair, passage for boats
establishment of beach
resorts, etc.

5-Year Work & Financial Plan for implementing PAMP

PROHIBITED ACTIVITES
obstruction of the
navigational zone
all forms of illegal fishing
all forms of marine sand
and gravel extraction
establishment without
tenure, and/or other
lawful permit
reclamation activities

Monitoring & Evaluation

Literature cited
Alava, MNR, MLL Dolar, ER Sabater, MTR Aquino, & MD Santos (eds). 2012. Red List Status of Marine
Mammals in the Philippines. Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources - National Fisheries
Research and Development Institute.194 pages.
Angermeier PL & JR Karr. 1994. Biological integrity versus biological diversity as policy directives.
BioScience 44(10):690-697

Carlson BA, JN McKibben& MV deGruy. 1984. Telemetric investigation of vertical migration of


Nautilusbelauensis in Palau. Pacfific Science 38(3):183-188
Dolar MLL, WL Perrin, BL Taylor, GL Kooyman& MNR Alava. 2006. Abundance and distributional ecology
of cetaceans in the central Philippines. J. Cetacean Res. Manage. 8(1):93-111

Dunstan AJ, PD Ward PD & NJ Marshall. 2011. Nautiluspompilius - Life History and Demographics at the
Osprey Reef Seamount, Coral Sea, Australia. PLoS ONE 6(2): e16312.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016312
Eisma-Osorio RL, RC Amolo, AP Maypa, AT White & P Christie. 2009. Scaling Up Local Government
Initiatives Toward Ecosystem -Based Fisheries Management in Southeast Cebu Island, Philippines.
37(3-4):291-307

Green SJ, JO Flores, JQ Dizon-Corrales, RT Martinez, DRM Nual, NB Armada & AT White. 2004. The
fisheries of Central Visayas, Philippines: Status and trends. Coastal Resource Management Project
of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources and the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic
Resources of the Department of Agriculture, Cebu City, Philippines, 159 p.
Hayasaka S, K Oki, K Tanabe, T Saisho, &AShinomoya. 2010. On the habitat of Nautiluspompilius in
Taon Strait (Philippines) and the Fiji Islands. pp. 179-200. In: W.B. Saunders and N.H. Landman
(eds.) Nautilus. The Biology and Paleobiology of a Living Fossil, Reprint with additions (2nd ed).
Topics in Geobiology, Vol 6.
Hayasaka S, K Oki, AShinomiya& T Saisho. 1983. Environmental background of theehabitat of Nautilus in
the southern part of Taon Strait, the Philippines. Kagoshima Univ. Res. Center S. Pac. Occasional
Papers, 1:2-8
Heideman PD & KR Erickson. 1987. The climate and hydrology of the Lake Balinsasayao watershed,
Negros Oriental, Philippines. Silliman Journal 34(1-4):82-107

Hilario F, R de Guzman, D Ortega, P Hayman & B Alexander. 2009. El Nio Southern Oscillation in the
Philippines: impacts, forecasts, and risk mangement. Philippine Journal of Development #66
36(1):9-34

Next steps

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

finalize plan
- one month from now
submit to Regional TWG
- one month from now
send letters for formation of Negros Occidental SMU
update PAMB member appointments
present to SMUs
- January 2014 c/o DENR funds
present to EXECOM
- January 2014 c/o DENR funds
Endorse to DENR Secretary for approval -January 2014

Activities to be funded by ADB RETA


1. Large Marine Vertebrate Rescue Training
o 3 trainings and 1 meeting;
o north and south of Negros; north of Cebu
o 3-7 participants/ LGU = approx. 60 pax per training
o 3-4 days per training
o North Negros Sagay City
o South Negros DumagueteCity
o North Cebu Daanbantayan
o 1st training after March; April, May June
2. Law Enforcement Training
o 1 per province (3 trainings)
o 3-4 days per training
o 30 pax per training
o Existing resource persons
o Start 1stquarter
o Training sites: Dumaguete City, Bacolod City, Cebu City
3. UAV Training
o Create core group June
o Trainors training September