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Objectives of power system are

1. Cost of electrical energy per KWh is to be minimum


2. Rated voltage and frequency has to be supplied to the consumers
3. Reliable power has to be available
4. Effective protection system has to be used for isolating the faulty section and keeping other
sections healthy.
5. More stable generators are to be used, so that it should not lose synchronism under faulty
condition.
6. Flexible power has to be available.
Base load plants: A base load power plant is a power station that usually provides a continuous
supply of electricity throughout the year with some minimum power generation requirement.
Base load power plants will only be turned off during periodic maintenance, upgrading, overhaul
or service. Base load power plant has the character of slow demand respond, a mechanism to
match generation with the load it supplies.
Some examples of base load plants are
1. Thermal plants
2. Hydro plants
3. Nuclear plants
4. Tidal power plants
Base load stations installed of the capacity of unvarying load known as base load which is
normally required for the whole day. A generating station which has a high investment cost and
low operating cost is usually operated as base load station
Peak load plants: A peaking power plant is a power station that only runs during high demands
of electricity throughout the day during peak hours. Because of that, the price of electricity it
generates is generally higher than the electricity generated by base load power plant, which
operates continuously throughout the year. The power plant to be employed as peak load power
plants should have the capability of quick start, synchronization and taking up of system load,
quick response to load variations and low cost.
Some examples are
1. Pumped storage plant
2. Diesel plants
3. Hydro plants (when water availability is less)
4. Gas fired power plants

In pumped storage plant, the plant pumps back all or a portion of its water supply during low
load period. The usual construction is a tail water pond and a head water pond connected through
a penstock. The generating pumping plant is at lower end. The plant utilizes some of the surplus
energy generated by the base load plant to pump the water from the tail water pond into the head
water pnod during off peak hours. During peak load period this water pond through the water
turbine of this plant to the tail water pond.
Advantages of pumped storage plants:
1. Most economical as a peak load supply plant
2. Used as load frequency control
3. If it is combined with thermal plant of an area load factor is increased
4. Pollution free
5. Easily adaptable for remote operation
6. Operating time is minimum
Plant load factor is defined as the ratio of average power generation to the maximum power
generation. Plant load factor = Average power/ Maximum power Therefore, ideal plant load
factor is one and practical load factor is less than 1.
Plant capacity factor (Pcf) is defined as the ratio of average power to the plant capacity. Pcf =
Average power/ Plant capacity Pcf = Energy produced by the plant/ (Energy that can be able to
produce as per plant capacity during total hours) Therefore, the value of plant capacity is less
than 1.
Diversity factor is defined as the ratio of sum of individual maximum demand to the station
maximum demand. Diversity factor = Sum of individual maximum demand/ Station maximum
demand. Therefore, the value of diversity factor is greater than 1.
Demand factor (Df) is defined as the ratio of station maximum demand to the sum of connected
load. Df = Station maximum demand/ Sum of connected load Therefore, demand factor of a
plant is less than 1.
Plant load factor = Average power/ Maximum power
Plant capacity factor = Average power/ Plant capacity
A boiler feed water pump is a specific type of pump used to pump feed water into a steam
boiler. These pumps are normally high pressure units that take suction from a condensate return
system and can be of the centrifugal pump type or positive displacement type. Boiler feed pump
is the highest pressure generating pump inside the thermal plant with build up the pressure up to
165 kg.

Basically, economiser is located in between exit of boiler and entry of air pre heater. When the
flue gases are coming out from boiler they take away a lot of heat. Economiser utilize this heat
from flue gases and these heat is used to heat the feed water which is going to feed the
boiler.Economiser is used to absorbing heat from the flue gas for increasing the temperature of
the water so that improving the thermal efficiency.
Average load = Area under the daily load curve/24
The electrostatic precipitators (ESP) are extensively used in the thermal power plant or steam
power plant for removal of fly ash from the electric utility boiler emissions. The use of
electrostatic precipitators is growing rapidly because of the new strict air code and environmental
laws. An electrostatic precipitators can be designed to operate at any desired efficiency for use as
primary collector or a supplementary unit to cyclone collector.
Q. In thermal plant most of the energy is wasted in
boiler
ESP
condenser
turbines
Steam is condensed into the water inside the condenser using circulating water. Most of the
energy is wasted in the condenser for conversion of steam into water. So that thermal efficiency
is low value i.e., 35 % to 40%.
The Rankine cycle is a model that is used to predict the performance of steam turbine systems.
The Rankine cycle is an idealized thermodynamic cycle of a heat engine that converts heat into
mechanical work. The heat is supplied externally to a closed loop, which usually uses water as
the working fluid.
Surge thank is used for protecting the pen stock from the water hammering effect. Surge tank is
a standpipe or storage reservoir at the downstream end of a closed aqueduct or feeder or a dam or
barrage pipe to absorb sudden rises of pressure, as well as to quickly provide extra water in case
of sudden load demands. So that it is kept very close to the turbine.
07) One million cubic meters of water is stored in a reservoir feeding a water turbine. The
density of water is 993 kg/m. If the centre of mass of water is 50 meters above the turbine and
losses are negligible, the energy produced by that volume of water is
Ans
Power generation P = 9.81*10-3*QWH kW
Where, = Plant efficiency = 1

Q = Discharge of water = 1*106/3600 m/s


W = Density of water = 993 kg/m
H = Mean head of water = 50 m
Power generation P = 135.3 MW
Energy E = P * t = 135.3 MWhr
08) A coal fired steam power station working at a plant factor of 80% has one 500 MW
generating unit. If the heat content of coal is 2 kWh/kg, the overall plant efficiency is 40% and a
train load of coal is 2000 metric tons, then the number of trains required daily for the plant is
Ans
Maximum power Pmax = 500 MW
Load factor = 0.8
Average power Pavg = 0.8*500 = 400 MW
One day energy = 400*10*24 kWhr = 9600*10 kWhr
Efficiency = 0.4
Energy generated by coal = 2 kWhr/kg
Therefore, actual energy generated by coal = 2*0.4 = 0.8 kWhr/kg
One train coal = 2000*10 kg
One train coal can generate energy = 2000*10*0.8 kWhr
Total number of trains required = 9600*10/(2000*10*0.8) = 6
1)

A thermal generating station has an installed capacity of 15 MW and supplies a daily


load of 10 MW for 12 hours and 5 MW for remaining 12 hours. The plant capacity
factor for the station is
Ans:
Plant capacity factor (Pcf) is defined as the ratio of average power to the plant capacity.
Pcf = Average power/ Plant capacity
Pcf = Energy produced by the plant/ (Energy that can be able to produce as per plant
capacity during total hours)
Pcf = (10*12+5*12)/(15*24) = 0.5

02) A thermal generating station has an installed capacity of 15 MW and supplies a daily load of
10 MW for 12 hours and 5 MW for remaining 12 hours. If the load factor is 0.8. Find the reserve
capacity of the station?
Ans:
Reserve capacity Rc = Plant capacity(Pc) - Maximum power(Pmax)
Rc = Pmax*(load factor - capacity factor)/capacity factor
Rc = 15 *106*(0.8-0.5)/0.5 Rc = 9 MW

03) A power station has a maximum demand of 15000 kW. The annual load factor is 50% and
plant capacity factor is 40%. What is the reserve capacity of the plant?
Ans
Reserve capacity Rc = Plant capacity(Pc) - Maximum power(Pmax)
Rc = Pmax*(load factor - capacity factor)/capacity factor
Rc = 15000*10*(0.5-0.4)/0.4 = 3750 kW
04) The daily energy produced in thermal power station is 720 MWh at a load factor of 0.6. What
is the maximum demand of the station?
Ans
Average energy = 720 MWh
Average power = 720*106/24 = 30 MW
Load factor = Average power/Maximum demand Maximum demand
= 30*106/0.6
= 50 MW
05) A power station has a maximum demand of 15 MW. The plant capacity is 20 MW. Find the
reserve capacity of the plant?
Ans
Reserve capacity Rc = Plant capacity(Pc) - Maximum power(Pmax)
Rc = Pmax*(load factor - capacity factor)/capacity factor
Rc = 20*106 - 15*106 = 5 MW
06) The maximum demand of a consumer is 2 kW and corresponding daily energy consumption
is 30 units. What is the corresponding load factor?
Ans:
From given data, 30 units = 30 kWh
Energy consumed in 1 hour = 30/24 = 1.25 kW
Load factor = Average load/Maximum load*100
Load factor = 1.25/2 *100 = 62.5%
Pelton turbine: Impulse turbine, used for high water heads
Kaplan turbine: Reaction turbine, used for low water heads
Francis turbine: Reaction turbine, used for medium water heads.
Therefore, for harnessing low variable water heads, the suitable hydraulic turbine with reaction
and adjustable vanes runners is Kaplan turbine
09) A Pelton wheel turbine having a rated speed of 300 rpm is connected to an alternator to
produce power at 50 Hz. The number of poles required in the alternator is
Ans
Synchronous speed Ns =120*f/P Where, P = Number of poles f = Supply frequency
300 = 120*50/P , gives ,P = 20

01) The water from a catchment is 60*10 6 cu m annually and hydro station has head of 40 m.
Assuming ideal generator and turbine, the power that can be theoretically generated is
Ans
Average electrical output power P = 9.81*10-3*QWH kW Where, = Plant efficiency Q =
Discharge of water W = Density of water H = Mean head of water Q = 60*106/(365*24*3600)
= 1.9 m/s By substituting of given all values, P 750 kW
Hydro electric power station do not require fuel like thermal power stations. Therefore
operating cost of hydro electric power station is low. But initial cost is high, because to construct
dam and for heavy equipment it requires high initial cost

Plant load factor is defined as the ratio of average power generation to the maximum power
generation. Plant load factor = Average power/ Maximum power
Diversity factor is defined as the ratio of sum of individual maximum demand to the station
maximum demand. Diversity factor = Sum of individual maximum demand/ Station maximum
demand.
Therefore, both load factor and diversity factors are inversely proportional to maximum demand.
If load factor and diversity factors are high, maximum demand will be less, it will reduce the
machine rating and lower cost of power generation is possible.
5) A 200 MW capacity generator has a speed regulation of 4% for a frequency drop of 0.05 Hz.
Find the power input supplied by the turbine for maintaining constant frequency?
Ans:
For maintaining constant frequency f1/f2 = P1/P2 Where, f = Change in frequency P =
Change in power input
P1 = 200 - 0 = 200 MW
f1 = 4/100*50 = 2 Hz
f2 = 0.05 Hz
P2 = 0.05*200/2 = 5 MW
06) A 200 MVA alternator operated at no load at frequency of 50 Hz, it has inertia constant of 5
MWsec/MVA and governing system has a time delay of 0.6 sec. If the load of 50 MW is
suddenly applied then find the frequency deviation during this time?
Ans:
Frequency deviation due to time delay in the governing system:
Due to sudden load demand

fn = fi*((H.S - Pd*Td)/(H.S)) Where, fn = New frequency fi = Initial frequency Pd = Load


demand S = Rating of generator Td = Time delay in governing system H = Inertia constant of
generator
fn = 50*((5*200 - 50*0.6)/(5*200))
fn = 49.24 Hz
Frequency deviation f = fn - fi =50 - 49.24 = -0.76 Hz
08) In which of the following frequency control method tie line may be overloaded?
Flat frequency control: Load changes of one bus bar is supplied by the another generator for
maintaining constant frequency through the tie line. In this method tie line may be overloaded.
Flat tie line control: In this method tie line power flow is maintained constant without overload
of tie line. The control signal of each area is proportional to changes in the frequency and
changes in the tie line power.
Parallel frequency control: It is the most practical method in which both the generators
simultaneously respond for the load changes in either of the bus bars.
Steady state frequency drop due to sudden loss
f = Pd/( + 1/R)
Where,
Pd = Load demand
= % change in load/ % change in frequency
R = Speed regulation constant
Relation between fuel consumption and power
F = a + b P + C P
Where,
a,b and c are constants
P = Power in MW
F = Fuel consumption in Rs/hr
Incremental cost = dF/dP = b + 2CP Rs/MWhr
02) Two generating stations delivering a powers of P1 = 150 MW, P2 =100 MW and the B
coefficients are B11 = 0.005, B22 = 0.002, B12=B21= -0.001. Find the transmission line losses?
Ans:
Power loss of a transmission line PL = B11*P1 + B22*P2 + 2*B12*P1*P2 Where, B11,B22,B12 and
B21 are B coefficients P1 and P2 are power delivered by generating stations.
PL = 0.005*150 + 0.002*100 +2*(-0.002)*150*100 = 102.5 MW
03) Incremental cost of two generators I c1 = 0.2 P1+60, Ic2 = 0.3 P2+40 and the ratings of the
generator are 150 and 250 MW. Find the load sharing of each generator for a load of 200 MW?

Ans:
Given that P1 + P2 = 200 MW
Optimum condition of economic load dispatch is
Ic1 = Ic2
0.2 P1 + 60 = 0.3 P2 + 40
0.2 P1 - 0.3 P2 = -20, By solving of above equations P1 = 80 MW, P2 = 120 MW
04) The Y bus matrix of 100 bus interconnected system is 90% sparse. Hence the number of
transmission lines in the system must be
Ans:
Total number of transmission lines (t) = (n(1-x)-n)/2 Where, n = number of buses x = sparsity
t = (100*(1-0.9)-100)/2 = 450

05) A power system consists of 300 buses out of which 20 buses are generator buses, 25 buses
are the ones with reactive power support buses and 15 buses are ones with fixed shunt capacitors.
All the other buses are load buses. It is proposed to perform a load flow analysis for the system
using Newton-Raphson Jacobian matrix is
Ans:
Size of the Jacobian matrix = (2n-m-2)*(2n-m-2)
Where,
n = Total number of buses = 300
m = Total number of PV buses
m = Voltage control buses + Reactive power support buses + generator buses except slack
bus=44
Fixed shunt capacitors are supplying constant amount of reactive power, so that fixed shunt
capacitors are considered as load buses or PQ buses.
Size of the Jacobian matrix = (2*300-44-2)*(2*300-44-2) = 554*554
Advantages of gauss siedel method:
1. It is a simple algebraical equation, so that calculation time for each iteration is less.
2. More suitable for small size networks.
Disadvantages of gauss siedel method:
1. More number of iterations are required, so that it has slow convergence.
2. Initial approximate guessing value is required for convergence.
3. It required accelerating factor for convergence.
4. The choice of slack bus affects the convergence.
5. It is not applicable for the large power system networks.

Plant load factor is defined as the ratio of average power generation to the maximum power
generation. Plant load factor = Average power/ Maximum power Therefore, ideal plant load
factor is one and practical load factor is less than 1.
Diversity factor is defined as the ratio of sum of individual maximum demand to the station
maximum demand. Diversity factor = Sum of individual maximum demand/ Station maximum
demand. Both load factor and diversity factor depends on maximum demand. Therefore,
economics of power plant is greatly influenced by both load factor and diversity factor.
If the penalty factor of a plant is unity, its incremental transmission loss is
Penalty factor = 1/(1-dPL/dP)
Where,
dPL/dP = Incremental transmission loss
Given that, penalty factor = 1
dPL/dP = 0
05) As the frequency of the system is increased, the charging MVAR
Ans:
Charging MVAR = V*Ic*sin
Where,
V= System voltage
Ic = Charging current
= Phase angle between V and Ic
Ic = V/Xc = 2fC*V
Therefore, charging MVAR f.
As frequency increases, Charging MVAR also will increase.
07) A 20 MVA generator has inertia constant of 0.5 pu. Find new value for 50 MVA base?
Ans:
Inertia constant (H) in pu = H/Sb
Sb = Base MVA
Hpun = Hpuo* (MVA)bo/(MVA)bn
Here, "n" represents the new values and "o" represents the old values
Hpun = 0.5*20/50 = 0.2 pu
08) Pelton turbine is a ----------- turbine
Ans:
Pelton turbine -----> Impulsive turbine
Francis turbine -----> Inward radial flow turbine
Kaplan turbine -----> Axial flow turbine
Turbines classification based on discharge:

1. High discharge (>10000 lpm) ----> Kaplan turbine


2. Medium discharge (<10000 and >1000 lpm) ----> Francis turbine
3. Low discharge (<1000 lpm) -----> Pelton turbine
Where lpm = litres per minute

Turbines classification based on specific speed:


1. High speed (>300 rpm) ----> Kaplan turbine
2. Medium speed (<300 and >60 rpm) ----> Francis turbine
3. A) Low speed (<60 and >30 rpm) -----> Pelton turbine with multi jets
B) Low speed (<30 rpm) ----> Pelton turbine with single jet
Turbines classification based on head:
1. High head (>300 meters) ----> Pelton wheel turbine
2. Medium head (<300 and >30 meters) ----> Francis turbine
3. Low head (<30 meters) -----> Kaplan turbine
03) More efficient plants are used as
Ans : base load plant
A base load power plant is a power station that usually provides a continuous supply of
electricity throughout the year with some minimum power generation requirement. Base load
power plants will only be turned off during periodic maintenance, upgrading, overhaul or
service. Base load power plant has the character of slow demand respond, a mechanism to match
generation with the load it supplies. A peaking power plant is a power station that only runs
during high demands of electricity throughout the day during peak hours. Because of that, the
price of electricity it generates is generally higher than the electricity generated by base load
power plant, which operates continuously throughout the year.
06) High capacity generators and motors are of
Ans:
In case of delta network, there is no path for zero sequence currents because there is no ground
return and hence considered zero sequence currents are circulating within the winding. High
capacity generators and motors of star connected with grounding is practically used for faster
identification of faults and to isolate the faulty section.
07) The positive, negative and zero sequence per unit impedance of two generators connected in
parallel are X1 = 0.12 pu, X2 = 0.096 pu and X0 = 0.036 pu. For LG fault at generator terminals
(with 1 pu voltage) the positive sequence current will be
Ans

For LG fault at generator terminals, the positive sequence current


IR1 = V/(X1+X2+X0)
Since, two generators with same X1, X2 and X0 are connected in parallel,
IR1 = V/(X1/2+X2/2+X0/2)
From given data,
IR1 = 1/(0.12/2 + 0.096/2 + 0.036/2) = 7.936 pu

08) A synchronous generator is of 100 MVA have inertia constant of 20 MJ/MVA. Find the
angular momentum in MJsec/electrical degrees
Ans:
Angular momentum M = HS/(180*f) MJsec/electrical degrees
Where, H = Inertia constant S = Rating of the machine Angular momentum
M = 20*100/(180*50) = 0.22 MJsec/electrical degrees
If all the generators are connected in parallel and maintaining constant voltage at bus bar without
any internal impedance for equivalent bus bar is called infinite bus bar, i,e, it maintains the
voltage constant independent of load condition.

10) For 800 MJ stored energy in the rotor at synchronous speed, what is the inertia constant H
for a 50 Hz, four pole turbo generator rated 100 MVA, 11 kV?
Ans:
Inertia constant H = Kinetic energy / MVAbase
Inertia constant H = 800/100 = 8 MJ/MVA

01) For which one of the following types of motors, is the equal area criterion for stability
applicable?
Three phase synchronous motor
Three phase induction motor
DC series motor
DC shunt motor
Ans
Equal area criterion used to transient stability analysis of synchronous machines, is consistency
with transient energy function method for single machine-infinite bus system or two machines

system. Equal area criteria is used more efficiently for a single generator stability analysis or
single motor stability analysis and is is used to find the absolute stability of the system.
03) Two identical synchronous machines having same inertia constant are connected in parallel
and swinging together. The effective inertia constant is 4 MJ/MVA. Then each machine has
inertia constant of
Ans
When two machines swing together in parallel connection, H = H1 + H2
Given that, H1 = H2
4 = 2*H1
H1 = H2 = 2 MJ/MVA
Advantages and disadvantages of phase modifiers:
1.Single unit can be used as both capacitance and inductor by adjusting the excitation
2. Smooth voltage regulation is possible by controlling excitation
3. Initial cost of synchronous phase modifier is higher
4. It consumes both active and reactive power
5. It requires more maintenance because of running equipment
6.It requires starting mechanism for bringing the synchronous motor up to synchronous speed

Q.6) Stock bridge dampers are used in case hill areas to over come the which problem?
unequal ice loading
increase string efficiency
increase power factor
all of the above
Ans
Due to unequal ice loading vibrations are produced in the conductors. If these vibrations are
extended up to the point of support of the conductor, bolts and nuts are loosen, finally producing
fault in the system. Therefore, to reduce these vibrations at the point of support, vibration or
stock bridge dampers are used
07) The inertia constant of 100 MVA, 50 Hz, 4 pole generator is 10 MJ/MVA. If the mechanical
input to the machine is suddenly raised from 50 MW to 75 MW, the rotor acceleration will be
equal to
Ans
Rotor acceleration = Pa/M Where,
Pa = Accelerating power
M = Angular momentum = HS/(180*f)

H = Inertia constant
S = Rating of the machine
f = Frequency
M =10*100/(180*50)
Rotor acceleration = 25*180*50/1000 = 225 electrical degrees/s

04) A 25 MVA, 11 kV alternator is supplying full load at a point of 0.75 lagging. Determine the
percentage increase in earning capacity when it is operated at improved power factor of 0.96
lagging.
Ans
Power supplied of any power factor = Rating x operating of increase in earning capacity = power
supplied at improved power factor - power supplied at given power factor.
05) In thermal power plants the size of coal after crushing
Ans : 20 - 25 mm, Any material is ground into small parts its surface area is increases make it to
effectively utilize.
Efficiency of thermal power plant is given by product of
1. Boiler efficiency ( about 0.75 to 0.9)
2. Efficiency of thermal cycle ( about 0.35 to 0.5)
3. Internal efficiency of turbine (0.85 to 0.94)
4. Mechanical efficiency of turbine ( about 0.99 to 0.995)
5. Efficiency of generator ( about 0.98 to 0.985).
07) Where do compounding done in thermal power plants
Generator.
Turbine.,
Coal handling plant.
Ash handling plant.
Ans:
There will be several problems if steam energy is converted in one step i.e., if in a single row of
nozzle blade combination all the heat is dropped the steam velocity becomes high and even
supersonic. Velocity of steam is proportional to square root of heat dropped in nozzle. This
makes rotor speed to a value of 30,000 rpm which is too high for practical use. So it is reduced to
3000 rpm by compounding i.e., connecting turbines in 3 stages - high pressure, intermediate
pressure and low pressure.

08) The only place where slip ring induction motors used in thermal power plants is
Ans:
In coal handling plants the slip ring IM motors are used for tippling purpose i.e., to unload the
coal. Because, to lift the wagon of weight of metric tons, the starting torque should be very high
which can be maintained by slip ring IM.
10) To improve the efficiency of thermal power plant ________________ is placed between
boiler and turbine.
ans
Superheater is placed between boiler and turbine. A superheater is a device which raises the
temperature of the steam much above the boiling point of water. In superheater, the heat is taken
from flue gases and here radiant type of heat transfer method is used. It improves efficiency in
thermal power plant.
02) In which power plant, the thermal efficiency is quite low
Diesel power plant.
Steam power plant.
Hydro power plant.
Nuclear power plant.
Ans .Because a steam power station, more than 50 % of total heat of combustion is lost as heat
rejected to the condenser and the loss is unavoidable as heat energy can be convert into
mechanical energy without a drop in temperature and the steam in condenser at the lower
temperature.
03) Which cooling is preferred for large turbine generator
Oxygen cooling.
Hydrogen cooling.
Nitrogen cooling.
None of these.
Ans
Hydrogen cooling is preferred because of following reasons - 1. It reduces windage losses to
about one teeth of its value in air. 2. It provides better cooling. 3. It reduces the oxidation of the
insulation and fire hazards. 4. It reduces the windage noise.
04) A steam power generation has an overall efficiency of 20 %. 0.6 Kg of coal is burnt per kWh
of electrical energy generated. Calculated the calorific value of fuel
Ans

Let x cal / Kg be the calorific value of fuel. Heat produce by 0.6 kg of coal= 0.6x Kcal. Heat

equivalent of 1 KWh = 860 KCal.


05) What will be the thermal efficiency of a 240 V, 1000 W electric kettle if it brings 2 liters of
water at 15 C to boiling point 15 Minutes
Ans

06) Mechanical energy is supplied to a DC generator at the rate of 4200 J / S. The generator
delivers 32.2 Amp at 120 V. How much energy is cost per minute of operation

07) A diesel power station has fuel consumption of 0.28 Kg per kWh. The calorific value of fuel
is being 10000 KCal / kg. Determine the overall efficiency
Ans
Heat produce by 0.28 Kg of oil = 10000 0.28 = 2800 KCal. Heat produced equivalent of 1

kWh = 860 KCal.

The time taken by the turbine to fall to 0 rpm speed from 3000 rpm is called coasting time
(technically called) and it is generally 40 min.
The load frequency control of 2 machines can be achieved by matching both turbine inputs.
Diesel power station is an example of peak load station which is installed to share the peak load
of the base load station during peak load hours.

Hydroelectricity eliminates the flue gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion, including
pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, dust, and mercury in the coal.
Hydroelectricity also avoids the hazards of coal mining and the indirect health effects of coal
emissions. Compared to nuclear power, hydroelectricity generates no nuclear waste, has none of
the dangers associated with uranium mining, nor nuclear leaks. Unlike uranium, hydroelectricity
is also a renewable energy source. Compared to wind farms, hydroelectricity power plants have a
more predictable load factor. If the project has a storage reservoir, it can generate power when
needed. Hydroelectric plants can be easily regulated to follow variations in power demand.
10) Pelton wheel turbine is a
high head turbine.
medium head turbine.
low head turbine.
none of above.
Ans In hydro power plants, Pelton wheel turbines are employed at high head. For Pelton wheel
turbine the head is > 300 m. The Pelton wheel is a water impulse turbine. The Pelton wheel
extracts energy from the impulse of moving water as opposed to its weight like traditional,
overshot water level. For high speed, maximum power and efficiency, the turbine system is
deigned such that the water-jet velocity is twice the velocity of the bucket. Pelton wheels are the
preferred turbine for hydro power. When the available water source has relatively high hydraulic
head at low flow rates, where Pelton wheel is most efficient.
Francis turbines is employed at where head is 60 - 250 m. Kaplan turbines are employed at
where head is < 60 m.
In impulse turbines all available energy of water is converted into KE.
In reaction turbines at entrance to the runner only a part of available energy of water is
converted into k.e and substantial path remains in the form of pressure energy.
Alternate formation and breakage of bubbles are called cavitations. Mostly cavitation takes
place in reaction turbines. This will decrease the efficiency of turbines and cause severe damage
of turbine.
Due to sudden closer of valve velocity of fluid decreases, pressure of fluid is increases. Hence
some noise will produce this phenomenon is called water hammer. Water hamming process in
pen-stocks results innoise increases, pressure increases, velocity decreases.
07) For harnessing low variable water heads, the suitable hydraulic turbine with high percentage
of reaction and runner adjust vanes is
Francis.

Pelton.
Kaplan.
Impeller.
Ans Kaplan is used for run-of-river and poundage stations with heads of up to 61 m ( low head ).
This type has an a axial flow rotor with variable pitch blades.
09) For large plants of capacity for more than 15 MW, what type of cooling is used
Ans
Hydrogen cooling reduces windage losses, provides better cooling, reduces oxidation of
insulation and also reduces fire hazards. So it is most suitable for large capacity plants
Nuclear energy is considered as conventional energy source along with coal, oil, natural gas.
Nuclear elements are the source of nuclear energy
The commercial sources of energy are
Ans. Fossil fuels and radioactive substances.
The main source of energy is fuels. The fossils fuels are coal, oil and coal gas. This sources are
commercial water at a high pressure or flowing with a high velocity can be used to run turbines
or waterwheels coupled to generators and therefore for generation of electronic power. This
method of power generation is costlier in initial cost. So this source is also commercial. The
atomic energy or nuclear energy is commercial due to initial for installation and availability of
uranium
Non commercial sources of energy consist of firewood agricultural wastes, vegetable wastes,
dried dung etc. These sources are supposed to be free, as they do not command any price.
Actually, the non-commercial sources have started commanding prices in urban areas and to
some extent in rural areas as well.
02) Which of the following power planets is the least reliable
Wind.
Solar.
Tidal.
Geothermal.
Ans
Wind energy is least reliable energy source by providing signification amounts of electricity.
Wind power, as an alternative to fossil fuels is plentiful, renewable, widely distributed, clean,
produces no green house gas during operation and use little land.

Hydroelectric power station are usually located in high hilly areas, where the dam can be easily
built and large reservation can be obtained.
The power developed by a hydro power plant depends upon the discharge and head and is
directly proportional to their product and also proportional the system efficiency. The electrical
power P is given as
P = WQH 9.81 10-3 KW.
Where W is specific weight of water in Kg/m 3, Q is rate of flow of water in m 3 / S, H is height of
fall or head in meters and is overall efficiency of operation.
As the large area required and construction cost is enormously high and takes a long time for
erection, so initial cost is high for above reason. The operating cost is low because of fuel cost.
The fuel of hydroelectric plant is water which is available of free of cost
A reduction in load on the generator causes the governor to close the turbine gates and thus
create an increased pressure in the penstock. This may result in water hammer phenomenon and
may need pipe of extraordinary strength to withstand it otherwise the penstock may brust. So
water hammer is developed in penstock.
A hydro-graph is a graphical representation between discharge or flow with time in a hydro
power plant. Hydro-graph indicates the power available from the stream at different times of the
day or year. So hydro-graph is similar to the load curve used in the study of electrical power. An
hydro-graph provides the following information
1. The discharge at any time during the period under consideration.
2. The average run off during of period.
3. The maximum and minimum run off during the period.
4. Total volume of discharge up to any time given by the area under the curve up to that time.
09) A penstock is used as a condition between
the turbine and discharge drain.
the dam and the turbine in a hydro station.
the heat ex-changer and the turbine in nuclear power plant.
none of above.

Ans the dam and the turbine in a hydro station.


Penstock is a closed conduit which connect the forebay or surge tank to the scroll case of
turbine.

10) In hydro power stations what is an enlarged body of water just above the intake and used as a
regulating reservoir called
Penstock.
Spillways.
Reservoir.
Fore bay.
Ans The forebay server as a regulating reservoir storing water temporarily during light load
period and providing the same for initial increase on account of increasing lad during which
water in the canal is being accelerated. A forebay may be considered as an enlarged body of
water just above the intake to store water temporarily to meet the hourly load.

Q.The function of a surge tank is to


produce surge in the pipeline.
relieve water hammer pressure in the penstock.
supply water at constant pressure.
none of above.

Surge tank is provided to absorb sudden changes in water requirements and reduce water
hammer and negative pressure in penstock.
The difference of water level between the level in storage and tail race is called gross head.
Hydro-graph indicates the power available from the stream at different times of the day or year.
So hydro-graph is similar to the load curve used in the study of electrical power.
Flow duration curve is convenient from of hydro-graph for determining the available power at
site. It gives the relation between flows and lengths of time during which they are available. So
the area under a flow duration curve represents the total quantity of run-off during the period.
The amount of storage can be determined with the help of hydro-graph. But hydro-graph varies
from year to year and therefore determination of storage capacity with the help of hydro-graph
may lead to considerable error in some cases. So the storage capacity should be determined with
the help of the mass curve.

The annual depreciation of hydro power plant is about


0.5 - 1.5 %
The annual depreciation of hydro power plant is so less because of free cost fuel (water) and less
maintenance of plant.
Run-off can be defined as that part of the precipitation which is available as the stream flow. The
factor affecting run-off are rainfall patter, geology of the area, size and shape of catchment area,
amount of the vegetation and the weather condition in the catchment area.
09) If power P available from a hydroelectric plant is given by the formula P = 9.81QH, where Q
is the flow rate through the turbine in l / s and H is the head in meters, then P will be unit of
Ans :Q is the flow rate through the turbine in l / s or 1000 m3 / S. So P = QHW 10-3 KW.
Q.Pump storage schemes are used to improve
Ans : The purpose of providing storage is to make more water available during deficient flow
times and thus increase the firm capacity of the power plant and also increase the energy
generated. Availability of storage may render an otherwise uneconomical hydro power plant
economical as increase in firm capacity. Hence the load factor is also increase.
01) A hydro power plant of run off river type should be provided with pondage so that the
operating head is controlled.
firm capacity of plant is increased.
kinetic energy of the running water is fully utilized.
pressure inside the turbine casing remains.
Ans: The usefulness of run off river power plants is increased by pondage. Pondage refers to
storage at the plant which makes if possible to cope, hour to hour, with fluctuation of load
through out a week or some longer period depending on the size of pondage. With enough
pondage, the firm capacity of the power plant is increased.
Surge tank is usually located as close to the power station as possible, preferably on ground to
reduce the light of the tower. But in the case of medium and high head power plants, the surge
tank is provided at the inlet of turbine. As it result the height of surge tank will become
excessive. Because of the reason, the surge tanks are usually provided at the junction of the
pressure tunnel and the penstock.
The specific speed of water turbine is the speed at which the turbine develops unit horse power at
unit head. If N is actual rotational speed of the turbine in rpm, P is output in metric hp and H is
the effective head in meters then the specific speed ( NS ) is given by,

For head and low discharge the water turbine used


Kaplan wheel.
Pelton wheel.
Francis turbine.
propeller turbine.
Ans
Pelton wheel is a type of impulse turbine and is suited high head and low flow plants
The draft tube is provided to increase the acting head on the water wheel. Without draft tube
and the water discharges freely from the turbine exist, then the turbine operates under a head
equal to the height of the head race water level above the runners exist. By providing draft tube,
the operating head is increased by an amount equal to height of the runner outlet above the tail
race.
An airtight pipe attached to the runner outlet and conducting water down from the wheel and
discharging it under the surface of the water in the tail race is called draft tube.
The runner blade in Kaplan turbine is less than other water turbine. It is in order of 3 to 6.
The runner blade of Francis turbine is order 16 to 24
03) For variable heads of near about but less than 30 m, which type of turbines is used hydro
power plant
Ans . Because of highest specific speed, the Kaplan turbine is suitable for low head and it is less
than always 30 m.
The specific speed of Kaplan, Francis and Pelton turbines are in order of 300 to 1000, 60 to 300
and 10 to 50 in metric units respectively.
The effective head under which the turbine is to operate gives the first guide to the selection of
the type of turbine. Even for the same working head two different type turbine may be employed.
For an e.g, for a head of 200 m either of Pelton or Francis turbine can be used. Similarly for a
head of 30 m, either of the Kaplan or Francis turbine can be employed. A runner of high specific
speed will generate more power for the same head resulting in small size of the and power house.
The selection of water turbine is depends upon the nature of load.
The reaction turbine have a runner that always functions within a completely water filled casing.
So the Kaplan, Francis and propeller are the reaction turbine.
Deflector are provided is Pelton wheels to control the speed.

Q.The function of draft tube is reaction turbine is to


increase flow rate of water.
convert kinetic energy of water.
reduce water hammer.
all of above.
Ans Draft tube is provided to increase the acting head on the water wheel. Thus it converts the
wasteful kinetic energy at the exit of the runner into the useful pressure energy.
The efficiency of the plant mainly depends upon pressure and temperature of the steam entering
the turbine and pressure in the condensor. The thermal efficiency increase with the increase in
temperature and pressure of the steam entering the turbine. Thus high temperature and high
pressure steam are used in thermal power plant.
In thermal power plant, the pressure in the working fluid cycle is developed by the help to feed
water pump.
Which of the following plants has the maximum eapital cost and minimum operating cost
Diesel plants.
Nuclear plants. And hydropower
Hydro-plants.
Steam plants.
Ans: Nuclear plans need very high capital because of huge investment on building a nuclear
reactor.
Hydroelectric plant has minimum operating cost because of free availability of water
A thermonic converter trasform heat energy directly into electrical energy by uitilizing thermonic
emission. In case of MHD power generation electric is produced by utilizing a high temperature
conducting plasma moving through an intense magnetic field. It is a direct heat to electricity
conversion technique based on friday laws of electromagnetic induction. Direct conversion of
heat energy into electrical energy is possible through Thermal converters and MHD generator.
Q.Which of the following power plants needs highly skilled/qualified engineers for its operation
Thermal.

Nuclear.
Hydro.
Gas-turbine.
Ans In nuclear power plant, the fuels mainly used are natural uranium, enriched which are also a
radioactibe material. These radioactive materials are dangeours for environment so that take
precution and safety. That is why highly skilled engineers are required for nuclear power plant
opration.

Hydroelectric power plants takes a long time erection and installation about pf 10-15 years
owing to involvement of huge civil engineering works.
Wind power plant is depends on the flowing of wind and directions of wind. Thus it is
unpredietable or uncontrollable. Tidal power plant is depends on tide in sea and solar power is
depends on the solar radiation in form of electromagnetic radiation by sun. Thus tidal and solar
of unpredictable or uncontrollable time.

07) A thermal power plant is being supplied with coal having much more ash content than that
for which it was designed. Which of its following units needs major modifications.
Condenser.
Cooling tower.
Ash handling unit.
Pulversing unit
Ans Ash content is handle by ash handling unit. The ash handling unit removes ash from the
furnace ash hoppes and transfer of this ash to fill or storage. If there are much more ash content,
its need to major modification of ash handling unit.

In thermal power plant, the boilers convert water into steam and form one of major equipments
in a thermal power plant. The thermal plant is depends on steam. Production of steam will falls
due to problem in boiler tube. For this boiler needs maximum maintenance.

The unvarying load, which occurs almost the whole day on the power plant is called the bse load
whereas the various peak demands of the load over and above the base load of the power plant is
called the peak load. The power plants to employed as base load power plants should have- (i)
low operating cost, (ii) capability of working continously for the long period, (iii) requirement of
few operating personal and their repair should be economical and speedy.
Gas turbine power plants are usually employed as peak loads because these plants can be started
and loaded quickly and their initial costs are small but costs are high.

Diesel power plants are used in emergency only owing to thier uneconomical operating cost. It
may be used as stanby plants where continuity of power supply staion, telephone exchanges etc.
02) Which of following power plants normally operage at high speeds
Hydro electric.
Thermal.
Diesel engine.
Petrol engine.
Ans In thermal power plant, the steam turbine is operated as high speed as high speed abot of
1500 to 3000 rpm.
Ship are usually supplied power by diesel engine because - (i) A diesel power engine can be
started and stopped quickly as when required. (ii) Diesel engine does not require a large amount
of cooling. (ii) Diesel engine maintain their efficiency even ar fraction load
Q.The power station that does not requier any moving part is
Solar power generation.
Thermonic convertor.
Wind power generation.
Tidal power generation.
Ans In thermonic converter, heat energy transforms directly into electrical energy by utilizing
thermonic emission. In a thermonic converter two electrodes are plased in a container containing
an ionised gas or cesium vapour to reduce space change. The cathode is heated by concetrating

the rays on it. On heating of cathode the electrons are emitted from it and travel to anode . The
cathode and anode are connected externally through the load circuit. The electrons return back to
cathode through the ecternal circuit and the current flows through the external circuit. The heat
energy is coverted directly into electriacl energy with out any rotating part.

The hydro electric power plant will take least time of about 5-10 minutes in starting from cold
conditions to full load operation. Hence this plants used to supply the peak load of the system.
Disel power plant cannot have single unit of 100 MW capacity because of escalating fuel cost,
high maintenance and lubrication cost, limited useful supplying overloads.