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SEPARATA COMPENDIADA DEL CURSO DE YACIMIENTO DE HIDROCARBUROS I

SEMESTRE 2016-II
ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERA GEOLGICA FIGMM UNSAAC

CAP IV
PETREL
4.1 PETREL E&P SOFTWARE PLATFORM
Enable discipline experts to work together and make the best possible decisionsfrom
exploration to production
4.1.1 SHARED EARTHCRITICAL INSIGHT
The Petrel E&P software platform brings disciplines together with best-in-class applied
science in an unparalleled productivity environment. This shared earth approach enables
companies to standardize workflows from exploration to productionand make more
informed decisions with a clear understanding of both opportunities and risks.
4.1.2 DISCIPLINES WORKING TOGETHER
We have long known that integration is critical. However, integrating at the data level is
just the start. Enabling critical insight in complex reservoirs requires the integration
of work processes. This allows the capture and preservation of knowledge, from
exploration to productionfrom the petroleum systems modeler to the reservoir engineer
and beyond, all contributing to a shared vision of the subsurface. Whether you are working
on your first deepwater exploration well or delivering a comprehensive drilling program in
a shale play, the Petrel platform enhances multidisciplinary workflows.
4.1.3 ACCESS TO BEST SCIENCE
Traditionally, applying the right science has meant supporting many disparate applications
isolating the knowledge and disrupting the workflow. The Petrel platform provides deep
science across the spectrumfrom prestack processing to advanced reservoir modelingto
assisted history matching, and much more. Furthermore, the Ocean software development
framework creates advantage by putting the industrys best science inside the Petrel shared
earth modeldirectly into the hands of your teams.
4.1.4 INCREASED WORKFLOW PRODUCTIVITY
As the industry looks to accelerate reserves replacement and boost recovery in difficult
reservoirs, increasing productivity is essential. The Petrel platform supports automated,
repeatable workflows, to capture best practices and share them across the organization.
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SEPARATA COMPENDIADA DEL CURSO DE YACIMIENTO DE HIDROCARBUROS I


SEMESTRE 2016-II
ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERA GEOLGICA FIGMM UNSAAC

New data is easily incorporated, keeping the subsurface live and current. Embedded crossdomain uncertainty analysis and optimization workflows enable straightforward testing of
parameter sensitivity and scenario analysis. The embedded Studio E&P knowledge
environment improves productivity with multiuser database access and collaborative work
sessions with team members across the enterprise. The Studio environment lets you capture
more than just datait allows you to store and share the knowledge of how a result was
accomplished.

4.2 PETREL 2016


The Petrel E&P software platform provides the industrys most complete E&P software
platform; enabling improved integration across all disciplines, access to deep science, endto-end collaboration, and increased productivity
4.2.1 GEOPHYSICS
PRESTACK SEGY LOADER has been revamped with new functionalities to
provide robust and flexible handling of a wider range of file format descriptions.
Main new features include access to custom trace header attributes; preview plot of
seismic data traces, gather locations, and data grid definitions; support of spare
gather geometry; and gather with variable folds or traces with variable length.
THE MIXER, an intuitive and interactive visualization tool, now supports any type
of interpretation (horizon, faults, and multi-z). A data-weighted blend workflow has
been introduced to enable blending three or more attributes for detailed stratigraphic
and structural interpretation.
INTERACTIVE MESH EDITING now allows editable sphere shape creation and
snap to another editable mesh or surface workflow. Free-directional push and pull is
enabled, ensuring accurate and precise manipulation of the editable triangle mesh.
MICROSEISMIC now has an improved and simplified event filter editor interface.
Three new interactive microseismic events selection modes have been introduced.
SEISMIC WELL TIE has been significantly improved and extended, allowing
wavelet-based filtering and parameter synchronization, signal-to-noise ratio
deterministic wavelet extraction for synthetic goodness of fit, seismic along
wellbore for deviated wells, and multiwell synthetic workflows. Reflection
coefficient generation with and without multiples has been introduced.
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SEPARATA COMPENDIADA DEL CURSO DE YACIMIENTO DE HIDROCARBUROS I


SEMESTRE 2016-II
ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERA GEOLGICA FIGMM UNSAAC

WAVELET EQUALIZATION is a wavelet conditioning tool that enables correcting


the wavelet in datasets to true zero phase and stabilizing any residual variation in
space.
BAYESIAN-BASED
LITHO
CLASSIFICATION
AND
WORKFLOW can now be applied to 2D poststack seismic data.

PREDICTION

EXTENDED ELASTIC IMPEDANCE (EEI) is now part of Petrel Quantitative


Interpretation module, enabling a comprehensive EEI workflow at log scale and
seismic scale for fluid and lithology prediction. The EEI correlation tool is used for
intuitively exploring the best chi projection angle.
NEW TIME LAPSE ANALYSIS domain tab introduced in the Advanced
Geophysics perspective enables logical work steps for comprehensive Seismic
Reservoir Monitoring workflows.
RESERVOIR ELASTIC MODELING (REM) takes into account pore fluid effects
and calculates elastic properties of fluid-saturated rock from the Simulation case.
4.2.2 GEOLOGY & MODELING
PETREL EXPLORATION GEOLOGY now includes 3D simulation preview, 3D
erosion, kinetics, components and reactions editing, and advanced facies definitions.
1D PETROLEUM SYSTEMS MODELING can be run multiple times using the
workflow editor.
STRATIGRAPHIC CHARTS are editable directly in the Stratigraphic chart
window.
THE GEOTIME WINDOW has been improved, enabling multiplot crossline
pointer and connected plots.
PLAY AND PROSPECT ASSESSMENT now includes segment-level volumetrics
combined with a connection to the database for GeoX exploration risk, resource,
and value assessment software.
GEOPOLYGON SUPPORT has been added for map-based volumetrics, contacts,
regions, local model update, and geometrical modeling.
STRUCTURAL MODELING now handles complex stratigraphy all the way
through to depospace and gridding including base-on-base truncations.

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SEPARATA COMPENDIADA DEL CURSO DE YACIMIENTO DE HIDROCARBUROS I


SEMESTRE 2016-II
ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERA GEOLGICA FIGMM UNSAAC

STRUCTURAL FAULT ANALYSIS TOOLS enable analysis of the full geological


extent of stair-step faults.
QUALITY ASSURANCE MAPS enable flexible reporting and analysis of
structural frameworks and stair-step grids.
GEOSTEERING workflows now include target lines and bit position readouts.
ISOCHORE GRIDDING has been improved to handle proximity to zero contour.
EXPLICIT TRAJECTORY option is now available to load well paths generated in
other applications.
CROSS-SECTION REVERSAL supports 2D lines, 3D in-lines and crosslines,
arbitrary lines, georeferenced images, open and closed polygons, and existing cross
sections.
BACKGROUND POINTS can be displayed, edited, and used in the well section
window to control surfaces and grids.
4.2.3 PETROLEUM
ENGINEERING)

ENGINEERING

(RESERVOIR

AND

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION FORECASTING using decline curve analysis (DCA) or type wells


can be conducted for selected phases of interest, noisy data can be excluded, and
analysis parameters can be manipulated for best fit. Supported analysis methods
now include Arps, stretched exponential, Duong, and power law.
ANALYTICAL SIMULATION provides a simple workflow to generate analytical
simulation cases using existing pressure or rate information to predict production
potential with limited reservoir information.
ALIGNMENT OF THE ECLIPSE INDUSTRY-REFERENCE RESERVOIR
SIMULATOR and INTERSECT high-resolution reservoir simulator provides
reverse engineering of WELSPECS and WELSPECL keywords, WSEGAICD,
hybrid initialization, grid edits support for DS, ZMF arrays, thermal dead oil, and
IXF edits compatibility with a new editor within the Petrel platform.
RESULTS CHARTING for the display of simulation events has a workflow editor
compatible with both observed and simulation rates and pressures.
U&O DATA CENTER has a flexible system of case filters to quickly conduct data
mining and access cases and information of interest, with direct accessibility to
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SEPARATA COMPENDIADA DEL CURSO DE YACIMIENTO DE HIDROCARBUROS I


SEMESTRE 2016-II
ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERA GEOLGICA FIGMM UNSAAC

analysis tools to improve usability and evaluate progress in history match and
prediction workflows.
RESERVOIR CALIBRATION can use industry-standard and Schlumberger
patented rate transient analysis techniques.
FLEXIBLE UNITS for reservoir engineering enables defining simulation input data
in a different unit system from that in other domains by independently setting or
customizing the unit system in supported dialog boxes and spreadsheets. Laboratory
units are also now supported in Petrel RE.
3D RESULTS ANALYSIS is facilitated by one-button-click generation of multiple
3D windows, based on analysis purpose and based on case.
DUAL-SCALE MODELING has been extended to all stair-step structural grids,
including complex fault cases, and incorporates both blocked well log and layermapped 3D property upscaling.
4.2.4 DRILLING
TRAJECTORY PLANNING replaces the Well Path Design module and now also
includes functionality of Well Positioning, Well Construction, Mud Weight
Prediction, and Relief Well Simulation that enables drilling engineers to collaborate
with G&G staff and deliver a drillable well trajectory suitable for detailed
engineering.
4.2.5 GEOMECHANICS
COUPLING OF THE VISAGE FINITE-ELEMENT GEOMECHANICS
SIMULATOR AND INTERSECT simulator allows fully automatic two-way
coupling (permeability updating) on structured grids.
VISAGE SIMULATORS DEFLATION SOLVER has been introduced to provide
significant performance improvements.
GENERALIZED STRAIN BOUNDARY CONDITION is consistent with 1D
mechanical earth model calibration and removes the necessity of modeling the
overburden and side burdens.
QUICK MEM is an integrated process to quickly calculate 3D dynamic and static
mechanical properties from well logs, seismic data, or both.
MUD WEIGHT PREDICTOR provides wellbore stability postprocessing for 3D
geomechanics models created using Petrel Geomechanics.
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SEPARATA COMPENDIADA DEL CURSO DE YACIMIENTO DE HIDROCARBUROS I


SEMESTRE 2016-II
ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERA GEOLGICA FIGMM UNSAAC

4.2.6 PETREL GURU


DIRECT GURU CONTENT ACCESS is now available from the Domain tabs,
linking straight through to key content for the related domain workflow or step
being working on.
QUALITY REPORTING has been enriched to now have more than 50 predefined
tests, across all domains, for conducting quality assurance, tracking, guidance,
auditing, and reporting at all steps of the Petrel workflow.
USABILITY AND REPORTING FEATURES have also been enhanced to filter and
sort reports, link to data objects from reports, output reports in PDF format, use
playlists including queuing, and enable QA/QC workflows.
4.2.7 STUDIO E&P KNOWLEDGE ENVIRONMENT
3D GRIDS AND PROPERTIES are now supported in the Studio environment for
enhanced collaboration between geoscientists and petroleum engineers.
DATA TABLE IMPROVEMENTS bring extended functionality in both the Project
and Repository Data Tables, including a sync status column and synchronize
stratigraphy option.
STUDIO ENVIRONMENT WORK STEPS are now included in the Workflow
Editor to enable automated data tagging and transfers.
NEW WELL MODEL is fully supported, including trajectory types for well surveys
and plans and also new sidetrack or lateral wells.
MICROSEISMIC AND TREATMENT DATA, GEOPOLYGONS, DRILLING,
AND PRODUCTION have been added to the Find workflows.
SIGNIFICANT PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENTS across multiple aspects of
the Studio environment include that horizon interpretation transfers are now 6 to 10
times faster and indexing large volumes of data is considerably faster.
BLOCKED DATA APP allows the data manager to block data from reentering the
Studio environment.

4.3 PETREL DRILLING

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SEPARATA COMPENDIADA DEL CURSO DE YACIMIENTO DE HIDROCARBUROS I


SEMESTRE 2016-II
ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERA GEOLGICA FIGMM UNSAAC

4.3.1 A BREAKTHROUGH SOLUTION FOR DRILLING ENGINEERS AND


GEOSCIENTISTS
Applying geological knowledge to drilling workflows works best when drilling and
subsurface teams share a common understanding. The Petrel E&P software platform
provides a common canvas for a shared earth model in the reservoir and the overburden.
Drilling engineers and geoscientists can work together to evaluate more challenging
exploration and development scenarios.
In todays challenging environmentsregardless of tougher regulations or demanding
reservoir locationsyou can work with more confidence, from the initial screening step to
the more rigorous analysis. Ultimately, these workflows improve the life cycle, whether in
the well planning phase, during drilling operations, or in post-well reviews.
4.3.2 WELL PATH DESIGN AND POSITIONING
Within the Petrel platform, geoscientists can propose targets based on features within the
geological model, and drilling engineers can design single or multiple well paths to position
the well accurately in the zone of interest. By capturing and displaying events and risks
encountered while drilling previous wells, you can avoid hazard zones while planning the
well.
Pad and well placement can be optimized based on various geological and geographical
constraints. Real-time monitoring of the well being drilled enables rapid updating of the
model, and therefore the planned well, to eliminate or minimize potential risks ahead and
maximize reservoir exposure.
After your wells are planned, you can fine-tune the attributes. Well plans can be adjusted
for cost, directional complexity, and platform locations, while the best-fit workflow ensures
maximum reservoir contact. You can view all changes in a geological context within a 3D
window.
4.3.3 RELIEF WELL SIMULATION
The Drillbench Blowout Control simulatorpowered by the OLGA multiphase simulator
technologyin the Petrel platform gives drilling engineers and well control specialists a
powerful, accurate, and reliable tool for planning and analyzing relief wells. The relief well
plan validation can be made at the design stage, with rapid evaluation of uncertainty within
the parameters. Updates can be made at any timewhether prior to drilling, during drilling,
or in post-well reviews.
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SEPARATA COMPENDIADA DEL CURSO DE YACIMIENTO DE HIDROCARBUROS I


SEMESTRE 2016-II
ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERA GEOLGICA FIGMM UNSAAC

4.3.4 PETREL WELL TRAJECTORY PLANNING

The well path design and positioning capabilities in the Petrel* E&P software platform are
now fully coupled to perform wellbore stability evaluation, offset well analysis, and relief
well planning.
The Petrel Trajectory Planning module enables collaboration between geologists and
drilling engineers to efficiently deliver a drillable trajectory with constraints and sensitivity
analysis. This provides a unified visualization, interpretation, and modeling workspace in
which teams can collaborate more effectively to plan wells and evaluate and develop assets.
4.3.4.1 REDUCE TRAJECTORY PLANNING CYCLE TIME
Enhanced collaboration enables multidisciplinary experts to work more effectively to
design the optimal trajectory, run anticollision analysis, and leverage 3D visualization tools.
Extending well path design to geomechanics workflows substantially changes the way well
paths are built, allowing geologists and drilling engineers to select the right trajectory and
mud weight.
Trajectory planning cycle time is reduced by using a shared workspace to design well paths
and run both anticollision and driller target analysis in the context of the earth model. The
multiuser environment in the Petrel platform enables this integration across multiple
domain workflows and data types.
4.3.4.2 INTEGRATED TRAJECTORY WORKFLOW IN 3D EARTH MODEL
The well path design and well positioning workflows use industry-standard engines to
enable you to quickly design and validate all well trajectories, drillable wells, sidetracks,
and multilaterals, as well as perform drilling target and anticollision analysisall in the
context of your 3D earth model.
Once the wells are planned, attributes can be adjusted for cost, directional complexity, and
platform locations, while ensuring maximum reservoir contact. All changes are viewable in
geological context within a 3D window.
The well positioning workflow increases confidence in anticollision analysis by visualizing
critical results within a 2D or 3D space: this is especially useful in congested offshore or
land development environments. Calculating the no-go zone for each offset well steps
down each ellipsoid of uncertainty of the offset well trajectory and computes the
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SEPARATA COMPENDIADA DEL CURSO DE YACIMIENTO DE HIDROCARBUROS I


SEMESTRE 2016-II
ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERA GEOLGICA FIGMM UNSAAC

perpendicular cross section as well as the minimum allowable separation distance for each
direction. The 3D no-go space is constructed by connecting all of the no-go cross sections
on each offset well, from wellhead to TD.
Project or window anticollision scans can be run interactively while planning or drilling.
Collision risk levels are highlighted in a windowhigh-risk level displayed in red, low-risk
level in greenproviding a quick indication of the success of the anticollision scenario.
4.3.4.3 INTEGRATED GEOMECHANICS
The Mud Weight Predictor (MWP) plug-in for the Petrel platform provides advanced
wellbore stability postprocessing for your geomechanical models. The purpose is to assist
in choosing the density of drilling mud to keep the well mechanically stable and avoid
influx of fluids, thus assessing drilling risks on the basis of a geomechanical model.
The workflows incorporate heterogeneous distribution of the mechanical properties and
stresses from a geomechanical model and convert this information into mud-weight
window limits and width for a given well direction. This enables you to choose the most
stable path and, depending on the width of the mud-weight window, safe and unsafe zones
for drilling can be identified, which allows well design to minimize drilling problems and
mitigate risks.
4.3.4.4 CONDUCT OFFSET WELL ANALYSIS
Offset performance can be analyzed and optimal drilling parameters identified for a
planned well in a given formation or section by predicting rates of penetration on the
proposed trajectory. Detailed data analysis is facilitated by crossplots, montages, and
comprehensive data filtering tools, for example, by well, bit, depth, or other log data.
For risk management, a risk catalog can be constructed that combines all of the reservoir,
borehole geomechanics, and drilling information, such as lessons learned, best practices,
and risks encountered in offset wells. Events can be used to calibrate your models, which
are then correlated to geology and visualized in both the 3D and well section windows, then
migrated to a planned well so risk mitigation planning can be initiated and incorporated into
the drilling program.
4.3.4.5 PERFORM RELIEF WELL PLANNING
With the Petrel Trajectory Planning module, the technology for validation of relief well
plans is accessible to the drilling engineer early in the trajectory design stage. This shortens
the iteration process by enabling a full range of parameter uncertainties to be used when
planning and testing the well. Thus, rapid evaluation of key uncertainty parameters is
possible early in the well planning processas parameters are confirmed or as new data
arrives, the simulations can be quickly updated.
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SEPARATA COMPENDIADA DEL CURSO DE YACIMIENTO DE HIDROCARBUROS I


SEMESTRE 2016-II
ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERA GEOLGICA FIGMM UNSAAC

4.3.4.6 WORK IN A REAL-TIME ENVIRONMENT

The ultimate objective is to reach geological targets safely. The Petrel Trajectory Planning
module helps achieve this by streaming depth-indexed data while drilling and comparing
planned versus actual well paths in real time to immediately determine if there is a risk of
missing a target.
4.3.4.7 APPLICATIONS

Well path design


Well positioning for anticollision and driller target analysis
Calculation of stable drilling direction and resulting mud-weight cube
Integration of offset experience
Evaluation of relief well geometries
Prediction of requirements to kill well
4.3.4.8 BENEFITS

Ensure objectives are met by designing well paths entirely within a shared earth model
Design optimal well paths and reduce cycle time
Ensure maximum reservoir contact using best-fit workflows
Understand challenges facing new well paths by visualizing information in 2D and 3D
windows
Recalculate the mud-weight window interactively as the well trajectory is updated
Perform relief well planning during trajectory design phase
4.3.4.9 FEATURES

Single software platform for cross-domain, expert communication


Interactive 3D well path design and anticollision reports
Profiles and templates to optimize well path design
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SEPARATA COMPENDIADA DEL CURSO DE YACIMIENTO DE HIDROCARBUROS I


SEMESTRE 2016-II
ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERA GEOLGICA FIGMM UNSAAC

Survey management
3D visualization of well-to-well collision risks and no-go zones
Geological and driller target analysis
Calculation of the stable drilling direction and resulting mud-weight cube
Accurate well control analysis using the OLGA* dynamic multiphase flow
simulator
Offset well analysis
Real-time workflows enabled

4.4 GEOLOGY & MODELING


Full suite of tools including, petroleum systems modeling, well correlation, mapping, and
geocellular modeling
The Petrel E&P software platform provides a full range of tools to solve the most complex
structural and stratigraphic challengesfrom regional exploration to reservoir
development. Within a single environment, geoscientists can perform the key geological
workflows from stratigraphic and seismic interpretation through fracture, facies, and
geocellular property modeling to history matching and production simulation.
a) ENHANCED GEOLOGICAL UNDERSTANDING
A full suite of reservoir characterization tools enables geoscientists to develop stratigraphic
and structural reservoir understanding and move seamlessly from 2D maps to 3D models,
providing accuracy throughout the exploration, development, and production lifecycle.
Generate well correlation panels and traditional map plots for printing and reporting
Perform stratigraphic interpretation, contouring, map editing, and evaluation of
structural complexity prior to geocellular modeling
Analyze data geostatistically prior to populating the geocellular model with facies
and properties, using a range of deterministic and stochastic algorithms
b) ADVANCED STRUCTURAL AND STRATIGRAPHIC MODELING
The Petrel platform delivers workflows that greatly enhance reservoir knowledge.
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Construct and automate structural frameworks during interpretation


Accurately represent complex structures with the unique volume based modeling
technique
Rapidly define critical flowing or sealing windows along faults, integration of fault
properties, and geometries
Perform dual-porosity and dual-permeability simulation of fluid-flow on facies such as
carbonates, using modeled fracture networks
Improve prospect definition and well placement, using interpreted data to evaluate
uncertainties in volumetrics, porosity, permeability, structure, or any other relevant
property
c) REDUCED EXPLORATION RISK
Comprehensive exploration
generation& the following:

capabilitiesfrom

regional

evaluations

to

prospect

Evaluation of key uncertainties on all components of the petroleum system: trap,


reservoir, charge, and seal
Rapid initial exploration screening at the play scale or for individual prospects
Building of 3D models ready for full dynamic petroleum systems simulation in
PetroMod software, and evaluation of the results of PetroMod simulations directly
in the Petrel platform
Simulation of 1D petroleum systems models
Assessment of play risk when prioritizing opportunities and enabling swift updates

4.4.1 PETREL DATA ANALYSIS


The Petrel Data Analysis module allows interactive analysis of distributions and trends as
well as their relationships across all data types. It includes the histogram, function, and
stereonet windowsas well as the data analysis processin which upscaled well data and
grid properties can be analyzed.
The interactive variogram analysis includes options for initial search-cone parameter
suggestions, fitting the variogram to the regression curve, and building a nested variogram.
Detailed analysis can be saved for each property for direct use in the modeling processes.
Sensitivity plots enable you to compare the impact of each uncertain variable in a riskanalysis context.
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SEPARATA COMPENDIADA DEL CURSO DE YACIMIENTO DE HIDROCARBUROS I


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ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERA GEOLGICA FIGMM UNSAAC

a) FEATURES
Import and export vertical proportion curves for specific facies and optionally fit all
vertical proportion curves to the histogram for all zones and all facies automatically
and all at once
Prepare input data using transformation sequences (input/output truncations, scale
shifts, and distribution shape options complemented by tools for trend fitting and
removal) prior to petrophysical modeling
Generate variogram maps from your input data to determine major and minor
directions
Use the full declustering option for data analysis of horizontal or clustered wells to
honor global facies and petrophysical proportions
Display rose diagrams and analyze dip and azimuth data in stereonet windows
View simulation summary results using crossplots and histograms in the function
window
Create functions from crossplots and create raw crossplots and distribution
functions from histograms

4.4.2 PETREL EXPLORATION GEOLOGY


Analyze petroleum systems from basin to prospect scale. The Petrel Exploration Geology
module enables the complete modeling and analysis of petroleum systemsfrom the play
to prospect scale. Initial screening is enabled through native 1D petroleum systems
modeling and calibration. The petroleum systems quick look allows fast calculation of key
exploration risk components, uncertainty evaluation, and screening.
Further detailed 3D models can be built and simulated, accessing the most advanced
technology from the PetroMod petroleum systems modeling software. Combined, this
technology enables you to simulate the complete petroleum system, from source rock
maturation and hydrocarbon generation, to seal integrity comparing fluid-buoyancy
pressure with capillary-entry pressure, and to estimate the impact of fault sealing on
hydrocarbon migration and entrapment.
a) FEATURES
Evaluate key uncertainties in a play: trap, reservoir, charge (source rock maturity
and hydrocarbon migration), and seal
Perform rapid initial exploration screening
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SEPARATA COMPENDIADA DEL CURSO DE YACIMIENTO DE HIDROCARBUROS I


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ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERA GEOLGICA FIGMM UNSAAC

Build and simulate 1D and 3D petroleum systems models


Create petroleum systems 1D and 3D time maps and time trends
Visualize and plot simulation results using the Geotime player window
Assess play riskdirectly connected to data and interpretations
Generate prospectswith chance-of-success estimates
4.4.3 PETREL FACIES MODELING
The Petrel Facies Modeling module enables the population all geocellular grids with
discrete property values for geological characterization of your reservoir. It enables both
simple and complex workflowssuch as seismic-driven modeling in which probabilities
can be used in several different ways to help create a realistic representation of the
depositional facies or lithologies.
This module enables upscaling of high-resolution well log data and point attribute data into
the geocellular grids. Properties can be distributed into the remaining 3D grid volume using
a variety of possible algorithms. Structural grids can model depositional properties using
the depospace concept.
a) FEATURES
Deterministic modeling algorithms, such as indicator kriging (pixel-based method
for producing facies models based on kriging probabilities)
Interactive editing to draw and intuitively edit your facies models, with geological
brushes for more realistic depositional environment design
Stochastic modeling algorithms, such as object modeling, sequential indicator
simulation, truncated Gaussian simulation, or multipoint geostatistics
Generation of QA maps
4.4.4 PETREL FRACTURE MODELING
Create geologically consistent fracture models. Petrel Fracture Modeling offers full
flexibility for both stochastic and geomechanical fracture characterization, utilizing either
stochastic or deterministic methods. Fractures can be modeled as either discrete or implicit
fractures or a combination of both. Additionally, a geomechanics method models the
perturbed stress field directly linked to the active faults, under applied tectonic stresses. The
tectonic stresses through geological time can be obtained from an inversion using the
fracture data and the fault model or, alternatively, can be imposed directly. This allows the
possibility to extract geometrical characteristics of potential natural fractures developed
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SEPARATA COMPENDIADA DEL CURSO DE YACIMIENTO DE HIDROCARBUROS I


SEMESTRE 2016-II
ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERA GEOLGICA FIGMM UNSAAC

inside this perturbed stress field. Calibration is applied with observed fractures along wells,
providing a calibrated computed density of the fractures.
Fracture models can be distributed and upscaled to 3D grids for simulation, where
advanced permeability options are available including Oda and flow-based methods. The
Petrel Fracture Modeling workflow allows full integration with the ECLIPSE reservoir
simulator and INTERSECT high-resolution reservoir simulator using multiple porosity
models for advanced simulation of naturally fractured reservoirs.
a) FEATURES
Import, QC, and display fracture interpretations using the well section and stereonet
windows
Utilize dip and azimuth interpretation from image log data, together with fault
patches from ant tracking and other discrete fracture networks
Characterize fractures using either stochastic or deterministic methods
Represent fractures as either discrete planes or implicit properties, or a combination
of both
Calibrate the interpretation to observed fracture data
Upscale the fracture network directly into the geocellular model
Upscaling permeability based on ODA method, taking into account the connectivity
of fracture network
4.4.5 PETREL MAPPING MODULE BY PETROSYS
Advanced presentation quality mapping. The Petrel Mapping Module by Petrosys extends
existing Petrel E&P software platform mapping capabilities, enabling the editing and
creation of high quality maps. The primary workflow for this new mapping window in the
Petrel platform is the production of high quality mapping output for printing, PDFs, or
images for reports, and re-projection of 2D surfaces, 3D grid horizons, and seismic
interpretation in any coordinate reference system.
a) FEATURES
Flexible map legend, templates customized to meet organization standards
Sophisticated overposting control Contour editing and clean-up
Contouring up to faults together with fault direction indicators
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SEPARATA COMPENDIADA DEL CURSO DE YACIMIENTO DE HIDROCARBUROS I


SEMESTRE 2016-II
ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERA GEOLGICA FIGMM UNSAAC

Fine control of fonts, color and line styles for all mapping elements
Thematic mapping of culture data.
Request More Info
4.4.6 PETREL PETROPHYSICAL MODELING
The Petrel Petrophysical Modeling module enables the population of geocellular 3D grids
with continuous datawhether the distribution is to be conditioned to well data or to
previously modeled facies properties, or both. The module provides the tools you need to
easily and accurately model reservoir properties such as porosity, permeability, net to gross,
and saturations.
The extrapolation and modeling algorithms are complemented by extra functionality, such
as property calculators, filtering options, and mathematical functions. The module also
enables the scale-up of high-resolution well log data and point attribute data into the
geocellular grid. With these modeling dialogs open concurrently, the effect of changes to
scale-up parameters, data analysis settings, or property modeling algorithms are visualized
instantaneously in all other dialogs.
a) FEATURES
Petrophysical models can be conditioned to facies models.
Deterministic modeling algorithms include traditional kriging algorithms; fast
kriging method, which is used as the base for simulation algorithms; and moving
average, which is based on inverse distance weighting.
Stochastic modeling algorithms include sequential Gaussian simulation and
Gaussian random function simulation.
Custom algorithms can be created and run in combination with other available
methods.
Trend and secondary data, such as logs, properties, vertical function, and seismic
data can be used with colocated cosimulation/kriging methods.
Local property model update is available; this will only regenerate the values of
cells in the area to be updated while keeping consistency and continuity with the
surrounding cells in the grid.
The modeling input parameters (MIPs) editor is enabled for petrophysical modeling,
which allows the editing, viewing, exchange, and reporting of all petrophysical
modeling parameters inside a flexible unified tabular interface.
4.4.7 PETREL STRUCTURAL AND FAULT ANALYSIS
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SEPARATA COMPENDIADA DEL CURSO DE YACIMIENTO DE HIDROCARBUROS I


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The Petrel Structural and Fault Analysis module allows for more accurate mapping of
faults, rapid definition of critical flowing or sealing windows along the faults, better
integration of fault properties and geometries within the simulator, and the ability to easily
tune fault data to observed core or dynamic data.
The module allows geoscientists to perform fault seal analysis faster, more simply, and with
greater accuracy and repeatability. The module also provides front-line fault juxtaposition
and property mapping tools for exploration and production environments. Fault
transmissibility multipliers can be calculated, analyzed, and modified to provide critical
input into accurate flow simulation models.
a) FEATURES
Efficient data cleanup and modeling tools improving the ease and accuracy of
seismic interpretation and structural modeling within the Petrel platform
Identification and mapping of critical fault juxtaposition, high-flow zones, or seal
continuity areas
Capability to perform numerous up-to-date or core-calibrated fault seal predictions
in real time or automatically within the workflow to allow calibration and reduce
uncertainty
Comprehensive scenario analysis tools to illuminate structural and fault seal
uncertainties
Potential flow indicators providing a powerful means of screening the impact of
these parameters on fluid flow
Tuning of faults to dynamic data by applying numerous methods to modify
transmissibilityeither globally per fault or locally along specific sections of faults
to rapidly achieve accurate history matches
4.4.8 PETREL STRUCTURAL FRAMEWORK BUILDER
The Petrel Structural Framework Builder module allows you to build accurate structural
models at any scale or level of complexity. Modeling-while-interpreting enables
instantaneous modeling of faults during interpretation. A volume-based approach is used to
build the model providing high accuracy, honoring the input data and allowing very
complex settings and large thickness variation. The sealed structural framework can also be
used as an input for the natural fracture prediction workflows.
You can create a depositional space (depospace) model by structurally flattening sequences
and geomechanically unfault and unfold the model. You can also construct a structured grid
(corner point) automatically from the structural framework including the depospace
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SEPARATA COMPENDIADA DEL CURSO DE YACIMIENTO DE HIDROCARBUROS I


SEMESTRE 2016-II
ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERA GEOLGICA FIGMM UNSAAC

approach; it can be consumed directly in all further workflows such as domain conversion
or facies and property modeling.
a) FEATURES
Construct structurally and stratigraphically accurate models, regardless of tectonic
regimes
Perform volume calculation of the zones model
Construct realistic fault configurations, such as crossing (X), synthetic/antithetic
(Y), lambda, reverse, growth or low-angle thrusts, and overturned structures
Simultaneously model all conformable horizons as a single conformable sequence
using the volume-based algorithm, preventing crossovers
Perform isochore calculation between horizons
Include nonconformable stratigraphy, such as the presence of multiple
unconformities forming complex truncation patterns
Consistent fault displacements for horizons and consistent thicknesses of zones,
with preservation of the integrity of the stratigraphic column
Create a depospace model structurally flattened and geomechanically unfaulted and
unfolded to represent the depositional space
Use the depositional model to create a subsequent grid to facilitate proper
4.4.9 PETREL WELL CORRELATION
The Petrel Well Correlation module provides a clean correlation canvas on which to display
logs, core images, seismic data, grid data, and even completions and simulation results
which can be played through time. Deviated wells can be displayed overlain on seismic or
3D grid properties.
You can interactively create and share cross sections across projects; the cross sections can
be directly edited in the 2D or map window. Tools for picking markers, for estimating logs
by trained neural networks, and for interactive log conditioning enable a robust
stratigraphic interpretation. Visualization performance is such that thousands of wells can
be handled simultaneously.
a) FEATURES
Interpret discrete properties interactively
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SEPARATA COMPENDIADA DEL CURSO DE YACIMIENTO DE HIDROCARBUROS I


SEMESTRE 2016-II
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Pick and edit well tops on the cross section and see the effects directly in 3D and
vice versa
Edit existing logs or generate new ones from any number of curves using the
powerful well log calculator, the log editor, or the interactive log conditioning
toolbar
Generate ghost curve for multiple logs simultaneously with stretch and squeeze
tools and automatic drop of markers
Display logs, core images, point data, image interpretations (rose diagrams and
tadpoles) from the FMI fullbore formation microimager, checkshots, and synthetic
seismograms
Backdrop seismic data, generic surfaces, 3D grid geometry, 3D grid properties with
optional transparency, completions, and simulation results with an associated
dynamic time player
Visualize and interpret on deviated wells in the cross section

4.5 GEOMECHANICS
Subsurface stresses and rock deformations and failure have potential to adversely impact
exploration activities, field development, and production operations. To make optimal
decisions throughout the life of the field and accurately assess risks, engineers and
geoscientists must considerfrom the outsetthe geomechanical behavior of their
reservoirs and the surrounding formations.
Petrel Reservoir Geomechanics software provides an integrated and efficient environment
for 3D preproduction geomechanics modeling or for 4D geomechanics modeling of fields
under operation. The powerful VISAGE finite-element geomechanics simulator is
combined seamlessly with other interpretation and modeling workflows within the Petrel
E&P software platform
This allows geomechanics experts and non-experts alike to incorporate geomechanical
analyses into their reservoir or structural models, or to create new subsurface models for
geomechanics simulation.
a) REDUCE NONPRODUCTIVE TIME
During exploration work and in early field life, 3D preproduction geomechanics modeling
enables companies to assess potential for drilling risks, reduce nonproductive time, and
avoid unexpected problems or increased well costs.
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SEPARATA COMPENDIADA DEL CURSO DE YACIMIENTO DE HIDROCARBUROS I


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b) ASSESS FORMATION COMPACTION AND OVERBURDEN MOVEMENTS


When coupled to a reservoir simulation to incorporate time, 4D models allow operators to
predict stress changes, deformation, or rock failure that might occur later in the life of their
field. This allows geoscientists and engineers to assess formation compaction and
overburden movements that may impact on well/completion survivability, potential for
solids production, inadvertent loss of reservoir containment and out-of-zone injection,
changes in reservoir characteristics and performance, and risk of induced rock failure and
seismicity from fracturing or fault activation. The same models can also be used to help
optimize recovery schemes and stimulation.
Assessment and mitigation of geomechanics risks can also be performed, from exploration
to production:

Complex environments, including salt and subsalt


Exploration and preproduction phases
Fields under development or in operation
Drilling, well construction, and well survivability
Underground gas storage, CO2 disposal and EOR, gas and water injection, and
waste disposal
Improved stimulation design and optimization
Reservoir, fault, and cap-rock integrity studies
Geomechanics effects in 4D seismic
Prediction of overburden movements and potential environmental impact
Honoring of complex geological or reservoir models

4.5.1 GEOMECHANICS MODELING


The Petrel Geomechanics module is the industrys leading environment for 3D
preproduction geomechanics modeling and 4D geomechanics modeling of operating fields.
Geomechanics phenomena such as rock stresses, deformation, and failure have the potential
to adversely affect both the target formation and all the way to the surface for a wide range
of oilfield activities across exploration through development, production, and abandonment.
Petrel Geomechanics addresses these concerns with a comprehensive set of integration,
interpretation, modeling, and engineering workflows within the Petrel E&P software
platform, seamlessly powered by the VISAGE finite-element geomechanics simulator.
a) KEY WORKFLOWS INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING:
Creating geomechanics simulation grids as an end-to-end workflow within
subsurface models, from including geomechanics in new models to adding
geomechanics to existing models and coupling simualtions using models migrated
from existing reservoir simulations
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Simulating with full functionality for faults, fractures, multimillion cell models, and
MPI parallel using the latest VISAGE finite element geomechanics simulator
Performing via a user interface all simulation preprocessing (grid embedment,
property modeling and population, boundary conditions, one-way and two-way
coupling between the VISAGE simulator and a reservoir simulator (such
as ECLIPSE or INTERSECT), run-launch, and run-management) and postprocessing (results viewing and quality checking).
b) FEATURES
Property mapping by regions
Additional boundary conditions for model initialization
Two-way coupling between VISAGE geomechanics simulations and ECLIPSE
reservoir simulations, providing permeability updating in the reservoir simulations
and property updating in the geomechanics simulations
Unified model developed by ISAMGEO Engineering GmbH for modeling shear,
compaction, creep, and softening behavior in chalks and other weak rocks
Improved geomechanics results charting, including a cell probe to display the
evolution of Mohr's circles of stress and stress-paths with time
Local grid refinement (LGR) for increased resolution as needed in the regions of the
model around faults and wells
Model population with geomechanics properties across selected regions, cell by
cell, or with a combination of both techniques
Basic or advanced rock behavior models and failure criteria, with options ranging
from simple linear elasticity to more complex responses such as nonlinear,
anisotropy, critical state (modified cam-clay), compaction, and unified models
Incorporation of fracture and fault data from seismic surveys, well logs, or discrete
fracture network (DFN) modeling
4.5.2 PETREL SEISMIC PORE PRESSURE MODELING
The Petrel Seismic Pore Pressure Modeling functionality generates high-resolution 3D pore
pressure cubes or 2D pressure lines, including a rock physics model for pore pressure
calibration at well locations. It helps for hazard identification, overpressure zones, and well
planning (casing design).
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SEPARATA COMPENDIADA DEL CURSO DE YACIMIENTO DE HIDROCARBUROS I


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ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERA GEOLGICA FIGMM UNSAAC

A burial model can be computed at different age/depth pairs. A history for the sediment
temperature regime and an estimate of the depth of the mineralization change from mostly
smectite to mostly illite can be specified.
For multiple wells, spatially varying parameters are determined. While applying the model
to a 3D velocity cube, the variables that have been specified as local to a well will be
interpolated. The system is fully interactive and all parameters can be edited individually or
optimized during the calibration process.
Interactive rock physics model building of the velocity/pressure relationship from
well logs and drilling measurements
Multiwell capability to account for regional trends with mapping of spatially
varying parameters
Four model types: Eaton, extended Bowers, Dutta, Eaton/Dutta
Integrated time-to-depth component
Handles marine, land, and transition zone environments
Interactive calibration and optimization of key parameters
Output models include multiple rock physics properties, e.g., porosity, effective
stress, pore pressure
This functionality is available through the Petrel Geomechanics module from
version 2016.1 and the Petrel Quantitative Interpretation module from version
2015.3 onwards.

4.6 PETREL GEOPHYSICS


An unparalleled productivity environment, completely scalable with integrated pre- and
poststack geophysical workflows.
The Petrel E&P software platform provides a full spectrum of geophysical workflows to
solve the most complex structural and stratigraphic challengesfrom regional exploration
to reservoir development scale. Within a single, multiuser collaboration environment,
geoscientists can perform powerful 3D, classic 2D, and prestack seismic interpretation, as
well as advanced geophysics, 4D seismic and quantitative interpretation workflows.
a) SEISMIC INTERPRETATION
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Horizon waveform tracker and automatic fault picker for quick and accurate
tracking of horizons and faults
Seismic reconstruction based on geomechanical principle to reduce geological
interpretation uncertainty and help to obtain confident validated structural
interpretation
Patented coordinate conversion technology, delivering a step change in spatial
accuracy for 3D seismic data
Comprehensive seismic-to-well-tie tools and velocity modeling capabilities,
bridging the critical gap between time and depth
Robust and comprehensive SEG-Y loaders for increased confidence in data quality
and accuracy
Seismic compression for significant file size reduction and performance boost in
daily use of 3D seismic data
Multiuser database access, notifications, and subscriptions, enabling powerful
collaboration among your asset team through the Studio E&P knowledge
environment Advanced geophysics
b) ADVANCED GEOPHYSICS
Extensive attribute libraries (surface- or volume-based) with interactive parameter
control to delineate complex structures or illuminate stratigraphic features
geomorphology and internal architecture with ease
Integrated volume interpretation for quick analysis, isolation, and extraction of
complex-shaped elements (e.g., chaotic features like karst, salt intrusions, and
channel systems)
Fast, true 32-bit color blending for delineation of stratigraphic elements
Modeling while interpreting and geomechanically based seismic reconstruction
processes, for more accurate models and mapsintegrating tectonics and
depositional history as part of the structural interpretation scheme
3D multi-Z salt interpretation streamlining the depth imaging workflow
Integration with Omega seismic data processing software for improved imaging of
the reservoir in complex areas
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Seismofacies estimation using a wide range of classification methodologies, to


bridge and support petrophysical modeling workflows. Quantitative interpretation
c) QUANTITATIVE INTERPRETATION
Seamless access to prestack data to improve confidence in interpretation workflows,
whether to bridge the gap between interpretation and processing, or as input to
AVO/AVA and inversion workflows
Detailed prestack seismic interpretation and interactive conditioning of the gather to
improve gathers quality for AVO/AVA and inversion workflows
Deterministic and stochastic simultaneous
WesternGeco for better rock property estimation

inversion

technologies

from

Various inversion algorithms effectively handle AVA seismic, converted waves


(PP/PS AVA), time-lapse full-stack seismic, and time-lapse prestack seismic data
Accurate and more complex rock physics solutions and models can be generated
because AVO/AVA and inversion technologies are seamlessly integrated with
traditional geophysics tools, as well
4.6.1 PETREL CLASSIFICATION AND ESTIMATION
Advanced train estimation tools and trend modeling.
The Petrel Classification and Estimation module enables the use of neural networks and
train estimation models to help estimate properties or probabilities. Combining several
different data objects or attributes, the module increases interpretation confidence and
accuracy during reservoir modeling by ensuring integration of all available data, regardless
of the domain.
Lithology can be isolated and classified along the wellbore, based on acquired and
interpreted logs, and missing logs can be estimated based on other wells present in the
project. 3D seismic facies classifications identify lithology according to combined seismic
attributes. Trend modeling capabilities, incorporating 1D, 2D, and 3D data, geological
concepts, and analogs, enable you to reproduce realistic sedimentary environments.
a) FEATURES
A train estimation model is a set of tools for neural network analysis, enabling you
to train an estimation or classification model and store it as an object in the project.

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Geometrical trend modeling allows you to create a variety of geometrical properties


from polylines to control the spatial distribution of facies and petrophysical
properties.
Combining different fracture drivers, such as geometrical properties and seismic
attributes, you can create a final 3D property trend that will guide fracture
distribution in the 3D grid.
Using polylines to represent centerlines of channel fairways, boundaries between
facies, or any other observed or conceptual linear feature, you can create
geometrical trends for reservoir modeling.
4.6.2 PETREL CONTROLLED-SOURCE ELECTROMAGNETICS PLUG-IN
The Controlled-Source Electromagnetics (CSEM) plug-in for the Petrel E&P software
platform provides specific sounding and transmitter windows to efficiently navigate and
QC large datasets and to perform the required preconditioning steps prior to the inversion,
using the interactive and batch methods.
Computation of data residuals, pseudo-sections, and common offset maps are available to
compare multiple soundings and subsurface model scenarios. These features enable
enhanced QC and qualitative data interpretation.
The Petrel CSEM plug-in also provides quantitative interpretation, including 1D CSEM
anisotropic forward modeling and inversion (a dedicated tool to reduce resistivity well logs
to CSEM scale anisotropic 1D models) and multithreaded 2.5D anisotropic forward
modeling.
a) BUILD 2D AND 3D RESISTIVITY MODELS
The interactive model building tool enables you to build 2D and 3D resistivity models, and
analyze inversion results within the same interpretation platform using all the geology and
geophysics data within the Petrel platform project. The Petrel CSEM plug-in also serves as
front end for 3D anisotropic forward modeling and inversion running in the Omega
geophysical data processing platform for integrated earth model building.
The Petrel CSEM plug-in is part of the WinGLink-IEM family for nonseismic methods.
b) FEATURES
Tailored CSEM sounding windows, pseudo-sections, and common offset maps for
data QC and preconditioning
1D CSEM anisotropic forward and inversion of layered modelsinteractive or
batch, and both inline and offline data
2.5D CSEM anisotropic forward modelingrunning as an independent
process, allowing you to work on the Petrel platform project seamlessly
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3D model-building tool, including advanced property population capabilities and


front end for parallel 3D forward/inversion jobs in the Omega platform
Import of CSEM data in Schlumberger (.nc) and emgs (.nc, .txt) standard formats,
and 3D resistivity models in WinGLink (.out) format
4.6.3 PETREL DOMAIN CONVERSION
The module enables you to build multiple velocity models to test different velocity
parameter scenarios and obtain a better understanding of the structural uncertainty. You can
calibrate well with seismic velocities obtained from processing to build more accurate
velocity models and use 3D grid properties for depth conversion, which is useful for
conversion of complex structures, such as reverse fault and salt environments. Conversions
within the same domain (time-to-time and depth-to-depth) can be used for flattening, AVO,
and 4D seismic workflows, as well as workflows calibrating prestack depth migration data
to well markers.
a) Features
The standard layer-cake approach is used for velocity model construction, providing
the user with the freedom and opportunity to select velocity variations for each layer
preserving the relationships between faults and horizons.
Velocity functions handled are linear functions such as V=Vo, V=Vo+kZ,
V=Vo+k(Z-Zo), and V=Vo+kT. Average and interval velocity cubes or average grid
properties are accepted as input.
QC tools can be created from the velocity model: point sets, time and velocity logs,
time-to-depth and velocity functions, velocity maps, residual attributes on well tops,
and well reports.
Uncertainty analysis can be performed using different seed numbers and variogram
parameters to gain a better understanding of the structural uncertainty.
Domain conversion can be performed backwards and forwards between time and
depth for any object, including surfaces, horizons, faults and multi-Z interpretations,
points, well data (logs and tops), 2D and 3D seismic data, and pillar and stairstepped 3D grids.

4.6.4 PETREL EARTH MODEL BUILDING PLUG-IN


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The Earth Model Building plug-in integrates the Omega geophysical data processing
platform and Petrel E&P software platform to bridge the gap between the two historically
separate domains of interpretation and velocity model building and of migration and
tomographic inversion. Joining highly visual and interactive modeling with
computationally intensive inversion makes it possible to build more accurate,
comprehensive earth models than ever before to solve complex imaging problems with
greater efficiency.
The plug-ins full suite of interactive workflows enable you to build velocity models and
execute depth-imaging workflows within the Petrel platform through integration with the
Omega platform. The Earth Model Building suite meets the need for efficient integration of
interpretation, modeling, and seismic processing tools to facilitate any imaging workflow
through access to the Omega platform as well as Petrel Geophysics software. This ensures
accurate representation of reservoir velocity properties, including anisotropic parameters
derived from well and seismic information.
a) Features
Seismic velocity modeling to build a structural framework and property population
with velocity information and Thomsen epsilon and delta parameters as well as
density and shear velocities. Models are fully anisotropic, supporting both vertical
transverse isotropy (VTI) and tilted transverse isotropy (TTI). The plug-in also
enables earth model updates directly in the Petrel platform, with a tomographic
solution computed in the Omega platform.
Map migration to update 3D positioning of horizons by using ray tracing to
visualize the effect of earth model variation on a specific horizon without
remigration of the seismic data.
Geobody mesh modeling and interactive structural model editing processes to create
and edit complex geological bodies.
Performance of ray tracing and illumination studies throughout the earth model to
provide insight into illumination variation or different acquisition geometries.
SeisCal application plus 1D ray tracing at the well location to define initial
anisotropic parameters of the earth model, closely approximating the real geology.
Multiwell modeling integrating multiwell data to derive the Thomson delta field and
propagate it in 3D along the geological structure.

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Near-surface modeling to build earth models for land data depth migration using
near-surface velocities derived from seismic refraction static solutions and merge
these with existing earth models.
Localized seismic imaging to perform interactive Omega platform depth migration
within the Petrel platform for an area of interest. This is used for earth-model
scenario testing. Data are directly visible within the Petrel platform without data
transfers.

4.6.5 PETREL MAGNETOTELLURICS PLUG-IN


The Magnetotellurics (MT) plug-in for the Petrel E&P software platform provides specific
sounding windows to efficiently navigate and QC large datasets and to perform the required
preconditioning steps prior to inversionsuch as muting, decomposition, and resampling
using the interactive and batch methods.
The computation of data residuals, pseudo-sections, and common frequency maps is
available to compare multiple soundings and subsurface model scenarios, enabling
enhanced QC and qualitative data interpretation.
The Petrel MT plug-in also provides quantitative interpretation; 1D MT forward modeling
and inversion (a dedicated tool to reduce well logs to MT-scale 1D models) and
multithreaded 2D forward modeling and inversion.
a) BUILD 2D AND 3D RESISTIVITY MODELS
The interactive model-building tool allows you to build 2D and 3D resistivity models,
enabling you to analyze the inversion result within the same interpretation platform, using
all the geology and geophysics data within the Petrel project. The Petrel MT plug-in also
serves as front end for 3D anisotropic forward modeling and inversion running in the
Omega geophysical data processing platform for integrated earth model building.
The Petrel MT plug-in is part of the WinGLink-IEM family for nonseismic methods.
b) FEATURES

Tailored MT sounding windows, pseudo-sections, and common frequency maps for


data QC and preconditioning
1D MT forward and inversion of smooth or layered modelsinteractive or batch
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2D MT forward modeling and inversion, running as independent process, allowing


you to work on the Petrel project seamlessly

3D model building tool, including advanced property population capabilities and


front end for parallel 3D forward/inversion jobs in the Omega platform

Import of MT data in SEG MT/EMAP EDI format, and 3D resistivity models in


WinGLink (.out) format

4.6.6 PETREL MULTITRACE ATTRIBUTES


The Petrel Multitrace Attributes module enables identification and delineation of structural
and stratigraphic elements by providing more than 40 attributes that can be instantly and
interactively calculated directly at interpreted events, on nearby uninterpreted events, or
between events.
Using Multitrace Attributes, you can enhance the fault signature of the data by calculating
variance or chaos or by filtering structural smoothing with the edge enhancement option.
The generalized spectral decomposition attribute helps the interpreter understand the
contribution of individual frequencies to the makeup of the input seismic signal. This is
particularly useful for isolating frequency-dependent changes in the signal, such as
stratigraphic thinning and fluid effects. AVO reconnaissance workflows are enabled through
the use of the poststack AVO attribute.
a) Features

Advanced attributes, including generalized spectral decomposition, structural smoothing,


variance, 3D curvature, and chaos

Poststack AVO attributes, including AVO fluid strength, for AVO reconnaissance

Enhanced support for low frequencies, typical in broadband data, provided by attributes
such as phase shift

Genetic inversion in which multilayer neural networks as well as genetic algorithms are
combined to provide an estimation of rock properties using seismic amplitude and the
acoustic impedance well logs as training data

Option to create attributes in virtual mode, allowing interactive control of parameters for
quick screening and fine-tuning without using extra disk space

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4.6.7 PETREL PRESTACK SEISMIC INTERPRETATION PLUG-IN


The Petrel Prestack Seismic Interpretation plug-in enables prestack seismic visualization,
interpretation, and interactive processing, bridging the gap between prestack and poststack
interpretation workflows. Prestack event interpretation uses a true 4D tracker, seeded from
gather picks, as well as horizons.
On-the-fly stacking allows the interpreter to perform interactive weighted stacks on
prestack data, as well as visualize individual offset or angle panels in 3D space for quick
AVO or AVA analysis. These features allow the interpreter to quickly create a virtual dataset
and process gathers on the fly.
The plug-in enables angle decomposition from prestack data and subsequent creation of
angle stacks. Gain, muting (free hand and angle mute), bandpass filtering, radon
demultiple, and normal moveout (NMO) are some of the algorithms included in the plug-in.
a) FEATURES
The multilayer 2D prestack window can be synchronized to the 3D canvas in the
Petrel platform for improved data investigation
The true 4D prestack event tracking extracts AVO attributes (DHI, intercept, and
gradient). Attributes can then be plotted, enabling true AVO analysis from prestack
data.
Residual moveout, amplitude, picking confidence, and many other attributes,
including AVO attributes like intercept and gradient, are automatically extracted.
Prestack locations and gathers can even be visualized directly in the 3D canvas as
gathers or in a gather slab.
4.6.8 PETREL QUANTITATIVE INTERPRETATION
The Petrel Quantitative Interpretation module enables true integration of multidisciplinary
seismic with well and geological data. This ensures complete description of reservoir
properties and extends conventional qualitative interpretation to a quantitative
interpretation workflow in the same canvas. Petrel Quantitative Interpretation is a product
development collaboration between Schlumberger and Ikon Science.
The Petrel Quantitative Interpretation module allows for seamless seismic data
conditioning, rock physics, fluid substitution, AVO/AVA analysis, and pre- and poststack
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deterministic and stochastic inversion to predict lithology, pore fluid content, and seismic
pore pressure modeling, without leaving the Petrel platform.
a) FEATURES
Rock physics processes allowing for the estimation of elastic parameters, such as
acoustic impedance, Vp/Vs ratio, Poissons ratio, Youngs modulus, etc. Complete
suite of fluid substitution tools based on Gassmanns equation.
Seismic pore pressure prediction workflow, including rock physics model for pore
pressure calibration at well locations.
AVO modeling processes for the generation of synthetic gathers based on Zoeppritz
and other industry standard algorithms; and AVO reconnaissance for the generation
of AVO attributes from pre- and poststack data.
Seismic conditioning allowing seismic resampling and seismic trace alignment
based on nonrigid matching.
Industry leading colored, deterministic simultaneous, and stochastic inversion for
the prestack and poststack data.
Workflow based on Bayesian lithology classification.
Robust 2D/3D cross plotting tool of seismic and well data to identity and isolate the
anomalous hydrocarbon zones.
Easy and intuitive 2D forwarding modeling workflow (wedge, anticline, and
dipping reservoir models) allowing generation of synthetic seismic response from
rock property.
4.6.9 PETREL SEISMIC INTERPRETATION
The Petrel Seismic Interpretation module enables basin-, prospect-, and field-scale 2D/3D
seismic interpretation and mapping. You can work with thousands of 2D lines, thousands of
kilometers, and multiple 3D vintages and surveysacross multiple coordinate systems with
very high visualization performances (GPU based).
Advanced visualization tools enable seismic overlay and RGB/CMY color blending and
enhance the delineation of structural and stratigraphic features. Accurate interpretation of
those features is made possible by the complete set of tools, such as advanced horizon
tracking, multi-Z interpretation, interactive mesh editing, and more. You can move
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effortlessly from interpretation to structural model building and back using the modelingwhile-interpreting workflow.
a) Features
GPU-based rendering for high-performance visualization and very large 2D and 3D
datasets
Horizon and fault multi-Z interpretation tools, including amplitude- and waveformbased horizon tracking, fault tracking, and horizon/surface attributes
Interactive mesh editing for accurate interpretation of complex bodies/geometries
Seismic overlay and Mixer tool allowing flip/roll visualization, mask, and
RGB/CMY color blending.
Modeling-while-interpreting workflow to create true water-tight geological models.
4.6.10 PETREL SEISMIC SAMPLING
In regions with sparse well data, seismic attributes are a key component in distributing
properties in a 3D structural grid away from the wells. The Petrel Seismic Sampling
module enables bringing seismic attribute data directly, or in the form of extracted
geobodies, into the 3D structural grid.
a) Features
Sample and seismic attribute volumes into an existing 3D grid.
Use a range of averaging methods and zone filters to sample seismic attribute data
into an existing 3D grid.
Sample geobody objects, extracted from seismic attribute volumes, using the
Seismic Volume Rendering and Extraction module, into an existing 3D grid.
Control how to map voxels of the geobody object, called geoblobs, into the cells of
an existing 3D grid.
4.6.11 PETREL SEISMIC SURVEY DESIGN PLUG-IN
The Petrel Seismic Survey Design (SSD) plug-in is a powerful survey design tool fully
integrated into the environment of the Petrel E&P software platform. Petrel SSD is used to
plan, edit, execute, and analyze marine, land, OBC, and VSP surveys. Numerous
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acquisition geometries are supported including 2D and 3D narrow, wide, multi-, and full
azimuth. The plug-in enables the creation of complex shooting scripts (source-receiver
relationships) and the computation of survey attributes such as fold, unique fold, and
minimum and maximum offsets and their visualization as color maps. Sophisticated survey
design QC metrics such as rose diagrams, spider diagrams, histograms, and redundancy
charts are also in the plug-in.
For advanced workflows, the Petrel SSD plug-in can be combined with the Petrel Earth
Model Building plug-in. The resulting access to the Petrel Earth Model Building plug-ins
ray tracing capabilities enables users to adjust seismic acquisition parameters specific
imaging challenges of complex geological models.
a) APPLICATIONS
Seismic survey design, analysis, and QC
Land, marine, OBC, and VSP surveys
b) BENEFITS
Quickly create and adjust acquisition geometries and shooting scripts.
Validate your designs with attribute analysis and statistical QCs.
Efficiently execute advanced seismic modeling workflows when used in
conjunction with the Petrel Earth Model Building plug-in.
c) FEATURES
Import and export data in various formats (SPS, P190, SEGP1, and DIO), including
seismic surveys created in OMNI 3D seismic survey design software.
Quickly create complex acquisition geometries and shooting scripts using
predefined layout and script templates, respectively.
Modify stations using editing tools such as selection/toggle, include/exclude, delete,
move, drag, and project.
Create well-known shooting scripts such as pattern, area, circular, all live, VSP,
streamer lines and coils, as well as customized shooting scripts with template roll.
Employ sophisticated station and script filtering for import, export, and ray tracing
as part of the Petrel Earth Model Building plug-in.
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Analyze seismic surveys by generating map plots (fold, unique fold, offset vector
tile [OVT] single fold, and minimum and maximum offset) and statistical charts
(rose plot, offset and azimuth histograms, and offset and azimuth redundancy plots).

4.6.12 PETREL SEISMIC VOLUME RENDERING & EXTRACTION


Using the latest advanced GPU rendering, the Petrel Seismic Volume Rendering &
Extraction module enables quick and interactive blending and rendering of multiple seismic
volumes with extreme clarity to detect anomalies, delineate structural and stratigraphic
features, isolate areas of interest, and then instantly extract what is visualized into a 3D
object called a geobody.
You can use true 32-bit color blending and create complex selection events to delineate
complex structural and stratigraphic features such as channels, deltas, or fractures.
Extracting geobodies and assigning geological templates to them provides the bodies with
instant geological meaning. Geobodies can be included directly in the 3D geological model.
a) FEATURES
Render large seismic attribute volumes in the 3D window using box, horizon, and
well probes
Sculpt seismic attribute volumes using multiple horizons
Perform interactive filtering using opacity and class selections on regional 3D
seismic volumes to rapidly identify areas of interest
Extract single or multiple geobodies with a single click of a rendered seismic data
Extract geobodies directly from seismic intersections
4.6.13 PETREL SEISMIC WELL TIE
The Petrel Seismic Well Tie module allows interactive checkshot calibration of sonic log
data, analytical wavelet creation, statistical and deterministic wavelet extraction, and
synthetic seismogram generation for 2D and 3D seismic data.
Integrated synthetic seismogram workflows unify, within the same canvas, the impact from
the sonic calibration to the synthetic generation stage and the different versions of
time/depth relations generated.
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The module includes a range of tools, visual displays, and operations, such as stretch and
squeeze, interval velocity manipulation, reflection coefficient modeling, and comparison of
time/depth curves for QC during the seismic well tie.
a) FEATURES
Generation of time-to-depth relationship throughout the calibration of checkshots
with uncorrected sonic log data
Inclusion of correction functions such as polynomial, linear, or cubic fit
Estimation of the embedded or an average wavelet in seismic data by matching
seismic reflectivity with well log reflectivity tying the well to the seismic data
Modeling of reflection coefficients to better understand tuning effects and possible
fluid contents
Multiwell extended white wavelet extraction
Interactive bulk shifts with continuous alignment
Well-to-seismic calibration in depth domain

4.6.14 PETREL STRUCTURAL AND FAULT ANALYSIS


The Petrel Structural and Fault Analysis module allows for more accurate mapping of
faults, rapid definition of critical flowing or sealing windows along the faults, better
integration of fault properties and geometries within the simulator, and the ability to easily
tune fault data to observed core or dynamic data.
The module allows geoscientists to perform fault seal analysis faster, more simply, and with
greater accuracy and repeatability. The module also provides front-line fault juxtaposition
and property mapping tools for exploration and production environments. Fault
transmissibility multipliers can be calculated, analyzed, and modified to provide critical
input into accurate flow simulation models.
a) FEATURES
Efficient data cleanup and modeling tools improving the ease and accuracy of
seismic interpretation and structural modeling within the Petrel platform
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Identification and mapping of critical fault juxtaposition, high-flow zones, or seal


continuity areas
Capability to perform numerous up-to-date or core-calibrated fault seal predictions
in real time or automatically within the workflow to allow calibration and reduce
uncertainty
Comprehensive scenario analysis tools to illuminate structural and fault seal
uncertainties
Potential flow indicators providing a powerful means of screening the impact of
these parameters on fluid flow
Tuning of faults to dynamic data by applying numerous methods to modify
transmissibilityeither globally per fault or locally along specific sections of faults
to rapidly achieve accurate history matches

4.6.16 PETREL STRUCTURAL INTERPRETATION


Structural interpretation in the Petrel E&P software platform improves the understanding of
structure and delineation of fault and fracture networks through various advanced edge
detection and illumination attributes (including Ant Tracking). Tectonic and depositional
relationships can be understood through interactive 2D seismic reconstruction (structural
flattening), based on geomechanical principles. Linked with modeling-while-interpretation
capabilities, this provides a powerful tool for fast and accurate fault interpretation, reducing
interpretation uncertainty and delivering a validated structural framework of the subsurface.
a) DETAILED RESERVOIR UNDERSTANDING
Advanced edge detection and illumination attribute workflows (including ant tracking) can
be used for enhanced structural delineation, or as input to fracture modeling. Additionally,
interpreters can easily understand the trends of fault surfaces and automatically extract fault
patches, instead of creating fault surfaces individually and manuallysignificantly
reducing conventional interpretation time.
b) FEATURES
Range of edge detection and illumination attributes, such as amplitude contrast, 3D
edge enhancement, edge evidence, dip illumination, and Ant Tracking for accurate
and detailed mapping of discontinuities
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Advanced horizon waveform tracker and automatic fault tracker for rapid and
accurate horizon and fault interpretation
Seismic reconstruction: a multihorizon flattening process incorporating erosional
surfaces and faults using geomechanical principle
Seismic reconstruction is an intuitive, quick, and robust tool to reduce geological
interpretation uncertainty and helps to obtain confident validated structural
interpretation
Geomechanical attributes for QC of the seismic reconstruction process
Automatic extraction of fault patches to accelerate the interpretation process
4.6.16 PETREL SURFACE IMAGING
Display scanned maps, attribute maps, seismic time slices, or satellite images, draped over
surfaces.
With the Surface Imaging module, you can drape a surface with any georeferenced image,
including aerial or satellite images, scanned maps, seismic time slices, or property maps.
In hilly terrain, you can drape a satellite image over the model to check access to proposed
drilling sites. For pad placement in shale gas reservoirs, maps containing information
on roads, rivers, mountains, and facilities are invaluable. This module also enables scanned
2D seismic or stratigraphic sections to be positioned in space for further interpretation.
a) 3D MODEL BUILDING
The Surface Imaging module lets you build 3D models when only paper data is available.
Paper maps can be scanned and then imported as images, from which digital maps can be
created by digitizing the contours.
b) FEATURES
Import images in a range of formats and set corner coordinates to orientate them
spatially.
Drape images over surfaces.

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Once an image is georeferenced, users can create a surface where the pixel intensity
is used as the elevationenabling images to be displayed together with Petrel
models.

4.7 PETREL RESERVOIR ENGINEERING


Faced with understanding fluid flow and the corresponding fluid recovery from a porous
media, the reservoir engineer is involved in the entire lifecycle of the reservoirfrom
reservoir exploration through production from engineered wells all the way to reservoir
storage and abandonment.
a) GAIN INSIGHT INTO RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE
In this encompassing involvement, the reservoir engineer must rely on a variety
measurements and interpretations in order to have confidence to guide field development
decisions. These are generally gathered and produced at various time periods and for
different purposes, but all contain valuable insight to the reservoir performance and fluid
migration.
There are many experts and pieces of interpreted data to be included throughout the life of
the reservoir. It is for this purpose that Petrel Reservoir Engineering (RE) is designed
specifically for the reservoir engineer in order to approach these challenges.
The Petrel platform provides integration across disciplines, giving the reservoir engineer
the power to use model changes made to geophysical structures, geological properties, and
geomechanical-influenced mechanical effects, as well as new drilling or production
schemes. Empowered by the Studio E&P knowledge environment, the Petrel platform has
the connection to the evolving reservoir model across the different disciplines as new
information is injected into the subsurface understanding.
b) ACHIEVE OPTIMAL RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE
Petrel RE provides an extensive toolset to incorporate different pieces of analyses, from
analytical production simulation to complex completion operating controls to case
management for hundreds of uncertainty simulations. The reservoir engineer can
interactively create different strategies for well and completion construction,
injection/production strategies, and the fluids that are in-place and injected from surface.

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This workspace also provides a seamless link to established numeric simulators (the
ECLIPSE industry-reference reservoir simulator, INTERSECT high-resolution reservoir
simulator, and FRONTSIM simulator), which translates the reservoir model to the physical
and dynamic simulation world. Meanwhile, operational economics are evaluated and
reevaluated to ensure that capital is well spent by linking the development decisions in the
reservoir model to the implications this has to capital expenditure across various fiscal
models.
4.7.1 PETREL ADVANCED GRIDDING AND UPSCALING
Preserve resolution throughout your model, maintaining geologic and reservoir flow
integrity With any type of modeling there exists an enormous challenge around scale. In
reservoir modelling, this challenge typically focuses on the difference in resolution between
core, well log, well test, and seismic, where the complexity remains in trying to connect
and relate these different resolutions of data.
With the Advanced Gridding & Upscaling module for the Petrel platform, engineers and
geoscientists can manipulate gridding resolution with ease in order to portray either more or
less detailed aspects of the reservoir model at the appropriate scale.
a) ENSURE CORRECT PROPERTY SAMPLING
Reservoir models commonly begin as very detailed geological models used to calculate inplace volumes. These models are then frequently coarsened for dynamic flow simulation.
The Advanced Gridding & Upscaling module provides a detailed, yet intuitive workflow to
take the static geomodel structure and property definition to a coarser more simulationappropriate gridding resolution where engineers and geoscientists can ensure correct
property sampling and averaging methodologies are used.
Additionally, this module gives the ability to change the grid resolution locally, where wells
or planar hydraulic fracture events can be gridded in higher resolution where there is crucial
pressure and saturation changes occurring in a very short period of time.

4.7.2 PETREL ECONOMIC SCREENING TOOL


In today's challenging and high-cost E&P environment, it is more important than ever to
consider economics in the earlier stages of field development planning. Traditionally, a few
representative production profiles are used for economic analysis. However, these do not
comprise the full scope of the changing development and production uncertainties.
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To cross this chasm, the Petrel platformthrough integration with Merak planning, risk,
and reserve softwareenables in-depth studies of subsurface and economic uncertainties
that directly impact project feasibility.
a)

BUILD COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES

In the Petrel platform, you can build studies around a combination of subsurface,
engineering, and economic considerations:
Reservoir volumetrics and connectivity
Well count, type, and reservoir management strategy
Rig usage and resource planning
Fiscal regimes, oil prices, and capital and operating expenses
In this, a truly unique and interconnected environment is established between the
geoscience, engineering, and economic disciplines. This level of integration promotes
synergy between the subsurface and commercial teams by valuing all information for better
decisions.

4.7.3 PETREL GEOSCREENING


Field development and rejuvenation is becoming increasingly more complex and costly.
Often, the main reason for this is the lack of data and understanding of the reservoir. This
can propagate into doubt, and the potential use of non-representative models to support
investment decisions.
a) CAPTURE STATIC AND DYNAMIC VARIABILITY
The Geoscreening plug-in for the Petrel platform enables the selection of more
representative geologic models that capture a full range of static and dynamic variability. It
also enables the study of dynamic connectivity across different geologic realizations in
tandem with volumetric calculations.
Models selected in this way have a higher chance of preserving accurate performance
ranking and allow for the optimization of operating modes.
b) IMPROVE PRODUCTION POTENTIAL
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By visualizing connectivity in 3D as flow paths and 2D as maps, clearer and more certain
well locations can be targeted for data acquisition and improved production potential.
Furthermore, the Petrel platform allows the automation of uncertainty studies, thus enabling
productivity gains across the asset team.
4.7.4 PETREL GEOTESTING
The Petrel GeoTesting plug-in maximizes the value of well tests helping you increase
certainty in reservoir models, improve production forecasting, determine reservoir
connectivity, and identify sweet spots. This plug-in supports advanced interpretation and
analysis of the reservoir model provided by GeoTesting geology-based well test design and
interpretation services.

a) ACCOUNT FOR RESERVOIR UNCERTAINTY


Petrel GeoTesting enables geomodelers and engineers to perform geological and
geophysical (G&G) design and interpretation in a shared earth model for greater certainty
compared with conventional analysis limited to geometrical models.
The Petrel GeoTesting Global Sensitivity Analysis optimizes test designs by targeting the
reservoir feature of interest and quantifying the information achievable by various design
options. Uncertainty in the geological model is included during the matching process so
that the resulting pressure matches are based on high-quality data and analysis
representative of the reservoir.
b) IMPROVE ACCURACY IN PRODUCTION PROFILING
Validate and calibrate reservoir models by using dynamic measurements with new
inversion technology for well test interpretation. Rich transient information from well tests
can be directly integrated into reservoir models and kept alive for more accurate reservoir
characterization and production profiling.
Enhance automation during the interpretation process
Automatically update reservoir model properties and pressure derivative plots within the
simulation environment by using the built-in optimizer, which enables complete automation
in the matching process without the need for manual updates to the reservoir model.

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The naturally fractured reservoir (NFR) pressure transient simulator provides new insight
into the complex transient behavior in fractured reservoirs. This understanding of the real
matrix and fracture behavior is critical for field management in carbonates and
unconventional reservoirs.
c) APPLICATIONS
Conventional, unconventional, and hydraulically or naturally fractured reservoirs
with multiple wells and multiple layers
d) BENEFITS
Optimizes test design to ensure successful reservoir characterization
Validates and calibrates reservoir models by using dynamic measurements
Improves accuracy in production forecasting by reducing uncertainty
e) FEATURES
Calibrates reservoir models by integrating well test data into reservoir simulation
models
Enhances automation during the interpretation process
Delivers a seamless G&G interpretation process

4.7.5 PETREL
OPTIMIZATION

HISTORY

MATCHING

&

PRODUCTION

FORECASTING

The power of reservoir modeling is predictive strength. This is only reached after rigid
screening across the various parameters that affect fluid flow through porous media ranging
from data reliability, to geostatistical property distributions, to combinations of physical
effects occurring between the fluids, reservoir rock, and well infrastructure.
a) ENHANCED PRODUCTION FORECASTS
Reservoir engineering focuses on calibrating the reservoir understanding with the
production history that is observed across a field, also known as history matching. With a
calibrated reservoir model, there is greater predictive strength to forecast how production
will continue, thus indicating more efficient recovery schemes for future development.
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The History Matching & Production Forecasting module offers a variety of tools inside the
Petrel platform to connect the production data and derived interpretations to reservoir
engineering and simulation workflows. These tools are used to connect production rates
and pressures into the Petrel platform to be used as history-match controls or focal points
for mismatch repair.
b) VISUALIZE HISTORIC PRODUCTION
This module provides unique ways to visualize and utilize historic production including
preemptive cross-plotting and data segregation by completion type, as well as intuitive
objective function definition to harness optimizers in the Petrel platform to search for
history match possibilities. This varied offering supplies the reservoir engineer with an
elaborate environment to perform the often cumbersome task of synchronizing the static
geomodel with the dynamically observed fluid rates at surface.

4.7.6 PETREL HYDRAULIC FRACTURE MODELING


Empowered by technological prowess, fuelled by integrated modelling, led by industry
expertise, streamlined for operation.
The advance of hydraulic fracture application in longer, more extensive horizontal wells
has further confounded the modeling techniques to estimate the impact these stimulation
techniques incur on well production.
There is now a greater need to incorporate the complexities involved with geological,
geomechanical, and flow considerations, not just from an in-situ point of view, but also
taking into account how the reservoir system changes during hydraulic fracturing.
The incorporation of these disciplines only further magnifies the inconsistency across
different conventional fracture models. The offering of hydraulic fracture modelling
approaches in the Petrel platform covers an array of means to model the effect of hydraulic
fracture stimulations.
Hydraulic fracture modeling in the Petrel platform covers a wide breadth of possibilities.
These range from conventional planar fracture and calculated stimulated reservoir volume
approaches, all the way to numerically simulated hydraulic fractures that are functions of
not only hydraulic head, but also geomechanical and geological variability.

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The Petrel RE core offers the ability to create hydraulic fractures as completion objects,
which can be used to create planar hydraulic fractures or equivalent productivity index flow
manipulations.
a) INCORPORATE EFFECTS OF HYDRAULIC FRACTURE STIMULATION
INTO SIMULATION MODELS
Hydraulic fracture modeling within the Petrel platform offers an additional level of
flexibility more pointed at unconventional, multistage, planar fracture modeling, which
gives reservoir engineers an intuitive user interface for incorporating the effects of
hydraulic fracture stimulation into ECLIPSE simulation models. Additionally, the
stimulated reservoir volume (SRV) can be calculated from either pumping related
information or microseismic to attribute the effect that the hydraulic fracture stages have on
production.
Lastly, Mangrove engineered stimulation design in the Petrel platform provides a seamless
connection from geology and geomechanics into completion engineering, and reservoir
engineering and production workflows.
This integrated workflow introduces new hydraulic fracture models. These models
incorporate the 3D varying geologic model and natural fracture definition, to calculate how
a hydraulic fracture will propagate fluid and proppant into the reservoir. This hydraulic
fracture understanding is then translated into a reservoir-engineering focused model to
estimate the effect on production.

4.7.7 PETREL PRODUCTION ANALYTICS


Production performance monitoring, analysis, and data integration into geology and
reservoir engineering.
As the ratio of wells to engineers increases, and the need to maintain production rates
persists, production engineers are even more challenged to efficiently monitor, analyze, and
communicate production effects to engineering operations. In this, there is a need for an
easy, efficient, and translatable connection point between production, reservoir, and
geologic engineering.
a) HARMONIZATION ACROSS DOMAINS

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The Petrel E&P software platform integrates these often separated worlds, using production
analytics workflows to provide clear harmonization across different domains.
The Petrel platform offers several production analytics workflows and toolsets that connect
to production databases, visualize the production in varied plots and 3D windows, and
supplement reservoir engineering workflows such as nodal analysis, inflow performance,
and vertical flow performance tables.
b) INVESTIGATE FLOW REGIMES
Rate-transient analysis in the Petrel platform provides production and reservoir engineers
the ability to understand flow and pressure impacts near to the reservoir. A clear and easyto-use interactive canvas is readily available to give engineers the tools needed to
investigate different flow regimes in a variety of scenarios.
c) IDENTIFY PRODUCTIVITY PROBLEMS
The Petrel platform provides a streamlined production analytics workflow for the
interpretation of rate and pressure data to yield key reservoir and well parameters using
quick semi-analytical simulation and industry standard interpretation tools. This enables
engineers can identify productivity problems and efficiently perform production
management at early stages.
The production analytics tools can also be used to quickly evaluate production
performance, interpret production data, and optimize production, stimulation and
completion operations.

4.7.8 PETREL UNCERTAINTY


Perform sensitivity and uncertainty analysis and generate probabilistic forecasts to optimize
operational constraints and improve field development
Across the breadth of hydrocarbon exploitation there is uncertainty from acquisition,
analysis, application, technology, and economics, all the way to timing and resources. This
array of variability presents a great challenge with assessing the viability of recovering
hydrocarbon.
The key is to quantify these unknowns into probabilistic risks related to the engineered
recovery mechanisms.
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The Uncertainty module for the Petrel platform enables the quantification of not only
geophysical and geological uncertainties, but also time and pressure-based reservoir
uncertainties that provide a comprehensive coverage of the quantification of this
incertitude.
a) CONNECT SOURCES OF UNCERTAINTY
The Uncertainty module gives geoscientists and engineers the ability to connect the
different sources of uncertainty to one central application. Once in the Petrel platform, a
variety of plots can be used to analyze the ranges of static and dynamic possibilities, via
traditional visualization such as tornado and cumulative production plots, or more novel
visualization of trends, and relationships between variables and optimization progress.
b) MAKE MORE CONFIDENT DECISIONS
The pursuit through quantifying the uncertainty space can be organized, intuitively plotted,
and adjusted in order to more efficiently reach the targeted objective. The Petrel platform
also provides logical ways to modify existing model properties, while implementing
sampling methods like Monte Carlo, and de facto case management that keeps a tidy trail of
the uncertainty expedition.
By capturing static and dynamic aspects of subsurface uncertainty you can make more
confident risk-adjusted decisions.

4.7.9 PETREL WELL & COMPLETION DESIGN


Create complex well geometries while designing completions with devices and valves best
suited for a variety of phase control scenarios.
An engineered well, and the corresponding completion, is the link between the subsurface
accumulation of hydrocarbon and the producing surface facilities, which deliver the
hydrocarbon to market. The design of the location, type, and operation mode are paramount
in ensuring the hydrocarbons are optimally recovered.
The Petrel platform enables well and completion design that spans across all disciplines.
The appropriate tools and canvas are provided to ensure the successful construction of both
well and completion apparatus.
a) COMPREHENSIVE WELL AND COMPLETION DESIGN OPTIONS
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From the conception of complex deepwater wells connected to various reservoir targets, to
the enumeration of pads of onshore unconventional wells, to the design of inflow control
devices spaced across a well (opened at various times to control steam injection in thermal
recovery applications), the Petrel platform offers widespread well and completion design
options.
The interface for building schematics is equally provisional, giving flexibility to build
designs interactivelyin tables, in cross-section, and in 3Dwhere there is clear flow into
simulation application.
There is also the ability to automate design parameters to guide the creation of wells and
completions, the incorporation of multi-segment well models, and the extensibility to
wellbore simulation engines to accurately convey pressure, temperature, and fluid transport
from subsurface to surface.

4.7.10 PETREL SHALE SUITE


The Petrel Shale Suite module is designed for companies working onshore planning and
drilling horizontal wells. This module dives three main workflows: geosteering, pad
placement, and pad well design. This toolset is specifically designed to improve efficiency
for the fast pace of land development.
a) GEOSTEERING WORKFLOW:

Steer wells in context of geology and other data

Interactive steering in the vertical track using a stretch and squeeze method

Geosteering guided by seismic or geological model properties

Stream well data in using WITMSL or load data from files

Fast and easy reporting

See geosteering live in the 3D window


b) PAD PLACEMENT WORKFLOW:

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Provides an automated solution to optimize well pad locations based on surface


constraints such as roads, rivers, proximity to facilities, and available lease acreage, as well
as taking into account various reservoir-level quality targets

Design the optimized pad and well location combining both surface and subsurface
constrains and geological information, ensuring you avoid existing wells.

Design the pad layout and interactively plan pads based on GIS maps

Create no-go zones to ensure that wells are placed in correct locations
c) PAD WELL DESIGN WORKFLOW:

Fast and efficient way to design multiple wells in a single run


Fully integrated with the pad placement workflowit is possible to design a field
and have drillable wells within minutes

4.8. PETREL SHALE


Petrel Shale is a new offering that leverages the Petrel E&P software platform capabilities,
and features a specifically designed user interface and toolset for shale resources. By
enabling efficient geological and geophysical map-based evaluations, Petrel Shale
streamlines well planning and completions decision making to effectively support
operations in this unique operating environment.
Petrel Shale is specifically designed to maximize productivity and efficiency, spanning the
five key themes common to shale workflows: explore, evaluate, drill, complete, and
produce.
a) EXPLORATION
The exploration tools built into Petrel Shale provide rapid initial exploration screening
workflows, helping to determine the acreage to pursue.

The ability to work with and visualize tens of thousands of wells and create
correlation panels at any scale.
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A combination of the full list of PetroMod petroleum systems modeling


software lithologies and the ability to create custom lithology mixes for petroleum systems
modeling.

1D petroleum systems modeling simulation tools for contextual understanding of


the burial history, source rock maturation, hydrocarbon expulsion potential, and changes to
properties over time from a wellbore perspective.

Play chance mapping for the transformation of property maps of play elements to
chance-of-success maps.
b) EVALUATION
Petrel Shale provides streamlined workflows to create maps and cross-well interpretations
in context of local and regional data.
Well correlation tools provide flexibility to rapidly interpret and validate
stratigraphic markers using both raster and digital logs.
Generate isochores and automatically update maps to understand reservoir thickness
and extent.
Both public- and company-specific GIS map services can be streamed, providing
access to other data such as topography, magnetics, and cultural data.
Seismic attribute analysis for volumes and surfaces to aid in understanding reservoir
quality.
c) DRILLING AND COMPLETION
Petrel Shale contains a multitude of tools that are utilized across the entire well planning
and drilling workflow.
Pad placement provides an automated solution to optimize well pad locations based
on surface constraints such as roads, rivers, proximity to facilities, and available
lease acreage, as well as taking into account various reservoir-level quality targets.
Integration of type production curves into the pad placement workflow, enables the
ability to evaluate the impact of different development scenarios given different
acreage holding and well placement possibilities.

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Integration of type production curves into the pad placement workflow, enables the
ability to evaluate the impact of different development scenarios given different
acreage holding and well placement possibilities.
A well design process with a combined focus on geoscience and drilling, ensures
wells are planned in accordance with reservoir sweet spots, structural variations.
Drilling information such as encountered risks and lessons learnt on offset wells can
be shared with newly planned wells to ensure continual improvement in drilling
efficiency and safety.
Real-time geosteering combines well data that can be streamed into a project with
well data from an offset well to ensure reservoir contact can be maximized.
Microseismic visualization for understanding completion quality in the context of
all the available data.
d) PRODUCTION
Petrel Shale allows users to integrate production data with geoscience information to gain a
greater understanding of how production relates to geology.
Analyze production data by creating in-context, dynamic production maps at either
well or field level.
Perform linear and non-linear multivariant analysis using the shale analytics tool to
predict production maps and volumes.
4.9 BIBLIOGRAFIA
BIBLIOGRAFIA BASE
1. Petrel E&P Software Platform
https://www.software.slb.com/products/petrel
BIBLIOGRAFIA COMPLEMENTARIA
2. Petrel E&P Software Platform
file:///C:/Users/Moises/Downloads/petrel-drilling.htm
3. Reservoir Petrophysics

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http://www.pe.tamu.edu/blasingame/data/z_zCourse_Archive/P311_Reference/P311_Cours
e_Notes_(pdf)/P311_1992C_Wu_Notes.pdf
4. Curso de introduccin a Petrel
http://server2.docfoc.us/uploads/Z2015/12/23/gGRnN2pNeR/ed26e8f778e84910995fb9bfc
af8f0c7.pdf
5. manejo de petrel para un proceso de simulacion de yacimientos
https://prezi.com/c4utnszqypnt/manejo-basico-de-petrel-para-un-proceso-de-simulacion-deyac/
6. Petrel Introduction Course. Petrel 2007. Schlumberger
https://www.slb.com/~/media/Files/resources/oilfield_review/spanish11/win11/01_reservoir
_sim.pdf
7. PETREL
http://simulacion-de-yacimientos.lacomunidadpetrolera.com/2009_05_01_archive.html
8. UN MODELO GENTICO-OBJETUAL
YACIMIENTOS DE GAS

PARA

LA

SIMULACIN

DE

http://www.bdigital.unal.edu.co/2258/1/98499102.2010.pdf
9. Petrel Introduction Course. Petrel 2007. Schlumberger
https://es.scribd.com/document/291272712/Petrel-Introduction-Course-Schlumberger-2007
10. Petrel Geomechanics Software
http://www.software.slb.com/products/petrel/petrel-geomechanics/reservoir-geomechanics
11. Petrel Seismic Pore Pressure Modeling Multiwell pore pressure prediction model
http://www.software.slb.com/products/petrel/petrel-geomechanics/seismic-pore-pressure
12. Petrel Geology & Modeling
http://www.software.slb.com/products/petrel/petrel-geology-and-modeling
13. Petrel Well Trajectory Planning
Plan your well paths with confidence
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http://www.software.slb.com/products/petrel/petrel-drilling/trajectory-planning
14. Petrel Geophysics
http://www.software.slb.com/products/petrel/petrel-geophysics

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