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Fakultet veterinarske medicine,

Univerzitet u Beogradu

Seminarski rad iz engleskog jezika


Naziv teme: Intestinal protein loss in dogs

Mentor: Prof. Uro Tomi

Student: Stefan Risti, 2015/88

Beograd, januar 2016.

Protein-losing enteropathy in dogs


A dog's health is largely dependent on the body's ability to digest and make use of the food
that is a part of the dog's regular diet. When the digestive process goes off track, a diseased
condition will follow. Protein losing enteropathy is one type of condition that affects a dog's
ability to function fully; enteropathy being any abnormal condition relating to the intestines.
There are a number of diseases that can damage the intestines enough to cause this extra protein
loss.
Nutrients make their way through the body by way of the bloodstream. From the stomach, the
food that has been eaten enters into the intestines, where it is divided into what is useful for the
body and what is not. The useful, nutritious bits are picked up by the bloodstream as it passes
through the intestines, carrying them to the rest of the body, where they are converted into
various types of energy.
As the bloodstream picks up these nutrients, a small amount of protein leaks from the blood
vessels back into the intestines. Usually these proteins are digested in the intestines, absorbed
back into the blood, and used by the body to make more protein, but when the intestines are
damaged, more protein leaks out into the intestines than the body can replace.
.

Symptoms

Occasional bouts of diarrhea

Chronic diarrhea

Weight loss

Lack of energy (lethargy)

Difficulty breathing (dyspnoea)

Enlarged abdomen

Legs and feet may be puffy or swollen (edema)

Causes

Cancer in the intestines

Infection in the intestines

Inflammation of the intestines (inflammatory bowel disease)

Food Allergies

Stomach or intestinal ulcers

Congestive heart failure

Problems with the movement of lymphatic fluid out of the intestines

Diagnosis
You will need to give a thorough history of your dog's health and onset of symptoms. A
thorough physical examination will be performed, and will include standard laboratory work a
complete blood count, biochemical profile and urinalysis. Your veterinarian will use these
samples to determine your dog's blood protein level and blood calcium level. There are several
causes that will need to be ruled out in order to make a diagnosis. Your veterinarian will order
stool (fecal) tests to check for intestinal parasites, intestinal infections, and other indicators that
your dog is losing protein from its intestines.
Your veterinarian may also check the blood vitamin levels, which will be low if your dog is
losing protein from its intestines. X-ray and ultrasound images of your dog's chest and abdomen
will allow your veterinarian to visually examine these internal structures for evidence of internal
ulcerations or tumors, and will also display the heart's capabilities, and whether its performance
appears to be abnormal. If your veterinarian needs a better visual of the stomach and intestines
than external devices can provide, an endoscopy may be performed for a better view. In this test,
a small camera, attached to a tube, will be passed through your dog's mouth or anus into the
intestines so that the walls of the stomach and intestinal tract can be closely inspected for ulcers,
tissue masses (tumors), or abnormalities in the wall or cell structure. The endoscopic device also
allows for taking samples of tissue while it is inserted, and is a much less invasive method for
performing a biopsy. Bioptic analysis is an especially useful diagnostic tool for determining why
an animal is losing protein through its intestines.

Treatment

Treatment will depend on the underlying disease that is causing your dog to lose protein
through its intestines. If your dog's protein level is dangerously low, it may need a transfusion to
replace some of the blood protein.

Living and management

In most cases there is no cure for protein loss through the intestines. Your veterinarian will work
with you to develop a treatment plan to help you manage your dog's symptoms, including
exercise, and a diet that will ensure that the best possible amount of nutrients are being absorbed
by your dog's body. During follow-up visits, complete blood counts and biochemical profiles will
be done to make sure that your dog's blood protein level is stable and not becoming dangerously
low. Your veterinarian will also check your dog to make sure it is not having trouble with
breathing and does not have fluid built up in its belly.
Follow your dog's cues as far as exercise goes. You may need to change your dog's walking
schedule or route, depending on its physical needs. Allow for a quiet space for your dog to rest
after physical exertion, away from active children and other pets.

Enteropatija sa gubitkom proteina kod pasa


Zdravlje psa je u velikoj meri zavisno od sposobnosti tela da vari i koristi hranu koja je deo
njegove redovne ishrane. Kada se proces varenja poremeti, nastupa obolelo stanje. Enteropatija
sa gubitkom proteina je tip stanja koji utie na sposobnost psa da funkcionie normalno;
enteropatija je bilo koje abnormalno stanje povezano sa crevima. Postoji veliki broj bolesti koje
mogu otetiti creva, dovoljan da prouzrokuje ovaj dodatni gubitak proteina.
Hranljive materije prolaze kroz telo putem krvotoka. Iz eluca, hrana koja je pojedena ulazi u
creva, gde se odvaja na ono to je je korisno za telo i na ono to nije. Korisne hranljive materije
bivaju pokupljenje krvotokom dok prolazi kroz creva, nosei ih do ostalih delova tela, gde se one
dalje pretvaraju u razliite vidove energije.
Kako krvotok pokupi hranljive sastojke, mala koliina proteina procuri iz krvnih sudova nazad
u creva. Uglavnom ovi proteini bivaju svareni u crevima, apsorbovani nazad u krv, i iskorieni
od tela da stvori vie proteina, ali kada su creva oteena, vie proteina iscuri u creva, nego to
telo moe nadomestiti.

Simptomi

Povremeni napadi dijareje

Hronina dijareja
Gubitak teine
Nedostatak energije (letargija)
Oteano disanje (dispnoja)
Uvean trbuh
Noge i stopala mogu biti podbule i oteene (edem)

Uzronici

Rak creva
Infekcija creva
Upala creva (zapaljensko oboljenje creva)
Alergije na hranu
ir na elucu ili crevima
Kongestivna srana insuficijencija
Problemi sa kretanjem limfe iz creva

Dijagnoza
Moraete da date detaljnu istoriju zdravlja i pojave simptoma vaeg psa. Detaljan medicinski
pregled e biti izvren, i ukljuivae standardan laboratorijski rad kompletnu krvnu sliku,
biohemijski profil i analize urina. Va veterinar e iskoristiti ove uzorke za utvrivanje nivoa
proteina i kalcijuma u krvi. Postoji nekoliko uzronika koji moraju biti iskljueni kako bi se
odredila dijagnoza. Va veterinar e narediti test stolice (fekalni test) za proveru crevnih parazita,
crevnih infekcija i drugih pokazatelja da Va pas gubi proteine iz svojih creva.
Va veterinar takoe moe proveriti nivo vitamina u krvi, koji e biti nizak ukoliko Va pas
gubi proteine iz svojih creva. X-zraci i slike ultrazvuka grudi i abdomena Vaeg psa e omoguiti
Vaem veterinaru da vizuelno ispita ove unutranje strukture za dokaze o unutranjim
ulceracijama ili tumorima, i takoe e prikazati srane kapacitete i da li je njegovo
funkcionisanje poremeeno. Ako Vaem veterinaru treba bolji vizuelni pregled od onoga koji
eksterni ureaji mogu obezbediti, endoskopija moe biti izvrena radi boleg pregleda. U ovom
testu, mala kamera, prikaena za cev, bie proputena kroz usta ili anus Vaeg psa u creva tako
da zidovi eluca i intestinalnog trakta mogu biti paljivo provereni za ireve, mase tkiva
(tumore), ili abnormalnosti u zidu ili elijskog strukturi. Endoskopski ureaj takoe omoguava
uzimanje uzoraka tkiva dok je ubaen, i mnogo je manje invazivna metoda za obavljanje
biopsije. Bioptike analize su naroito korisne dijagnostike metode za odreivanje razloga zbog
kog ivotinja gubi proteine preko svojih creva.

Leenje
Leenje e zavisiti od osnovne bolesti koja je uzronik gubitka proteina preko creva Vaeg psa.
Ako je nivo proteina Vaeg psa opasno nizak, moda je potreba transfuzija da nadoknadi neke od
proteina krvi.

ivot i nega
U veini sluajeva ne postoji lek za gubitak proteina kroz creva. Va veterinar e raditi sa Vama
da razvije plan tretmana koji e Vam pomoi da negujete simptome Vaeg psa, ukljuujui i
vebe, i dijetu koja e osigurati da se najbolji mogui iznos nutritijenata apsorbuje u telu Vaeg
psa. Tokom sledeih poseta, kompletne krvne slike i biohemijski profili e biti uraeni da se
osigura da je nivo krvnih proteina Vaeg psa stabilan i da ne postaje opasno nizak. Va veterinar
e takoe proveriti Vaeg psa da se uveri da pas nema problema sa disanjem i da nema tenosti
ugraenih u svojoj utrobi.
Pratite signale Vaeg psa kako veba napreduje. Moda ete morati da promenite raspored etnji
Vaeg psa, ili stazu, u zavisnosti od njegovih fizikih potreba. Omoguite miran prostor za Vaeg
psa da se odmori posle fizikog napora, daleko od aktivne dece i drugih kunih ljubimaca.

My opinion
Protein-losing enteropathy in dogs is a disease that is accompanying disorder of other diseases,
such as gastric cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, stomach or intestinal ulcers... Although at
first glance seems harmless, this disease can be devastating to the health of the dog, and therefore
pet owner should pay attention to symptoms that indicate that the disease appeared. Dogs
behavior is certainly one of the main indicators that suggest that its health isnt in the best
condition.
Not all services are available to all customers, depends on the accessibility of prices, but a
detailed review is the best way to determine the cause of this disease and to begin therapy. After
making a diagnosis, adequate treatment will be applied and the veterinarian will give the owner
the appropriate advice on how to treat his pet. Maybe the owner will have to change the way of
treating his dog, depending on the needs of a pet in an ill condition.
After the examination, diagnosis, and prescription therapies, the responsibility of the owner is
the main factor that will influence the further recovery of the dog. Personalized nutrition is
something that will allow the level of blood protein maintains normal. One of the things that can
be done to improve the health of the dog is to enable good hygiene and clean room for a pet.
The problem can make the diseases that are hidden behind this protein loss disorder. The most
important thing when you are treating a dog is perseverance, and a willingness on every step that

leads to the recovery of the animal. Euthanasia is the last thing you can do to help your dog to
minimize its suffering.
It is very important that when buying a dog you should pay attention to its health, so it is best to
call the veterinarian to perform a complete examination and found possible complications. In the
event that the owner has another pet, it would be best to keep him away from the affected dog,
especially if the cause of this disorder is a contagious disease.
The solution lies in prevention. Regular cleaning of a space where the dog lives is very
important, paying attention to the food that the dog eats is important too. The conclusion is that
we should take care of our pets and love them, and we should also enjoy playing with them every
day.