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BMM2673 THERMODYNAMICS

Project : Thermal Power Plant

NAME

: NOORDEN THAQIF BIN NOORDEN

ID NUMBER

: MH14063

LECTURE

: DR THAMIR KHALIL IBRAHIM

SECTION

:02

ABSTRACT

To generate of electrical power in large quantity, a power station (which is also referred to as a
generating station, power plant and etc.) becomes the main facility usedin producing the energy.
Almost all power plants have one or more generators, and also a rotating machine that changes
mechanical power into electrical power. It is also contributed as the electrical current producer
as it is converted through relative motion between a magnetic field and a conductor. The energy
source were exploited to turn the generator varies widely. In this report , Gelugor power station
was chosen because I live in Penang and that is the nearest power station to my house .

BACKGROUND
The Gelugor Power Station, which is owned by the renown Tenaga Nasional Berhad, is an oilfired (primary :natural gas , secondary :light fuel oil/diesel) combined cycle power plant in
Penang, and now is able to generate approximately 300MW of 600MW power demand all over
the state since its operations begun in 2003. It is located in Gelugor, Penang, Malaysia.

Pictures:

Combined cycle gas turbine:


A combined-cycle power plant uses both a gas and
a steam turbine at the same time to produce up to
50 percent more electricity from the same fuel, rather than a traditional simple-cycle plant. The
waste heat from the gas turbine is sent to the nearby steam turbine, which generates extra power.
HOW A COMBINED-CYCLE POWER PLANT PRODUCES ELECTRICITY?
This is how a combined-cycle plant works to produce electricity and captures waste heat from
the gas turbine in order to increase efficiency and electrical output.
1. Gas turbine burns fuel.

The air is compressed by the gas turbine and mixed with fuel which is heated to a
very high and specific temperature. Then, the hot air-fuel mixture moves through
the gas turbine blades, making them spin.

Thus electricity obtained as the fast-spinning turbine drives a generator that


converts a portion of the spinning energy.

2. Heat recovery system captures exhaust.

In order to capture exhaust heat from the gas turbine, the system used the Heat
Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG). Otherwise, it would escape through the
exhaust stack.

The HRSG will release steam from the gas turbine exhaust heat and delivers it to
the steam turbine.

3. Steam turbine delivers additional electricity.

The additional electricity are converted as steam turbine sends its energy to the
generator drive shaft..

Type of plant: Combined Cycle Gas Turbine


Design Capacity: 330MWe (megawatts electric)
Type of fuels: Primary- Natural Gas; Secondary- Light Fuel Oil/Diesel
Configuration of Boiler/Turbine/Generator: 2GT+2HRSG+1ST CCGT
Source of water: Seawater
Annual electricity production:
MWh
345,289
557,503
599,060
(estimated)
Emissions:

Year
2000
2007
2020

Type of emissions
Carbon Dioxide
Carbon Dioxide
Carbon Dioxide

Emissions(kg)
182,394,936
157,138,913
177,662,154

Year
2000
2007
2020

Unit Information:
Uni
t
1

Capacit
y
(MWe)
115

115

3
100
Gas Turbine:

Turbine
Manufacture
r
General
Electric
General
Electric
Fuji

Turbine
Generator
Model/Type Manufacture
r
GT-1 Frame General
9171E
Electric
GT-2 Frame General
9171E
Electric
ST-1
Alstom
Steam Turbine:

Generator
Model/Type

Chimne
y Height

ATB-2, 9171EGE
ATB-2, 9171EGE
T240-370

115
115
-

Fuel:Gas

Steam:pressure:83 bar temp:530oC

Exhaust temp:552oC

Exhaust Pressure:0.25 bar

Speed:3000RPM

Shaft Speed:3000RPM

Calculations and Assumptions

The net power output of Gelugor Power Station is 330MW , it is mainly powered by
natural gas and sometimes by diesel.
Amount of fuel used to generate 1 kilowatthour (kWh):
Natural gas = 0.01010 Mcf (an Mcf equals 1,000 cubic feet)
Petroleum = 0.00175 barrels (or 0.07 gallons)

Kilowatthour generated per unit of fuel used:


99 kWh per Mcf (1,000 cubic feet) of natural gas
570 kWh per barrel, or 13.6 kWh per gallon, of petroleum
Assume that the gas turbine has the efficiency of 60%

n gast urbine =

0.6=

desired output
total input

330 MWh
total input

Total input=550MWh
550MW=550000kWh
For natural gas,
Amount of natural gas used = 550000 X 0.01010 Mcf/kWh
= 5555Mcf
For petroleum,
Amount of petroleum used = 550000 X 0.00175 barrels/kWh
= 962.5 barrels
Power Consumed and Electrical Equipment:
In order to operating the fans, pumps, driven motors, and other electrical equipment
associated with the plant, a mix of cycle oil power plant consumes exactly nine percent of its
electrical output. The total power output for this power plant is about 330MW. The electrical
produced by the generator sent to the 500kV grid through a main transformer and the tap
connection to the unit transformers. In normal operation, the unit three-phase transformers from
the generator at 23kV bus bars provide the 11kV network. Electricity is supplied to the unit
auxiliaries at different AC voltages as following: High voltage (11kV) to the main motors,
Medium voltage (3.3kV) to the medium motors, Low voltage (415V) to the small motors and
Low voltage (240V) to lighting and small power respectively.
FLUE gas emission at stack:
Nitrogen oxide(NOx) = 390 MG/Nm^3
Carbon monoxide(CO) = 120 MG/Nm^3
Temperature at several locations:
T gasturbine = 552oC

T steamturbine=530 C
The steam power plant, shown below, operates based on the Rankine Cycle. At 300
bar and 600C, the steam leaves the boiler. At 75 mbar, the turbine exhausts to the condenser.
The turbine has an isentropic efficiency of 60% and the pump operates basically isentropic. The
pump and turbine are both adiabatic. Then, the liquid water is assumed to be an incompressible
fluid. The boiler absorbs heat from the furnace which is at Tfurn = 500 K. The condenser rejects
heat to cooling water which is at Tcw = 305 K. The surrounding temperature is Tsurr = 305 K.
Diagrams:
282
bar

85 mbar

Assumption:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

All components in the cycle is analyzed as an open system operating at steady-state.


Every process except the turbine is internally reversible.
The turbine is adiabatic and the pump is isentropic.
Condensate leaves the condenser as saturated liquid.
No shaft work includes in the boiler or condenser.
Changes in kinetic and potential energies are insignificant.

Equation and Data:


Boiler :

Condenser :

Eqn 1

Eqn 2

i.

P2= 300kPa, T2=600C, from the table A6:


H2 = 3704.0kJ/kg
P4=7.5kPa, saturated liquid where x=0, from table A5:
H4 = 168.75kJ/kg

ii.
V4 = 0.001008 m/kg
Ws,pump = 29.484 kJ/kg
H1 = 139.266kJ/kg
iii.

From table A6:

S3S = S2 = 8.5915kJ/kg
At 7.5 kPa
Ssat liq = 0.5763kJ/kg.K
Ssat vap = 8.2501kJ/kg.K
S2> Ssat liq >Ssat liq ,S2 is in superheated region .
H3S=168.75kJ/kg
H3=1582.85kJ/kg
iv.

We now use eqn 1 and eqn 2 to evaluate the two remaining Q's:
Q12 = 3564.734kJ/kg
Q34 = -1414.1kJ/kg

v.
As the furnace and the cooling water are isothermal (they behave as thermal
reservoirs) the change of their entropy can be obtained directly from the definition of
entropy:

Sfurn = -7.1295kJ/kg-K
Scw = 4.6364kJ/kg-K
Sgen = -2.4931kJ/kg-K