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Loss Reduction of Rajasthan Power System with

Distributed Generation in Transmission Network


Puja Rani1, Dr. M.P. Sharma2, Bhavesh Vyas3 and SheeshRam Ola4
1

Student, M. Tech., Apex Institute of Engg. & Tech., Jaipur, India


2
Assistant Engineer, RRVPNL, Jaipur, India
3
Asst. Professor, EE Dept., Arya College of Engineering & I.T, Jaipur, India
4
Dean R&D, Apex Institute of Engg.& Tech., Jaipur, India
1
E-mail: puja.engg@gmail.com, 2mahavir_sh@rediffmail.com, 3tonu567@gmail.com, 4sheeshola@gmail.com
AbstractIn present power system structure, large
capacity thermal power plants have been installed at remote
locations from load centers. The power from generation to
load centers is transmitted through long EHV transmission
lines & number of EHV substations of various voltage levels
are required for step down the power. This extended EHV
corridor have acquired large chunk of land & raised the
issues related to power system angle & voltage stability, low
reliability, high expenses in terms of repair & maintenance.
The growth of Distributed Generation in transmission
network is the most essential drift in the power trade.
In this paper impact of distributed generation in
transmission network has been studied. Rajasthan power
system has been considered to carry out the studies.
Rajasthan power system has been modeled in MiPower
software. Rajasthan Power System have total 748 buses
comprising 2 nos. 765 KV, 35 nos. 400 KV, 145 nos. 220 KV,
503 nos. 132 KV and 63 nos. generator buses and load of
10500 MW. 80 MW capacity new thermal generator unit is
placed at generation deficit and load rich pocket of
Rajasthan power system. Effect of distributed generation on
transmission losses, network voltage profile and lines &
transformers loading have been analyzed.
Keywords: Distributed Generator, Transmission Loss
Reduction, Voltage Profile Improvement, Low Transmission
Voltage, High Transmission Voltage

I. INTRODUCTION
Witnessing the needs of future generation sources the
first literature published by T. Ackermann in 2000
provided large number of terms and definitions relating
distributed generation [1]. The drivers, challenges &
opportunities in integrating DG units were laid out by J.A.
Pecas Lopes et.al. [2]. DG ranges from 1 kW PV
installations, 1 MW engine generators to 1000 MW
offshore wind farms. Proper location of DGs in power
systems is important for obtaining their maximum
potential benefits [3]. The shortage & losses in
transmission capacities have led to increased concern of
DG as investigated by Caisheng Wang in 2004 [4].
Losses in transmission networks cause electrical
energy loss as well as occupy capacity of transformers and
lines. The increased losses at peak times of load
consumption, increases the investment cost & restricts
further developments detailed by Arash Mahari [5]. DG
when installed at load ends resulted in economic savings
by reducing losses [6].
In present structure of power system, transmission
losses are in range of 4 to 5 %. The condition of electricity,

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i.e. both energy and peak demand are expected to be


escalating in India for the upcoming years. This paper
focuses on reduction in transmission losses of Rajasthan
which are 4.2 % till March, 2016. The peak demand of
Rajasthan is approx. 10500 MW & major power demand in
Rajasthan is supplied from coal based thermal power plant.
Approx. 7000 MW capacity power plants are located in
Kota, Baran and Jhalawar districts. The load existing in
south-eastern region is deprived of any nearby generation
sites. In southern eastern Rajasthan i.e. Udaipur, Banswara
and Dungarpur districts, coal based thermal power does not
exist. Therefore, power demand of these districts is being
met from power plants located in southern part of Rajasthan
through long transmission lines.
In this research work, 80 MW coal based thermal
power plant is proposed in Udaipur district. Load flow
study has been carried out to analyze the effect of
distributed generation in Rajasthan power system. To
critically analyze the effect of distributed generation, GUI
file of power system in the vicinity of distributed
generator has been drawn with separate zone 2 by
Mi-Power software.
II. OBJECTIVES OF DG PROPOSAL
In present power system structure, large capacity
thermal power plants are being installed at remote
locations from load centers and then long extra high
voltage transmission lines have been built up to transmit
power up to load centers. The major problems existing in
the Rajasthan Power System configuration can be
summarized in points below.
1. At generator end power is first stepped up and then
stepped down at load ends with the help of 3 to 4
voltage level substations. Therefore, no. of EHV
substations and lines of various voltage levels i.e.
765/400 kV, 400/220 kV, 220/132 kV and 132/33
kV have been constructed which have acquired
large chunk of land.
2. Due to large capacity thermal power plants, air
pollution level is very high in the vicinity.
3. Due to long EHV lines, power system angle and
voltage stability problems have been increased.
4. Transmission losses are in range of 4 to 5 %.
5. Reliability of power supply is also low.
6. Very high expenditure is required for R&M of
present power system structure.

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1224 1 IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics, Intelligent Control and Energy Systems (ICPEICES-2016)

The major objectives to be fulfilled are described


below:
1. 80 MW coal based thermal power plant have been
considered in Udaipur district to carry out the
studies.
2. Effect of DG on various system parameters viz
transmission losses, voltage profile have been
analyzed in different loading conditions of
Rajasthan.
3. To optimum utilize DG for low & high
transmission voltage.

Rajasthan through long transmission lines. In this research


work, 80 MW coal based thermal power plant is proposed
in Udaipur district. Load flow study has been carried out
to analyze the effect of distributed generation in Rajasthan
power system. To critically analyze the effect of
distributed generation, GUI file of power system in the
vicinity of distributed generator has been drawn with
separate zone 2 which is referred as Test System in this
research work. Single Line diagram of test system is
placed at Fig.2 and details are abstracted in Table II.

III. TEST SYSTEM MODELING


Rajasthan State Power System has an area of 1,32,147
Square miles and had a population of 6.86 Crores [11].
The highest transmission voltage in Rajasthan is 765 kV.
There are two 765 kV GSS, twenty one 400 kV GSS, one
hundred eleven 220 KV GSS, three hundred ninty three
132 kV GSS as on 31 march 2016. Power map of
Rajasthan power system is placed at Fig. 1.

Fig. 2: Single Line Diagram of Test System

Fig. 1: Rajasthan Power Map

Rajasthan power system has been electrically


modeled in MiPower software. Load has been represented
at 132 kV voltage level. All EHV lines up to 132 kV
voltage level and transformers up to 220/132 kV voltage
have been represented. In the Rajasthan, 63 generators
exists at power plants of RVUN and Central sector, which
have been represented in the simulation model. The input
data file detailing the modeling of Rajasthan power system
are described in Table I.
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TABLE 1: RAJASTHAN POWER SYSTEM DATA


Input Data
No.
Data Values
Total Real Power Load
10500 MW
Total Reactive Power Load
5085 MVAr
Load Power Factor
0.90
Number of Generator Buses
63
Total Number of Buses
748
Number of Total Lines
832
Number of Total Transfomers
345
Number of Load Buses
481
Shunt Reactors
50
4251 MVAR
Shunt Capacitors
392
2997 MVAR

In southern eastern Rajasthan i.e. Udaipur, Banswara


and Dungarpur districts, coal based thermal power are not
exists. Therefore, power demands of these districts is
being met from power plants located in southern part of

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TABLE 2: 29 BUS DG PLACED NETWORK


Input Data
Data Values
Total Real Power Load
380 MW
Total Reactive Power Load
184 MVAR
Load Power Factor
0.900
Number of Generator Buses
1
Total Number of Buses
29
Number of 220 kV Buses
4
Number of 132 kV Buses
24
Number of Generator Buses
1
Number of Total Lines
40
Number of Total Transfomers
10
Number of Load Buses
23

The Test system is modeled of forty transmission


lines, eight lines of 220 kV voltages level & thirty two
lines of 132 kV voltage level and 1 generator bus at 11
kV. Two major types of conductors namely Zebra &
Panther have been deployed. Zebra conductor is used in
220 kV sections & Panther Conductor for 132 kV sections
in the test system. The parameters obtained for the
conductors are provided in the Table 1.3.
Type of
Conductor

Zebra
Panther

TABLE 3: CONDUCTOR PARAMETERS


Line Parameters
SIL
Value
B/2
X
R
MW
/km/ /km mho/km
/ckt
/ckt
Ckt
0.1622 0.3861 1.46E-06
150
0.0748 0.3992 1.47E-06
50

Thermal
Rating
MVA
170
71

The 132 kV GSS Zawar mines is 50 kM away from


Udaipur. It is directly connected to 220 kV GSS Madri
and 132 kV GSS at Rishebdeo & Salumber through 132
kV transmission lines. Therefore, 80 MW thermal
generator is connected at 132 kV GSS Zawar mines at 132
kV voltage level through 132 kV transmission line to
analyze the impact of distributed generation on

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Loss Reduction of Rajasthan Power System with Distributed Generation in Transmission Network 1225

transmission system voltage, transmission losses and lines


& transformers loading. The data presenting distributed
generation unit is being tabulated at Table IV.
Sl.
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TABLE 4: DG PARTICULARS
Name of
Generator Voltage Generator Ratings
Generator
Rating (KV)
MVA
MW
Rating
Rating
11
125
80
Coal based
Thermal Power
MVAr Ratings
Plant
Max.
Min
40
-20

IV. SIMULATION STUDY


Study has been carried out for modeled test system to
observe the effects of distributed generation by identifying
the system losses and requirement of DG from Load flow
studies. Following two cases have been considered in the
load flow study:
Case I: Load flow study of Test System without
Distributed Generation.
Case II: Load flow study of Test System with
Distributed Generation of 80 MW which is
connected to 132 kV GSS Zawar mines at 132 kV
voltage level.
The results of load flow study of Case-I and Case-II
are plotted at Fig. 3 & 4 respectively.

V. RESULT ANALYSIS
A. Effect on Lines Loading
MVA loading of transmission lines of Test System
have been tabulated at Table V.
TABLE 5: EFFECT OF DG ON TRANSMISSION LINES LOADING
From
Bus No.

From Bus
Name

To
Bus
No.

To Bus
Name

16
16
16
10
16
9
16
20
26
17
34
32
17
38
38
747

DEBARI2
DEBARI2
DEBARI2
ASPUR2
DEBARI2
BANSWRA2
DEBARI2
BANSWRA1
MANGLWR1
DEBARI1
ZMINES1
SUKHER1
DEBARI1
SAGWARA1
SAGWARA1
HZL1

13
14
15
16
8
8
53
42
27
30
30
31
32
39
42
34

RAPP-A2
RAPP-B2
CHITORG2
DEBARI2
MADRI2
MADRI2
KANKRL42
PARTAPR1
BHINDAR1
MADRI1
MADRI1
PRATNGR1
SUKHER1
DUNGRPR1
PARTAPR1
ZMINES1

Line Loading
(MVA)
Without
With
DG
DG
127.271 118.33
130.288 121.209
83.489
74.028
91.917
76.917
96.89
83.566
50.342
46.463
93.044
67.655
19.041
9.952
17.559
16.195
56.032
33.846
57.575
24.537
41.163
21.911
99.488
87.078
16.351
9.448
11.568
2.059
81.497

From Table V it is observed with distributed


generation in transmission network loading of
transmission lines which are feeding the load of Udaipur
district have been reduced and power flow on transmission
emanating from 132 kV GSS Zawar mines have been
increased.
B. Effect on Transformers Loading
MVA loading of 220/132 kV Transformers of Test
System have been tabulated here under.
TABLE 6: EFFECT OF DG ON TRANSFORMERS LOADING
From Bus
Name

Fig. 3: LFA of Test System without Distributed Generation

Banswra2
Aspur2
Debari2
Madri2

To Bus
Name

Agg. Transformers
MVA Capacity

Banswra1
Aspur1
Debari1
Madri1

200
100
520
100

Transformer
Loading (MVA)
Without
With
DG
DG
87.38
83.30
54.15
36.705
228.31
205.95
47.27
37.78

From Table VI it is observed with distributed


generation in transmission network loading of 220/132 kV
transformers have been reduced. Redundancy available on
lines and transformers in Case II can be used to load
growth in the respective areas. Therefore with the
placement of distributed generation in power system
requirement of new lines and transformers have been
reduced.
C. Effect on Voltage
Fig. 4: LFA of Test System with Distributed Generation

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Bus voltage in Test System without and with


distributed generator is tabulated at Table VII.

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1226 1 IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics, Intelligent Control and Energy Systems (ICPEICES-2016)

TABLE 7: EFFECT OF DG ON TRANSMISSION SYSTEM NETWORK


VOLTAGE
Sl.
Bus
Bus Name
Nominal Bus
Voltage (P.U)
No.
No.
Voltage (KV)
Without
With
DG
DG
1
8
MADRI2
220
0.9315
0.9577
2
9
BANSWRA2
220
0.9152
0.9505
3
10 ASPUR2
220
0.9219
0.9567
4
16 DEBARI2
220
0.9348
0.9584
5
17 DEBARI1
132
0.9296
0.9558
6
18 SEESRMA1
132
0.9193
0.9438
7
20 BANSWRA1
132
0.9053
0.9431
8
21 DALOT1
132
0.9075
0.9228
9
27 BHINDAR1
132
0.9054
0.9305
10
28 MAHI_I
132
0.9049
0.9432
11
29 MAHI_II
132
0.9221
0.943
12
30 MADRI1
132
0.9219
0.9546
13
31 PRATNGR1
132
0.9245
0.9521
14
32 SUKHER1
132
0.9177
0.9522
15
33 BHATWAR1
132
0.9114
0.9426
16
34 ZMINES1
132
0.9134
0.9699
17
35 SALUMBR1
132
0.9143
0.9611
18
36 ASPUR1
132
0.9089
0.9604
19
37 DRIWAD1
132
0.9005
0.9562
20
38 SAGWARA1
132
0.9035
0.9412
21
39 DUNGRPR1
132
0.9018
0.9354
22
40 KHERWAR1
132
0.8882
0.9451
23
41 RISHDEO1
132
0.8934
0.9547
24
42 PARTAPR1
132
0.8815
0.942
25
43 PALODA1
132
0.8892
0.9389

It is seen that network voltage with DG has been


significantly improved as compared to Case I i.e without
DG. After adding generation capacity in load area, power
flow on the lines has been reduced. Due to reduction in
power flow, voltage drop in network has been reduced.
Therefore, quality of power supply is improved with
distributed generation instead of concentrated generation.
D. Effect on Losses
The effect of placement of distributed generator unit
on MW losses of Test System and Rajasthan power
system are tabulated in Table VIII.

AES = [(MW) x 365 x24 x LLF x 1000/ 105]


LUs/Annum
AES = 386.31 LUs/Annum
Annual Savings can be found by multiplying the tariff
rates to the annual units saved. Average tariff rate in
Rajasthan is 5 Rs/unit which have been considered to
calculate the Annual Cost Saving:
Annual Cost Savings
ACS = No. of units saved x Per unit tariff
ACS =19.32 crores/Annum
In view of above annual cost saving, commercial
viability of small capacity (50 to 100 MW) distributed
power plants needs to be assessed instead of large capacity
super thermal power plants.
VI. TRANSMISSION VOLTAGE CONTROL USING DG
In power system different sectors are facing low as
well as high voltage problems. Power plants are not in
coordination with transmission system operators for
voltage control in transmission system. When voltage in
transmission system is low or high then by increasing or
decreasing the reference voltage of the generator,
transmission voltage can be increased or decreased
respectively. With the increase of reference voltage
generator injects more reactive power into the system
according to its capability curve. With the decrease of
reference voltage generator absorbs the reactive power
from the transmission system.
Simulations have been carried out on test system to
assess the impact on bus voltage due to connected
Distributed Generator.
A. Role of DG in Low Transmission Voltage Condition
Load flow study results of test system for peak
loading condition and 1.0 PU reference voltage of
generator are placed at Fig.5.

TABLE 8: EFFECT OF DISTRIBUTED GENERATION ON MW LOSSES


Particulars
Without
With
Saving
Energy
DG
DG
(MW)
Saving
(LUs/Annum)
MW losses of
21.29
17.53
3.76
226.61
Test system
462.18
455.77
6.10
386.31
MW losses of
Rajasthan
system

The MW loss reduction from 462.18 MW to 455.77


MW has been obtained by the addition of distributed
generation in the system. DG placement provides
reduction in power flow on lines and transformers,
therefore, transmission losses are reduced. Load Factor
(LF) in Rajasthan is 80%, and accordingly loss load factor
(LLF) is calculated as follows:
Annual Energy Savings
Loss Load Factor = 0.3(LF) + 0.7(LF)2 = 0.688

Fig. 5: LFS of Test System for Peak Loading Condition

Under this condition, voltage in test system is very


low whereas generator is injecting only 7 MVAR against
its 40 MVAR capacity. Voltage profile of Test System is
assessed by changing the generator terminal voltage.
Generator reference voltage has been increased from 1.00

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Loss Reduction of Rajasthan Power System with Distributed Generation in Transmission Network 1227

pu to 1.05 pu in steps of 0.05 to simulate the effect on test


system voltage and discussed in the following subsections:

Case-1. Sub-Station Power Factor as well as voltage


profile of buses has also improved.

B. Effect on Generator Reactive Power Output

E. Effect on Losses

Table IX shows the DG reactive output for various


generator reference voltage.

Table XI shows the test system loss for different


generator reference voltage.

TABLE 9: EFFECT ON REACTIVE POWER OUTPUT OF DG


Generator Reference Voltage
Generator Reactive Power
(PU)
Output (MVAR)
1.00
7
1.01
11
1.02
19
1.03
20
1.04
24
1.05
28

With the increase of reference voltage, reactive power


output of generator is also increased. In all six cases,
reactive loading on generator is below its maximum
capacity i.e. 40 MVAR.
C. Effect on Test System Voltage Profile

TABLE 11: MW LOSS OF TEST SYSTEM


Generator Reference Voltage(PU)
MW loss
1.00
8.36
1.01
8.27
1.02
8.20
1.03
8.15
1.04
8.10
1.05
8.07

It is observed that with increase of generator reference


voltage test system real power losses have also reduced.
F. Role of DG in High Transmission Voltage Condition
Load flow study results of test system for low loading
condition and 1.05 PU reference voltage of generator is
placed at Fig. 7.

220 kV bus voltage of test system for different


generator reference voltages are plotted at Fig.6. From
simulation studies it is observed that with increase of
generator reference voltage test system voltage has
improved.

Fig. 7: LFS of Test System for Low Loading Condition

Fig. 6: Effect of Generator Reference Voltage on Test System Voltage

D. Effect on Utilization Factor of Shunt Capacitors


In test system, total 203.31 MVAR capacity capacitor
banks are connected to substations. Output of shunt
capacitor bank is squarely depend upon system voltage. At
low system voltage, output of capacitor bank is lower than
its capacity. Capacity utilization factor of shunt capacitor
banks at various generator reference voltage are tabulated
at Table X.
TABLE 10: UTILIZATION FACTOR OF SHUNT CAPACITORS
Generator Ref. Aggregate Shunt Capacitor
Capacity
Voltage
Bank Output (MVAR)
Utilization Factor
1.00
184.67
90.83 %
1.01
186.01
91.49 %
1.02
187.35
91.14 %
1.03
188.70
92.81 %
1.04
190.04
93.47 %
1.05
191.39
94.13 %

As per simulation studies capacity utilization factor of


shunt capacitors has increased in Case-6 as compared to

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Under this condition, voltage in test system is very


high whereas generator is absorbing only 2 MVAR against
its 20 MVAr capacity. Generator reference voltage has
been decreased from 1.05 pu to 1.01 pu in steps of 0.05 to
simulate the effect on test system voltage and discusses in
the following subsections:
G. Effect on Generator Reactive Power Output
Table XII shows the DG reactive output for various
generator reference voltages.
TABLE 12: EFFECT ON REACTIVE POWER OUTPUT OF GENERATOR
Case
Generator Reference
Generator Reactive Power
No.
Voltage (PU)
Output (MVAr)
1
1.05
-2
2
1.04
-7
3
1.03
-11
4
1.02
-15
5
1.01
-20

With the decrease of reference voltage, reactive


power absorption by generator increases. In all five cases,
reactive power absorption by generator is below its
maximum capacity i.e. 20 MVAR.

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1228 1 IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics, Intelligent Control and Energy Systems (ICPEICES-2016)

H. Effect on Test System Voltage Profile


The test system 220 kV bus voltages at various EHV
substations for different generator reference voltage has
been tabulated at Table XIII.
TABLE 13: TEST SYSTEM VOLTAGE
Generator
MADRI2 BANSWRA2 ASPUR2 DEBARI2
Terminal Voltage
1.05
1.0124
1.0057
1.0113
1.0133
1.04
1.0105
1.003
1.0086
1.0115
1.03
0.9617
0.9324
0.9465
0.9671
1.02
0.9595
0.9293
0.9435
0.9652
1.01
0.9573
0.9263
0.9406
0.9632

It is observed that with decrease of generator


reference voltage test system voltage has also decreased.

5.

High & low voltage conditions are managed by


maintain generator reference voltage and thus
performing better reactive power management led
to better capacity utilization factor of installed
shunt capacitors.
It is observed that with DG placement, loading on
lines has been significantly reduced. This created extra
capability of the system to meet the future load growth.
There by avoiding layout of additional lines in the system.
Improvements in voltage profile, line losses & reliability
have been achieved successfully. In view of identified
benefits, commercial viability of small capacity (50 to 100
MW) distributed power plants needs to be assessed instead
of large capacity super thermal power plants in power
system.

VII. CONCLUSION
In this paper, simulation studies have been carried out
to analyze the effect of distributed generation of capacity
50 to 80 MW in transmission system as compared to
concentrated generation. Studies have been carried out on
Rajasthan power system wherein large capacity thermal
power plants have been installed in southern part.
Following are the conclusions of studies which are
performed in this paper:
1. Simulation studies indicate that loading on lines &
transformers in Case II has been reduced.
Redundancy available on lines and transformers in
Case II can be used to load growth in the respective
areas.
2. Network voltage in Case II has been significantly
improved as compared to Case I. After adding
generation capacity at load area, power flow in the
lines is reduced.
3. In Case II total Rajasthan system losses are reduced
from 462.18 MW to 455.77 MW. With distributed
generator of 80 MW capacity losses are reduced by
6.10 MW.
4. Annual cost saving of approx. Rs 19.32
Crores/Annum envisaged with 80 MW capacity
Distributed Generation.

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[1]

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