heat from sun caused the water from rivers, lakes and oceans to
evaporate into the atmosphere
b) Transpiration from plants leaf into the atmosphere.
c) Condensation  of water particles in space to forms cloud
d) Precipitation rainfall on land and sea
e) Interceptionrain stuck to plants leaf, vegetation, wetting the ground
f) Surface Runoff Water flowing on land surface into river and then flow to sea
g) InfiltrationSome amount of water will infiltrate and percolate into the ground
h) Groundwater flow subsurface flow of water, and it might come out as springs 9can
also see it in well)
a) Design and operation of hydraulic structures (spillway, sluice gate, river concrete
lining etc.)
b) Water supply system (dam, drawoff tower, pipelines etc.)
c) Wastewater treatment and disposal
d) Drainage and irrigation (e.g. drain system for flooded area)
e) Hydropower generation
f) Flood control, erosion, sediment control, etc.
 Knowledge of hydrology are used to analyze problems involved, how to solve it,
how to plan and manage the available water resources etc.
This is the place where Sungai Gombak (left) meets Sungai Klang (right). Look at the sheet
piles.
Note the different color between water from Sg Gombak and Sg Klang. What does it shows?
On the left is Sg Gombak and on the right is Sg Klang. The photo shows there is a lot of erosion
and sedimentation occurring upstream of Sg Klang, compared to Sg Gombak.
What are the reasons why so much money was spent to change these 2 rivers?
1. To enlarge the crosssection of the rivers, increasing its capacity. This reduces possibilities of
flood.
2. To increase the Manning roughness coefficients n of channels bed. This means smoother
flow, less friction, more efficient flow.
3. The sheet piles protect the riverbank and reduced erosion of riverbanks.
It is to stop flow of water from one area to another area. During planting of paddy, a lot of water
is needed, so Sluice gate is lifted up and water flow into paddy field.
Sluice gate in Irrigation canal in Malaysia to supply water when paddy need it/planting season
Morning Glory/ Bellmouth shaped Spillway it exist in a reservoir. What is the purpose of it?
Morning glory spillway or side spillway ensures water level in dam does not exceed MWL
(maximum Water Level).
When rain heavily upstream, water level in reservoirs will increase. Excess water will enter the
spillway and released downstream of the dam.
Without spillway, water can overtop the dam, erode the base and the foundation of the dam
resulting in erosion. Severe erosion can cause instability and even dam failures.
A Side Spillway What is the purpose of it? Where do you think this is?
The purpose is to safely channel excess water in dam to downstream area. It is normally located
on the side of a dam.
This is a large hydropower dam. The Side Spillway release water when it exceed the MWL.
Note the high energy in water released. It can cause severe erosion to riverbanks and riverbed.
Water upstream of dam has high potential energy and when it flows downstream, it can cause
severe erosion to riverbanks and riverbed. The blocks caused turbulence to water, dissipating
much of its energy.
3. All the steps in hydrologic cycle can be divided into 3 systems (on ground, above, below):
a) Surface water system
 Include overland flow, surface runoff, and groundwater outflow
b) Subsurface water system
 Include infiltration, groundwater flow
c) Atmospheric water system
 Include evaporation, transpiration, interception and rainfall
5.
To practicing engineer (hydrologist) who plan and build hydraulic structures, knowledge
of hydrology is important. Suppose:
a. A City wishes to increase its water supply
 engineer must look for source of supply, e.g. uninhabited mountain catchment area,
underground water etc., and decide which is better source (cheaper, cleaner, more reliable
source).
Why do we prefer uninhabited mountain catchment area?
All human activities will eventually release discharge into drains and it enters river, causing
pollution to river water quality. When there is no human activities upstream of a river, river
water will be clean. It will be easier and cheaper to treat it for water supply.
 Engineers then must estimate amount of water that can be supplied, amount of rain and
length of drought period, amount of water lost to evaporation etc.
 What are the dimensions of the dam, size of pipelines? All these need to be studied and
relevant data collected and analyzed to finally come up with the decision.
6.
7.
= 2.73 km2
= 36.89 m
= 138.72m
= 3.67m
e. Drawoff Tower 5 levels of water intake. Water flow by gravity from drawoff tower to WTP (water treatment
plant) 11.3km away at Bukit Nanas.
This is not Klang Gate Dam. Notice the Drawoff Tower and The Bell mouth Spillway
Some related data: Three Gorges Dam (China) World largest Hydropower Dam
a. Water Surface Area
= 1045 km2
= 185 m
= 2335m (2.3km)
d. Width of crest
e. Catchment area
=1,000,000 km2
= 600 km long
Photos of Klang Gate Dam note the i. Concrete Arch Dam Structure,
ii. The Overflow weir and the Side Spillway
iii. The Drawoff Tower
The DrawOff Tower will consists of valve at 5 different elevation, Highest, High, Medium,
Low, Lowest.
When one valve is opened, raw water from reservoirs will flow through large pipe to WTP
(Water Treatment Plant) to be treated, and then sent to domestic consumers and industries.
We will opened valve no 1. Because at top level, water is cleaner with less colloids and
sediments. If water level is below level of valve 1, we open valve no 2.
Water being released through one of the weir (Sluice gate lifted for that weir).
Chilling on top of the hill viewing the spectacular landscape of the Klang Gate Dam,
The view from the spillway it is still wet, maybe from water being released through it earlier.
I visited your senior who is doing his Industrial Training there (Oct 2014)
The feature of Sungai Selangor Dam note all the components of a Dam
 Dam embankment, Dam Crest, Overflow Weir, Spillway, Plunge Pool, Drawoff Tower, Reservoir
What does the red earth in the photo below tell you?
It tells that water level in the dam is very low. If the dry period persist, water rationing might be
needed.
Klang Gate Dam under construction note the small size of a person there with respect to the
size of the dam..
Note the size of the car compared to the width of the dams crest (2.3km long concrete dam)

or

Series of turbines
Rational Method:
Q = CiA
where
where
Klang River Basin / Watershed /Catchment Area: is an area where all rain that fall in that
catchment will flow into Klang River
The 3 rivers passed through city center causing frequent flash floods. To solve this problem,
water in Klang River is diverted into Kerayong River using Smart Tunnel bypassing city center.
The blue line is the boundary of Kuala Lumpur. Note the cities in the river basin  Port Klang,
Klang, Shah Alam, Petaling Jaya and KL
Note the 2 enclosed areas above which are Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya.
The 2 rivers passing through them are Sg Klang and Sg Langat.
The river passing in front of UKM is Sungai Langat
Lets watch the video 1 on Hydrologic Cycle (Water Cycle). The content includes:
1. The amount of water on earth is the same today as it is millions of years before.
2. The water on earth moves in continuous loop.
3. There is life on earth because earth has this perfect water cycle.
4. Water cycle it is fascinating
 it is around us all the time
 it is described by 2 words, FLOWS and STORES.
it is series of water flows and water stores(storages)
5. Statistics
6. There are many names for every movement of water in water cycles. They are:
1. Precipitation
2. Surface Runoff
3. Infiltration
4. Interception
5. Groundwater flow
6. Evaporation
7. Transpiration
8. Condensation
Lets watch the video 2 on Three Gorges Dam in China, the processes and its
challenges.
Question: How do you construct structures in fast moving water?
Exercise 1: Draw the catchment boundaries by drawing the water divide for the
watershed given below.
Homework
Note: At least 50% of midsem exam questions will be from homework.
Homework 1
1. Print this diagram and draw the catchment boundaries of all rivers.
2. This is the map of UKM. The red colored/dark colored area is the highest ground while the red line is
Tasik Kejuruteraan. The big blue line is Sungai Langat and the small lines are tributaries. Print one page
in black and white. Draw the catchment boundary of all the rivers by drawing the possible water divide.
3. Refer to Engineering Hydrology Book by K Subramanya page 14, and do the following:
a. Revision Questions
b. Problems
c. Objective Questions
: 1.1
: 1.2, 1.3, 1.5
: 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9
The term precipitation refers to all forms of water that reach the earth from
the atmosphere. They can be rainfall (liquid), snowfall, sleet and hail (solid),
frost, dew and mist (gaseous).
2.
3.
Heat caused water to become vapor, rises up into the atmosphere where it is
cooler. Slowly water vapor condenses around nuclei, which is salt particles or
product of combustion, forming into liquid (droplets size ~0.1mm) and fall to
the ground as rain. The magnitude of precipitation varies with time and space
(temporal and spatial). This variation is responsible for many hydrological
problems, such as floods and draughts, and makes prediction of them difficult.
4.
A front is the interface between two distinct air masses. When a warm air
mass and cold air mass meet, the warmer air mass is lifted over colder mass,
and a front was formed. The warmer air become cooler, forms cloud and fall
as precipitation.
5.
A cyclone is a large lowpressure region with circular wind motion and can
be 100200 km in diameter.
 It is called cyclone in India, hurricane in USA, and typhoon in South East
Asia.
 The center is called the eye and it is calm, but outside of it, wind speed can
reach 200 kmph.
 Figure below from the book show the wind speed, rainfall intensity and
pressure inside a cyclone/ hurricane/typhoon.
6.
Precipitation/ Rainfall
 It vary greatly in space and time
 It can be represented by isohyetal maps with isohyets as contour of
constant rainfall
 Isohyetal maps are prepared by interpolating rainfall data recorded at gaged
points.
7.
8.
9.
The record from rain gages consist of a set of rainfall depth recorded for
successive increments in time. From this record we can plot isohyetal maps,
rainfall hyetograph, and rainfall mass curve.
10.
A seethrough rain gage below allows you to record rain data every day without
removing the water inside. Have to know evaporation rate.
 A more advanced version of Tipping Bucket rain gage is as below. It allow for storage of
up to one year of rainfall data. Is it advisable to check the data once a year? Why is that
so?
It is not advisable to store rainfall data over very long period without periodic checking.
This is because if the device was damaged, then rainfall data will be unknown for a long
period. Periodic checking is better.
SelfContained Automatic Logging Rain Gauge : This unit can be placed anywhere, and
log rainfall data for up to a year using the selfcontained data logger. Simply plug the
data logger into the USB port of your Windows PC to download, graph, and export the
data using the software provided.
MadgeTech Rain101A Rainfall Data Logging System, with Tipping Bucket Rain Gage, Data
Logger, Water Resistant Enclosure, and IFC200 Interface Cable and Software Kit
 Note that the graph of rainfall data is the amount of rainfall per unit time (rainfall
intensity eg. mm/day or mm/min or mm/hour)
 It can be amount of rainfall for every day for basic rain gage, or it can be every 1
minute if it is using tipping bucket rain gage.
Such is the technology that existed today. There is radar that can calculate how
much rain will fall at what place and how much flow in the river will be.
Early warning system can help reduce lost of life in frequently severely flooded area.
13. Certain rules must be followed while setting up rainfall stations to eliminate
errors (DIDs regulation):
a. The stations should be on level ground (not hilly slopes) to avoid air
currents
b. The gage must be on a post, the mouth is 1.35m above ground, avoid
splashing)
c. The gage must be at a distance of 4 times the height of object around
it.(The book say no object should be nearer the gage than 30m, or twice
the height of the obstruction)
d. The rain gage must be equipped with wind shield
e. Fence must be built around the station to protect from interference from
animal/people.
14. Raingage Networks
 The catching area of a raingage is very small compared to the areal extent
of a storm.
 To get representative picture of a storm over a catchment, we need a
certain number of raingage.
 Too large a number is not economical
 To small a number might give a wrong representation of a storm.
 There is an equation to calculate optimum number of raingage in an area
World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) recommended the following
densities
a. In flat region of temperate, mediterranean and tropical zone
i.
Ideal
1 station for 600 900 km2 (30km x 30km)
ii.
Acceptable 1 station for 900 3000km2 (55km x 55km)
18. Preparation of Data Before using rainfall data, we must check it for
continuity and consistency. We must do precleaning of data
a. Estimation of missing data for estimation of missing rainfall data, the neighbouring
stations data are used.
b. If variation in annual precipitation is within 10%, use single arithmetic method where:
Px = 1/M [P1 + P2 + P3 + . Pm]
c. If variation in annual precipitation is high, use Normal Ratio Methods.
Px = Nx / M [P1/N1 + P2/N2 + .. + Pm/Nm]
Nx = normal annual precipitation at station X
d. Example 2.2
 From the Doublemass curve above, we can see that inconsistency started in
Year 1963. We correct it by multiplying with a factor, so that it become a
straight line.
Pcx = (Px) (Correction Ratio) = Px Mc/ Ma = (Px)(c/ a) note: Mc = Y/ X = c / X
Data is sorted in descending order, which is from year 1979 to year 1950.Cumulative
value of station M (Pm) is calculated and shown in column 3 below. Cumulative
value of 10 neighboring stations were also calculated (Pav) and shown in column 5
below.
The data is then plotted Pm versus Pav , and a double mass curve is produced.
It is shown in Figure 2.8 below.
Execise: Calculate the intensity (mm/hour) of rainfall for storm 1 and storm 2.
ii. Hyetograph is a plot of the intensity of rainfall against the time interval. It is derived
from Mass Curve and is represented as a bar chart, shown below.
iii. Point Rainfall refers to rainfall data of a station. The data can be listed as daily,
weekly, monthly etc.
iv. Moving Average is a technique for smoothening out the high frequency fluctuations of a
time series to enable a trend to be noticed.
Answer:
a. Calculate the mean which is total of all rainfall divided by amount of year
Mean = 1/30(676 + 578 + 95 + 462 +.+ 612) = 17060/30 = 568.7
b. Calculate for less 20% of mean = 0.8 (mean) = 0.8 (568.7) = 454.96
c. Plot the Bar Diagram with time, and add the line of mean, the line of less 20% of mean. It
will look like below.
d. From the bar chart, we can tell the years where annual rainfall is more than the mean. The
years are 1950, 1951, 1955, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1970, 1972 and 1978.
e. We can also see the years where annual rainfall is lower than the less than 20% of mean.
f. Calculation of three year moving mean is shown in column 3 and column 4 below
g. We can then plot the 3 year moving mean curve. It look like this. Note that the curve
start in year 1978. No apparent trend can be seen from the plot.
This method give weightage on the basis on an area closest to the rainfall station.
Method to draw the polygon is:
1. Draw dotted lines between a stations with surrounding stations
2. Mark the middle point of each dotted lines.
3. Draw a perpendicular lines (90 degree) at each middle marks above.
4. Draw bold lines to produce the polygons
An example of a drawn Thiessen Polygon is as below
Lets do one exercise of drawing the Thiessen Polygon on the Figure given below. After
that calculate MeanArealRainfall
Lets do Example 2.5. The catchment area and the recorded rainfall at all stations in the
month of August 2011 are given below. Determine the average depth of rainfall for the
basin for August 2011 using Arithmetic Method and Thiessen Polygon Method
The Solution
i. Arithmetic Mean consider only rain gages located in the basin, which is station 1, 2, 4
Mean Monthly Rainfall = 1/3 (121 + 124 + 126) = 127 cm
ii. Thiessen Polygon Method calculation shown in table below
The areal distribution characteristic of a storm of given duration is reflected in its deptharea relationship
For a rainfall of a given duration, the average depth decreases with the area in an
exponential pattern.
( To be continued in Part 2)
Exercises:
1. Draw the isohyetal lines on the figure below. Given are the coordinates of the rainfall
stations and the rainfall values recorded at the stations
The areal distribution characteristic of a storm of given duration is reflected in its deptharea relationship
For a rainfall of a given duration, the average depth decreases with the area in an exponential pattern.
The highest rainfall at a station is taken as the average depth. Then use equation to extrapolate an
existing storm over the area.
The development of relationship between maximum depthareaduration for a region is known as DAD
analysis.
DAD curves are essential to develop design storms for use in computing the design flood in the
hydrological design of major structures like dam
Below is maximum rain depth observed over the plains of North India. These were due to two storms
Example 2.8:
1. The data from an Isohyetal map of a 24 hour storm is given below. Assuming the storm centre has an
area of 55 km2, and the rainfall depth is 57cm in the storm centre (maximum precipitation), obtain the
deptharea curve of this storm.
2. Use the deptharea curve to estimate the average depth of rainfall over an area of 3200 km2.
Solution
1. Rainfall is 57cm at storm centre area of 55 km2.
2. Calculate the mean depth of rainfall for various Isohyetal areas. This is shown in Table 2.7
The probability of occurrence of a particular extreme rainfall, for example, a 24 hour maximum rainfall,
is important
A sequence of rainfall data at a place, arranged in chronological order (arranged in order based on time),
constitutes a Time Series.
We can also make annual series using extreme values of a specified event occurring in a year.
We can list the maximum 24 hour rainfall occurring in a year at a station, to prepare an annual series of
24 hour maximum rainfall value.
The probability of occurrence of an event in this series is studied by Frequency Analysis of this annual
data series.
We must know the simple method of Frequency Analysis, which is predicting the frequency of an event.
We must also know the standard works on probability and statistical methods.
Note that:
P = The Probability of Occurrence of an event of a random variable (e.g. Rainfall) whose
magnitude is equal to or in excess of specified magnitude X.
T = The Recurrence Interval (Return Period) is defined by T
T = 1/ P
If stated that:
..The return period of rainfall of 20cm in 24 hour is 10 years at station A, what does it means?
..It means that on average, rainfall magnitude 20 cm in 24 hour occur once in 10 years. In a long
period of 100 years, 10 such events is expected.
The probability of a rainfall of 20cm in 24hour occurring in any one year at station A is what?
P = 1 / T = 1/ 10 = 0.1
P = Probability of that event occurring
q = Probability of an event not occurring = 1 P
Solution:
The purpose of the frequency analysis of an annual series is to obtain a relationship between the
magnitude of the event and its Probability of Exceedance
A simple empirical technique is to arrange the given annual extreme series in descending order of
magnitude and to assign an order number. First entry is m=1, second entry is m=2, and so on
m = event number 1 to N
N = number of years of record
The Exceedance Probability of the event obtained using empirical equation is called Plotting Position.
After calculating P ( and calculating T=Recurrence Interval where T = 1/P ) for all events in the series,
the variation of the rainfall magnitude is plotted against corresponding T on a semilog graph or loglog
graph.
By suitable extrapolation of this plot, within appropriate limits, the rainfall magnitude of specific
duration for any recurrence interval can be estimated.
This simple empirical procedure can give good results for small extrapolations and the errors increase
with the amount of extrapolation.
For accurate result, various analytical calculation procedures using frequency factors are available.
Percent Dependability :
75% dependable annual rainfall at a station means annual rainfall is equaled or exceeded 75% of
the time.
It means
P = 0.75
T = 1/ P = 1.333 years
Example 2.10
Record of annual rainfall at Station A covering a period of 22 years is given below. The data is from
year 19601981
a) Estimate annual rainfall with return period of 10 years and 50 years.
b) What is the probability of annual rainfall magnitude 100 cm occurring at station A
c) What is 75% dependable annual rainfall at station A
2.
Solution
1.
2.
3.
4.
5. A graph is plotted between Annual Rainfall Magnitude versus Return Period T. The graph produced
is shown below
Pr = Annual Precipitation
T = Return Period
ii.
For T = 50 years
Pr = 29.326 ln (50) + 72.024 = 186.7 cm
for all j = 1 to M, K =1 to N
e. Each record of Im(Dj)k for K = 1 to N constitutes a time series which can be analysed to obtain
frequencies of occurrence of various I m(Dj) values. Thus there will be M time series generated.
f. The result are plotted as:
i. Maximum intensity versus Return period (with duration as third parameter)
ii. Maximum intensity versus Duration (with Return Period as third parameter)
iii. Maximum Depth of rainfall versus Duration (with Return period as third parameter)
3. Extreme point rainfall values of different Duration and for different Return Period has been evaluated.
The Isopluvial/Isohyetal (lines connecting equal depth of rainfall) maps covering the entire country of
India have been prepared.

4. Example 2.11
The Mass Curve of rainfall in a storm of total duration 270 minutes is given below
a. Draw the hyetograph of the storm at 30 minutes time step.
b. Plot the maximum IntensityDuration curve for this storm
c. Plot the maximum depthduration curve for this storm
Solution
a. Calculate the incremental depth of rainfall and the intensity (mm/hour)
Plot the Hyetograph. Note that the rainfall intensity is in unit mm/hour.
 The maximum intensity corresponding to a specified duration is shown in Row no 3 of table below
Failures of structures such as spillway at large dams can cause heavy damage to life, property and
economy
In design and analysis of such structures, we need to know the MAXIMUM POSSIBLE PRECIPITATION to
avoid under design and the resulting structure failures.
The Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) is the greatest rainfall for a given duration that is
physically possible over a basin
Homework # 2
1. Draw the Thiessen Polygon below and calculate Mean Areal Rainfall for the watershed below
3. These are questions from Subramanya book for Chapter 2, starting from page 64
Revision Questions:
2.6
2.7
2.9
Problems:
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.10
2.12
2.13
2.17
2.20
2.22
Objective Questions:
(Just select answer a, b, c or d. The answer is given at the back of the book so you can
compare your answer. I added this as homework so you read the questions and think
about it. It will helps you understand the chapter better).
2.13
2.14
2.15
2.16
2.17
2.19
2.20
2.22
2.24
1. What is Abstraction ?
That is why when we urbanize an area, we need to increase the drainage capacity for that area.
Otherwise we will have localized flood due to insufficient drainage capacity.
3. In engineering hydrology, surface runoff due to a storm event is the most important aspect to study.
Why? Because it affects the design for drainage system and related hydraulic structures such as
embankment, height of bridge, dam, water intake for water supply etc.
4. What is evaporation?
Evaporation is a process in which, at a free surface, a liquid changes to the gaseous state, below the
boiling point, through the transfer of heat energy.
5. The molecules of water are in constant motion. An addition of heat causes average speed to increase.
Evaporation occurs when some water molecules possess sufficient kinetic energy and they cross over the
water surface (The latent heat of vaporization is 585 cal/g).
EL = Evaporation (mm/day)
C = constant
ew = saturation vapor pressure at water temperature
ea = actual vapor pressure in the air
8. Evaporation data is important in planning and operating reservoirs and irrigation system.
We can estimate evaporation in 3 ways and they are:
a. Evaporimeters
b. Empirical evaporation equations
c. Analytical method.
Table 3.1 below show the pan coefficients for4 types of pan
13. Normally we install evaporation pans in location where other meteorological data are simultaneously
collected. Typical hydrometeorological stations contain:
a. Ordinary raingage or recording raingage
b. Thermometers
c. Wind anemometer
d. Wind direction indicator
e. Termohydrograph
f. Pan evaporimeter
 It is an all in one easytoinstall sensor. The indoor display console included with 5in1 weather stations contains
sensors to measure the barometric pressure, indoor temperature and humidity.
 This allows you to track changes in temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall and barometric
pressure to generate a forecast of future weather conditions personalized for your exact location.
14. There are many empirical equations available to estimate lake evaporation using commonly available
meteorological data
b. Meyers Formula(1915)
EL = Km(ew ea)(1 + U9/16)
EL = Lake evaporation (mm/day)
ew = Saturated vapor pressure at water surface temperature in mm HG
ea = Actual vapor pressure of air at specified height in mm HG
U9 = Monthly mean wind velocity in km/hour
Km = Coefficients.
= It is 0.36 for huge deep waters
= it is 0.5 for small shallow water
d. In using empirical equations, the saturated vapor pressure at a given temperature (ew) is found from
the table of em versus temperature in 0C (Table 3.3)
Uh = Ch1/7
f.
Use this equation to determine wind velocity at any desired level, if U h is known.
Solution

ew = 17.54mm Hg
ea = 40% humidity = 0.4 x 17.54mm Hg = 7.02 mm Hg
Uh = Ch1/7
we are given wind speed at 1m above ground = 16km/hour. So h = 1
U1 = C(1)1/7 = 16 km/hr
C = 16
Uh = Ch1/7
U9 = C(9)1/7 = (16) (9)1/7
= 21.9 km/hr
 Estimation of evaporation in a lake by energy balance method has been found to give satisfactory
results.
18.  In a dams reservoir, we will be interested to know loss of water due to seepage. Lets do
One example which is Example 3.2 and calculate this loss due to seepage.
 Example 3.2: Following observation were made for conducting water budget of a reservoir over a
period of one month of 30 days
 Average surface area = 10 km2
 Mean surface inflow rate = 10m3/sec
 Fall in reservoir level = 1.50m
 Rainfall = 10 cm
 Mean surface water = 15 m3/sec
 Pan Evaporation = 20 cm
 Pan Coefficients = 0.70
 Area of reservoir = 10 x 106 = 107
 For India, the calculated annual water lost due to evaporation is given below.
They includes:
a. Reduction of surface area when selecting location of Dams reservoir, choose location with
deep reservoir, not shallow, wide one.
b. Mechanical Cover permanent temporary roofs, floating roof like raft, lightweight floating
particle etc. This is only for small storage.
c. Chemical Films Applying a thin chemical film on water surface.
 Certain chemicals like cetyl alcohol form molecular layers on water surface.
 Experiments done show evaporation reduction of 60% if monolayers are
used.
 is the process by which water leaves the body of living plant through leaves and reach the
atmosphere as water vapor.
2. Factors affecting transpiration are
a. Atmospheric vapor pressure
b. Temperature
c. Wind
d. Light intensity
e. Characteristic of the plant (root, leaves system)
3. Transpiration occur only during daylight hours, while evaporation occurs 24 hours a day
4. In hydrology and irrigation practices, it is advantageous to combine the two as Evapotranspiration.
5. PET Potential Evapotranspiration
 Possible value of evapotranspiration if sufficient moisture is always available to completely meet
the need of vegetation in an area.
AET Actual Transpiration
 The actual evapotranspiration. It is the real amount of evapotranspiration for an area.
Field Capacity is the maximum quantity of water that the soil can retain against the force of gravity
Permanent Wilting Point is the moisture content of a soil where moisture in soil is no longer available
for plants. At this point, the moisture in soil are so held by soil grains that the roots of the
plant are not able to get it in sufficient quantities.
Available Water is the difference between Field Capacity and Permanent Wilting Point.
If the water supply to the plant is adequate, soil moisture is at the field capacity and AET = PET.
P = Precipitation
Rs = Surface Runoff
Go = Subsurface Flow
Eact = Actual Evapotranspiration EAT
S = Change in Moisture Content
What can we conclude from the figure 3.5 ? One conclusion is a AET/PET of 50%, , the percent
available moisture for sandy soil is 50%, but for clayey soil, it is only 20%. That means soil particle
of clayey soil hold water particle better compared to soil particle of sandy soil.
7. Measurement of Evapotranspiration can be done in 2 ways:
a. By use of Lysimeters
b. By use of field plots
A lysimeter is a special watertight tank containing a block of soil and set in a field of growing
plants. The plant grown is the same as in the surrounding.
Evapotranspiration is estimated in term of amount of water required to maintain constant
moisture condition within the tank.
Lysimeter should be designed to accurately reproduce the soil condition, moisture content, type
and size of the vegetation of the surrounding area. It should also be buried that the soil is at the
same level inside and outside of the container. Below are photos of Lysimeters.
8. The lack of reliable data and difficulties in obtaining reliable evapotranspiration data result in a number
of method to predict PET using climatological data. One of the equation is shown below.
Penmans Equation
Using Penmans equation and the available climatological data, PET estimate for India has been made.
The mean annual PET (in cm) is shown in the form of Isopleths Lines of Equal Evapotranspiration.
Interception water from rainfall that is caught by the vegetation and subsequently
evaporated
b. Thoroughfall water that drip off plants leaf and join surface runoff.
c. Stemflow water that runs along leaves and branches
It is estimated that of the total rainfall in an area, interception loss is about 10% to
20%.
11.
Ii = Interception loss in mm
Si = Interception storage (range 0.25 to 1.25mm)
Ki = Ratio of vegetal surface area to projected area
E = Evaporation rate in mm/hr
t = duration of rainfall in hour
13. Field capacity the volume of water the ground can hold
Infiltration capacity maximum rate at which ground can absorb water
 Designated as fp, unit cm/hr
i= rainfall intensity The actual rate of infiltration f will be
f = i when i < fp
f = fp when I f
Infiltration capacity of a soil is high at the beginning of a storm and has exponential decay as time
Lapses
a. Simple Infiltrometer
b. Double Ring Infiltrometer
Simple Infiltrometer
 A metal cylinder 30 cm diameter and 60 cm long, open on both end
 The cylinder is driven 50 cm into the ground
 Water is poured to a depth of 5 cm and it is marked using marker
 As water infiltrated, water is added using burette to maintain the same height.
Flooding Infiltrometer measures infiltration rate at one spot only. A large number of experiments
are necessary to obtain infiltration characteristics for an entire watershed.
Possible errors:
a. The raindrop impact effect is not simulated.
b. Driving the rings into the ground disturbs the soil structure.
c. The border effect is significant. Larger ring normally give less rates than smaller ring.
Photo of Infiltrometer
Double Ring Infiltrometer 2 tubes supplying water to the inner ring and the outer ring. The rate of
water going down in the inner tube indicate the rate of infiltration
Below, the two towers supplying water into inner ring and outer ring
The TurfTec Infiltrometer is simple to operate and easy to use! Determine infiltration rate in as little
as15minutes.Thisfield instrument determines the downward flow of water through the turf and soil.
Elapsed time indicator makes it possible to correlate irrigation time to the infiltration rate of your turf.
Record keeping of Infiltrometer readings can aid in keeping track of significant changes in water
percolation. Has double ring accuracy.
1.Typical Test Bed and Rainfall Simulator Setup for Erosion Control Testing
Look at the texture of soil. Top soil is rich with organic matter.
Have you seen a large ruler at the bank of a river? What is it for?
How do we determine a profile of a river using basic items (low cost method)?
ii. The stage (water level) is observed continuously and recorded. This water level is then
converted to discharge (Q) using Rating Curve. After several years, if significant erosion and
sedimentation is noticed at that section, changes in river cross section is expected. For cases like
this, new rating curve need to be produced.
4. The stage of a river is its water surface elevation measured above a datum (Datum = MSL,
MeanSeaLevel).
We can measure stage using:
i. Manual Gage
ii. Automatic gage
a. Staff gage
b. Wire gage
a. Float gage recorder
b. Bubble gage
5. Manual Gage:
Staff Gage
 is the simplest measurement of the stage. It is by noting the elevation of water surface in contact
with a fixed staff. If needed, sectional gage can be used (where slope is mild/not steep)
Wire gage
 is a gage used to measure water surface elevation, being lowered from a bridge or
similar structure.
6. Automatic Gage:
 Manual gage need to be read at frequent interval and it is very inconvenient. Automatic
stage recorder can be used to solve this problem.
a. FloatGage recorder
 it is the most common type of automatic stage recorder
 a float in the stilling well is balanced by means of a counterweight over a pulley of a recorder.
 the movement of float causes angular displacement of the pulley and it is recorded by the pen.
 the design allow for flushing of sediment that enter stilling well.
b. Bubble Gage
 compressed air is made to bleed out at a very small rate through the outlet at the bottom of the river.
 a pressure gage measure the gas pressure. It will be equal to water column above the outlet ( P = gh)
7. The stage data is presented in the form of a plot of Stage against Time. It is called Stage Hydrograph.
Reliable long term stage data can be analyzed statistically to estimate the design peak river stages
for use in the design of hydraulic structures like bridge and weirs.
V = stream velocity
Ns = revolutions per second
a, b = constants of the meter
Calibration

The relationship between the stream velocity and revolutions per second of the current meter is
called The Calibration Equation
The calibration is done in a towing tank, which is a long channel with still water.
The current meter is mounted on a carriageway and towed at a predetermined constant speed (v),
and the corresponding average value of revolution per second (Ns) is determined.
This experiment is repeated over a complete range of velocities and a bestfit linear regression in the
form of above equation is obtained.
In small streams of shallow depth, current meter is held at the required depth below the
surface, in a vertical way by an observer who stands in the water. It is called wading
In rivers flowing in narrow gorges, a cableway is stretched from bank to bank. A carriage
moving over the cableway is used as the observation platform
Bridges are frequently used as gaging station due to accessibility. Hydraulically, it is not
the best location.
9. AreaVelocity Method
 In this method, we determine discharge by:
a. Measuring the crosssectional area of the river at the gaging site
b. Measure the velocity at 0.6 depth using current meter (can be average value of 0.2d and 0.8d)
c. Calculating Q = A.V
 The gaging site must be selected with care to assure the stage discharge curve will be constant
over a long period. The criteria in determining the gaging sites are:
a. The stream should have welldefined cross section that does not change in various seasons.
b. The site should be easily accessible all through the year.
c. The site should be in a straight, stable reach
d. The gaging site should be free from backwater effect.
 The greater the number of subsections, the more accurate is discharge estimation. However smaller
number of subsections are preferred because it is cheaper and easier to do.
 The guidelines to select number of subsections are:
a. The segment width should not be greater than 1/15 to 1/20 of the width of the river
(means minimum number of section is 15).
b. The discharge in each segment should be less than 10% of the total discharge.
c. The difference in velocities in adjacent segments should not be more than 20%.
The data pertaining to a stream gaging operation at a gaging site are given below.
The rating equation of the current meter is V = 0.51Ns + 0.03 m/s, where Ns = revolutions per
second.
Calculate the discharge of the stream.
Calculate the width of the first section and the last section. The equation is:
Putting in the values, we get average width for the first ad last section is:
Chapter 5: Runoff
Chapter 5: Runoff
1. Runoff is flowingoff from precipitation in a catchment area, through a surface channel.
 is output from a catchment in a given unit time.
2. When it rain, abstraction (evapotranspiration, initial losses, infiltrations and detention storage)
must first be satisfied. Only after that we will have surface runoff.
3. Water that infiltrated into ground and return to the surface at some location away is called
thoroughflow, interflow, subsurface flow or quick return flow.
4. Water that infiltrated deep into the ground and reach groundwater storage is called groundwater flow.
Time taken from entry to reaching surface again can be many months to many years.
5. Direct Runoff
Baseflow
Natural Flow
Solution:
The natural flow volume in a month of RN is given by the equation below:
RN = (R0 Vr) + Vd + E + Ex + S
The value of E, Ex and S are insignificant and can be assumed to be 0
RN = (R0 Vr) + Vd
where:
Vr
= Volume of return flow from irrigation, domestic water supply and industrial use
= 0.8 + 0.3 = 1.10 Mm3 (Million m3 = x106m3)
Vd = Volume diverted out of stream for irigation, domestic water supply and industrial use
= 3.0 + 0.5 = 3.5 Mm3
Calculation for month 1
RN = (R0 Vr) + Vd
= (2.01.10) + 3.5
= 4.4 Mm3
Annual natural flow volume = Annual Runoff Volume = Total RN = 116.8 Mm3 = 1.168 x 108 m3
Area of catchment = 180 km2 = 180 x 106 m2 = 1.8 x 108 m2
Annual Runoff Depth = 1.168 x 108 m2 / 1.8 x 108 m2 = 0.649 m = 64.9 cm
Given Annual Rainfall = 185 cm
Runoff Rainfall Ratio = Runoff / Rainfall = 64.9cm / 185 cm = 0.35
What does Runoff Rainfall Ratio of 0.35 (35%) means ?
 It means 35% of all rainfall become runoff
 It means ___ % of all rainfall become abstraction (see drawings)
7. Hydrograph
 is a plot of discharge in a stream plotted against time
 Below is an example of Long Term Hydrograph. It can tell when big flood might have
occurred
there are also annual hydrograph, monthly hydrograph, seasonal hydrograph and
flood hydrograph

Flood Hydrograph focus only on streamflow during that flood event. It is essential in
analysing stream characteristics associated with floods.
Below is hydrograph in intermittent stream and ephemereal stream
R = aP + b

a and b are coefficients. Details are in book on page 174 (5.5.2:Rainfall Runoff Correlation)
16. SCS CN method is based on the Water Balance Equation of the rainfall in a known interval of time t.
P = Ia + F + Q
Pe
Ia
Fa
The ratio of actual amount of Direct Runoff (Q) to Maximum Potential Runoff (PIa) is
equal to the ratio of the actual infiltration (Fs) to the potential maximum retention S
This proportionality can be shown as
ii. The amount of initial abstractions (Ia) is some fraction of the Potential Maximum
Retention (S)
Ia = S
After a detailed study involving hundreds of data, SCS adopted value of 0.2 .
So the equation is:
Ia = 0.2 S
iii. The 3 available equations are now
a. P = Ia + F + Q
b.

c. Ia = 0.2 S
eqn 1

eqn 2

eqn 3
Q=
(.)
+.
Q=0
Use t = 1 day,
so P = Daily Rainfall
Q = Daily Runoff
From studies done on thousands and thousands of data, the equation that relates S with CN
values was produced:
=

19. Landuse
The CN values for various landuse and soil type A,B, C, and D are shown below. These CN Values are for
AMCII and is called CNII
20. Conversion of CN
The conversion of CNII to two other AMC conditions can be made using the following equations.
AMCI
AMCIII
2.2810.1281
0.4270.00573
21. Solving the SCSCN problems will require the following steps
i. Determine the weighted CN values (use Table 5.6a)
25400
ii. Calculate S using equation:
=
254
(0.2)2
iii. Calculate Q using equation:
Q=
P+0.8S
22. Explanation from book about Procedure for Estimating Runoff Volume from a catchment.
Solutions:
a) Given CNIII = 70
25400
254
25400
254
70
= 362.8 254
= 108.8
Q=
=
=
(0.2)2
P+0.8S
(0.2(108.8))2
P+0.8(108.8)
(21.76)2
P+87.04
(21.76)2
=
Do for all the 4 days
P+87.04
(5021.76)2
50+87.04
= 5.81 mm
Total Q = 6.39 mm
Total Runoff Value over catchment
Vr
= 350 ha x 6.39 mm
= 350 x
10,000 2
1
x 6.39 mm x
1
1000
= 22, 365 m3
b) Given CNIII = 80
S=
Q=
Calculate Q for all the 4 dates
July 1, Q =
July 2, Q =
July 3, Q =
July 4, Q =
Total Runoff volume over the catchment Vr = 350 ha x 10000m2/ha x 18.66mm x 1m/1000mm
= 65,310 m3
Solve Example 5.6 again if the area is 300 ha and soil is group D
Solve Example 5.7 again if the watershed is 4000 ha and soil classification is 60% group A and 40%
group D
Homework #5 :
Revision Questions:
Problems:
Objective Questions:
Chapter 6: Hydrographs
1. A hydrograph is a graph of Discharge ( m3/sec or cumecs) versus Time (sec, hour, day)
2. Consider a fairly uniform rainfall of Duration D over a catchment. After the initial losses and infiltration
losses are met, the rainfall excess reaches the stream through overland flows and channel flows.
3. There is a time lag between the occurrence of rainfall in the basin and the time when the water passes
the gauging stations at the basin outlet. Why ?
4. The runoff measurement at the stream gauging station will give a typical hydrograph, as shown below
5.
The factors that affect the shape of the hydrograph can be i. Physiographic factors, ii. Climatic factors,
a. Shape of the basin influences the time taken for the water from the most remote part of the
catchment to arrive at the outlet. Thus the shape of the hydrograph and the location of Qpeak
are affected by the basin shape.
 imagine a catchment. As it rain, the water start to flow downstream. See how the hydrograph
start to rise up as more rainwater reaches gaging station
 Fan shaped basin give high peak and narrow hydrograph.
 Elongated basin give broad and low peak hydrograph
 catchment A, the hydrograph is skewed to the left, Qpeak occurred quickly.
 Catchment B, the hydrograph is skewed to the right, Qpeak occurred much later.
b. Small basin behave differently compared to large basins. In small basin, the overland flow phase
is predominant compared to the channel flow. Ths landuse and intensity of rainfall have
important role on the peak flood.
c. The Slope of the main stream control the velocity of flow in the channel. Large stream slopes
result in quicker depletion of storage. The basin slope is important in small catchments where
overland flow is relatively more important
d. Drainage density is the ratio of total channel length to the total drainage area. Large drainge
density allow for quick disposal of runoff, thus higher peak flow and narrow base.
e. Vegetations and forest increase infiltration and storage capacities of the soils by intercepting
overland flow. Vegetal cover reduces peak flow. Effects of vegetal cover is prominent in small
catchment ( <150km2) and in small flows.
6. Urbanisation will result in significant changes to the characteristics of the watershed in 2 aspects:
a. Urbanisation increase amount of impervious surfaces such as roofing, asphalt, road surfaces,
parkig lot etc. Infiltration will be reduced and surface runoff will increase. Interception and initial
losses will also be reduced.
b. During urbanisation, natural drainage will be replaced by manmade artificial channel. Increased
efficiency of flow and increased capacity resulted in higher peak discharge Qpeak.
c.
From Fig 6.3(b), note that area under curve is the volume of flow.
What is the increase in peak discharge?
What is the increase in volume of surface runoff (a,b and c)
d. What are the biggest differences between hydrograph of before urbanisation and hydrograph of
after urbanisation ?
 1. Qpeak after urbanisation is higher compared to Qprak before urbanisation.
 2. Volume of surface runoff after urbanisation is higher compared to before urbanisation.
 3. Time to peak after urbanisation is shorter compared to before urbanisation.
 3. Time base of the hydrograph after urbanisation is shorter than before urbanisation
7. Among climatic factors, the 3 important factors affecting the shape of flood hydrograph are:
 1. The rainfall intensity
 2. The storm duration
 3. The storm movement
For a given storm duration, the peak flow and volume of surface runoff are proportional to the
intensity of rainfall.
Qt = Discharge at time t
Q0 = Discharge at time 0
Kr = recession constant of value less than unity
Equation above plots as a straight line when plotted on a semilog paper with discharge on the logscale.
The shape of this line represents the recession constant.
The data are plotted on a semilog paper with the discharge on the log scale. The data points from t=4.5
days to 7.0 days are seen to lie on the straight line (line AB in Figure 6.4). This indicate that the surface
flow terminates at t = 4.5 days. The best fittings exponential curve for this straight line (obtained using
MS excel) is
Qt = 11.033e0.2927t
with r2 = 0.9805
Figure below show the Hyetograph of a storm. Initial losses and infiltration losses are then substracted
and we get the Effective Rainfall Hyetograph (ERH).
This ERH (Excess Rainfall Hyetograph) will produce DRH (Direct Runoff Hydrograph)
The hydrograph is plotted to scale (shown below) and we can see the baseflow part. Use Simple straight
line method for baseflow separation.
We can see DRH starts at t = 0, has the peak at t = 12h and ends at t = 48h. Thus N=4812 = 36 hour.
Baseflow is found to be 5 m3/sec.
 First calculate the depth of rainfall in time interval t = 2 hours. Then calculate t, ER ad the
intensity of ER (column 7) below.
13.UNIT HYDROGRAPH
 The problem of predicting the flood hydrograph from a known storm in a catchment has received
considerable attention
 Many methods are now available to predict this flood hydrograph, but the most popular and widely
used method is the UUNit Hydrograph Method (suggested by Sherman in 1932)
Given the rainfall excess is 3.5cm. so the ordinates of DRH are obtained by multiplying the
ordinates of Unit Hydrograph with 3.5. The result is shown below. The plot is also below.
14. Lets look now at Example 6.5: Calculate the resulting DRH
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