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Wolf-Dietrich Greinert

The German System


of Vocational Education

History, Organization, Prospects

Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft
Baden-Baden

Table of Contents
Publisher's preface
Author's preface
1.

8
9

Introduction: the character of the system and the logic underlying the
development of a dual system of vocational training

11

1.1
1.2

Elements of the system


The development of a system

11
17

2.

The founding em of the dual system of vocational training (18701920); restoration of craft trade apprenticeships and further training
schools

22

2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
3.
3.1
3.1.1
3.1.2
3.1.3
3.2
3.2.1
3.2.2

Issue (I): the decline in craft trades and the dissolution of craft trade
apprenticeships
The political answer to the decline of the old middle class: middle
class policies in the German Empire
The controlling instrument of restoration: laws governing trade and
industry
Issue (II): the gap in education between the end of primary school and
military service
The answer to the gap in secondary socialization: further training
schools and youth welfare
Control instruments of further training school policy: compulsory
school attendance and curricula
The system and character of vocational training in Germany before
1918

The consolidation phase in dual vocational training (1920-1970):


typical industrial apprenticeship ami the vocational school
Between tradition and scientific rationality: the segmentation of ineompany training by industry
Issue (I): a dual economic structure and the qualification interests of
industry
Industrial training policy: from the "hard-working journeyman" to the
skilled worker
Industry's new training model: vocational training as an element of
scientific plant management
From civic education to specialized theoretical education: the era of
the classical compulsory vocational school
Issue (II): radical political change and the legitimacy crisis of further
training schools
Vocational school policy 1920-1970: the organizational development
of compulsory vocational schools

22
24
27
30
32
35
38
41
41
41
44
47
51
51
54

3,2.3 The internal expansion of vocational schools 1920-1970:


depolitieization and specialization
3.3
Vocational training as a public duty; the struggle for a vocational
training law
3.3.1 Issue (III): vocational training as an autonomous task of "the
economy"
3.3.2 The political debate about a vocational training law 1919-1969: the
long march
3.3.3 Stages in the development of vocational training legislation: from
autonomous guild laws to specialized training legislation
3.4
The characteristics of the system of dual vocational training around
1970
4.
4.1
4.2
4.3
5.

57
61
61
63
66
68

The expansion phase of the dual system of vocational training


(starting in 1970): Government influence and rationalization
The problems: expansion in education and the implications for
vocational training
An attempt to reform vocational training: the political debates of the
1970s
Rationalization as a substitute for reform:
the further modernization of the dual system
The dual system of vocational education in the Federal Republic of
Germany: status 1990

5.1
5.1.1
5.1.2
5.2
5.2.1
5.2.2
5.2.3
5.3
5.3.1

70
70
72
76
80

Functional elements of the dual system


The private training market in the Federal Republic of Germany
Vocational training legislation in the Federal Republic of Germany
Learning sites under the dual system
Learning site: enterprise
Learning site: extra-plant training centre
Learning site: vocational school
Vocational training outside the dual system
Full-time specialized vocational schools in the Federal Republic of
Germany
5.3.2 Continuing vocational training in the Federal Republic of Germany
5.4
The dual system and the employment system
5.4.1 Coordination problems between the dual system and the employment
system

80
80
85
90
91
94
97
102

109

5.4.2 Preservation of the occupational principle

114

6.

The future of the dual system

116

7.

Illustrations

124

8.

Glossaries

150

102
104
108

8.1
8.2
8.3

Glossary of education and vocational training in the Federal Republic of


Germany
Glossary of selected institutions related to vocational training
Glossary of selected legislation related to vocational training

150
153
155

9.

Bibliography

156

10.

Photograph Credits

170