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Control Transformers are useful where the available voltage must be changed to

accommodate the voltage required by the load. For many electrical circuits, the
National Electrical Code (NEC) requires a separately derived neutral secondary
connection provided by Delta-Wye connected transformers.
Transformers are manufactured in a variety of choices to meet many applications.
Dry-type transformers are offered encapsulated, ventilated or non-ventilated, 600
Volt Class, isolation type, single and three phase, through 500 kVA. Indoor and
outdoor models are an option.
General purpose transformers can be located close to the load. No vaults are required
for installation and no long, expensive feeder lines are needed. Common applications
include inductive and resistive loads such as motors, lighting and heating.

Shop Control Transformers


Selecting Control Transformers
For proper control transformer selection, three characteristics of the load circuit must
be determined in addition to the minimum voltage required to operate the circuit.
These are total steady state (sealed) VA, total inrush VA, and inrush load power
factor.
Sealed VA - Total steady state, sealed VA is the volt-amperes that the control
transformer must deliver to the load circuit for an extended period of time.
Inrush VA - Total inrush VA is the volt-amperes that the control transformer must
deliver upon when the control circuit is initially energized. Energizing the
electromagnetic devices takes 30-50 milliseconds. During this inrush period the
electromagnetic control devices draw many times normal current - 3-10 times normal
is typical.
Inrush load power factor - Inrush load power factor is difficult to determine without
detailed vector analysis of all the load components. Generally such an analysis is not
feasible; therefore, a safe assumption is 40% power factor. Until recently, 20% PF was
commonly used for control transformer calculations; however, tests conducted on
major brands of control devices indicate that 40% PF is a safer default assumption.

Selection Steps for Industrial Control Transformers include:


Determine the supply and load voltages. The supply voltage is the available voltage
to the control transformer. The load voltage is the operating voltage of the devices
that will be connected to the transformer output.
Calculate the total sealed VA by adding the VA requirements of all components that
will be energized together (timers, contactors, relays, solenoids, pilot lamps, etc.).
Sealed VA data is available from the control device manufacturer.
Add the inrush VA of all components that will be energized together. Be sure to
include the sealed VA of components that don't have an inrush, (lamps, timers, etc.)
as they present a load to the control transformer during maximum inrush.
Calculate selection inrush VA in one of the following two ways:

Selection Inrush VA = Square root of [(VA sealed)2+(VA Inrush)2]


VA sealed + VA Inrush = Selection Inrush (this method will result in a slightly
oversized transformer)
When selecting your control transformer, check to be sure that the nameplate VA
rating exceeds the sealed VA of the control circuit calculated in Step 1. If it does not,

select a larger transformer VA that exceeds the circuit sealed VA.


By following the above procedure, the secondary voltage delivered by the control
transformer will be 90% of the nameplate secondary voltage under maximum inrush
conditions at rated input voltage.
Earthing of control circuits
The simplest and best way to arrange a control circuit supply is with 0V earthed and
a circuit breaker or fuse in the live side. This is the system recommended in
EN60204-1 Fig 3 shown below.
It is possible to use an unearthed control circuit but in this case a device that
interrupts the circuit automatically in the event of an earth fault is required. Note
that a normal RCD will not do this. A normal RCD is designed to work only with an
earthed supply. An insulation monitoring relay is required. Earthing a previously
unearthed control circuit at one point will not cause any earth fault current and
would therefore not trip a conventional RCD.
Unearthed control circuits are confusing to work on because the voltage measured to
earth at any point in the circuit is not well defined and may be affected by the
measuring instrument itself.
Unearthed control circuits may operate in an unexpected way, especially in the event
of multiple earth faults. The first earth fault may go undetected and it is only when a
second earth fault develops that problems appear.

I would not recommend the centre earthed system shown in Fig 4. There are some
old control systems arranged like this but it is not necessary with modern control
equipment.

Control circuits supplied directly phase phase or phase neutral are only permitted
where a single motor starter is controlled and there are a maximum of two control
devices. (EN 60204-1 9.1.1)
Direct supplied control circuits should not be used where the control circuits go
outside a control enclosure, for example to limit switches.
Extracts from EN60204-1:2006+A1:2009 Electrical Equipment of Industrial
machines
9.1.1 Control circuit supply
Where control circuits are supplied from an a.c. source, control transformers shall be
used for
supplying the control circuits. Such transformers shall have separate windings. Where
several transformers are used, it is recommended that the windings of those
transformers be
connected in such a manner that the secondary voltages are in phase.
Where d.c. control circuits derived from an a.c. supply are connected to the
protective
bonding circuit, they shall be supplied from a separate winding of the a.c. control

circuit transformer or by another control circuit transformer.


NOTE Switch-mode units fitted with transformers having separate windings in
accordance with IEC 61558-2-17 meet this requirement.
Transformers are not mandatory for machines with a single motor starter and/or a
maximum
of two control devices (for example interlock device, start/stop control station).
9.4.3 Protection against maloperation due to earth faults, voltage
interruptions and
loss of circuit continuity
9.4.3.1 Earth faults
Earth faults on any control circuit shall not cause unintentional starting, potentially
hazardous
motions, or prevent stopping of the machine.
Methods to meet these requirements include but are not limited to the following:
Method a) Control circuits, fed by control transformers:
1) In case of earthed control circuit supplies, the common conductor is connected to
the
protective bonding circuit at the point of supply. All contacts, solid state elements
etc.,
which are intended to operate an electromagnetic or other device (for example, a
relay,
indicator light) are inserted between one side, the switched conductor of the control
circuit
supply and one terminal of the coil or device. The other terminal of the coil or device
(preferably always having the same marking) is connected directly to the common
conductor of the control circuit supply without any switching elements (see Figure 3).
Exception: Contacts of protective devices may be connected between the common
conductor and the coils, provided that:
the circuit is interrupted automatically in the event of an earth fault, or
the connection is very short (for example in the same enclosure) so that an earth
fault
is unlikely (for example overload relays).
2) Control circuits fed from a control transformer and not connected to the protective
bonding circuit, having the same arrangement as shown in Figure 3 and provided with
a
device that interrupts the circuit automatically in the event of an earth fault (see also
7.2.4).
Method b) Control circuits fed from a control transformer with a centre-tapped
winding, this
centre tap connected to the protective bonding circuit, arranged as shown in Figure 4
with the
overcurrent protective device having switching elements in all control circuit supply
conductors.
NOTE 1 On a centre-tapped earthed control circuit, the presence of one earth fault can leave 50 % voltage
on a
relay coil. In this condition, a relay can hold on, resulting in inability to stop a machine.
NOTE 2 Coils or devices may be switched on either or both sides.

Method c) Where the control circuit is not fed from a control transformer and is
either:
1) directly connected between the phase conductors of an earthed supply, or;
2) directly connected between the phase conductors or between a phase conductor
and a
neutral conductor of a supply that is not earthed or is earthed through a high
impedance,

Multi-pole control switches that switch all live conductors are used for START or STOP
of
those machine functions that can cause a hazardous situation or damage to the
machine in
the event of unintentional starting or failure to stop, or in the case of c) 2), a device
shall be
provided that interrupts the circuit automatically in the event of an earth fault.

7.2.4 Control circuits


Conductors of control circuits directly connected to the supply voltage and of circuits
supplying control circuit transformers shall be protected against overcurrent in
accordance
with 7.2.3.
Conductors of control circuits supplied by a control circuit transformer or d.c. supply
shall be
protected against overcurrent (see also 9.4.3.1):
in control circuits connected to the protective bonding circuit, by inserting an
overcurrent
protective device into the switched conductor;
in control circuits not connected to the protective bonding circuit;
- where the same cross sectional area conductors are used in all control circuits, by
inserting an overcurrent protective device into the switched conductor, and;
- where different cross sectional areas conductors are used in different sub-circuits,
by

inserting an overcurrent protective device into both switched and common


conductors
of each sub-circuit