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Lngua Inglesa

Conceitos bsicos
de lngua inglesa

SISTEMA COC DE ENSINO


Direo-Geral: Sandro Bons
Direo Pedaggica: Zelci C. de Oliveira
Direo Editorial: Roger Trimer
Gerncia pedaggica: Juliano de Melo Costa
Gerncia Editorial: Osvaldo Govone
Gerncia de Relacionamento: Giovanna Tofano
Ouvidoria: Regina Gimenes
Conselho Editorial: Juliano de Melo
Costa,Osvaldo Govone, Sandro
Bons e Zelci C. de Oliveira
PRODUO EDITORIAL
Autoria: Fabiana Paganini de Andrade
Editoria: Thiago Satzinger Gomes
Assistente editorial: Luzia H. Fvero F. Lpez
Assistente administrativo: George R. Baldim
Projeto grfico e direo de arte:
Matheus C. Sisdeli
Organizao de originais: Marisa A. dos
Santos e Silva e Sebastio S. Rodrigues Neto
Iconografia e licenciamento de texto:
Marcela Pelizaro, Paula de Oliveira
Quirino e Cristian N. Zaramella
Diagramao: BFS bureau digital
Ilustrao: BFS bureau digital
Reviso: Flvia P. Cruz, Flvio R. Santos,
Jos S. Lara, Leda G. de Almeida, Maria
Ceclia R. D. B. Ribeiro, Milena C. Lotto
e Paula G. de Barros Rodrigues
Capa: LABCOM comunicao total
Conferncia e Fechamento: Edgar M. de Oliveira

Rua General Celso de Mello Rezende, 301 Tel.: (16) 32386300


CEP 14095-270 Lagoinha Ribeiro Preto-SP
www.sistemacoc.com.br

Sumrio

CAPTULO 01 READING STRATEGIES

1. Reading strategies

CAPTULO 02 MORPHOLOGY

10

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

10
11
16
18
23
26

Indefinite and definite articles


Plural of nouns
Adverbs
Gerund and infinitive
Quantifiers
Comparison degrees

CAPTULO 03 PRONOUNS

29

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

29
30
33
35
37
40

Personal pronouns
Possessive adjectives & possessive pronouns
Demonstrative pronouns
Reflexive pronouns and indefinite pronouns
Interrogative pronouns
Relative pronouns

CAPTULO 04 VERB TENSES AND THEIR SYNTAX

44

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

44
48
51
54
59
63
67
70

Present tenses
Past tenses
Future tense
Modal verbs
Reported speech
If clauses
Passive voice
Conjunctions and linking words

CAPTULO 05 APPENDIX

76

1. Prefixes
2. Negative prefixes
3. Suffixes
4. False cognates
5. Phrasal verbs
6. Prepositions
7. Irregular verbs list
8. Economics vocabulary
9. Environmental vocabulary
10. Juridical vocabulary
11. Medical vocabulary

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76
76
77
80
82
84
88
89
89
90

EXERCCIOS PROPOSTOS
Captulo 01
Captulo 02
Captulo 03
Captulo 04

GABARITO

93
95
105
177
224

339

Teoria

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Ingls

Captulo 01 READING STRATEGIES


1. Reading strategies

Conhecimento prvio: utilizao de todo e


qualquer conhecimento e experincia anteriormente adquiridos, que possam ser trazidos para o texto com o intuito de auxiliar a
compreenso textual.

Atualmente, as provas dos vestibulares priorizam a interpretao e compreenso de textos. No entanto, no podemos esquecer que
o conhecimento gramatical, to questionado
Mas no vestibular cai gramtica? base de
toda e qualquer interpretao e compreenso
textual.

Previso: previso do possvel contedo do


texto a ser lido, partindo do layout e das
dicas tipogrficas e utilizando sempre o conhecimento prvio sobre o assunto.

importante ressaltar que, durante a prova,


no h tempo para que uma traduo seja
feita para posterior resoluo das questes
propostas. Assim, para que se faa melhor
uso do tempo disponvel para a resoluo,
algumas tcnicas de leitura reading strategies
podem ser decisivas e essenciais.

Palavras cognatas: identificao de palavras


escritas de forma semelhante em ingls e
em portugus, com o mesmo significado em
ambas as lnguas.
Contexto: deduo do significado de palavras desconhecidas com base nas pistas que
o prprio texto oferece.

Tais tcnicas dividem-se em uma pr-leitura do texto, baseada em certos aspectos,


como, por exemplo, a observao de gravuras, fotos, tabelas, grficos e outros recursos
visuais, assim como o ttulo e subttulo, que
possibilitam a previso do assunto que ser
abordado.

Skimming: consiste em um passar de


olhos pelo texto, uma rpida leitura cujo
intuito captar informaes gerais.
Scanning: consiste em uma leitura mais detalhada para busca de informaes especficas.

Uma segunda diviso consiste na leitura superficial do texto com o intuito de apreender
o tema central e/ou confirmar as previses
anteriormente feitas, associar as palavras
cognatas, buscar informaes especficas e,
ocasionalmente, focar em um ou outro aspecto gramatical.

Aspectos gramaticais: identificao dos elementos de referncia: pronomes, verbos,


grupos nominais, aspectos morfolgicos e
conectivos.
Dicionrio: a funo do dicionrio como estratgia de leitura complementa o trabalho
efetuado em sala de aula. o momento de
ampliar o vocabulrio estudado nos exerccios propostos.

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Principais estratgias de leitura


Estudo do layout: identificao e reconhecimento dos diferentes tipos de texto: uma
carta, uma entrevista, um texto cientfico,
um artigo de jornal, um anncio ou propaganda, um poema, um cartum.

Vale lembrar que as estratgias acima mencionadas no s servem lngua inglesa


como tambm s outras matrias como forma de otimizar o tempo de leitura e absorver
o necessrio para que a resposta seja dada.

Dicas tipogrficas: tipos de letras (maisculas, minsculas, em negrito, em itlico), ttulo, subttulo, gravuras, smbolos, grficos
etc.

Ingls

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

EXERCCIOS RESOLVIDOS
Observe dois exemplos. O primeiro foi retirado
da prova do ENEM.

as; 7) assegurar a sustentabilidade ambiental;


8) promover uma parceria global para o desenvolvimento.

01.

A questo foca, especificamente, dois desses


objetivos, que esto apresentados na alternativa C: a promoo da igualdade de gneros e
a erradicao da pobreza.
Como observado, o conhecimento gramatical,
neste caso especfico, no influenciou a resoluo da questo, porm, como dito anteriormente, a gramtica a base da compreenso
textual.
Resposta
C

Disponvel em: <http://www.chris-alexander.


co.uk/1191>. Acesso em: 28 jul. 2010. Adaptado.

Para os pases-membros da Organizao das


Naes Unidas e para as organizaes internacionais, as metas de desenvolvimento do milnio envolvem oito objetivos a serem alcanados at 2015. Apesar da diversidade cultural,
esses objetivos, mostrados na imagem, so
comuns ao mundo todo, sendo dois deles:
a. o combate aids e a melhoria do ensino universitrio.
b. a reduo da mortalidade adulta e a
criao de parcerias globais.
c. a promoo da igualdade de gneros e
a erradicao da pobreza.
d. a parceria global para o desenvolvimento e a valorizao das crianas.
e. a garantia da sustentabilidade ambiental e o combate ao trabalho infantil.

Observe o segundo exemplo, este retirado da


prova da UFG.
02.

Disponvel em: <http://www.google.com.br/search?


q=comic+graphs&hl=ptBR&sa=G&rlz=1R2ACAW_pt
BRBR445&biw=819&bih=337&prmd=ivns&tbm=isc
h&tbo=u&source=univ&ei=qxNlTuaVBanA0AGS3f2
mCw&ved=0CC4QsAQ>. Acesso em: 5 set. 2011.

Resoluo
Para a resoluo adequada da questo, faz-se necessria a observao das imagens e a sua associao aos vocbulos, ou seja, so essenciais
as dicas tipogrficas imagens e o contexto
para que as informaes sejam encontradas.

According to the graph, when people say I'm


fine:
a. most of them mean what they say.
b. very few of them feel really happy.
c. more than 40% of them are thrilling.
d. all of them must be very bored.
e. half of them is asking for help.

Com base na figura apresentada, os oito objetivos definidos pelos pases-membros da ONU
e por organizaes internacionais a serem
alcanados at 2015 so: 1) erradicar a pobreza
e a fome; 2) universalizar a educao bsica;
3) promover a igualdade de gneros e dar
mais poder s mulheres; 4) reduzir a mortalidade infantil; 5) melhorar a assistncia materna; 6)
combater o HIV/aids, a malria e outras doen-

Resoluo
Nesse caso, alm da observao do grfico,
faz-se necessria a correta compreenso de
palavras como most of, very few, more than,
8

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Read the comic graph.

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

all of them, half of them que so vocbulos


da lngua inglesa aprendidos sob a denominao gramatical de quantifiers.

Ingls

Aproximadamente metade de um quarto das


pessoas (B) diz estar explodindo de alegria.
Em (C), aproximadamente um quarto das pessoas est pedindo por favor, me ajudem, eu
estou infeliz. No podemos, portanto, afirmar
que metade delas half of them est pedindo ajuda. No h como afirmar que mais de
40% more than 40% of them est animada.

O objetivo do enunciado saber o que as pessoas querem realmente dizer quando afirmam
Eu estou bem. Observando-se o grfico, verifica-se que h uma diviso entre as ocorrncias. A maioria das pessoas most of them ,
ou seja, aquelas representadas na poro (A)
do grfico, quando dizem Eu estou bem, na
verdade, querem dizer que esto bem chateadas rather boring. Entretanto, no se pode
afirmar que todas as pessoas all of them
devem estar muito chateadas.

Sendo assim, os que se sentem felizes de verdade constituem uma pequena parcela, ou
seja, so muitas poucas pessoas very few of
them, como se verifica na alternativa B.
Resposta

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Ingls

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

CAPTULO 02 MORPHOLOGY
1. Indefinite and definite articles

Importante

Os artigos definidos e indefinidos em ingls


so essenciais na interpretao do texto, pois
so eles que informam ao leitor se a palavra
que mencionada no texto ocorre no contexto pela primeira vez ou se ela retoma alguma
ideia expressada anteriormente.

Observa-se que a associao do uso do artigo


indefinido an feita com palavras que tm
som de vogal. No entanto, algumas ocorrncias so precedidas de a, apesar da palavra iniciar com vogal.

Para melhor compreenso de sua ocorrncia,


observe o texto como exemplo do uso dos artigos.
I am from (no article) Seattle,
Washington. Seattle is a city in the United
States. It is near the border of (no article)
Canada in the northwest corner of the
USA. I live in a town called (no article)
Olympia which is on the Puget Sound. I
live in a house in a street in the countryside.
The street is called (no article) "Bear
Street" and the house is old more than
100 years old! I am an English teacher at a
school in the center of the town. I like (no
article) books and taking photographs. I
usually have (no article) lunch at school.
I usually go home by (no article) car.
We have all kinds of food in (no article)
Olympia. I like (no article) Italian food
very much. Sometimes, I go to an Italian
restaurant in Seattle. The restaurant is
called "Luigi's". (no article) Italian food
is great!

She teaches at a university campus. (a palavra


university tem som de consoante.)

Exemplos:

Os artigos no so utilizados nos seguintes casos:


Nomes de pases, estados, condados
ou provncias, lagos e montanhas,
exceto quando o pas for uma coleo
de estados:
I am from (no article) Seattle, Washington.
It is near the border of (no article)
Canada in the northwest corner of the
USA.
I live in a town called (no article) Olympia
(Olympia uma cidadezinha) which is
on the Puget Sound (Puget Sound a
regio).

We have all kinds of food in (no article)
Olympia.
Seattle is a city in the United States (coleo de estados).

Disponvel em: <http://esl.about.com/od/thebasics/


a/a_an_the.htm>. Acesso em: 21 jan. 2012.

Os artigos a, an ou the so utilizados nos


seguintes casos:
a = artigo indefinido (objeto no especfico, um dentre vrios sem referente),
cuja ocorrncia associa-se a palavras
que tem som de consoante:

Seattle is a city.
I live in a house in a street.
an = artigo indefinido (objeto no especfico, um dentre vrios sem referente),
cuja ocorrncia associa-se a palavras
que tm som de vogal:

I am an English teacher.

I go to an Italian restaurant in Seattle.


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It was a European city. (a palavra European


tem som de consoante.)
the = artigo definido (objeto especfico
que j fora mencionado anteriormente
ou especificidade quanto localizao)
I live in a house in a street in the countryside.
The street (a rua j foi mencionada anteriormente) is called "Bear Street" and
the house (a casa j foi mencionada
anteriormente) is old more than 100
years old!
()in the center of the town.
It is near the border of Canada in the
northwest corner of the USA.
Sometimes, I go to an Italian restaurant
in Seattle. The restaurant is called
"Luigi's".

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Excees: substantivos que terminam em ch


com som de /K/: acrescenta-se apenas "-s":

Generalizaes e ocorrncias no plural:


I like (no article) Italian food very much.
(no article) Italian food is great!
I like (no article) books and taking
photographs.
Refeies, nomes de ruas e transportes:
I usually have (no article) lunch at school.
The street is called (no article) "Bear
Street"()
I usually go home by (no article) car.

conch conchs (conchas)


monarch monarchs (monarcas)
patriarch patriarchs (patriarcas)
stomach stomachs (estmagos)
s:
bus buses (nibus)

Mas, como isso "cai" no vestibular?

ss:

No vestibular, os artigos so partes integrantes da sentena e verifica-se que pouca nfase dada cobrana isolada do uso gramatical deles.

class classes (aulas)


glass glasses (copos)
kiss kisses (beijos)

2. Plural of nouns

sh:

semelhana da lngua portuguesa, a maioria


dos substantivos tem seu plural formado com
o acrscimo de -s ao singular:

brush brushes (escovas)


crash crashes (colises)
flash flashes (lampejos)

book books (livros)

wish wishes (desejos)

cat cats (gatos)


computer computers (computadores)

x:

cup cups (xcaras)

box boxes (caixas)

garden gardens (jardins)

fox foxes (raposas)

sweatshirt sweatshirts (bluses de moletom)


table tables (mesas)

z:

week weeks (semanas)


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Ingls

topaz topazes (topzios)

No entanto, tambm como na lngua portuguesa, existem vrias excees quanto formao do plural em ingls.

Exceo: maioria dos substantivos terminados em somente um z acrecenta-se "-es", no


entanto a palavra quiz tem plural em "-zes":

1) Substantivos que terminam em ch, s, ss, sh,


x, z e a maioria dos substantivos que terminam
em o: acrescenta-se "-es" no final.

quiz quizzes (teste)


o:

ch:

echo echoes (ecos)

church churches (igrejas)

superhero superheroes (super-heris)

match matches (fsforos)

potato potatoes (batatas)

watch watches (relgios)

tomato tomatoes (tomates)

11

Ingls

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Excees: nas formas reduzidas e nos vocbulos de origem estrangeira terminados em o,


porm, acrescenta-se apenas "-s":
avocado avocados (abacates)
ghetto ghettos (guetos)
kilo kilos (quilos)
logo logos (logotipos)
magneto magnetos (magnetos)
photo photos (fotos)
portfolio portfolios
radio radios (rdios)
soprano sopranos (sopranos)
studio studios (estdios)
tango tangos (tangos)

4) Substantivos que terminam em oo: acrescenta-se somente "-s" no final.

Palavras que tm o plural em "-s" ou "-es",


sendo "-es" mais comum:
buffalo buffalo(e)s (bfalos)
mosquito mosquito(e)s (mosquitos)
tornado tornado(e)s (tornados)
volcano volcano(e)s (vulces)

person people (pessoas)

2) Substantivos que terminam em vogal + y:


acrescenta-se somente "-s" no final.
boy boys (meninos)

die dice (dados)

cuckoo cuckoos (cucos)


bamboo bamboos (bambus)
zoo zoos (jardins zoolgicos)
5) Plural irregular (1):
man men (homens)
woman women (mulheres)
gentleman gentlemen (cavalheiros)
child children (crianas)*
ox oxen (bois)
tooth teeth (dentes)
foot feet (ps)
goose geese (gansos)
mouse mice (camundongos)
louse lice (piolhos)

Importante

day days (dias)

Children e child, alm de crianas/criana, significam filhos/filho, de ambos os sexos e de


qualquer idade.

donkey donkeys (burros)


essay essays (ensaios)
guy guys (caras, sujeitos, rapazes)
key keys (chaves)

6) Plural irregular(2):

monkey monkeys (macacos)

elf elves (elfos, duendes)

toy toys (brinquedos)

half halves (metades)

3) Substantivos que terminam em consoante +


y: retira-se o y e acrescenta-se "-ies".

leaf leaves (folhas)


life lives (vidas)

baby babies (bebs)

knife knives (facas)

body bodies (corpos)


city cities (cidades)

shelf shelves (prateleiras)

country countries (pases)

thief thieves (ladres)

dictionary dictionaries (dicionrios)

wife wives (esposas)

secretary secretaries (secretrias)

wolf wolves (lobos)

industry industries (indstrias)


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calf calves (bezerros)

play plays (peas)

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Ingls

Importante

Importante

Alguns substantivos terminados em f ou fe podem seguir a regra geral (acrscimo de "-s" ao final da forma singular) ou trocar o f/fe por "-ves":

7.1) Alguns substantivos terminados em s tm


a mesma forma tanto para o singular quanto
para o plural. Nesses casos, o verbo correspondente tambm vai para o plural.

scarf scarfs/scarves (cachecis)


dwarf dwarfs/dwarves (anes)

These stairs are too steep. (Essas escadas so


muito ngremes.)

hoof hoofs/hooves (cascos)

Good clothes usually are expensive. (Roupas


boas geralmente so caras.)

wharf wharfs/wharves (cais)


staff staffs/staves (equipes, quadros de funcionrios, departamentos)

alms esmola(s), donativo(s), caridade(s)


clothes roupa(s)

Os demais substantivos terminados em f ou fe


seguem a regra geral de acrscimo do "-s":

credentials credencial(is)

belief beliefs (crenas)

headquarters* quartel(is)-general(is),
centro(s) de operaes

crossroads* cruzamento(s) (de ruas, de estradas) , encruzilhada(s), ponto(s) crucial(is)

brief briefs (sumrios, resumos)

works fbrica(s)

cliff cliffs (penhascos)

means meios(s)

chief chiefs (chefes)

oats aveia(s)

grief griefs (dores, sofrimentos)

outskirts margem(ns) da cidade, cercanias

handkerchief handkerchiefs (lenos)

riches bens, riquezas(s)

roof roofs (telhados)

Swiss suio(s)

safe safes (cofres)

series srie(s)

proof proofs (provas)

species espcie(s)

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cuff cuffs (punhos de manga, bainhas)


reef reefs (recifes)

stairs escada(s)

7) Substantivos que tm a mesma forma tanto


no singular quanto no plural:

thanks agradecimento(s)

surroundings arredor(es)
* Crossroads e headquarters tambm podem
ter a forma no singular sem o s: crossroad e
headquarter.

aircraft aeronave(s)
deer veado(s)
elk alce(s)

7.2) As parelhas, tambm chamadas pluralia


tantrum, so substantivos que designam coisas
que tm duas partes iguais, um par de (exemplo: culos). Essas palavras s existem no plural, no possuem forma singular. Seus equivalentes em portugus apresentam-se no singular:
These jeans were cheap. (Este jeans foi barato.)

fish* peixe(s)
grouse galinha(s) silvestre(s)
salmon salmo(es)
sheep carneiro(s)
shrimp camaro(es)

I'm looking for some red jeans. (Eu procuro um


jeans vermelho.)
Where are my glasses? (Onde esto meus culos?)
Neste caso, em portugus, o correspondente
tambm plural.

trout truta(s)
*Admite-se tambm o plural fishes (raro).
13

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

axis axes (eixos)


bacillus bacilli (bacilos)
bacterium bacteria (bactrias)
basis bases (bases)
cactus cacti (cactos)
corpus corpora (corpos)
crisis crises (crises)
criterion criteria (critrios)
datum data (dados)
diagnosis diagnoses (diagnsticos)
encyclopedia encyclopedae (enciclopdias)
erratum errata (erratas)
formula formulae ou formulas (frmulas)
fungus fungi ou funguses (fungos)
hippopotamus hippopotami ou hippopotamuses
(hipoptamos)
hypothesis hipotheses (hipteses)
index indices ou indexes (ndices)
matrix matrices (matrizes)
medium media (meios de comunicao)
nucleus nuclei (ncleos)
oasis oases (osis)
phenomenon phenomena (fenmenos)
radius radii (raios)
stimulus stimuli (estmulos)
stratum strata (estratos)
vertebra vertebrae (vrtebras)

Para expressar o singular dessas palavras, pode-se usar "a pair of":
binoculars binculo(s)
belongins pertences
drawers ceroulas
glasses/eyeglasses/spectacles culos
headphones fone(s) de ouvido
jeans jeans
knickers calcinha(s)
outskirts margem(s) da cidade
scales balana(s)
scissors tesoura(s)
shorts shorts
pliers alicate(s)
pyjamas/pajamas pijama(s)
trousers cala(s)
underpants cuecas
7.3) Falsos plurais: A maioria dos nomes
de cincias e outros substantivos terminados
em ics so singulares, isto , no apresentam
formas distintas no plural. O verbo correspondente permanece no singular:
Acoustics (Acstica)
Athletics (Atletismo)
Electronics (Eletrnica)
Genetics (Gentica)
Linguistics (Lingustica)

9) Substantivos compostos

Mathematics (Matemtica)

9.1) Em substantivos compostos com preposio ou advrbio, pluraliza-se o componente


principal (geralmente a primeira palavra):

Physics (Fsica)
Politics (Poltica)

brother-in-law brothers-in-law (cunhados)

Statistics (Estatstica)

errand-boy errand-boys (mensageiros)


godfather godfathers (padrinhos)

8) Substantivos de origem grega ou latina


mantm seus plurais originais:
alga algae (algas)
alumnus alumni (ex-alunos, alunos graduados)
analysis analyses (anlises)
appendix appendices (apndices)

maidservant maidservants (criadas)


mother-in-law mothers-in-law (sogras)
passer-by passers-by (transeuntes)
runner-up runners-up (vice-campees)
stepdaughter stepdaughters (enteadas)
14

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Ingls

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Ingls

9.2) Em substantivos compostos que incluem


as palavras man e woman, pluralizam-se as
duas palavras:

O verbo fica no singular quando se refere a


uma soma, uma quantidade ou uma distncia:

woman doctor women doctors (mdicas)

Thousand dollars is a lot of money. (Mil dlares muito dinheiro.)

manservant menservants (criados)


Importante

Three kilometres isn't far. (Trs quilmetros


no uma longa distncia.)

Plural de nacionalidades:
Englishman Englishmen (homens ingleses)
Frenchman Frenchmen (homens franceses)

Seventy years is a long time. (Setenta anos


muito tempo.)

Brazilian Brazilians (brasileiros/brasileiras)


German Germans (alemes/alems)

Disponvel em: <http://www.solinguainglesa.


com.br/conteudo/substantivo13.php>.
Acesso em: 21 jan. 2012. Adaptado.

Roman Romans (romanos/romanas)


10) Medidas e dinheiro seguem a regra geral
do plural, ou seja, acrescenta-se somente "-s":

Mas, como isso "cai" no vestibular?


A importncia do conhecimento da forma
plural dos substantivos auxilia na interpretao do texto, no entanto possvel encontrar referncias isoladas, ainda que associadas a outros tpicos, quanto construo
do plural em ingls.

ten kilometres (dez quilmetros)


six litres (seis litros)
two pounds/dollars (duas libras/dlares)

EXERCCIO RESOLVIDO
16 growing

number of women who put off


having children until their 30s but then
find that they cannot conceive.
Researchers from Exeter University'
20 Peninsula Medical School and the Institute
of Cancer Research (ICR) examined the
four genes linked to early menopause.
They compared 2,000 women who had
been through it and 2,000 who had not.
[]

PV2D-13-11

O teste a seguir, retirado do vestibular da


Unemat, exemplifica a ocorrncia dos plurais
no vestibular.
Test could warn women of
early menopause
1
Scientists have moved closer to
devising a test that could warn women
that they are going to undergo an early
menopause. The blood test would identify
5 those who are going to go through the
menopause before the age of 35, years
before it usually happens in a woman's
early 50s. That process happens to around
one in 20 women and can ruin dreams of
10 motherhood. Scientists report today that
they have made considerable progress
in understanding the key role played
in early menopause by four genes. The
test that their findings help pave the way
15 for could be of particular benefit to the

Disponvel em: <http://www.guardian.co.uk/


society/2010/oct/18/test-menearly-Menopause>.
Acesso em: 18 out 2010. Adaptado.

O texto informa a possvel criao de um teste


sanguneo que pode alertar mulheres que entram na menopausa antes dos 35 anos. O autor afirma que 5% das mulheres sofrem desse
problema e que, muitas vezes, quando tentam
engravidar, descobrem que j no possvel
devido disfuno de quatro genes.

15

Ingls

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

01.
Assinale a alternativa correta.
a. Women (l.2), happens (l.7), dreams
(l.9), children (l.17) e genes (l.13) so
palavras flexionadas no plural.
b. They (l.11) refere-se s mulheres com
menopausa precoce.
c. Understanding (l.12), findings (l.14) e
growing (l.16) pertencem classe dos
substantivos.
d. No texto, a expresso scientists report (l.10)
no singular corresponde a scientist reports.
e. in (l.7), by (l.13), for (l.15), a (l.2), an
(l.3) e the (l.20) pertencem classe das
preposies.

do texto, l-se que os cientistas reportaram hoje


que eles they fizeram progresso considervel
na compreenso do papel principal que quatro genes
desempenham no perodo pr-menopausa.
A alternativa C afirma que as palavras
understanding, findings e growing pertencem
classe dos substantivos. Com base no contexto,
l-se que o significado compreenso e a ocorrncia os cientistas fizeram progressos considerveis na compreenso dos papis-chave de quatro genes de understanding faz com que ela
pertena classe dos substantivos, assim como
o significado descobertas e a ocorrncia o
teste de que as descobertas auxiliam findings.
Entretanto, o significado crescente e a ocorrncia nmero crescente de mulheres de growing a
classificam como uma palavra pertencente classe
dos adjetivos. Portanto, a alternativa est incorreta.
A alternativa D sugere que a expresso scientists
report no singular corresponde a scientist reports.
Trata-se da forma singular no s do substantivo
como tambm do verbo. A afirmao est correta,
pois o singular de scientists scientist e ao verbo
to report acrescenta-se a terminao -s na 3 pessoa
do singular. Sendo assim, a alternativa D correta.
A alternativa 'E' afirma que a, an e the so preposies. No entanto, so artigos indefinido e definido,
respectivamente.
Resposta
D

Resoluo
A alternativa A prope a anlise das palavras para
que se possa confirmar se elas esto flexionadas
no plural. importante mencionar que o contexto
deve ser levado em considerao quando realizada
a anlise. A palavra women est no plural, a palavra
happens corresponde conjugao da 3 pessoa
do singular do verbo to happen, a palavra dreams
corresponde ao plural da palavra dream, a palavra
children corresponde ao plural de child e a palavra
genes corresponde ao plural de gene. Verifica-se
que a alternativa est incorreta, pois nem todas as
palavras so substantivos flexionados no plural.
A alternativa B afirma que they refere-se s mulheres
com menopausa precoce. No entanto, na linha 11

Os advrbios so palavras que modificam um verbo, um adjetivo ou outro advrbio.


Nigel drives carefully on the highways. (Nesse caso, o advrbio carefully est modificando o verbo drive e faz referncia ao modo como Nigel dirige cuidadosamente.)
The music is not loud enough. (Nesse caso, o advrbio enough est modificando o adjetivo loud e
faz referncia ao volume da msica no est alto o suficiente.)
Alison studies very hard.
(Nesse caso, o advrbio very est modificando o advrbio hard e faz referncia ao modo como
Alison estuda com dedicao.)
Os advrbios podem indicar vrias ocorrncias, assim, destacam-se os advrbios de modo, frequncia,
lugar, tempo, intensidade e propsito.
Veja abaixo alguns exemplos.
Modo: quickly, slowly, remotely, easily
Frequncia: always, never, usually, seldom
Lugar: here, there, over here/there
Tempo: yesterday, today, tomorrow, recently, lately
Intensidade: too, very
Propsito: accidentally, intentionally, purposely
16

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3. Adverbs

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Ingls

comum os advrbios de modo serem formados com o acrscimo de "-ly": beautifully,


easily, nicely, porm nem todas as palavras
terminadas com "-ly" so advrbios. H alguns
adjetivos que terminam com "-ly":
friendly amigvel
lonely sozinho
lovely amvel
lively vivo
elderly idoso

Um fator distintivo quanto ao posicionamento


dos advrbios a sua habilidade de mover-se
na frase. Os advrbios de modo so, particularmente, flexveis nesse aspecto.

Da mesma forma, existem alguns adjetivos e


advrbios que possuem a mesma forma: fast,
hard, late, high e low. Como saber ento quando
se trata do adjetivo ou do advrbio? Observe
os exemplos abaixo:

Os advrbios de frequncia tambm aparecem em vrios lugares na frase:


Antes do verbo principal: I always go to
school early in the morning. (Eu sempre
vou escola bem cedo.)
Entre o verbo auxiliar e o verbo principal: I had never listened to that. (Eu
nunca tinha ouvido aquilo.)
Antes da construo verbal used to: She
often used to swim in the afternoons.
(Ela, frequentemente, costumava nadar tarde.)
Aps o verbo to be: They are usually
busy on Mondays. (Eles, habitualmente,
esto ocupados s segundas-feiras.)

Slowly the girl started speaking. (Vagarosamente, a garota comeou a falar.)


The girl slowly started speaking. (A garota,
vagarosamente, comeou a falar.)
The girl started speaking slowly. (A garota comeou a falar vagarosamente.)

The partners always arrive late. (Os scios


sempre chegam atrasados.)
Nesse caso, a palavra late advrbio e modifica o verbo to arrive.
I am always late to work. (Eu estou sempre
atrasado para o trabalho.)
Nesse caso, a palavra late adjetivo.
Importante
O advrbio de good (bom) well (bem).
She dances really well. advrbio

Mas, como isso "cai" no vestibular?

Shes a good dancer. adjetivo

No vestibular, os advrbios so muito importantes para a com preenso e interpretao textual, alm de poderem funcionar
como termos de referncia.

PV2D-13-11

Posio dos advrbios

EXERCCIO RESOLVIDO
For most of the last two thousand years,
the Arctic slowly cooled, a consequence
of variations in the Earths orbit.
But over the last century, the cooling
abruptly reversed, and the region is now
warmer than at any time in the 2,000 year
record. Writing in the journal Science, the
researchers say this shows how quickly
the Arctic responds to climatic changes.

O exemplo a seguir, retirado do vestibular da


Unicentro, mostra uma das formas de interpretao e uso dos advrbios.
Arctic warmest in two millennia
Temperatures in the Arctic are now
the highest theyve been for 2,000 years,
according to scientists. Researchers in the
United States say that it is one of the
clearest signs yet that human activity is
warming the planet.
Scientists have produced evidence
showing dramatically that the current
temperature rise there is highly unusual.

BLACK, Richard. Arctic warmest in two millennia.


Disponvel em: <www.bbc.co.uk/
worldservice/learningenglish/language/
wordsinthenews/2009/09/090904_witn_arctic.
shtml>. Acesso em: 10 jun. 2010.

17

Ingls

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

4. Gerund and infinitive

O texto aborda a questo climtica no rtico,


afirmando que as temperaturas atuais esto
entre as mais altas j registradas. O autor menciona que os cientistas mostraram evidncias
que indicam que este aumento na temperatura bastante incomum. O enunciado da questo pede que seja assinalado o que correto
de acordo com o uso da linguagem.
01.
Considering language use in the text, its
correct to say:
a. The verb form theyve been (p.1)
describes an action dissociated from
the present time.
b. The words clearest (p. 1) and warmer
(p. 3) are in the same degree of
comparison.
c. The word highly (p. 2) is functioning
as an adverb.
d. The s in Earths orbit (p. 2) is the
contraction of is.
e. The conjunction But (p. 3) expresses
result.
Resoluo
A palavra highly funciona como advrbio e seu
significado bastante/altamente, sendo considerado advrbio de intensidade. As demais
ocorrncias indicam, respectivamente, uma
ao associada ao tempo presente; grau superlativo e grau comparativo; o s indica caso
genitivo e a conjuno but expressa contraste.
Resposta
C

As formas de gerndio e infinitivo no s desempenham a funo do gerndio no tempo


contnuo ou a de infinitivo quando se utiliza
o auxiliar do verbo, por exemplo. Gerndio e
infinitivo podem desempenhar outras funes
na frase.
Gerund
1) Toda e qualquer ao que possa ser expressa na forma de gerndio funciona como sujeito da frase:
Swimming is very good for ones health.
Driving a car requires attention.
Helping other people makes us feel good.
2) Preposies so, geralmente, seguidas de
um objeto. Esse objeto pode ser um substantivo ou um verbo que funciona como substantivo na forma de gerndio:
I am tired of going to work by bus.
I look forward to receiving your visit.
She is interested in travelling abroad.
She is responsible for checking every single
room.

admit

They admitted having lost the keys to the room.

advise

She advises working hard in order to keep the job.

anticipate

I don't anticipate spending much time here.

appreciate

He appreciates hearing a good tale.

avoid

They avoid flying when it rains.

consider

Would you consider buying your share of the company?

delay

It will delay landing due to bad weather.

deny

I deny saying anything against my will.

discuss

We must discuss improving the prospects for next year.

dislike

My father dislikes eating alone.

enjoy

I enjoy meeting new people.

fear

His mother fears staying alone at home.

18

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3) Alguns verbos podem apresentar verbos como objeto na forma de gerndio:

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Ingls

finish

When I finish taking notes Ill let you know about the test.

give up

She gave up trying to understand Maths.

go

My parents often go dancing with some friends.

help

I can't help thinking that we could have done better.

imagine

Can you imagine losing your mobile phone?

involve

Trips abroad involve waiting for hours at airports and staying in hotels.

keep

They keep emphasizing that I should turn down the job offer.

mention

Did I mention seeing the doctor yesterday?

mind

I don't mind opening the window, its very hot indeed.

miss

We will miss spending some time together with you.

postpone

They postponed starting the game because some players were late.

practise

You should practise playing the guitar more often. The concert is about to
happen.

quit

I quit smoking when I was in college.

recall

I recall having called her late that night but nothing else comes up.

recollect

She recollects doing this very thing in her dream. Guess its a dj-vu sensation.

recommend

The doctor recommended taking the pills half an hour before breakfast.

resent

I resent not having signed the testimonial I wrote her.

resist

I couldn't resist telling him everything I knew about them.

risk

We should not risk losing our jobs because of those rumors about our romance.

stop

I hope they stop arguing to each other so much.

suggest

He suggested making plans for their next holiday.

tolerate

The company won't tolerate trading insider information.

Infinitive

PV2D-13-11

Alguns verbos tm como objeto verbos na forma de infinitivo:


agree

Should we agree to buy a new house?

appear

It appears to have a typing mistake.

arrange

His family will arrange to provide the food and the beverage.

ask

I asked to see the manager and she sent me to that room.

beg

I beg to come with you, sir.

care

Would you care to plan my next trip for tomorrow?

claim

They claim to make the best fish and chips in the world.

consent

We will never consent to help her runnaway from her responsibilities.

decide

Finally, I decided to break free and show my true colors.

demand

I demand to know who killed the four guys on the highway.

deserve

He deserves to get a promotion.

expect

She expects to find a job as soon as she leaves college.

19

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Ingls
fail

He failed to reach the Wimbledon Final this year.

hesitate

If you have trouble, don't hesitate to get in touch with us for help.

hope

They hope to visit us next year.

intend

I intend to become a very famous businesswoman.

learn

He learned to speak German while living in Frankfurt last year.

manage

They managed to climb the fence and reach the border.

mean

Did you mean to send me that e-mail about that horrendous murderer?

need

I need to take some days off in order to relax a bit.

offer

They offered to buy the whole complex for a little more money than Gustave did.

plan

We plan to expand our product range.

prepare

Are you prepared to experience something completely new?

pretend

I dont pretend to know all the answers, I actually do know all of them!

promise

His boyfriend promised to call her as soon as he arrives home.

refuse

The criminals refused to answer any questions without their lawyer presence.

seem

She seems to be so upset with her father.

struggle

Youngsters have to struggle to enter the job market after they graduate.

swear

Do you swear to keep this a secret?

threaten

They threatened to kill him if we don't pay the amount of money they asked for.

volunteer

No one volunteered to read stories for children in that orphanage.

wait

We cannot wait to see the expression on his face when he hears the news.

want

I want to finish this project as soon as possible.

wish

He does not wish to sign the free-trade pact unless there is a search warrant first.

Gerund or infinitive?
Alguns verbos so seguidos de gerndio ou infinitivo e no tm o seu significado alterado.
Infinitive

Gerund

begin

She began to shout as we left.

She began shouting as we left.

start

They started to prepare for the tests.

They started preparing for the tests.

continue

I continued to do as I wished.

I continued doing as I wished.

like

I like to read novels.

I like reading novels.

love

I love to cook on weekends.

I love cooking on weekends.

prefer

I prefer to stay home instead of going out.

I prefer staying home instead of going out.

hate

I hate to wait for news.

I hate waiting for news.

cant stand

I can't stand to sit and wait.

I can't stand sitting and waiting.

cant bear

I can't bear to hear his voice.

I can't bear hearing his voice.

Outros verbos podem ser seguidos de gerndio ou infinitivo, porm tm o seu significado alterado.

20

PV2D-13-11

Verbs

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Verbs

Ingls

Infinitive

Gerund

forget

I will not forget to tell him youve called. (I will I will not forget telling him youve called.
be sure to tell him in the future.)
(I will not lose the memory of telling him.)

regret

They regret to say that but it is true.


(They are sorry they must tell you it is true.)

They regret saying that but it is true.


(They are sorry they said it.)

remember

She will remember to call her father.


(She will be sure to call her father in the
future.)

She remembers calling her father.


(She has the memory of calling her father
in the past.)

stop

Bob stopped to smoke at ten oclock.


(Bob interrupted an activity and had a
cigarette.)

Bob stopped smoking ten years ago.


(Bob ended his cigarette habit.)

try

We will try to ring the bell when it finishes.


(We will see if it is possible to ring the
bell.)

We will try ringing the bell when it


finishes.
(We will ring the bell to see if it will help
the situation.)

Mas, como isso "cai" no vestibular?


No vestibular, frequente a questo que envolve a diferenciao do uso do gerndio como verbo (conjugado no tempo contnuo), substantivo ou adjetivo. Tal diferenciao feita de acordo
com a posio em que o gerndio ou infinitivo aparecem no contexto em que esto inseridos.

EXERCCIO RESOLVIDO
Jennifer Cook, a senior, used her
laptop to move a black-clad avatar center
stage. She and the other half-dozen students
agreed that in Titus, the rape, murders
and final banquet when the Queen
unknowingly eats the remains of her two
children should all take place in the
same spot. Every time someone is in that
space, Ms. Cook said, the audience is
going to say, Uh oh, you dont want to
be there.
Students like Ms. Cook are among
the first generation of undergraduates
at dozens of colleges to take humanities
courses even Shakespeare that are
deeply influenced by a new array of
powerful digital tools and vast online
archives. Ms. Rowes students, who have
occasionally met with her on the virtual
Globe stage while wearing pajamas in
their dorm rooms, are enthusiastic about
the technology.

PV2D-13-11

O exerccio a seguir, retirado do vestibular da


UECE, demonstra o uso desse tpico gramatical contextualizado.
Prof. Katherine Rowes blue-haired
avatar was flying across a grassy landscape
to a virtual three-dimensional re-creation
of the Globe Theater, where some students
from her introductory Shakespeare class
at Bryn Mawr College had already gathered
online. Their assignment was to create
characters on the Web site Theatron3 and
use them to block scenes from the gory
revenge tragedy Titus Andronicus, to
see how setting can heighten the drama.
Ive done this class before in a theater
and a lecture hall, but it doesnt work as
well, Ms. Rowe said, explaining that it
was difficult for students to imagine what
it would be like to put on a production in
the 16th-century Globe, a circular open-air
theater without electric lights, microphones
and a curtain.
21

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

At the University of Virginia, history


undergraduates have produced a digital
visualization of the colleges first library
collection, allowing them to consider
what the selection of books says about
how knowledge was classified in the
early 18th century. At Hamilton College,
students can explore a virtual re-creation
of the South African township of Soweto
during the 1976 student uprisings, or sign
up for e-black studies to examine how
cyberspace reflects and shapes the portrayal
of minorities.
Many teachers and administrators
are only beginning to figure out the
contours of this emerging field of
digital humanities, and how it should be
taught. In the classroom, however, digitally
savvy undergraduates are not just ready to
adapt to the tools but also to explore how
new media may alter the very process of
reading, interpretation and analysis.
Theres a very exciting generation gap
in the classroom, said Ms. Rowe, who
developed the digital components of her
Shakespeare course with a graduate
student who now works at Google. Students
are fluent in new media, and the faculty
bring sophisticated knowledge of a
subject. Its a gap that wont last more
than a decade. In 10 years these students
will be my colleagues, but now it presents
unusual learning opportunities. As Ms.
Cook said, The Internet is less foreign to
me than a Shakespeare play written 500
years ago.
Bryn Mawrs unusually close
partnership with Haverford College and
Swarthmore College has enabled the three
institutions to pool their resources, students
and faculty. In November students from
all three participated in the first Digital
Humanities Conference for Undergraduates.
Jen Rajchel, one of the conference
organizers, is the first undergraduate at
Bryn Mawr to have a digital senior
thesis accepted by the English department:
a Web site and archive on the American
poet Marianne Moore, who attended the
college nearly a century ago. Presenting
a Moore poem on the Web site while
simultaneously displaying commentary

in different windows next to the text (as


opposed to listing them in a paper) more
accurately reflects the works multiple
meanings, according to Ms. Rajchel. After
all, she argued in the thesis, Moore was
acutely aware of her audience and made
subtle alterations in her poems for
different publications changes that are
more easily illustrated by displaying the
various versions. The Web presentation of
Moores poetry also allows readers to add
comments and talk to one another, which
Ms. Rajchel believes matches the poets
interest in opening a dialogue with her
readers.
Particularly inspiring to Ms. Rajchel
is that her work doesnt disappear after
being deposited in a professors in box.
The site, which includes scans of original
documents from Bryn Mawrs library, was
(and remains) viewable. It really can go
outside of the classroom, she said, adding
that an established Marianne Moore scholar
at another university had left a comment.
Doing research that lives outside
the classroom is also what drew Anna
Levine, a junior at Swarthmore, to digital
humanities. Over the summer and after
class, she and Richard Li, a senior at
Swarthmore, worked with Rachel Buurma,
an assistant professor of literature there, to
develop the Early Novels Database for the
University of Pennsylvanias Rare Book
and Manuscript Library, which enables
users to search more thoroughly through
fiction published between 1660 and 1830.
I am the one doing all the grunt work,
Ms. Levine said of her tasks, which largely
involve entering details about a novel into
the database. But one of the great things
is as an undergraduate, it really enables me
to participate in a scholarly community.
In a Swarthmore lounge where Ms.
Buurmas weekly research seminar on
Victorian literature and culture meets, Ms.
Levine and a handful of other students
recently settled into a cozy circle on
stuffed chairs and couches. As part of
their class work, they have been helping
to correct the transcribed online versions
of Household Words and All the Year
Round, two 19th-century periodicals in
22

PV2D-13-11

Ingls

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

which
Charles
Dickens
initially
published some novels, including Great
Expectations, in serial form. On a square
coffee table sat a short stack of original
issues of the magazine that a librarian had
brought from the colleges collection to
show the class. Students discussed how the
experience of reading differs, depending
on whether the text is presented in discrete
segments, surrounded by advertisements
or in a leather binding; whether you are
working in an archive, editing online or
reading for pleasure.
Those skeptical of the digital
humanities worry that the emphasis on
data analysis will distract students from
delving deeply into the heart and soul of
literary texts. But Ms. Buurma contends
that these undergraduates are in fact
reading quite closely.

Resoluo
Em Ms. Rowe said, explaining that it was
difficult for students, entende-se que Ms.
Rowe disse, explicando (verbo) que era difcil
para os estudantes. Em history undergraduates
have produced a digital visualization of the
colleges first library collection, allowing them
to consider what the selection of books, l-se
que os estudantes de histria tm produzido
a visualizao digital da primeira coleo da
biblioteca, permitindo-lhes (verbo) avaliar
a seleo de livros. Em In the classroom,
however, digitally savvy undergraduates are
not just ready to adapt to the tools but also
to explore how new media may alter the
very process of reading, interpretation and
analysis. Theres a very exciting generation
gap in the classroom, verifica-se que na sala
de aula, entretanto, estudantes digitalmente
espertos no s esto prontos para adaptar as
ferramentas, mas tambm para explorar como
as novas mdias podem alterar o processo de
leitura (substantivo), interpretao e anlise.
H uma interessante (adjetivo) lacuna de
gerao na sala de aula. Em surrounded
by advertisements or in a leat her binding,
entende-se envoltos por anncios ou em
fichrios (substantivo) de couro.

Disponvel em: <http://www.nytimes.


com>. Acesso em: March 21, 2011.

O texto acima discorre acerca do uso de tecnologia 3D no ensino de literatura. As palavras


em negrito foram propositalmente destacadas
com o intuito de facilitar a localizao dos trechos pertinentes para a resoluo da questo.
O enunciado pede que seja assinalada a alternativa que apresenta as classificaes relativas
s ocorrncias das palavras na forma do gerndio.

PV2D-13-11

Ingls

Verifica-se a importncia do conhecimento


das possibilidades de uso do gerndio e, em
determinados contextos, do infinitivo, para
que a informao possa ser interpretada corretamente.

01.
The following -ing ending words explaining,
allowing, reading, exciting, and binding are
respectively classified according to their function
in the text as:
a. adjective, noun, verb, adjective, noun.
b. verb, verb, noun, adjective, noun.
c. noun, verb, adjective, noun, noun.
d. verb, noun, noun, verb, adjective.

Resposta
B

5. Quantifiers
Os quantificadores so utilizados quando h inteno de informar ao leitor o nmero ou a quantidade de algo. Dois conceitos bsicos so essenciais para a compreenso dos quantificadores:
countable nouns e uncountable nouns.
Countable nouns (substantivos contveis)
Os substantivos contveis so aqueles que podem ser contados em unidades, como, por exemplo: people, house, car, animal, egg etc., ou seja, tudo aquilo que pode ser separado em unidades
e pode ser contado.
23

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Ingls

Uncountable nouns (substantivos incontveis)

Quanto ao dinheiro, o que contado o valor


que este agrega, uma vez que no so contadas as notas e no dito algo como: Tenho
catorze dinheiros. A mesma afirmao vlida
para a ideia de po e queijo. Com relao ao primeiro, quando comprado, isto feito em forma
de unidade, no entanto, no dito: duas unidades de po, por favor, mas, sim, dois pes.

Os substantivos incontveis so aqueles que


somente tornam-se contveis com o auxlio de
unidades, como, por exemplo: lquidos, substantivos abstratos (experincia, tempo, emoes), dinheiro, po, queijo etc. No caso dos lquidos, eles s deixam de ser incontveis caso
utilizem unidades como: litro, copo, balde, jarra etc. No possvel contar a gua, o leite, a
cerveja, o vinho, entre outros. Na linguagem
informal, quando dito dois cafs, por favor,
a ideia de que esto sendo pedidas duas xcaras de caf.

O queijo, por sua vez, no difere muito dos


demais itens mencionados. Quando comprado, geralmente, a compra feita com base na
pea, o que o torna um substantivo contvel
ou na unidade de quilograma, sendo, assim,
incontvel.

Os quantificadores esto diretamente associados ao fato de os substantivos serem contveis ou


incontveis.
Exemplos:
Countable nouns

Uncountable nouns

Marks and Spencer decided to put few


(pouco(a)s) projects in practice this year due
to recession.
My sister studies a few (algum(ma)s) subjects
related to Chemistry at school.
There were many (muito(a)s) people at the
musical yesterday.

Theres little (pouco(a)) chance I get the


scholarship I want in Harvard.
We need to start preparing for the exams doing
a little (algum(a)) effort to get good grades.
Its necessary much (muito(a)) patience in order
to get on well with students.

Alguns quantificadores so utilizados tanto com substantivos contveis como incontveis, por
exemplo: all, any, enough, less, a lot of, lots of, more, most, no, none of e some.
Exemplos:
All of the children live at home. (Todas as crianas vivem em casa.)

Outros so utilizados somente com substantivos contveis, por exemplo: both, each, neither e
several ou com substantivos incontveis, por exemplo: a bit of, a great deal of e a good deal of.
Exemplos:
Both brothers work with their father. (Ambos os irmos trabalham com o pai.)
It took her a great deal of courage to come here. (Ela teve que ter muita coragem para vir aqui.)
Mas, como isso "cai" no vestibular?
No vestibular, os termos que indicam quantidade, frequentemente, aparecem em meio ao contexto com o intuito de fornecer um referencial quantitativo precioso a respeito de determinado
contedo.

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PV2D-13-11

He has spent all of his money. (Ele gastou todo o seu dinheiro.)

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Ingls

EXERCCIO RESOLVIDO
O exemplo seguinte, retirado do vestibular da UFPB, mostra uma das formas de avaliao do item
no vestibular.

O poema aborda a temtica da busca pelo


homem perfeito. A autora do poema afirma
que, durante toda a vida, criou a fantasia do
homem perfeito, mas percebeu que essa fantasia a levou a vrias decepes e que a realidade mostrou-lhe que o homem perfeito no
existe. Com o passar dos anos, a fantasia foi se
esvaindo at que ela conheceu uma pessoa e a
sua fantasia se tornou realidade.

Visitor comments
It is so true, in my point of view too! Patrick

PV2D-13-11

I loved this poem. It tells that we all


sweetness
have a fantasy waiting to come true.
This is such a good poem! It deeply
touched me.

Bernie

I love this poem, it explains exactly


how I feel about my husband. I
thought I would never find that
special him, until he found me.

Maria

O enunciado da questo pedia que os comentrios das pessoas que visitaram a pgina fossem analisados e que fossem identificadas as
proposies corretas.
01.
Considering the visitors comments on Virgos
poem, identify the correct statements:
I. One of them says she wont forget
Virgos poem.
II. Both Maria and Lena are happy about
their husbands.
III. Some of them said they really enjoyed
the poem.
IV. Every one of them had a personal
response to the poem.
V. None of them explains their point of
view about the poem.

Oh how I wish I could say the same,


but will remember this poem. Thats Lena
for sure.
There are 46 Additional Visitor Comments (click to
read them).
Disponvel em: <http://www.netpoets.com/poems/
love/1520001.htm>. Acesso em: 21 jun. 2010. Adaptado.

Observa-se que a prpria estrutura de apresentao do texto a ser analisado e da questo


so diferentes do texto tradicional. A estrutura
apresentada dessa forma propositadamente
e tem como objetivo se assemelhar a um blog.
25

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Ingls

sweetness, Bernie e Maria. A proposio IV, que


afirma que todos apresentaram uma resposta
pessoal ao poema, est errada, pois, sweetness,
por exemplo, afirmou ter gostado do poema,
mas no apresentou nenhum motivo pessoal
para tal. A proposio V, que afirma que nenhum
deles explicou o seu ponto de vista a respeito do
poema, est errada, pois Maria, por exemplo,
afirma que o poema mostra exatamente como
ela se sente em relao ao marido.

Resoluo
Neste caso, os quantificadores so utilizados
no auxlio interpretao dos comentrios feitos pelos internautas que leram o poema.
Verifica-se que, com exceo de Lena, todos os
demais internautas se identificaram de alguma
forma com o poema. Portanto, a proposio I,
que afirma que uma das pessoas disse que no
esquecer o poema de Virgo, est correta. A
proposio II, que afirma que Maria e Lena esto felizes com seus maridos, est errada, pois
no h indcios suficientes para afirmar que
Lena casada.
A proposio III, que afirma que algumas das
pessoas disseram que gostaram do poema,
est correta de acordo com os comentrios de

Os quantificadores, portanto, exercem papel


fundamental na interpretao do texto e na
compreenso da informao por eles veiculada.
Resposta
I e III

6. Comparison degrees
Comparative form
Superiority

common

commoner / more common

likely

likelier / more likely

pleasant

pleasanter / more pleasant

polite

politer / more polite

simple

simpler / more simple

stupid

stupider / more stupid

subtle

subtler / more subtle

sure

surer / more sure

A partcula than acrescida conforme haja necessidade para a compreenso do trecho.


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O comparative of superiority estabelece uma comparao, evidenciado a superioridade de um


sobre o outro.
1) Adjetivos com uma slaba, acrescenta-se -er: clean cleaner, cheap cheaper.
2) Adjetivos com uma slaba CVC (consoante-vogal-consoante), dobra-se a consoante e acresenta-se -er: big bigger, fat fatter.
3) Adjetivos com duas slabas, terminados em y, retira-se o y e acrescenta-se -ier: dirty
dirtier, easy easier.
4) Adjetivos com mais de duas slabas, acrescenta-se more: understanding more
understanding, important more important.
5) Casos especiais:

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Pete is taller than his sister. (Pete mais alto


que sua irm.)
Paola is happier and simpler than her brother.
(Paola mais feliz e mais simples que seu
irmo).
This road is more dangerous. (Dentro do contexto, entende-se que esta estrada mais perigosa que aquela).
Equality
O comparative of equality estabelece uma
comparao de igualdade, em que dois seres
esto no mesmo nvel. Acrescenta-se as (so)
+ adjetivo + as (to... quanto), no alterando
a forma do adjetivo, independentemente de
possuir uma ou mais slabas.

4) Adjetivos com mais de duas slabas,


acrescenta-se the most: understanding
the most understanding, important
the most important.
5) Casos especiais:
common
likely
pleasant
polite
simple
stupid
subtle
sure

Carla is as interested as Naiara. (Carla to


interessada quanto Naiara.)

commonest / most common


likeliest / most likely
pleasantest / most pleasant
politest / most polite
simplest / most simple
stupidest / most stupid
subtlest
surest / most sure

Today is the hottest day of the year. (Hoje o


dia mais quente do ano.)

The dog is as big as the lion. (O cachorro to


grande quanto o leo.)

This river is the shallowest of all. (Este rio o


mais raso de todos.)

Inferiority

That is the most expensive vase in this shop.


(Aquele o vaso mais caro nesta loja.)
Inferiority

O comparative of inferiority estabelece uma


comparao, evidenciando a inferioridade de
um ser em relao ao outro. Acrescenta-se
less + adjetivo + than (menos... que), no alterando a forma do adjetivo, independentemente de possuir uma ou mais slabas.

O superlative of inferiority evidencia a inferioridade de um ser em relao ao outro. Acrescenta-se the least (o menos) + adjetivo, no
alterando a forma do adjetivo, independentemente de possuir uma ou mais slabas.
This is the least interesting book Ive ever read.

That subject is less important than this one.


(Aquela disciplina menos importante do que
esta.)
Silvia is less tall than Tiago. (Silvia menos
alta do que Tiago.)

PV2D-13-11

Ingls

As expresses formadas a partir do grau superlativo, at most e at least, so bastante frequentes e significam, respectivamente, no
mximo e no mnimo.

Superlative form
Superiority
O superlative estabelece a superioridade de
um sobre o outro.
1) Adjetivos com uma slaba, acrescentase the e o adjetivo termina em -est:
clean the cleanest, cheap the cheapest.
2) Adjetivos com uma slaba CVC (consoante-vogal-consoante), dobra-se a consoante e acrescenta-se -est: big the
biggest, fat the fattest.
3) Adjetivos com duas slabas, terminados
em y, retira-se o y e acrescenta-se -iest:
dirty the dirtiest, easy the easiest.

Adjetivos irregulares
good

better

best

bad

worse

worst

far

27

farther / further farthest / furthest

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Ingls

Mas, como isso "cai" no vestibular?


No vestibular, os graus de comparao, alm de ampliarem a compreenso textual, podem ser
cobrados isoladamente.

EXERCCIO RESOLVIDO
nolgico, aumentar a energia, diminuir as dores e proteger contra os efeitos nocivos do estresse. Vale ressaltar que a risada divertida,
gratuita e fcil de ser utilizada.

O exemplo a seguir, do vestibular da Unicamp,


demonstra o uso dos graus de comparao para
a compreenso da informao presente no texto.
Laughter is the best medicine

Observam-se no ttulo Laughter is the best


medicine, assim como ao longo do contexto
Best of all(...) / The sound of roaring laughter is
far more contagious than any cough, evidncias dos graus de comparao. As perguntas
dissertativas exigiam a compreenso do texto
para indicar duas manifestaes associadas ao
riso diferentes das mencionadas no enunciado
e os efeitos positivos do bom humor e do riso
para a sade fsica das pessoas.
a. O texto considera o riso mais contagioso
do que outras manifestaes fsicas. Indique duas dessas outras manifestaes.
b. Explicite os efeitos positivos do bom humor
e do riso para a sade fsica das pessoas.

Humor is infectious. The sound of


roaring laughter is far more contagious
than any cough, sigh, or sneeze. When
laughter is shared, it binds people together
and increases happiness and intimacy. In
addition to the domino effect of joy and
amusement, laughter also triggers healthy
physical changes in the body. Humor and
laughter strengthen your immune system,
boost your energy, diminish pain, and
protect you from the damaging effects of
stress. Best of all, this priceless medicine
is fun, free, and easy to use.
Disponvel em: < http://www.helpguide.
org/life/humor_laughter_health.htm>.
Acesso em: 21 set. 2010. Adaptado.

Resoluo
a) O aluno escolheria duas das seguintes
possibilidades: tosse, suspiro ou espirro.
b) De acordo com o texto, o bom humor e
o riso fortalecem o sistema imunolgico, aumentam a energia, diminuem a dor e protegem contra os efeitos prejudiciais do estresse.
PV2D-13-11

O texto informa a importncia de dar risada,


afirmando ser este o melhor dos remdios. O
autor acrescenta que, quando compartilhada,
a risada une as pessoas e aumenta o nvel de
intimidade, alm de fortalecer o sistema imu-

28

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Ingls

CAPTULO 03 PRONOUNS
1. Personal pronouns

Os pronomes sujeito exercem funo de


sujeito da orao. Sendo assim, so empregados
antes de verbos:

Os pronomes pessoais so divididos em dois


grupos de acordo com a funo que exercem
na frase, podendo ser sujeito (subjective) ou
objeto da orao (objective).

They arrive early every day.

Subjective
I
you
he
she
it

Os pronomes objeto exercem funo de objeto da orao. Dessa forma, so empregados


aps verbos e preposies:

we
you
they

We saw him there last night and


he asked about you.

Objective
me
you
him
her
it

us
you

Mas, como isso "cai" no vestibular?


Os pronomes, geralmente, so cobrados
como forma de retomada de alguma informao que apareceu no corpo do texto.

them

EXERCCIOS RESOLVIDOS
It should be noted that there is some
controversy over whether or not Koro is
in fact a new discovery. According to the
newspaper Telegraph, linguists from the
Assam chapter of Indian National Trust
for Art and Cultural Heritage are claiming
that Koro was known to Indian linguists
before the American linguists documented
it.
Whether its really a new language or
not, Koro only has between 800 and 1,200
speakers, so now the race is on to try and
preserve it, if possible. A language dies out
about every two weeks, and language
preservation expert Tabu Ram Taid told
our newspaper that: Koro might have
met the same fate. But the point is now to
preserve Koro. Apart from speaking, one
must develop writing the language to prevent
it from vanishing.

PV2D-13-11

Alguns exerccios ilustram esse uso. O primeiro


exemplo, retirado da prova da UEL, tem como
foco em seu enunciado o uso do pronome pessoal como retomada de informao.
New language discovered in India,
race is on to preserve it
A group of American linguists just
announced the discovery of a new
language in a remote region of India. The
language, called Koro, was discovered
during a 2008 expedition to Arunachal
Pradesh, according to a local newspaper.
The interesting thing about the
discovery of Koro is that it was hiding
in plain sight. Koro speakers are part of
the Aka culture, and live in villages where
most of their neighbors speak Aka. While
the two languages are in fact very different,
Koro and Aka speakers consider themselves
one people, and treat Koro as if it were
a dialect of Aka, instead of a distant
sister, as the linguists described it.

Disponvel em: <http://blog.k-international.


com/new-language-discovered-in-india/>.
Acesso em: 12 out. 2010. Adaptado.

29

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

For I know too soon this moment


will just a memory be...
Youll be grown and on your own
and no longer needing me
to kiss your hurts and dry your eyes
and rock you till you sleep.
So, Ill treasure every moment
to have memories I can keep.

O texto discorre acerca da descoberta, em 2008,


de uma nova lngua em uma regio remota da
ndia. Verifica-se, no final do texto, que ainda h
dvidas sobre a veracidade de a lngua ser de
fato nova. Alm das perguntas de cunho interpretativo, o examinador deu nfase ao uso do
pronome it no ttulo a que ele se refere.
01.
Na expresso race is on to preserve it, it se
refere a:
a. expedition.
b. India.
c. race.
d. language.
e. region.

SCHWARTZ, Julie. In my arms. Disponvel


em: <http://www.scrapbooking-online.com/
ideas_B.htm>. Acesso em: 19 jul. 2010.

02.
Based on the poem, follow the instructions:
(modificado)
a) Identify who the pronoun you refers
to in this poem.

Resoluo
O ttulo indica que uma nova lngua foi descoberta na ndia e que os linguistas esto lutando
pela preservao, ou seja, pela preservao da
lngua. Portanto, o termo faz referncia language,
ou seja, nova lngua descoberta na ndia.
importante ressaltar que, apesar de se tratar de
uma questo gramatical, a interpretao textual
tambm ajudaria e possibilitaria a compreenso
necessria para que a resposta fosse dada. Novamente, a gramtica est auxiliando e possibilitando
uma interpretao coerente e assertiva.
Resposta
D

Resoluo
O enunciado da questo 02 pede que seja
identificado a quem o pronome you faz referncia no texto. No s necessrio o conhecimento gramatical como tambm a interpretao da informao que dada no texto para
que se responda questo.
Com base na informao inicial, nota-se que o
eu potico tem algum nos braos e que o balana para dormir rock to sleep. O eu potico
tenta memorizar o rosto e os pezinhos do provvel beb, afirmando que esse momento, muito
em breve, no passar de lembranas quando
um dia ele crescer e no mais precisar dela para
acarinhar suas dores e secar suas lgrimas. O
eu potico decide ento guardar cada momento
para ter memrias que possa manter.

Observe o segundo exemplo retirado da prova


da UFBA.
Leia o texto abaixo e responda questo 2.
In My Arms
As I hold you in my arms
and you gently rock to sleep.
I try to memorize your face,
your tiny hands and feet.

Verifica-se que, uma vez mais, a interpretao


textual foi essencial na descoberta do referente gramatical que, neste caso, provavelmente
um beb, uma criana.

2. Possessive adjectives & possessive pronouns

Possessive adjectives
Os adjetivos possessivos tm como funo modificar um substantivo, devendo sempre anteced-lo.
Eles so utilizados para indicar posse, como nos exemplos abaixo.
Ill never take this as my land.
Those men are really concerned about their problems.
Greece has its own economical problems.
my
your
his
her
its

our
your
their

30

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Ingls

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Possessive pronouns

importante ressalvar que o pronome pessoal


one tem seu prprio possessivo. Observe:

Os pronomes possessivos substituem o adjetivo possessivo e o substantivo que o acompanha. Assim como os adjetivos possessivos,
tambm so utilizados para indicar posse:

One should take care of ones things.


(Cada um deve cuidar de suas coisas.)

To whom belongs that bracelet stud with


gems? Its mine.
(mine = my bracelet)

Alm disso, a expresso formada por a(n) +


substantivo + of + pronome possessivo equivale a um(a) dos(as). Observe:

Adam has his personal book collection and


Jane has hers.
(hers = her personal book collection)

Bosh is a sponsor of mine.


(Bosh um dos meus patrocinadores.)

This was not her idea to come home. It was ours.


(ours = our idea)
mine
yours
his
hers
its

Ingls

Mas, como isso "cai" no vestibular?


O vestibular prioriza a referncia pronominal tambm quando aborda questes que
envolvem o uso dos pronomes adjetivo e
possessivo.

ours
yours
theirs

EXERCCIOS RESOLVIDOS
Almost a century later, in 2005,
Santos Dumonts intellectual heirs,
the company Empresa Brasileira de
Aeronutica (Embraer), made aviation
history of a different kind when they
unveiled the Ipanema, the worlds first
commercially produced aircraft to run
solely on biofuels. This time, the world was
watching. Scientific American credited it
as one of the most important inventions of
the year. The attention paid to the Ipanema
reflects the growing interest in biofuels as
a potential solution to climate change and
rising energy demand. To their advocates,
biofuels most commonly bioethanol
or biodiesel offer a more secure,
sustainable energy supply that can reduce
carbon emissions by 5060 per cent
compared to fossil fuels.
From learning to fly to learning to
cope with the environmental costs of
flight, biofuel innovations like the Ipanema
reflect some of the tensions of modern
science, in which expanding the frontiers

Alguns exemplos ilustram o uso dos pronomes


e a forma como so abordados.O primeiro deles foi retirado do vestibular da Unifesp.
Brazil: the natural knowledge economy

PV2D-13-11

Kirsten Bound The Atlas of Ideas

If you grew up in Europe or North


America you will no doubt have been
taught in school that the Wright Brothers
from Ohio invented and flew the first
aeroplane the Kitty Hawk in 1903.
But if you grew up in Brazil you will have
been taught that the real inventor was in
fact a Brazilian from Minas Gerais
called Alberto Santos Dumont, whose
14-bis aeroplane took to the skies in 1906.
This fierce historical debate, which turns
on definitions of practical airplanes, the
ability to launch unaided, length of time
spent in the air and the credibility of
witnesses, will not be resolved here. Yet it
is a striking example of the lack of global
recognition for Brazils achievements in
innovation.
31

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

of human ingenuity goes hand in hand


with managing the consequences. The
recent backlash against biofuels, which
has seen them blamed for global food
shortages as land is reportedly diverted
from food crops, points to a growing
interdependence between the science and
innovation systems of different countries,
and between innovation, economics and
environmental sustainability.
The debates now raging over biofuels
reflect some of the wider dynamics in
Brazils innovation system. They remind
us that Brazils current strengths and
achievements have deeper historical roots
than is sometimes imagined. They reflect
the fact that Brazils natural resources
and assets are a key area of opportunity
for science and innovation a focus
that leads us to characterise Brazil as
a natural knowledge economy. Most
importantly, they highlight the propitious
timing of Brazils growing strength in
these areas at a time when climate change,
the environment, food scarcity and rising
worldwide energy demand are at the
forefront of global consciousness. What
changed between the maiden flight of
the 14-bis and the maiden flight of the
Ipanema is not just Brazils capacity for
technological and scientific innovation,
but the rest of the worlds appreciation of
the potential of that innovation to address
some of the pressing challenges that
confront us all.

01.
No trecho do segundo pargrafo To their
advocates, biofuels ... a expresso their
advocates refere-se:
a. aos defensores dos biocombustveis.
b. aos herdeiros intelectuais de Santos
Dumont.
c. Embraer.
d. aos cientistas que idealizaram o Ipanema.
e. aos cientistas americanos.
Resoluo
A expresso To their advocates refere-se aos
defensores dos biocombustveis. Verifica-se
que, no trecho do segundo pargrafo, a ateno dada aeronave Ipanema reflete o crescente interesse nos biocombustveis como soluo em potencial mudana climtica e ao
aumento da demanda energtica. Para os que
defendem os biocombustveis, esses mais
comumente o bioetanol e o biodiesel oferecem um fornecimento mais seguro (...) The
attention paid to the Ipanema reflects the growing interest in biofuels as a potential solution
to climate change and rising energy demand.
To their advocates, biofuels most commonly
bioethanol or biodiesel offer a more secure
().
Atenha-se para o fato de que, no contexto em
que a informao aparece, no essencial a
compreenso do tpico gramatical em si, mas,
sim, de todo o conjunto no qual ele est inserido. A tentativa de compreenso do contexto
muito importante para que a interpretao
seja feita de forma adequada e eficiente.
Resposta
A

Disponvel em: <www.demos.co.uk>. Adaptado.

O texto discorre acerca de quem inventou e


conseguiu colocar em voo o primeiro avio:
os irmos Wright ou Santos Dumont. O texto
apresenta tambm o desenvolvimento pela
Embraer de uma aeronave que utiliza biocombustvel, sendo essa uma inveno totalmente
brasileira.

O segundo exemplo foi retirado do vestibular


da UEL. Observe que, em um mesmo enunciado, o examinador trabalha a referncia pronominal tanto de um pronome adjetivo como de
um pronome possessivo.

O enunciado da questo seleciona parte de


um trecho do segundo pargrafo, no qual o
uso do pronome adjetivo evidente e questiona a referncia do trecho.

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Ingls

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Whale saves drowning diver


A beluga whale saved a drowning
diver by hoisting her to the surface,
carrying her leg in its mouth. Terrified
Yang Yun thought she was going to die
when her legs were paralysed by crippling
cramps in arctic temperatures.
She had been taking part in a free diving
contest without any breathing equipment.
Competitors had to sink to the bottom
of an aquariums 20ft arctic pool and stay
there for as long as possible amid the beluga
whales at Polar Land in Harbin, north east
China. But when Yun, 26, tried to head to
the surface she struggled to move her legs.
Lucky Yun said: I began to choke
and sank even lower and I thought that
was it for me I was dead. Until I felt this
incredible force under me driving me to the
surface. Beluga whale Mila had spotted
her difficulties and using her sensitive
dolphin-like nose guided Yun safely to the
surface.
An organiser said: Mila noticed
the problem before we did. We suddenly
saw the girl being pushed to the top of the
pool with her leg in Milas mouth. Shes a
sensitive animal who works closely with
humans and I think this girl owes her, her
life.

Ingls

O texto de cunho informativo e afirma que


uma baleia branca (ou beluga) foi responsvel
pelo salvamento de uma mergulhadora Yang
Yun que participava de uma competio nas
guas geladas do rtico. A baleia percebeu
que a mergulhadora se encontrava em perigo
e a ajudou a chegar superfcie.
O trecho em questo aborda, exatamente, a
opinio de um dos organizadores do evento a
respeito do salvamento efetuado pela baleia.
02.
Na frase Shes a sensitive animal who works
closely with humans and I think this girl owes
her, her life, o pronome her usado duas vezes.
Seus respectivos referentes, de acordo com a
ordem em que so mencionados, so:
a. a mergulhadora a baleia.
b. a organizadora a baleia.
c. a baleia a mergulhadora.
d. a organizadora a mergulhadora.
e. a baleia a organizadora.
Resoluo
O organizador acredita que Yang Yun deve sua
vida a ela, sendo ela, a baleia, e a sua vida, a
vida da mergulhadora em questo.
Resposta

Disponvel em: <http://www.thesun.co.uk/sol/


homepage/news/2560871/Beluga-whale-savesdrowning-divers-life.html>. Acesso em: 15 set. 2010.

PV2D-13-11

Demonstrative pronouns
Os pronomes demonstrativos esto presentes no contexto gramatical com a funo de indicar
algo que esteja prximo do falante ou distante dele. No vestibular, porm, tal funo bem mais
abrangente. Os vestibulares, geralmente, empregam os pronomes demonstrativos para retomar
determinado contedo anteriormente mencionado. Observe o exemplo abaixo:
They gave the instructions as they were told to. Those were never followed.
(Eles deram as instrues conforme lhes fora mandado. Aquelas nunca foram seguidas.)
Pode-se tambm utilizar os pronomes demonstrativos para introduzir um novo contedo, como
no exemplo:
This recipe is very simple: flour, sugar, eggs and...
(Esta receita muito simples: farinha, acar, ovos e...)
this
that
these
those

este, esta
aquele, aquela
estes, estas
aqueles, aquelas
33

Ingls

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Mas, como isso "cai" no vestibular?


No vestibular, os pronomes demonstrativos esto, geralmente, associados retomada de contedo ou introduo de um novo contedo.

EXERCCIOS RESOLVIDOS
03.

Dois exemplos ilustram a forma como o vestibular cobra o conhecimento relacionado aos
pronomes demonstrativos. O primeiro exemplo foi retirado do vestibular da Ufla.

The phrase That exciting new experience in


the fourth and fifth lines refers to:
a. our life.
b. had fallen in love.
c. high school problems.
d. when they were teenagers.

Theoretically first love can happen


in any age or not happen at all. But most
people had fallen in love for the first time
when they were teenagers. That exciting new
experience most of us remember very well
during all our life. For an adult his/her
own high school problems and the problems
of their children seem very funny, silly
and simple especially compared with
all the difficulties of adult life. Somehow
we forget how tragic and full of drama
life and relationships were then in our
adolescence.
When a teenager falls in love and it
happens for the first time he/she feels all
its ups and downs for the first time either.
In that age we mostly enjoy ourselves and
study the new emotions inside than show
much interest for the inner world of our
first boy/girlfriend.
The relationships between two sexes
will interest and trouble us during all our
future life but these first steps are always
the most difficult and for some of us turn
to be very painful. Teenager has a growing
and changing body that he/she hasnt started
to understand yet and a delicate soul which
is so easy to hurt.

Resoluo
Verifica-se, na segunda linha, que o autor
discorre sobre o pensamento mencionado
anteriormente no qual afirma que a maioria
das pessoas tinham se apaixonado pela
primeira vez quando eram adolescentes e que
aquela experincia nova e empolgante (o fato
de terem se apaixonado) lembrada por muitos
de ns por toda a vida. Dessa forma, That exciting
new experience faz referncia ao ato de se
apaixonar, ou seja, had fallen in love.

Resposta
B
O segundo exemplo utiliza o pronome para
introduzir um contedo novo. Observe e analise
o exemplo retirado do vestibular da FGV.
South Americas giant comes of age
By John Paul Rathbone
June 28, 2010.

If the rise of Brazil was cast as a


childhood story rather than a dry economics
tract, the fable might go something like
this. Once upon a time, there was a skinny
boy who was bullied at school. Every time
there was a fight in the playground, he
seemed to end up as the punchbag. The
boy rarely complained, even though his
sorry state did not match the glorious fate
about which he often daydreamed. That
just seemed to be the way things were.

Disponvel em: <http://peoplerelationships.


syl.com/loverelationships/firstlove>.

O texto discorre acerca do primeiro amor e de


quando as pessoas o sentem pela primeira vez.
O autor questiona, at mesmo, a possibilidade
de nunca acontecer. O enunciado da questo
pede a referncia ao trecho mencionado no
texto. Observe:
34

PV2D-13-11

importante estar atento para a retomada do


contedo mencionado anteriormente.

PV2D-13-11

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

One day, a new teacher arrived,


bringing with him some new games for
the classroom. These playthings distracted
the big boys, and the fighting stopped.
The skinny boy used the calm to do
exercises, recommended by his canny
stepmother, who also fed him a special
soup to make him strong.
All good things come to end,
however. The games broke, as they
always do, and tempers flared again in the
playground. This time, however, the big
boys no longer bullied the skinny boy. He
had become lean and fit, while they had
grown fat and clumsy. Instead of pushing
him around, they even seemed to look
up to him. Standing in the school yard,
blinking in the sun, the boy revelled in his
new status. Would it last? He wanted to
make sure it would.
The skinny boy is, of course, Brazil.
His bullies are the financial markets of
developed economies, the new games are
the soothing palliative of the noughties
credit boom, and the latest school-ground
fight is the global financial crisis. His
stepmother is China, the special soup he
ate the commodity boom that has boosted
Brazils economy, and his exercises
represent the macroeconomic stabilisation
policies Brazil put in place in the
mid-1990s. The result, in this simple
tale first told by Brazilian commentator
Ricardo Amorim, is the new Brazil: a
slightly gangly adolescent, standing tall
amid the world community, not fully
grown into its new stature but confident
and eager to make its mark.

Ingls

O texto mostrado introduz o crescimento econmico brasileiro perante os mercados estrangeiros. O autor constri o texto tendo como
base uma linguagem metafrica ao mencionar
o crescimento brasileiro comparando o Brasil
ao patinho feio (ugly duckling) que, no incio,
era violentado pelos mercados financeiros das
economias desenvolvidas e que se transformou em um cisne (swan) ao longo do tempo, com
segurana suficiente para deixar a sua marca.
04.
No trecho do primeiro pargrafo the fable
might go something like this a palavra this
refere-se:
a. ao tratado econmico.
b. histria que se segue at o final do
terceiro pargrafo.
c. ao crescimento do Brasil no cenrio
mundial.
d. ao menino franzino que se transformou
em adolescente.
e. comparao dos meninos briguentos
com os pases desenvolvidos.
Resoluo
O enunciado da questo, no qual o autor utiliza
o termo fbula, foca desde o primeiro pargrafo
at o final do terceiro o desenvolvimento
econmico brasileiro. A partir do quarto pargrafo, o
autor explicita o significado de todos os termos
metafricos utilizados para introduzir a fbula.
A palavra this neste caso introduz o contedo
desde o primeiro pargrafo at o terceiro.
Evidencia-se, portanto, o uso dos pronomes demonstrativos na retomada de determinado contedo ou na introduo de um novo contedo.
Resposta
B

Disponvel em: <www.ft.com>. Adaptado.

3. Reflexive pronouns and indefinite pronouns


Reflexive pronouns
myself
yourself
himself
herself
sitself

ourselves
yourselves
themselves

Os pronomes reflexivos exercem as funes a seguir.


Funo reflexiva: quando o sujeito pratica e sofre a ao, so colocados aps o verbo.
He hurt himself while preparing dinner.
35

Ingls

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Funo enftica: quando o sujeito quer enfatizar o ato, so colocados aps o sujeito ou
objeto da orao:
She herself will call the director later.
She will call the director herself.
Funo idiomtica: quando a inteno do sujeito deixar claro que o ato foi praticado sem
o auxlio de qualquer outra pessoa, o pronome reflexivo precedido da preposio by,
que significa sozinho (alone).
They always do everyhting by themselves.
Observe o cartum abaixo e a ocorrncia do pronome reflexivo.

Disponvel em: <http://www.arcamax.com/hagarthehorrible/s-805748-117898>.

Will somebody help me? (Algum me ajudar?)

Hgar acredita ser importante, ocasionalmente, sentar-se tranquilamente e se lembrar de


quem ele remind myself of who I am. Para
tal, ele grita incessantemente o quo corajoso
e invencvel ele . Quando sua esposa o manda parar de gritar e pede que ele a ajude com
a loua, Hgar desconversa e diz que possvel
ser invencvel e, ainda assim, lavar a loua.

Would you like some tea? (Voc gostaria de


um pouco de ch?)
O uso de any associa-se a sentenas afirmativas
e negativas e a perguntas em geral.

Indefinite pronouns

Ill do anything to help you. (Farei qualquer


coisa para ajud-lo.)

Os pronomes indefinidos so utilizados para


falar de pessoas, objetos ou lugares indefinidos.

Does anybody have Kellys mobile number?


(Algum tem o celular da Kelly?)

As formas some, any e no so conhecidas


como formas simples. O uso do some associa-se a
sentenas afirmativas e interrogativas em geral, quando algo solicitado ou quando algo
oferecido.

I dont understand anything about Maths. (Eu


no entendo nada de Matemtica.)

Exemplos:

Exemplo:

Theres some milk in the fridge. (Tem leite na


geladeira.)

I have no friends to call. (Eu no tenho


nenhum amigo a quem ligar.)

O uso de no associa-se a sentenas afirmativas


com sentido negativo.

Is there something you want to ask me? (H


algo que voc quer me perguntar?)

36

PV2D-13-11

Exemplos:

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Ingls

Os pronomes indefinidos compostos seguem as mesmas aplicaes dos pronomes simples como
se verifica na tabela abaixo.
Simple
Some

Any

No

Referindo-se a algo, coisa:


indefinite pronoun + thing

Referindo-se a pessoa:
Referindo-se a lugar:
indefinite pronoun + body/one indefinite pronoun + where
Somebody / Someone may be
Its hidden somewhere over
Theres something wrong here. listening to our conversation.
there. (Est escondido em
(H algo errado aqui.)
(Algum pode estar ouvindo a
algum lugar ali.)
nossa conversa.)
They dont know anybody/ You cant go anywhere without
I dont know anything about
anyone at this place. (Eles my permission. (Voc no pode
him. (Eu no sei coisa alguma
no conhecem ningum neste ir a lugar algum sem a minha
sobre ele.)
lugar.)
permisso.)
Nobody / No one has talked to
They belong nowhere. (Eles
I have nothing to tell you. (Eu her since her arrival. (Ningum
no pertencem a lugar
no tenho nada para te dizer.) conversou com ela desde que
nenhum.)
ela chegou.)

Mas, como isso "cai" no vestibular?


No vestibular, os pronomes reflexivos, assim como os indefinidos, aparecem em meio ao contexto e so essenciais na compreenso e interpretao do texto, no entanto tm pouca expressividade no vestibular.

4. Interrogative pronouns

Where: Onde

Os pronomes interrogativos so utilizados na


construo de perguntas. So eles que substituem os nomes ou frases nominais nas perguntas, adiantando o tipo de informao que
est sendo pedida. Eles sempre iniciam a frase
interrogativa.

Where are you from? (De onde voc ?)


When: Quando
When did you meet? (Quando vocs se conheceram?)
How: Como

PV2D-13-11

Who: Quem
Who is that girl over there? (Quem aquela
garota l?)

How do you pronounce that word on the wall?


(Como voc pronuncia aquela palavra na parede?)

Whom: Quem (acompanhado de preposio)

Whose: De quem, de qual

Whom were you talking about? (Sobre quem


voc estava falando?)

Whose books are these? (De quem so estes


livros?)

About whom were you talking? (Sobre quem


voc estava falando?)

Existem tambm algumas expresses interrogativas, formadas pelos pronomes how e what,
acompanhados de advrbio ou verbo:

What: O que, qual


Whats your favourite subject? (Qual a sua
matria favorita?)

How long: Quanto tempo


How long have you been living here? (H quanto tempo voc mora aqui?)

Which: Qual (quando se tem um nmero delimitado de opes)


Which car is yours? (Qual carro seu?)

How much: Quanto (para objetos incontveis)


How much money do you have? (Quanto dinheiro voc tem?)
37

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Ingls
How many: Quanto (para objetos contveis)

What about: Que tal

How many brothers and sisters have you got?


(Quantos irmos e irms voc tem?)

What about going to a restaurant? (Que tal irmos a um restaurante?)

How often: Com que frequncia

What... like?: (para indagar aspectos de algo)

How often do you go home? (Com que frequncia voc vai para casa?)

What is your house like? (Como sua casa?)

Mas, como isso "cai" no vestibular?


No vestibular, os pronomes interrogativos so avaliados sob a perspectiva interpretativa, ou
seja, muitas vezes no so analisados isoladamente em uma questo como, por exemplo,
"complete com o pronome adequado para que a pergunta faa sentido", mas, sim, com base
em todo o contexto.

EXERCCIOS RESOLVIDOS
But its seen as more likely to find a niche
in the market than to be an outright iPadkiller.

Dois exerccios, retirados de vestibulares,


exemplificam a forma como os pronomes interrogativos so evidenciados no vestibular. O
primeiro foi retirado do vestibular da UEFS.
BlackBerry announces iPad rival

GREGORY, Mark. BlackBerry announces iPad rival.


Disponvel em: <www.bbc.co.uk/
worldservice/learningenglish/language/
wordsinthenews/2010/09/100929_with_blackberry_
page.shtml>. Acesso em: 2 dez. 2010.

29 September 2010

The company that makes BlackBerry


mobile phones has announced plans for a
new, touchscreen, tablet-style computer to
rival the Apple iPad. The PlayBook goes
on sale next year.
BlackBerrys equivalent to the iPad
has a smaller screen and is lighter than
Apples device. Thats meant to make
it appealing to business people on the
move, the kind of people who already
buy BlackBerry phones.
Nearly six million iPads were sold in
the first six months, so its easy to see why
Research in Motion, the Canadian firm
behind the BlackBerry, wants a bite of
Apples market. One key selling point for
RIMs product is, unlike the iPad, it runs
Flash video, the most popular software for
showing moving images online.
Apple devices dont run Flash,
thanks to a well-publicized disagreement
between the company and Adobe, the firm
behind the video technology.
Analysts say the BlackBerry tablet
device is better placed than many rivals
to mount an effective challenge to Apple.

O enunciado da questo aborda, com perguntas, a confirmao das respostas que aparecem no texto. Observe:
01.
The text has answers to the following questions:
() What does Blackberry new computer
look like?
() Whats the main purpose of the
launching of the Blackberry new tablet?
() Which customers is Blackberry targeting
at?
() Why cant Blackberry tablets run Flash
video?
() How many potential buyers have
already ordered the new Blackberry
tablet computer?
38

PV2D-13-11

O texto discorre sobre um lanamento futuro,


denominado Play Book, da mesma empresa
que produz o Blackberry. Tal lanamento seria
o novo concorrente do iPad da Apple, com a
vantagem de rodar vdeos em Flash, diferentemente do rival.

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

in Chinas boomtowns, taking home 1,348


yuan a month on average last year. That is
a mere $197, little more than one-twentieth
of the average monthly wage in America.
But it is 17% more than the year before. As
Chinas economy has bounced back, wages
have followed suit. On the coasts, where
its exporting factories are clustered, bosses
are short of workers, and workers short
of patience. A lot of strikes has thrown a
spanner into the workshop1 of the world.
The hands of Chinas workers have
been strengthened by a new labor law,
introduced in 2008, and by the more
fundamental laws of demand and supply.
Workers are becoming harder to find
and to keep. The countrys villages still
contain perhaps 70m potential migrants.
Other rural folk might be willing to work
closer to home in the growing number of
factories moving inland. But the supply
of strong backs and nimble fingers is not
infinite, even in China. The number of
15- to 29-year-olds will fall sharply from
next year. And although their wages are
increasing, their aspirations are rising
even faster. They seem less willing to eat
bitterness, as the Chinese put it, without
complaint.

According to the text, the correct sequence,


from top to bottom, is:
a. F, T, F, F, T
b. F, T, F, T, F
c. T, F, T, F, T
d. T, T, T, F, F
e. T, T, T, T, T
Resoluo

PV2D-13-11

Ingls

necessria a compreenso das perguntas e,


igualmente, do texto, para que as confirmaes
possam ser feitas. As informaes a respeito
da primeira pergunta Como o novo Blackberry?
so encontradas no primeiro e segundo pargrafos, nos quais so lidas referncias tela
de toque, ao estilo tablet, ao tamanho reduzido
da tela e ao peso, comparado-as ao rival iPad.
A segunda pergunta respondida tambm no
primeiro pargrafo, no qual verifica-se que o
principal propsito do novo lanamento concorrer com o rival iPad. O pblico-alvo desse
novo lanamento indicado no segundo pargrafo, no qual se l que indicado para pessoas que esto no mercado de trabalho, as quais
j tm um Blackberry appealing to business
people on the move, the kind of people who
already buy BlackBerry phone.
Quanto quarta pergunta, o texto informa
somente o porqu de os vdeos em formato
Flash no poderem ser rodados nos iPads, e
sim nos Blackberries.
O texto tambm no apresenta informaes
sobre o nmero de compradores em potencial
que j pediram o novo Blackberry.
Verifica-se, portanto, que os pronomes interrogativos foram explorados de acordo com a
informao vigente no texto. Por isso, conhec-los parte essencial do processo de realizao do exerccio proposto.
Resposta
D
Observe outro exemplo retirado do vestibular da ESPM em que o pronome interrogativo
compe o enunciado da questo.
Cheap labor has built Chinas
economic miracle. Its manufacturing
workers toil for a small fraction of the cost
of their American or German competitors.
At the bottom of the heap, a floating
population of about 130m migrants work

1 to throw a spanner in the works = to


frustrate or ruin (a plan, system etc.)
Disponvel em: <www.economist.com>.
Acesso em: 29 Jul. 2010. Adaptado.

O texto aborda a questo da mo de obra barata na China que, durante muito tempo, foi
responsvel por seu crescimento econmico.
No entanto, em funo do recesso econmico
chins decorrente da crise americana, os salrios dos chineses diminuiram e as indstrias
exportadoras apresentam escassez de trabalhadores e muitas tm sido as graves que afetam a China.
L-se ainda que as mos dos trabalhadores ficaram atadas devido a uma nova lei trabalhista
e tambm em razo das leis mais bsicas de
demanda e fornecimento que esto dificultando o contrato e a manuteno da mo de obra.
Os vilarejos ainda mantm cerca de 70 milhes
de migrantes em potencial e outras pessoas
que habitam as zonas rurais podem querer trabalhar em locais mais prximos s suas casas
39

Ingls

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

a. The countrys villages still contain


perhaps 70 million potential migrants.
b. A new labor law.
c. They earn a little more than the average
monthly wage in America.
d. Chinas economy has bounced back.
e. On the coasts workers are becoming
harder to keep.
Resoluo
O motivo do comportamento mais exigente
dos chineses est atrelado nova lei trabalhista, mencionada no incio do segundo pargrafo. Entende-se que, em razo desta lei, as indstrias esto tendo dificuldade de encontrar
e manter trabalhadores.
Resposta
B

e nas indstrias que esto se mudando para o


interior. O nmero de pessoas na faixa etria
dos 15 aos 29 anos est diminuindo e, apesar
de seus salrios estarem aumentando, as suas
aspiraes tambm esto crescendo na mesma proporo, indicando que elas esto menos propensas a se satisfazer com pouco.
O enunciado do teste questiona quais dos fatores mencionados no texto constituem um
motivo para o comportamento mais exigente
dos chineses. Observe:
02.
Which of the following is mentioned in the
text as a reason for Chinese workers more
demanding behavior?

5. Relative pronouns
Os pronomes relativos so usados quando queremos identificar o sujeito da frase (pessoa) ou
quando queremos conseguir mais alguma informao sobre algum ou alguma coisa. So pronomes que se referem a algum ou a algo j citado anteriormente.
WHO (quem, que) faz referncia pessoa anteriormente mencionada.
The man who lives on the corner is my uncle. (O homen que mora na esquina meu tio.)
Mr. Smith, who is american, is my boss. (O sr. Smith, que americano, meu patro.)
WHOM (que, quem, o qual, a qual) usado normalmente aps preposies referindo-se ao objeto direto.

The girl to whom Peter is talking is his girlfriend. (A garota com quem Peter est conversando
a namorada dele.)
Importante
Muitas vezes whom usado mesmo sem preposio, sempre significando a mesma coisa.
Ms. Brown, whom I have konwn for 20 years, is my college teacher. (A Sra. Brown, que conheo
h 20 anos, foi minha professora na faculdade.)
WHICH (que, o qual) refere-se a tudo aquilo que no faz referncia a pessoa, lugar e momento.
Where is the dog which I saw a minute ago? (Onde est o cachorro que vi h um minuto?)
Where is the book which I left on the table? (Onde est o livro que eu deixei sobre a mesa?)

40

PV2D-13-11

Robert is the man to whom we need to speak. (Robert o homem ao qual (ou com o qual) precisamos falar.)

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

WHOSE (cujo, de quem) refere-se a tudo:


pessoas, animais e coisas, porm esta forma
pronominal sempre indica posse.

Exemplos:

Do you know that girl whose mother is a


famous singer? (Voc conhece aquela garota
cuja me uma cantora famosa?)

The article (that) I need to hand in was due


yesterday. (I need the article, nesse caso, o
pronome that poderia ser omitido).

The man who lives in that house went missing.


(defining clause)

The highway which lead to her restaurant was


not paved. (defining clause)

John Lennon, whose songs we still sing, was


killed in 1980. (John Lennon, cujas canes
ainda cantamos, foi morto em 1980.)

The writer (who) I admire the most is Jose


Saramago. (I admire the author, nesse caso, o
pronome who poderia ser omitido).

David, whose car was stolen yesterday, is my


uncle. (David, cujo carro foi roubado ontem,
meu tio.)

Robin is the guy whose leg was broken last


week. (defining clause)
Os pronomes tambm podem ser explicativos,
formando as chamadas non-defining clauses.
Tais oraes trazem alguma informao adicional e interessante, mas que no essencial
para o entendimento da frase. Neste caso, no
se pode usar o pronome that e nem, tampouco, omitir os pronomes.

WHERE (onde) refere-se a local fsico, lugar.


The school where I studied as a boy doesnt
exist anymore. (A escola onde estudei em
menino no existe mais.)
This is the park where we use to run on weekends.
(Este o parque onde costumamos correr nos
fins de semana.)

Quando o pronome explicativo estiver no


meio da frase, a orao deve ser separada por
vrgulas. Quando ele vier no final da frase, a
vrgula somente utilizada antes do pronome.

WHEN (quando) refere-se ao momento marcado na frase.

Exemplos:

This is the house I lived in when I first came to


the US. (Esta a casa que eu morei quando
vim para os EUA pela primeira vez.)

The rock star, whose album sold 2 million


copies, arrived in Brazil yesterday.

THAT pode substituir which ou who.

John, who plays at the school team, is a terrific


soccer player.

So Paulo, which is a very big city, is known for


its infrastructure problems.

Where is the dog that I saw a minute ago?


PV2D-13-11

Ingls

The old man tried to smoke in the airplane,


which is not allowed.

The man that lives on the corner is my uncle.


Os pronomes relativos podem ser restritivos,
formando assim as chamadas defining clauses.
Tais oraes so aquelas que trazem alguma
informao que imprescindvel para sua
compreenso. Essas informaes no so
separadas por vrgula e os pronomes podem
ser omitidos quando forem o objeto do verbo.

Mas, como isso "cai" no vestibular?


Os pronomes relativos so abordados no
vestibular, na maioria das vezes, como referentes pronominais, ou seja, fazem referncia a algo que j foi mencionado. Ocorrncias para substituio do pronome por outro
equivalente tambm foram observadas.

41

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Ingls

Proposed new immigration laws could


deprive colleges of overseas students
they depend on
Government proposals to radically
alter the student visa regime have left
colleges facing the possibility of having
to cut recruitment of foreign students and
move much of their international work
overseas.
A survey by the international law
firm Eversheds found that colleges and
universities are doing just that three
in 10 are considering setting up a
campus overseas and more than 90 per
cent believe that increased collaboration
with foreign colleges is likely.
The Governments attempts to crack
down on bogus colleges and restrict
immigration threaten an industry that
brought in 42million in foreign earnings
in 2008/9, according to the Learning and
Skills Council. While press coverage has
mostly focused on the likely effects on
higher education, it is further education
that stands to be hit harder by the changes.
The proposals under consultation
include slashing the number of students
on sub-degree courses, which can only be
provided by Highly Trusted Sponsors,
accredited by the UK Border Agency.
There are also plans to raise the English
language requirement and restrict the
rights of students to work while in the
UK. ()
Colleges should consider whether
there are ways in which they can work
within the new rules. UK-accredited
courses can be delivered abroad through
international expansion and collaborations.
Other options could include using the
student short-term visitor rules. Colleges
could follow the example of many
universities in offering summer schools
to international students. ()

O exemplo abaixo, retirado do vestibular da


UEPB, tem como foco em seu enunciado a
quem o pronome who faz referncia.
All things bright and beautiful,
All creatures great and small,
All things wise and wonderful,
The Lord God made them all.
Each little flower that opens,
Each little bird that sings,
He made their glowing colours,
He made their tiny wings.
He gave us eyes to see them,
And lips that we might tell,
How great is God Almighty,
Who has made all things well.
by Cecil F. Alexander

01.
The pronoun who in the last line of the text
refers to:
a. lips.
b. things.
c. God.
d. eyes.
e. well.
Resoluo
O poema afirma que todas as maravilhas do
mundo foram criadas por Deus e, ao final do
texto, verifica-se que o autor evoca o quo
bondoso o Deus Todo Poderoso que criou
bem todas as coisas How great is God Almighty,/
Who has made all things well. Portanto, o
pronome who faz referncia a(o) Deus (Todo
Poderoso) God (Almighty).
Resposta
C
Observe o segundo exemplo retirado do vestibular da UFSJ. O enunciado abrange um trecho do texto no qual verifica-se a ocorrncia
do pronome which.

42

PV2D-13-11

EXERCCIOS RESOLVIDOS

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Ingls

Resoluo

O texto mostrado discorre acerca de algumas


propostas do governo que alteram radicalmente o regime de visto de estudantes estrangeiros, o que tem feito com que as faculdades
enfrentem um possvel corte no recrutamento
de estudantes estrangeiros e a transferncia
de muitos trabalhos para o exterior.

No trecho mencionado, verifica-se que as


propostas que esto sendo examinadas
incluem o corte do nmero de alunos em cursos
de especializao sub-degree courses, os
quais (which) s podem ser fornecidos pela
Highly Trusted Sponsors, creditado pela Agncia
de Fronteira do Reino Unido. Portanto, o termo
which introduz uma explicao sobre os cursos
de especializao.

Observe a questo abaixo.


02.
In the sentence The proposals under consultation
include slashing the number of students on
sub-degree courses, which can only be provided
by Highly Trusted Sponsors, accredited by the
UK Border Agency (paragraph 4), the term
which introduces an explanation about:
a. the number of students.
b. proposal under consultation.
c. sub-degree courses.
d. highly trusted sponsors.

Os pronomes relativos apresentam recorrncia


bastante relevante nos vestibulares e so muito
importantes para a compreenso e interpretao
do texto.
Resposta

PV2D-13-11

43

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Ingls

CAPTULO 04 VERB TENSES AND THEIR SYNTAX


1. Present tenses

Formas:
Afirmativa: formado tirando-se o to
da forma infinitiva. Na 3 pessoa do
singular (he, she, it) acrescenta-se -s.
Aos verbos terminados em s/ss/sh/
ch/z/x/o acrescenta-se -es e, quando o
verbo termina em y precedido de consoante, tira-se o y e acrescenta-se -ies.

A. Present continuous
O presente contnuo descreve aes que esto
ocorrendo no momento da fala e aes que,
possivelmente, acontecero em um futuro
prximo.
Formas:
Afirmativa: sujeito + verbo to be (am/
is/are) + verbo principal -ing

I go to school on weekdays. (ao habitual)


Kids like sweet. (generalizao)

The teacher is writing her name on the board.

Water boils at 100 C. (fato)

She is travelling tomorrow.

John watches TV every night.


She studies a lot.

Negativa: sujeito + verbo to be (am/is/


are) + NOT + verbo principal -ing

Negativa: I/you/we/they + do (auxiliar no modo infinitivo sem o to) + not


(dont) + verbo no modo infinitivo sem
to.
he/she/it + does + not (doesnt) + verbo
no modo infinitivo sem to (o -s, que
antes tinha sido acrescido ao verbo,
une-se ao auxiliar do formando a
partcula auxiliar does).

They are NOT (arent) having a good time.


Interrogativa: verbo to be (am/is/are) +
sujeito + verbo principal -ing
Are you enjoying the walk?
Relembrando

We dont eat fish.

verb to be
present
I
am
you
are
he
is
she
it
we
are
you

Interrogativa: Do + I/you/we/they +
verbo no modo infinitivo sem to.
Does + he/she/it + verbo no modo infinitivo sem to (o -s, que antes tinha sido
acrescido ao verbo, une-se ao auxiliar
do formando a partcula auxiliar does).
Do you live near here?

they

Does Peter live near here?

Algumas expresses temporais podem ser


observadas no presente contnuo, como, por
exemplo, as que indicam exatamente o momento em que a ao acontece: (right) now,
at the moment, at present ou em torno do
momento em que a ao acontece: today, this
week/month/quarter, currently.

Algumas expresses temporais podem ser observadas no presente simples como, por exemplo, advrbios de frequncia: always, usually,
normally, often, sometimes, occasionally, seldom,
rarely e never; dias da semana: on Monday(s),
Tuesday(s), Wednesday(s), Thursday(s), Friday(s),
Saturday(s) e Sunday(s), perodos do dia: in the
morning, in the evening, in the afternoon e at
night e expresses que indicam frequncia
recorrente: every (day, month, year).

B. Present simple
O presente simples usado para expressar fatos, aes habituais ou generalizaes.
44

PV2D-13-11

She doesnt eat fish.

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

afirmativas e interrogativas), yet (significando


ainda em frases negativas e interrogativas),
still (significando ainda em frases afirmativas), just (indicando que algo acabou de
acontecer), ever (indicando algum momento na vida da pessoa para quem a pergunta
dirigida), never (indicando que algo nunca
aconteceu na vida da pessoa para quem a pergunta dirigida), recently, lately, once, twice,
three times.

Nota
O auxiliar do pode, em um caso especfico,
ser utilizado na forma afirmativa da frase e
tambm no passado simples. Tal ocorrncia
verificada quando o locutor quer enfatizar a
informao para que o interlocutor a compreenda
integralmente e no a questione.
Exemplo:
You keep saying I don t study but I do study
very hard. (Voc vive dizendo que eu no estudo, mas eu estudo muito.)

D. Present perfect conti nuous


O presente perfeito contnuo descreve uma
ao iniciada em um momento passado no
especfico, enfatizando a sua continuidade em
um momento presente.
Formas:
Afirmativa: sujeito + have/has + BEEN
+ verbo ing

Kevin is always trying to show off and sometimes


he does get his point. (Kevin est sempre tentando chamar ateno e, muitas vezes, ele
consegue.)
Nos exemplos acima, o uso do auxiliar, simplesmente, enfatiza o fato de o locutor em
questo executar determinada atividade e obter o resultado desejado.

She has BEEN doing her homework


since I arrived.
Negativa: sujeito + have/has + NOT
(havent/hasnt) + BEEN + verbo ing

C. Present perfect
O presente perfeito descreve uma ao iniciada em um momento passado no especfico,
cuja durao se mantm no presente ou, pelo
menos, cujos efeitos continuam sendo observados.

They have NOT (havent) BEEN working lately.


Interrogativa: Have/Has + sujeito +
BEEN + verbo ing
Has he BEEN going to the doctor recently?

Formas:
Afirmativa: sujeito + have/has + particpio passado do verbo

Algumas expresses temporais podem ser observadas no presente perfeito contnuo como,
por exemplo: for (indicando perodo de tempo), since (indicando o momento em que a
ao teve incio), recently e lately.

They have walked to Trafalgar Square.


She has walked to Trafalgar Square.
PV2D-13-11

Ingls

Negativa: sujeito + have/has + NOT


(havent/hasnt) + particpio passado
do verbo

Mas, como isso "cai" no vestibular?


A importncia dos tempos verbais no vestibular abrangente. Faz-se necessria a
compreenso deles para que se possa determinar em que tempo a informao dada
no texto acontece: trata-se de um acontecimento passado, presente ou futuro? H,
tambm, ocorrncias que exigem o conhecimento gramatical do tempo verbal, ou seja,
importante que se conhea a estrutura e
que se saiba associ-lo a determinado tempo verbal para que a resposta seja dada.

We have NOT (havent) gone to the zoo.


Interrogativa: Have/Has + sujeito +
particpio passado do verbo
Has she visited the zoo?
Algumas expresses temporais podem ser
observadas no presente perfeito como, por
exemplo: for (indicando perodo de tempo),
since (indicando o momento em que a ao
teve incio), already (significando j em frases
45

Ingls

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

EXERCCIOS RESOLVIDOS
Seguem abaixo trs exemplos de como tal tpico pode ser abordado no vestibular. O primeiro deles do vestibular do Cefet, no qual
o enunciado trabalha a informao geral do
contexto apresentado.

The perils of counterfeit drugs go


way beyond being ripped off by dubious
online pill-pushers. The World Health
Organization (WHO) estimates that 50
per cent of all medicines sold online are
worthless counterfeits. In developing
nations fake pills may account for as
much as 30 per cent of all drugs on the
market. Even in the developed world,
1 per cent of medicines bought over the
counter are fakes.
Some key events illustrate the risk
these pose. In Nigeria, 2500 children died
in 1995 after receiving fake meningitis
vaccines. In Haiti, Bangladesh and Nigeria,
around 400 people died in 1998 after being
given paracetamol that had been prepared
with diethylene glycol a solvent used in
wallpaper stripper. The fakers are nothing
if not market-aware: in the face of an
outbreak of H5N1 bird flu in 2005, they
began offering fake Tamiflu.
What can be done? The WHO
coordinates an umbrella body called
the International Medical Products
Anti-Counterfeiting Taskforce (IMPACT),
an industry initiative that issues alerts
when it finds anomalies in the medicine
supply chain. Such events include sudden
drops in wholesale prices, hinting at fakes
coming onto the market, or the mimicking
of anti-counterfeiting features on packaging,
such as holograms or barcodes, says Nimo
Ahmed, head of intelligence at the UKs
Medicine and Healthcare Products
Regulatory Agency.

Here is a comic strip taken from the Internet.

Disponvel em: <http://comics.com>. Acesso


em: April 28, 2011. By The born loser,
published on November 11, 2006.

Verifica-se no cartum que o homem questiona


a mulher sobre o que ela est fazendo dentro
do quarto escuro. A ocorrncia em questo
Gladys, what are you doing in here, with the
lights out feita com o uso do presente contnuo.
01.
From this text, one can infer that:
a. digital immigrants always misuse
technology.
b. digital cameras also have some
disadvantages.
c. technology travels too fast for digital
immigrants.
d. old printing methods are better than
current ones.
e. digital immigrants should discharge
digital cameras.
Resoluo
Gladys afirma estar tentando revelar as fotos
que tirou. Ele diz que ela no precisa de uma
cmara escura com uma mquina digital. Sendo assim, podemos afirmar que a tecnologia
avana muito rapidamente para aqueles que
so chamados imigrantes digitais, ou seja, os
que tiveram que se adaptar tecnologia, sem
ter muito tempo para experiment-la.

Disponvel em: New Scientist, 10


July 2010, p. 18. Adaptado.

O texto de cunho informativo e discorre sobre os medicamentos falsificados e os perigos


que eles infligem sade da populao.

Verifica-se que foi necessria a compreenso


total do cartum para a resoluo da questo e
no do tpico gramatical que envolvia a ocorrncia do presente contnuo.
Resposta
C
46

PV2D-13-11

O segundo exemplo, retirado do vestibular da


Fuvest, pede, especificamente, informaes a
respeito dos falsificadores de medicamentos.

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

and museums of Europe, and the cities


and natural wonders of North and South
America. Some visit the vast exotic cultures
of Asia, Africa and the Middle East. The
great outback of Australia is a wonderland
for those who go there. And a few lucky
people even make to the most mysterious
continent on the earth Antarctica.
Why do people want to explore the
world? It gives them a better perspective
about the earth and the people living on
it. It opens their minds, it gives them a feeling
of accomplishment, and it makes them
feel alive. So save some money, get your
passport ready, and see the world. It will
change your life forever.

02.
De acordo com o texto, medicamentos falsificados, em geral:
a. so consumidos apenas em pases pobres e de pouco acesso Internet.
b. encontram dificuldade de comercializao com o aparecimento de novas
doenas.
c. so ineficazes e contm elementos
danosos sade em sua composio.
d. possuem embalagens atraentes que
ludibriam o consumidor.
e. vm sendo criteriosamente apreendidos
pela Organizao Mundial da Sade.

O texto aborda o desejo que as pessoas tm


de viajar e conhecer o mundo com o intuito
de ampliar a sua viso de vida, abrir a mente,
ter a sensao de conquista e realizao e de
se sentirem vivas. O autor sugere que os leitores arrumem as malas, economizem dinheiro
e partam em direo a uma experincia que
mudar sua vida para sempre.

Resoluo
O segundo pargrafo do texto informa os
vrios riscos associados ao uso de medicamentos falsificados. Com base na exposio
desses efeitos e do conhecimento prvio,
chega-se concluso de que os medicamentos
falsificados, em geral, so ineficazes e contm
elementos danosos sade em sua composio. Observe que a interpretao global do
texto e dos tempos verbais que aparecem
levam concluso acima mencionada.
Resposta

Nota-se que o enunciado foca, diretamente, a


estrutura do tempo verbal isolado.
03.
The correct verb tense used in the sentence
others have been bitten by the travel bug
(paragraph 1) is:
a. past perfect.
b. present simple.
c. present perfect.
d. past simple.
e. active voice.

C
O terceiro exemplo, retirado do vestibular da
Udesc, aborda, especificamente, o conhecimento gramatical isolado.

PV2D-13-11

Ingls

English around the world


Have you ever had the desire to wander
the world and see what was out there?
While some people prefer to stay in the
comfort of their own home, others have
been bitten by the travel bug and cant
wait to explore the world. Exotic places
call to them. Come visit me and I will
show you my mysteries, they say.
Every year millions of people pack
their suitcases or put on backpacks and
flock to visit the seven continents of the
world. They wander through the castles

Resposta
O enunciado questiona o tempo verbal apresentado no trecho, ou seja, trata-se de anlise
de estrutura gramatical. Observando o trecho,
verifica-se que a estrutura verbal que corresponde encontrada na orao o presente
perfeito (present perfect).
Resposta
C

47

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Ingls

2. Past tenses

B. Past simple

A. Past continuous

O passado simples usado para expressar


uma ao passada e concluda num tempo definido no passado (yesterday, last week/year/
month, ten minutes/hours/months/years ago,
in 2011).

O passado contnuo descreve uma ao que


estava ocorrendo em determinado momento
no passado, podendo ou no estar associada a
outro acontecimento passado.

Formas:
Afirmativa: aos verbos regulares acrescenta-se (e)d para formar o passado;
aos verbos irregulares nenhuma terminao acrescida, pois eles frequentemente tm a sua forma alterada (verificar tabela no appendix, item 7).

Formas:
Afirmativa: sujeito + verbo to be no passado (was/were) + verbo principal -ing
I was cleaning the house when he called me.
Negativa: sujeito + verbo to be (was/
were) + NOT + verbo principal -ing

He went there last night.


Peter sold his car yesterday.

She was NOT (wasnt) listening when the


teacher explained what to do.

When he entered the room, everybody


greeted him.

Interrogativa: verbo to be (was/were) +


sujeito + verbo principal -ing

Negativa: sujeito + did (auxiliar no passado) + not (didnt) + verbo no modo


infinitivo sem to

Were you studying when I called you?

They didnt study last week.

Relembrando

She didnt pass the exam.

verb to be
past
I
was
you
were
he
was
she

Did you stay home last night?


Did he go to the party?
Algumas expresses temporais podem ser observadas no passado simples como, por exemplo: yesterday, the day before yesterday, last
(week/month/year/holidays), ago (three days
ago, seven years ago) e the other day.

were

Algumas expresses temporais podem ser


observadas no passado contnuo como, por
exemplo: yesterday, the day before yesterday,
last (week/month/year/holidays), ago (three
days ago, seven years ago) e the other day.
No entanto, diferentemente do passado simples, quando utilizadas no passado contnuo,
tais expresses devem vir seguidas do momento do acontecimento, por exemplo: I was
working at my office yesterday in the morning.
She was driving to her house the other day at
five oclock.

C. Past perfect
O passado perfeito descreve uma ao que
aconteceu em um momento passado anterior
a outra ao tambm passada.
Formas:
Afirmativa: sujeito + had + particpio passado
do verbo
When you arrived, I had finished my lunch.
48

PV2D-13-11

it
we
you
they

Interrogativa: Did (auxiliar no passado)


+ sujeito + verbo no modo infinitivo
sem to

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Ingls
Negativa: sujeito + had + NOT (hadnt) +
BEEN + verbo -ing

Negativa: sujeito + had + NOT (hadnt) +


particpio passado do verbo
He had NOT (hadnt) dug in the right place.

They had NOT (hadnt) BEEN quarreling


when we arrived home.

Interrogativa: Had + sujeito + particpio


passado do verbo

Interrogativa: Had + sujeito + BEEN +


verbo -ing

Had she left home?

Had you BEEN quarreling when we


arrived home?

D. Past perfect conti nuous


O passado perfeito contnuo descreve uma
ao que aconteceu em um momento passado
anterior a outra ao tambm passada, enfatizando a durao desta at o momento em que
a segunda ao ocorreu.
Formas:
Afirmativa: sujeito + had + BEEN + verbo -ing

Mas, como isso "cai" no vestibular?


No vestibular, as formas passadas seguem
a mesma ocorrncia das formas presentes.
Portanto, necessria a compreenso geral
do texto para responder testes ora interpretativos e que dependem da estrutura e da
informao dada no texto, ora especficos e
relacionados estrutura verbal isolada do
tipo de passado em questo.

The boy had BEEN quarreling when we


arrived home.

EXERCCIOS RESOLVIDOS
rights as heterosexuals in common-law
marriages. This ruling made Colombia the
first South American nation to legally
recognize gay couples. Furthermore, in
January 2009, the Court ruled that samesex couples must be extended all of the
rights offered to cohabitating heterosexual
couples.
Ecuador
The Ecuadorian new constitution
has made Ecuador stand out in the region.
Ecuador has become the first country
in South America where same sex civil
union couples are legally recognized as
a family and share the same rights of
married heterosexual couples.
Uruguay
Uruguay became the first country in
South America to allow civil unions (for
both opposite-sex and same-sex-couples)
in a national platform on January 1, 2008.
Children can be adopted by same-sex-couples since 2009.

PV2D-13-11

Seguem exemplos de vestibulares e a forma


como eles abordam o contedo gramatical.
O primeiro deles, retirado do vestibular da
Unesp, questiona o conhecimento gramatical
relativo ao passado de alguns verbos.
Status of same-sex marriage
South America
Argentina
The Autonomous City of Buenos Aires
(a federal district and capital city of the
republic) allows same-sex civil unions.
The province of Rio Negro allows samesex civil unions, too. Legislation to enact
same-sex marriage across all of Argentina
was approved on July 15, 2010.
Brazil
A law that would allow same-sex civil
unions throughout the nation has been
debated. Until the end of the first semester
of 2010 the Supremo Tribunal Federal had
not decided about it.
Colombia
The Colombian Constitutional Court
ruled in February 2007 that same-sex
couples are entitled to the same inheritance

Disponvel em: <http://en.wikipedia.org/>. Adaptado.

49

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Dec. 3 was a turning point. He


realized the system must change and that
he and his fellow immigrants were the
ones to make that happen. Their method?
Guided by local activists, about 50 Asian
students boycotted school for a week.
Before, I was timid. I didnt really
want to get myself into trouble, says Ly,
18. Then he realized, If everybodys
silent, nobody speaks up, the problem keeps
going on without being resolved. I feel
like I or my friends have to speak up and
organize to tell people this is not right.
Duong Ly had a busy summer: an
internship at the University of Pennsylvania
on Asian health issues; a psychology class
at a community college; trips to conferences
in Houston and Boston to discuss his new
activism; being photographed for a
Philadelphia magazine story that labeled
the boycotters heroes.
On Wednesday, he will walk through
the battered metal doors of South Philadelphia
High to start his senior year at what he
hopes is a changed school. Im really
looking forward to it, he says.

O texto aborda a temtica do casamento


homossexual nos pases da Amrica do Sul.
Notam-se referncias s formas como as leis
foram concebidas ou ainda no foram na Argentina, no Brasil, na Colmbia, no Equador e no
Uruguai.
O enunciado da questo foi especfico ao pedir
que sejam identificadas as formas verbais relativas ao passado.
01.
Assinale a alternativa na qual todas as palavras
so formas verbais relativas ao passado.
a. adopted, become, decided, recognized,
ruled
b. adopted, allow, become, recognized,
ruled
c. approved, became, been, decided,
ruled
d. allow, approved, became, decided, may
e. can, debated, entitled, made, offered
Resoluo
A alternativa que no apresenta dvidas quanto
s formas passadas a letra C. importante
ressaltar que a alternativa A pode ter sido
desconsiderada diante do fato de become ser
tambm forma presente.
Resposta
C

Disponvel em: <http://www.bismarcktribune.


com/news/national/article_2962cbcc-a7b155ca-9d82fe7b46d6b78a.html>.

O texto de cunho informativo e aborda um


acontecimento com um jovem estudante asitico que foi vtima de violncia racial. O enunciado da questo discorre acerca do tempo verbal
apresentado no trecho retirado do texto.

O segundo exemplo, retirado do vestibular da


UPE, aborda em seu enunciado o conhecimento e a identificao da estrutura verbal presente em determinado trecho do texto.
Racial violence changes student
and school
Duong Nghe Ly cant wait to begin
his senior year at South Philadelphia High
School. A day of violence there last year
changed his life, and he wants to learn if
his school has been transformed as well.
Last Dec. 3, About 30 Asians were
injured; seven went to hospitals. Ly was
in the lunchroom for what he calls the
riot. Days later, he was followed home
from school and punched in the face on
his front stoop. He had arrived from
Vietnam two years earlier, speaking nearly
no English, the son of poor, uneducated
parents.

02.
In what tense is the sentence He had arrived
from Vietnam two years earlier?
a. Simple past tense
b. Past perfect tense
c. Simple present tense
d. Present perfect tense
e. Past continuous tense
Resoluo
Observa-se que de essencial importncia o
conhecimento da estrutura verbal presente na
orao e que corresponde ao tempo passado
perfeito.
Resposta
B

50

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Ingls

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

O exemplo abaixo, retirado do vestibular da


Unicamp, tem como ttulo uma estrutura verbal
de tempo passado indicativa do tipo de informao
que ser encontrado no texto que o acompanha.

O texto discorre sobre as especulaes que levaram Charles Darwin a atrasar a sua publicao de teorias acerca da Origem das espcies.
L-se no texto que, caso as especulaes tivessem sido comprovadas, Darwin teria abandonado por completo suas pesquisas. Fato esse
que no aconteceu como visto dcadas depois
com a publicao completa de seus trabalhos.

Did Charles Darwin delay in


publishing Origins of Species?
Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882)
began working on his theories of the
Origins of Species in 1837; however his
works were published more than twenty
years after that. There is much speculation
as to why it took so long to publish the
groundbreaking book; some suggest that
he was afraid to challenge the scientific
community and upset the Church.
After first positing his ideas regarding
how species underwent a natural selection
and could possibly adapt over time, the
text provoked adverted reactions from his
intellectual mentors, Charles Lyell and Sir
John Herschel.
Still, Darwin continued working on
his theory; if he really was affected by
the potential of a negative response to his
ideas, some believe that it seems more
plausible that he would have abandoned
research completely. Throughout the
period during which he was working on
the Origins of Species, he published essays
revealing his work in progress. Many now
believe that Darwin did not delay
publishing, but rather, took over two
decades to complete his work.

As questes so dissertativas e questionam sobre


a hiptese levantada por algumas pessoas para
justificar o fato de Darwin ter demorado mais de
duas dcadas para publicar Origins of Species e as
evidncias que contrariam essa hiptese.
Nesse caso, a interpretao do contexto e o
conhecimento verbal so necessrios para se
responder s perguntas.
a. Que hiptese levantada por algumas
pessoas para justificar o fato de Darwin
ter demorado mais de duas dcadas
para publicar Origins of Species?
b. Indique duas evidncias que contrariam
essa hiptese.
Resoluo
a) Algumas pessoas sugerem que Darwin tinha
medo de desafiar a comunidade cientfica e de
aborrecer a Igreja, o que pode justificar o fato de
ele ter demorado mais de duas dcadas para publicar Origins of Species.
b) As evidncias que contrariam a hiptese de
que Darwin no tenha publicado seu trabalho
por medo de desafiar a comunidade cientfica e
de aborrecer a igreja consistem na continuidade
de seu trabalho, ou seja, ele no o abandonou,
e no fato de ele no ter postergado a publicao
de seu trabalho por duas dcadas, mas sim, de
ter levado duas dcadas para conclu-lo.

Disponvel em:<http://www.suite101.com/
greatthinkers/4>. Acesso em: 21 set. 2010. Adaptado.
PV2D-13-11

Ingls

3. Future tense
A. Simple future
As formas mais comuns de se indicar o tempo futuro em ingls consistem no uso de will ou going
to. Pode-se ainda, expressar uma inteno em um futuro prximo com o uso do present continuous.
Will
Formas:
Afirmativa: sujeito + will + verbo no modo infinitivo sem to
The forecast says it will rain tomorrow.
Negativa: sujeito + will + NOT (wont) + verbo no modo infinitivo sem to
She wont help him anymore.
51

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Ingls

Interrogativa: Will + sujeito + verbo no modo infinitivo sem to


Will you come with us?
Podemos utilizar will em situaes como:
Situation

Aim

Example

Decisions

To make decisions that are made


at the time of speaking.

DesireWillingness

To state desire or willingness for


something or someone.

The girls will be happy to go on holiday for a


few weeks.
I will be happy to help you today.

Facts

To state a fact about the future.

My teacher will be happy, the whole class


passed the test.
The phone bill will be very high, my father will
be very upset.

Prediction

To predicate a future event or


action.

Formal
statements

To make a formal statement about


a future action or event.

Suggestions

To make suggestions or state


ideas.

Request

To make a request.

We will eat dinner today at 6:00p.m.


We will clean your room this week.

I think it will rain this afternoon.


My sister will be a great teacher.
The president will make a public announcement
on Tuesday at 8:00p.m.
The school will be closed for a few days.
We will be happy to drive you to the store.
Will we go to the store tonight or tomorrow
morning?
Will you come with me to the store?
You will do your homework now.

Formas:
Afirmativa: verbo to be + going to + verbo no modo infinitivo sem to
Im going to travel to Spain tomorrow.
Negativa: sujeito + verbo to be + NOT (am not/is not/are not) + going to + verbo no modo
infinitivo sem to
They arent going to pass the exam next week, they havent studied.
Interrogativa: verbo to be + sujeito + going to + verbo no modo infinitivo sem to
Is he going to arrive home at 7 oclock?

52

PV2D-13-11

Going to

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Ingls

Podemos utilizar going to em situaes como:


Situation

Planned events

Aim

Example

When a future event that has been


planned before the time of speaking.

I am going to (travel to) Mexico in a few


days.
We are not going to work next week.
They are going to (study) at university
next year.
There is going to be a really big storm in
a few hours.
The test next week is going to be
really hard.
The puppies are cute. I am sure
someone is going to adopt them.

Predictions

To make a future prediction


based on facts.

Intentions

To state something that is intended to


take place in the future, in informal
conversations.

I am going to be a rich person someday.


We are going to pass the test.
The puppies are going to make a big
mess in house.

Importante

Future Conditi onal

Na lngua portuguesa, o tempo conditional corresponde ao futuro do pretrito. um tempo verbal que, geralmente, pode estar associado a uma condio (if).
I would go with you if I had money.
Mas, como isso "cai" no vestibular?
No vestibular, o tempo futuro analisado tanto de forma isolada como fazendo parte do contexto e necessrio para a interpretao e anlise das informaes dadas.

PV2D-13-11

EXERCCIOS RESOLVIDOS
Dois exemplos abaixo ilustram tal informao.
O primeiro, retirado do vestibular ITA, apresenta um cartum que traz uma informao a
respeito do futuro.

Com base na leitura e na observao do cartum, verifica-se que o ano em questo o


de 2060 e que a busca por uma tecnologia
inovadora para resolver a mudana climtica
continua. Um dos pesquisadores afirma que
se trata de uma mquina do tempo que poderia lev-los de volta cerca de 50 anos, que
quando eles deveriam ter colocado um preo
no carbono.
O enunciado da questo foca na ideia central
do texto, ou seja, o uso do tempo futuro no
analisado isoladamente, mas, sim, com base
no contexto.

53

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

physical, cognitive, emotional, and


psychomotor skills and the ocular realms.
Fortunately, objective methods to measure
these functions within the medical field
are widely available.
The physical parameters of strength,
coordination and vision peak during the
third decade of surgical practice and then
diminish at a variable rate. As the human
visual system ages, the lens and cornea
begin to opacify and increased light is
needed for proper visualization.

01.
Assinale a opo que mais se aproxima da
ideia central do texto.
a. O trabalho dignifica o homem.
b. Uma andorinha s no faz vero.
c. Quem tudo quer nada tem.
d. A ociosidade a me de todos os vcios.
e. Mais vale prevenir que remediar.
Resoluo
A charge passa a mensagem de que continua
a procura para tentar resolver o problema da
mudana climtica e a soluo sugerida a
volta no tempo para evitar o estgio a que chegaram. Isso se resume a mais vale prevenir do
que remediar.

The Orthopaedic Forum. In: The Journal on Bone and


Joint Surgery JBJS. Vol.92, Nr. 8. July 21, 2010.

02.
This excerpt is about:
a. the perceptions individuals have about
the aging of their doctors.
b. the development and decline of the
capabilities of surgeons.
c. the importance of the five senses when
performing surgeries.
d. the skills doctors develop as they
perform surgeries.
e. the reasons why surgeries need to be
conducted under good lighting.

Resposta
E
Um segundo exemplo foi retirado do vestibular da PUC. O enunciado da questo trabalha
com a interpretao do contexto. Observa-se
a ocorrncia do futuro condicional e a sua funo indispensvel na interpretao do texto.
Most thoughtful individuals would
agree that there is a divergence between
chronological age and objective levels
of intellectual and technical surgical
performance. As one considers the
proper parameters of competence and
who should measure them, it should
be emphasized that the definition of
professionalism is that the patients
well-being must remain paramount to that
of the surgeon. As with most biological
functions, there is a bell-shaped curve
of competence that embraces the

Resoluo
No incio do texto, l-se que, existe uma diferena entre a idade cronolgica e os nveis
objetivos de performance cirrgica tcnica e
intelectual. Ao longo do texto, lemos que a
maioria das funes biolgicas, com o decorrer de trs dcadas atuando na especialidade,
tende a diminuir.
Resposta
B

4. Modal verbs
Os verbos modais so verbos distintos dos demais por possurem caractersticas prprias como:
no necessitam de auxiliares, o verbo que os seguem sempre esto na forma de infinitivo sem o
to, alm de no sofrerem alteraes nas terceiras pessoas (he, she, it) e tampouco sofrem inflexes relativas a tempo verbal.
So verbos modais:
CAN: expressa tanto permisso como habilidade.
Can I drink some water?
I can speak three languages: Portuguese, English and French.

54

PV2D-13-11

Ingls

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Ingls
You must study everyday son.
The teacher is late. She must have had
some problem.

COULD: expressa tambm habilidade,


porm, no passado. utilizado tambm
como permisso em um contexto mais
formal.
I could ride a bike when I was five.
Could you stop interrupting, please?

Importante
A forma negativa de can pode ser expressa como cant (informal) ou cannot
(formal).
May, might, should e ought to tambm
podem ser usados tambm na forma
negativa, como may not, might not,
should not (shouldnt) e ought not to.
Must na forma negativa indica proibio You mustnt smoke indoors in
the state of Sao Paulo. / You mustnt
sell alcoholic drinks to underages.
Palavras como likely e unlikely adjetivos em estruturas como: Its likely
to happen, por exemplo, tambm expressam possibilidade/propenso ou

MAY e MIGHT: expressam possibilidade


de acontecimento. O uso de may tambm est associado permisso em
contextos ainda mais formais.
I might go to the party, it depends on
my father.
May I speak to the director, please?
SHOULD e OUGHT TO: expressam conselho. Muito se fala sobre a carga enftica de ought to em relao should,
afirmando que este aconselha independentemente da deciso do interlocutor e aquele enfatiza os malefcios de
se continuar a agir de determinada maneira, no acatando o conselho dado.
You should try it once more.
You ought to quit smoking.

impossibilidade de algo concordando


com o verbo que as seguem.

MUST: expressa obrigao ou deduo.


Pode ser substitudo por HAVE TO em
determinados casos. Alguns autores
afirmam que must tem maior fora
expressiva quanto obrigatoriedade.

Mas, como isso "cai" no vestibular?


No vestibular, os verbos modais podem ser
trabalhados dentro do contexto ou isoladamente. Geralmente, a questo mais comum

PV2D-13-11

EXERCCIO RESOLVIDO
reputation, the city of London can be a
great place to celebrate June 12.
One of the great things about London
is its parks. How about a walk through
Kensington Gardens? Here you could sit
on a bench and watch the swans glide by
on the Serpentine, before heading into
Hyde Park. If, on the other hand, you want
to see London in all its glory, go north,
either to Primrose Gardens or Hampstead
Heath, where you can enjoy a splendid
view of the English capital.
In addition to their lack of emotion,
the English are also famous for their love
of tea. The best place for this is the

associada a essa ltima ocorrncia aborda a


funo do modal dentro do contexto.
O exerccio abaixo, retirado do vestibular da
Unioeste, apresenta em seu enunciado a necessidade do conhecimento especfico relativo
aos verbos modais.
London in love
They say that the English are cold
and that they have difficulty expressing
emotions. This may well be true; after all,
somebody once said that Psychotherapy
was invented by the Jews to help the
Anglo-Saxons behave like the Latins.
And yet, in spite of this unfortunate
55

Ingls

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

exclusive Ritz Hotel on Piccadilly (but


you will need to book well in advance).
What better way to complete the day
than by seeing a play? Well, actually there
is a better way: a night at the opera, at the
Royal Opera House. Till June 13th the
Opera House will be staging a production
of Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet.

Resoluo
O modal utilizado na alternativa A indica probabilidade de que aquilo seja verdade; na
alternativa B, o modal indica possibilidade e
no permisso; na alternativa C, o modal no
expressa habilidade, mas, sim, uma sugesto
educada do que pode ser feito e, na alternativa D, o modal no pode ser substitudo por
must uma vez que no indica dever. Sendo
assim, a alternativa correta a E, que afirma
que os verbos can (pargrafos 1 e 2) e could
(pargrafo 2) expressam possibilidade e so
usados pelo autor para dar sugestes ao leitor
do que ele pode fazer em Londres.

Speak Up magazine, issue 253, June 2008, p. 28-31.

O texto discorre sobre a frieza associada aos


modos ingleses quando comparados aos latinos.
No entanto, o autor afirma que, apesar dessa
reputao, h vrios lugares em Londres em
que o amor p ode ser celebrado. O autor ainda
sugere um timo lugar para os visitantes
tomarem o famoso ch das 5 e assistirem a
uma pea teatral.

Como observado, trata-se de uma questo


de cunho gramatical. O contexto interfere na
compreenso geral da informao, no entanto
faz-se necessrio o conhecimento dos verbos
modais e das suas funes nas frases.
Resposta
E
O exemplo seguinte, retirado do vestibular
da UEFS, trabalha a anlise do contexto como
base para a escolha da alternativa correta.
Polar bears will be protected in Alaska
The US government says land that oil
and gas companies want to drill in Alaska
is a crucial home for polar bears.
Environmentalists hope this announcement
will help save the endangered animals.

A questo aborda o uso especfico dos verbos


modais dentro do contexto.
01.
Assinale a alternativa correta com relao ao
uso dos verbos modais no texto London in love.

PV2D-13-11

a. Na frase This may well be true (pargrafo 1), o verbo modal sublinhado
indica uma deduo, baseada na observao dos fatos por parte do autor.
b. Nas frases the city of London can be
a great place to celebrate June 12
(pargrafo 1) e where you can enjoy
a splendid view of the English capital
(pargrafo 2), o verbo modal sublinhado
expressa permisso.
c. Na frase Here you could sit on a bench
and watch the swans(pargrafo 2), o
verbo modal sublinhado expressa habilidade.
d. Na frase Here you could sit on a bench
and watch the swans (pargrafo 2), o
verbo modal could poderia ser substitudo por must sem prejuzo para o sentido da frase.
e. Os verbos modais can (pargrafos 1 e 2)
e could (pargrafo 2) expressam possibilidade e so usados pelo autor para
dar sugestes ao leitor do que ele pode
fazer em Londres.

Right now in an icy den in the Arctic,


a polar bear is giving birth to cubs, or is
about to. But the very survival of this
fearsome, majestic species concerns many
humans.
Polar bears live and hunt on sea ice,
but the frozen Arctic Ocean is melting at
an increasing rate, a result, scientists say,
of global warming caused by greenhouse
gases.
56

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Now the US government has


designated nearly 500,000 km2 in Alaska
as critical habitats for the polar bear. It
covers an area of roughly twice the size
of the United Kingdom, and it means
any proposed economic activity there,
must be weighed against its impact on
the bears habitat. It includes some of the
Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, exactly where
the oil company, Shell, wants to drill.
The designation itself doesnt ban oil
exploration, but it adds extra obstacles that
opponents say will harm the economy.
Environmentalists welcome the move,
saying now they can write a recovery plan
for polar bears, not an obituary.

c. considered carefully.
d. determined beforehand.
e. discouraged immediately.
Resoluo
A ideia expressa no trecho de que qualquer
tomada de atitude econmica no espao
delimitado pelo governo deve ser considerada
cuidadosamente no que tange ao impacto
ambiental. Verifica-se que no s o conhecimento do verbo modal faz-se necessrio como
tambm a interpretao do contexto em que
ele aparece.
Resposta
C

MIRCHANDANI, Rajesh. Polar bears


will be protected in Alaska.
Disponvel em: <www.bbc.co.uk/
worldservice/learningenglish/language/
wordsinthenews/2010/11/100929_with_polarbears_
page.shtml>. Acesso em: 2 dez. 2010.

Nota
Tag questions
As chamadas tag questions so declaraes
seguidas de uma confirmao da informao
mencionada na orao principal. Elas funcionam em equivalncia a um discurso muito
utilizado na linguagem falada e informal do
portugus como forma de confirmao do
que fora dito anteriormente. Para tal, utilizase de expresses como: n?, no ?, no
mesmo?, ou, muitas vezes, utiliza-se o prprio
verbo para confirmar a informao da orao
principal, como no exemplo abaixo.

O texto aborda a questo da possvel concesso de territrio no Alasca para perfurao de


petrleo e gs por companhias americanas.
Grande parte do territrio, segundo anlise
do governo americano, deve ser destinada
preservao dos ursos polares. O autor afirma
ainda que os ambientalistas se mostraram satisfeitos com a deciso.
O enunciado da questo trabalha com um
trecho em que se verifica a presena de um
verbo modal, no entanto a alternativa correta
depende da interpretao global do texto.

Voc no vai embora com ele, vai?


A origem da palavra tag associa-se ao fato de
tag ser algo pequeno, por exemplo, as etiquetas que so encontradas nas roupas so chamadas tags, as etiquetas que trazem o preo
das roupas tambm so chamadas (price)
tags, assim como os crachs que mostram o
nome das pessoas em uma loja de departamentos, por exemplo.

02.
PV2D-13-11

Ingls

The fragment must be weighed against, in


bold in the text, should be understood as must
be:
a. adopted quickly.
b. rejected definitely.
Estrutura das tag questions:
+
Orao afirmativa,
Its raining,

Orao negativa,
You dont love me anymore,

tag negativa?
isnt it?
+
tag afirmativa?
do you?

importante lembrar que a tag formada pelo auxiliar do verbo/modal ou verbo auxiliar da
orao principal.
57

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Ingls
Exemplos:
Affirmative statements

Negative statements

You are coming, arent you?

It isnt raining, is it?

We have homework, dont we?

We have never seen that, have we?

You like coffee, dont you?

They wont report us, will they?

We must go, mustnt we?

He shouldnt drive so fast, should he?

You are English, arent you?

John wasnt there, was he?

He has come, hasnt he?

I can never do it right, can I?

They spent some time together, didnt they?

You hardly ever came late, did you?

Os advrbios never, rarely, seldom, hardly,


barely e scarcely tm sentido negativo. Portanto, a tag formada a partir da orao principal que contenha qualquer um dos advrbios mencionados ser negativa. O sentido
associado s declaraes que os contenham
negativo.

Algumas ocorrncias de tag questions so especiais e no seguem a regra acima mencionada. Observe:
I am right, arent I? exceo s ocorrncias
com verbo to be
Lets go, shall we? sugesto
Call me, will you? imperativo

EXERCCIO RESOLVIDO
As tag questions so importantes para a compreenso e interpretao do texto, alm da
importncia do conhecimento isolado de sua
estrutura. O exemplo seguinte, retirado do
vestibular da UENP, aborda um dos casos especiais relacionados s tag quesitons.

O enunciado da questo determina que a sentena seja completada com a question tag
adequada.
Add the correct question tag to the following
sentence: Keep your goal in mind, ________?
a. dont you
b. will not you
c. wont you
d. do you
e. will you

Do you want something? Do this:


post a picture of your goal, or a picture that
symbolizes it, in a spot where you will
see it every day. When you are washing
dishes, stare down that jet plane, and the
vacation its represents. Keep your goal in
mind. You will naturally work toward
it and you will get it.

Resoluo

The Secret, by Rhonda Byrne.

Para resoluo da questo, necessrio lembrar


que, quando a question tag est na forma
imperativa, a tag vir sempre no formato will
you. Portanto, a alternativa E responde questo.

O texto, de cunho motivacional, estabelece comunicao com o leitor ao sugerir uma forma
de alcanar algum objetivo. L-se que o leitor
deve colocar uma imagem daquilo que deseja
em um local onde ela possa ser vista todos os
dias e manter o objetivo em mente. De acordo
com o texto, o leitor, naturalmente, trabalhar
em direo ao objetivo que almeja e o alcanar.

Resposta
E

58

PV2D-13-11

01.

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Ingls

5. Reported speech
Reported speech Statements
possvel relatar o que foi dito por algum de duas formas: pelo discurso direito ou pelo discurso
indireto. O discurso indireto, frequentemente utilizado na linguagem falada, consiste em recontar
o que foi dito por uma pessoa e, para tal, faz-se necessria a converso do tempo verbal para um
tempo anterior a ele.
Observe os seguintes exemplos.
Lysa said: I dont like going out on rainy days.
A frase acima est no presente simples. O discurso indireto seria feito corretamente no passado
simples.
Lysa said she didnt like going out on rainy days.
Observe as tabelas abaixo, que exemplificam as alteraes adverbiais, pronominais e verbais que
ocorrem nas frases quando reportadas para o discurso indireto.
Time expressions
now

then

today

that day

tomorrow

the next day/the following day

the day after tomorrow

in two days time

yesterday

the day before

the day before yesterday

two days before

next week/month

the following week/month

last week/month

the previous week/month

a year ago

a year before/the previous year

Importante

PV2D-13-11

Quando algo dito e reportado no mesmo instante, possvel que a expresso temporal permanea inalterada.
Michael said: I will travel tomorrow Michael said he would travel tomorrow.
Pronouns
Im a very good student, Daniel said.

Daniel said he was a very good student.

You must come tomorrow, my boss demanded.

My boss demanded I had to come the next day.

We are the best students, he said.

He said they were the best students.

They called us, she said.

She said they had called them.

I like your jeans, Sarah said.

Sarah said she liked my jeans.

They will finish it this year, he suggested.

He suggested they would finish it that year.

We want these flowers, they said.

They said they wanted those flowers.

59

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Ingls

Verb tenses & auxiliary verbs


Present

Past

I never understand you, she told me.


We are doing exercises, he explained.

She told me she never understood me.


He explained that they were doing exercises.

Present perfect

Past perfect

I have broken the window, he admitted.


I have been waiting since morning, he
complained.

He admitted that he had broken the window.


He complained that he had been waiting since
morning.

Past

Past perfect

She went to Rome, I thought.


He was thinking of buying a new car, she said.

I thought that she had gone to Rome.


She said he had been thinking of buying a new car.

Will

Conditional

I will come on Sunday, he reminded me.

He reminded me that he would come on Sunday.

Importante
1) I shall, we shall torna-se would:
I shall appreciate it, he said.
He said he would appreciate it.

Reported speech Questions


Ao reportar perguntas, deve-se transform-las em
declaraes, ou seja, elas deixam sua forma
interrogativa e passam a se comportar como
afirmaes. Todas as alteraes mencionadas
anteriormente so tambm vlidas ao reportar perguntas.

2) I should, we should, geralmente, torna-se


would:
We should be really glad, she told us.
She told us they would be really glad.

O verbo frequentemente utilizado para se reportar declaraes said substitudo por


asked, wanted to know, wonder... etc. Atenha-se
inverso ocorrida entre o sujeito e o tempo
verbal nos exemplos.

3) May torna-se might:


I may write to him, she promised.
She promised (that) she might write to
him.

Where have you been? my mother wanted


to know.
My mother wanted to know where I had been.

4) Can torna-se could:


I can come, Peter told Jane.
Peter told Jane he could come.

Why didnt he come? the teacher asked.


The teacher asked why he hadnt come.
importante mencionar que algumas mudanas
so feitas quando se reporta perguntas cujas
respostas limitam-se a concordar ou discordar,
com o que foi perguntado. Em ingls, d-se o
nome de yes/no questions a essas ocorrncias.

5) Must e have to tornam-se had to:


Kevin must fulfil the terms of the
contract, the builder mentioned.
The builder mentioned Kevin had to
fulfil the terms of the contract.
60

PV2D-13-11

Exemplos:

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

4) Com verbos modais would, might,


could, should, ought to e used to:
Lincoln: He should/ought to stay in
bed.
Lincoln said he should/ought to stay in
bed.

Quando reportamos perguntas, cujas respostas se limitam a concordar ou discordar com


o que foi perguntado, algumas alteraes so
necessrias como, por exemplo, a incluso da
partcula IF, alm das alteraes j mencionadas. Observe que perguntas desse tipo sempre
se iniciam com o verbo auxiliar em vez de um
pronome interrogativo.

5. Aps verbos e expresses verbais como


wish, would rather, had better e it is
time:
Elizabeth: I had better go.
Elizabeth said she had better go.

Exemplos:
Do you want to come with us? (Yes/No)
Andrew asked.
Andrew asked IF we wanted to come with
them.

6. Quando a sentena condicional:


Margaret: If I studied more, my dad
would be happy.
Margaret said that if she studied more,
her dad would be happy.

Are you single? the boy at the club asked me.


The boy at the club asked me IF I were single.
Special cases

7. Quando a orao temporal:


Joseph: When I was staying in London
I met my best friend.
He said that when he was staying in
London he met his best friend.

As formas verbais permanecem inalteradas


nos casos que seguem.
1) Quando o verbo encontra-se no tempo
presente:
Franklin: I am having a great time.
Franklin says he is having a great time.
2) Quando se reporta algo que ainda
verdadeiro:
Dave: Oceania is the smallest continent.
Dave said Oceania is the smallest continent.

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Ingls

Mas, como isso "cai" no vestibular?


Frequentemente, os vestibulares optam por
abordar o discurso indireto dentro do contexto. Entretanto, abordagens diretas do conhecimento gramatical especfico tambm
so notadas.

3) Quando algo dito e reportado ao


mesmo tempo e o fato ainda verdadeiro:
Mary: I am thirsty.
Mary said she is thirsty.

61

Ingls

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

EXERCCIO RESOLVIDO
Dois exemplos abaixo ilustram a temtica e a abordagem do discurso indireto. Ambos, retirados do
vestibular da ESPM, no apresentam no enunciado um indicativo direto de abordagem gramatical,
no entanto a pergunta feita com base na leitura do cartum no um indicativo da transformao do
discurso indireto, presente no ltimo quadro do cartum, em discurso direto

Disponvel em: <http://www.search. dilbert.com/comic/viral>.

01.

Verifica-se, no cartum, que o ambiente parece ser o de um escritrio e que todos esto
assistindo apresentao de um novo vdeo
de propaganda da empresa. Uma das pessoas
afirma que a apresentadora receber os comentrios de todos eles no dia seguinte.

The e-mail she got back from Wally most likely read:
a. The script had been great.
b. I think the script is humorless.
c. It was funny.
d. I thought the script would be great.
e. It is great.

A apresentadora, no entanto, afirma no estar


esperando comentrios, pois o vdeo j est
pronto. Outro ouvinte afirma que as menes
tecnolgicas no vdeo so totalmente inadequadas. A apresentadora parece enfurecida ao
afirmar que enviou o roteiro ao departamento
de engenharia h dois meses e recebeu um email de uma pessoa chamada Wally dizendo
que a apresentao estava tima.

Wally afirma que acreditava que ela queria saber se a apresentao estava divertida. Apesar
de no mencionar o fato de se tratar da forma
direta do discurso de Wally, esta informao
fica evidente quando se observam as alternativas. O e-mail de Wally deve conter a informao no tempo presente em razo do seu
discurso indireto no ltimo quadro. Portanto,
a alternativa E a que responde adequadamente ao enunciado.
Nota-se a ocorrncias de ambos os discursos
direto e indireto no contexto. Sendo assim,
a interpretao e a assimilao da informao
so essenciais para a compreenso do texto.
Resposta
E

O terceiro ouvinte que, at o momento, no tinha dito nada e que, supostamente, Wally
diz ter pensado que ela estava perguntando
se a apresentao estava divertida.
O enunciado do exerccio foca a informao
que, provavelmente, constava no e-mail que
ela recebeu de Wally.

62

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Resoluo

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Ingls
Facebooks popularity has also spurred
competition from the likes of Google,
which views the billions of links and
hours spent on the site each month as a
threat to its business.
But if anything, the sites steady growth
in spite of its setbacks only validates the
companys approach, said Ray Valdes, an
analyst at the research firm Gartner.
Facebook has been aggressive
in pushing users to the edge of their
comfort zone, Mr. Valdes said. But
Facebook has proven that it can weather
those challenges and still grow.
Mr. Valdes, who estimates that Facebook
is adding 50 million new members each
month, attributed the companys rapid
ascension to its continuous effort to change
and improve the service.
That keeps it bubbling away, he said.

Os trechos abaixo, destacados em itlico, ilustram ocorrncias do discurso direto e indireto


e mostram-se essenciais para a compreenso
da informao.
Facebook tops 500 million users
By Jenna Wortham

Facebook, the social network created


in the dormitories of Harvard six years
ago, said on Wednesday that it now had
500 million members.
The company has doubled in size
from a year ago, pushing international
competitors aside.
This is an important milestone for
all of you who have helped spread Facebook
around the world, Mark Zuckerberg, the
companys 26-year-old chief executive,
said in a company blog post.
Facebooks dizzying rise has not
been without stumbles. Most recently, the
company was the focus of intense scrutiny
over changes to its site that encouraged
members to make more information about
themselves accessible to anyone on the
Internet.
A recent survey by the American
Customer Satisfaction Index showed that
user satisfaction with Facebook stood at
64 on a 100-point scale, which placed it
in the bottom 5 percent of the companies
covered in the index.

The New York Times. July 21, 2010.

Resoluo
O texto aborda o crescimento da rede social
Facebook. As informaes em destaque auxiliam no discernimento a respeito do responsvel por aquela informao que veiculada.
Evidencia-se, portanto, a ampla contribuio
dos discursos direto e indireto para a compreenso textual.

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6. If clauses
As sentenas condicionais (if clauses) expressam a dependncia entre uma circunstncia ou condio e um fato ou resultado. Essas circunstncias e fatos podem ser presentes, passados ou futuros. Trata-se de perodos compostos, constitudos de uma orao principal (main clause) e uma
orao dependente, no caso, orao subordinada condicional (conditional clause).
Existem quatro tipos principais de oraes condicionais.
Zero conditional
A primeira delas chamada zero conditional (condicional zero). Ela formada com as duas oraes no presente a orao condicional e a orao principal e utilizada para expressar aes
decorrentes de leis naturais ou universais; expressar situaes gerais que so sempre verdade,
isto , de acordo com aquela condio expressa pela orao condicional, obtm-se um resultado
determinado e para dar uma ordem ou instruo.
Exemplos:
If you heat water at 100 C, it boils.
(Se voc aquecer gua a 100 C, ela ferve.)

63

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

If you press the button, the machine


starts to work.

Importante
1) Nas oraes condicionais, o verbo to
be no passado tem a forma were para
todas as pessoas. Vale ressaltar, entretanto, que, na linguagem informal, was
aceito em vez de were na 1 e 3 pessoas.

(Se voc aperta(r) o boto, a mquina


comea a funcionar.)
Please, call me if you have any poblems.
(Por favor, me ligue caso voc tenha
quaisquer problemas.)

Exemplos:
Id forgive him if he werent so arrogant.
(Eu o perdoaria se ele no fosse to
arrogante.)

First conditional
A first conditional (primeira condicional)
formada com a orao condicional no tempo
presente simples e a orao principal no futuro simples (can, must e may tambm podem
ser utilizados). Ela usada para se especular
a respeito de situaes passveis de acontecer
no presente ou no futuro. possvel o uso do
imperativo na orao principal para dar instrues, aconselhar ou ainda falar sobre possibilidades no futuro, caso a condio expressa se
cumpra.

If she were you, she would definitely go


with me.
(Se ela fosse voc, ela, definitivamente,
iria comigo.)
2) Aps I e we, should pode ser usado com
o mesmo significado de would. (Would
mais comum no ingls moderno;
raro o uso de should no ingls americano):

Exemplos:
If he gets up early, he will arrive on time.

If I knew her name, I should tell you.

(Se ele acordar cedo, ele chegar na hora.)

(Se eu soubesse o nome dela, eu diria a voc.)

Call a doctor if you feel sick.

Ao comparar a primeira e a segunda condicional,


observa-se que a diferena entre ambas reside no fato de uma abordar uma hiptese real
e a outra abordar uma hiptese irreal. Muitas
vezes importante que essa diferena seja
explcita para que no haja erro no envio da
mensagem desejada, como, por exemplo:

(Ligue para um mdico se voc se sentir mal.)


Second conditional
A second conditional (segunda condicional)
formada com orao condicional no tempo
passado simples e a orao principal no tempo condicional simples (could, might e should
tambm podem ser utilizados). Ela especula
sobre situaes improvveis, hipotticas ou
imaginrias no presente ou no futuro.

If I need your help, Ill call you. first


conditional
(Nesse caso, provvel que eu precise
da sua ajuda.)

Exemplo:

If I needed your help, Id call you.


second conditional

If I won the lottery, I would certainly


buy a huge house.

(Nesse caso, no muito provvel que


eu v precisar de sua ajuda.)

(Se eu ganhasse na loteria, eu, certamente,


compraria uma casa enorme.)

64

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Ingls

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Ingls

You will miss your bus if you get up late.


situao real

Kimberley would have passed her drivers


license exam if she had paid attention.

(Nesse caso, fato que perder o nibus se


voc acordar tarde.)

(Nesse caso, Kimberly teria passado no seu


exame para carteira de motorista mas, ela
no passou se tivesse prestado ateno.)

If I came from your country, I would understand


your problems. situao irreal

Mixed conditionals
Existem tambm as chamadas mixed conditionals que so sentenas em que se combinam
a segunda e a terceira condicional. A orao
condicional formada pelo passado perfeito e
a orao principal no tempo condicional simples.

(Nesse caso, eu no vim do seu pas, mas, se


eu viesse, eu entenderia seus problemas.)
Third conditional

Exemplo:

A third conditional (terceira condicional) formada com a orao condicional no passado


perfeito e a orao principal no condicional
perfeito (could, might e should tambm podem ser utilizados). Esse tipo de orao condicional refere-se a uma condio no realizada
no passado, isto , algo que teria acontecido
se um fato anterior tivesse ou no ocorrido.
Como a ao no ocorreu no passado, ela
impossvel agora no presente.

If Kevin had left immediately, he would be


here now.
(Entende-se que Kevin estaria aqui agora se
tivesse sado imediatamente
mas ele no saiu.)
I wouldnt be lost now if I had followed
the instructions.
(Entende-se que eu no estaria perdido agora
se tivesse seguido as instrues mas eu no
as segui.)

Exemplos:
If I had won a million, I would have started
a business of my own.
(Nesse caso, se eu tivesse ganhado mas, eu
no ganhei um milho, eu teria comeado
meu prprio negcio.)

Mas, como isso "cai" no vestibular?


No vestibular, as oraes condicionais podem ser cobradas isoladamente ou dentro
do contexto.

PV2D-13-11

EXERCCIOS RESOLVIDOS
comics are completely legal. Here I have
endeavored to collect as many of these as
possible, now totalling over 300 full
issues and stories, in one place.
Whether you have been meaning to
try a new title, or if youve never read a
comic in your life, theres still something
here for everyone. Follow a link or two
or three. Some comics that I especially
recommend carry an asterisk, but I havent
come close to reading everything here.
Maybe youll find something you enjoy.

O exemplo seguinte, retirado do vestibular da


Unesp, questiona em seu enunciado a continuao mais adequada para dar sequncia ao
texto apresentado. Para tal, no s necessrio compreender o texto, como tambm vincular uma das opes de resposta ao restante da
informao apresentada no texto.
Two of the greatest obstacles that
comics have in reaching readers are
exposure and cost. Fortunately, the Internet
has provided remedies for both. Many
comic book creators and publishers have
put their comics online, available as full
issues and at absolutely no cost to the reader.
And unlike torrents or scanned files, these

( _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ )
Disponvel em: <http:\\www.lorencollins.
net/freecomic>. Adaptado.

65

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Trata-se de um texto a respeito das dificuldades que as histrias em quadrinhos encontram


para chegar ao pblico em razo da exposio
e do custo. O autor afirma que a Internet encontrou um meio de sanar essas dificuldades,
uma vez que os muitos autores de histrias em
quadrinhos disponibilizam seus trabalhos. O
autor do texto compilou cerca de mais de 300
histrias e artigos completos em um nico lugar. Ele ainda afirma ter colocado um asterisco
naqueles que mais lhe interessaram.

Um segundo exemplo, retirado do vestibular


da UFT, aborda no enunciado da questo a
compreenso de um trecho formado por uma
sentena condicional.
What do you remember about
September 11, 2001?
By Katherine Schulten

Where were you nine years ago


Saturday? What do you remember about
that day or the days immediately after?
If youre in junior high, high school or
even the first years of college now, you
may have been too little then to have been
aware of what was happening on the day
itself. If so, what have you heard from
adults or older friends or relatives about
what those days and weeks were like?
Students, tell us what you remember
if you were old enough to remember
anything about September 11, 2001 or
the days that followed it. If you dont
remember anything, what memories of
that day have you heard older friends or
relatives describe? [] Students 13 and
older are invited to comment below. Please use
only your first name. For privacy policy
reasons, we will not publish student
comments that include a last name.
September 10, 2010 8:13 a.m. I
remember walking into work that day,
thinking what a beautiful day it was, with
the sky so blue and, how clear and crisp
it was, and then the day went so horribly
wrong []. Lisa
September 10, 2010 8:40 a.m.
Such a beautiful, clear blue sky that morning.
Heard one of the planes fly over us as we
were getting ready to head off to class. A
roommate says, wow, that sounded like a
low-flying plane. Alexis
[...]

01.
Qual das oraes a seguir melhor se encaixa
na sequncia do texto, como um terceiro pargrafo?
a. If you have never read a comic book
in your life, youll probably find it very
difficult to understand the books in this
collection.
b. If you know of more online comics I
could add to the list, or discover that
any of these links have gone bad, please
contact me by e-mail.
c. If you like funny stories, click on one of
the five links below and buy as many free
books as you want, at excellent prices.
d. If you like funny stories and want to email the publishers to complain, this is
considered totally legal.
e. If you have read a total of 300 stories
in your life, youll probably find it very
difficult to enjoy the books in this
collection.
Resoluo
Verifica-se que o autor finaliza o texto afirmando
que ainda no leu tudo o que compilou e que,
talvez, o leitor encontre algo de que goste.
Com base na anlise das informaes contidas
nas alternativas, l-se na B que o autor pede ao
leitor que o contate via e-mail, caso encontre
mais histrias em quadrinhos que ele possa
adicionar sua lista ou caso alguns dos links por
ele sugeridos no tenham o acesso permitido.
Todas as alternativas contm sentenas
condicionais que, nesse caso, exigiam a leitura
do texto para que ele fosse completado
adequadamente com a informao faltante.
Dessa forma, a condicional cobrada dentro
do contexto do texto.
Resposta
B

Disponvel em: <http://www.NYTimes.com/learning.


blogs>. Acesso em: September 13th, 2010. Adaptado.

O texto traz o relato de algumas crianas com


relao aos acontecimentos de 11 de setembro de 2001. O enunciado da questo exige a
anlise e interpretao da sentena condicional e a que fato ela se refere.

66

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Ingls

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Ingls

02.

Resoluo

The sentence If youre in junior high, high


school or even the first years of college now,
you may have been too little then to have been
aware of what was happening on the day
itself refers to the fact that:
a. is such a shame that young people
ignore September 11.
b. it is understandable that youngsters are
not interested about 9/11.
c. there is a major possibility that young
students did not understand immediately
the real dimension of the September
11 events.
d. the new generations are more vulnerable
to terrorist attacks.
e. the American youth is highly alienated.

A informao na sentena de que se o leitor


estiver, atualmente, cursando o Ensino Fundamental ou o Ensino Mdio ou estiver at
mesmo nos primeiros anos da faculdade, ele
provavelmente era muito pequeno para ter
conscincia a respeito do que aconteceu naquele dia especfico.
O fato a que a sentena faz referncia o da
existncia da grande possibilidade dos jovens
alunos no terem, no momento do ataque, entendido de imediato a real dimenso dos eventos ocorridos em 11 de setembro de 2001.
Verifica-se que a ocorrncia de sentenas condicionais no vestibular est associada sua interpretao no contexto em que elas aparecem.
Resposta
C

7. Passive voice
A voz passiva em ingls, assim como em portugus, tem como objetivo enfatizar o objeto e no
o sujeito da ao. Ela formada pelo verbo to be no mesmo tempo da voz ativa e o verbo no
particpio passado. importante lembrar que alguns verbos so regulares e outros so irregulares (verificar appendix, item 7). semelhana do portugus, o objeto da voz ativa passa a ser
o sujeito da voz passiva, e o sujeito da voz ativa passa a ser o agente da voz passiva.
Exemplo:
Shakespeare wrote lots of plays. Lots of plays WERE written by Shakespeare.
Na sentena acima, o sujeito da orao na voz ativa Shakespeare passa a ser o agente da
passiva, assim como o objeto da orao na voz passiva lots of plays passa a ser o sujeito da
passiva. O agente da passiva pode no ser mencionado quando o sujeito da voz ativa no for
importante ou for desconhecido ou indeterminado ou quando for bvio.
PV2D-13-11

Exemplos:
Workers are building a new supermarket two blocks from my house. voz ativa
A new supermarket IS being built two blocks from my house. voz passiva
(Toma-se como verdade o fato de os trabalhadores serem os responsveis pela construo do
novo supermercado, portanto no h necessidade de mencionar o agente da passiva.)
The postman delivered the letter early this morning. voz ativa
The letter WAS delivered early this morning. voz passiva
(Toma-se como verdade o fato de o carteiro ser a pessoa que entrega cartas, portanto no h
necessidade de mencionar o agente da passiva.)

67

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Ingls

A tabela abaixo mostra como so formadas as frases na voz passiva nos diversos tempos e construes verbais.
Voz ativa

Voz passiva

Simple present
I write letters to my friends.

AM/IS/ARE + past participle


Letters ARE written to my friends by me.

Simple past
Freud won the elections.

WAS/WERE + past participle


The elections WERE won by Freud.

Present continuous
People are speaking different languages.

AM/IS/ARE BEING + past participle


Different languages ARE BEING spoken.

Past continuous
They were fighting against the laws.

WAS/WERE BEING + past participle


The laws WERE BEING fought against.

Simple future
Antony will write another novel.

WILL BE + past participle


Another novel WILL BE written by Antony.

Simple conditional
Clark would send the mail if he had the address.

WOULD BE + past participle


The mail WOULD BE sent by Clark if he had the
address.

Present perfect
I have achieved my aims.

HAS/HAVE BEEN + past participle


My aims HAVE BEEN achieved.

Past perfect
Caroline had worked on the project.

HAD BEEN + past participle


The project HAD BEEN worked on by Caroline.

Modal verbs
You can drink water in that fountain.
People should practise exercises.

MODAL VERB + BE + past participle


Water CAN BE drunk in that fountain.
Exercises SHOULD BE practised.

Mas, como isso "cai" no vestibular?

PV2D-13-11

No vestibular, verifica-se a ocorrncia da voz passiva de duas formas principais: como um tpico a ser verificado em meio a outros ou como conhecimento especfico da estrutura gramatical
que a contm.

EXERCCIOS RESOLVIDOS
take care of our personal finances. If
your parents taught you the rudiments
of looking after your cash, youre in the
minority. Were tossed into a sea of financial
10 mystery and many of us never manage to
swim to shore.
Yes, it can be tough making ends
meet as a student. But theres no real need
to go horribly overdrawn once you know
15 whats what and have the confidence to
handle your personal cash flow wisely. Daisy

Uma das abordagens feitas pelo vestibular


exemplificada no exerccio abaixo, retirado do
vestibular da UEM.

It just doesnt add up: campaigning for


life lessons in schools
Did you go to University or college?
And did you leave hopelessly overdrawn?
What state are your personal finances
in as an adult? Too many of us leave school
without the faintest clue about how to
68

PV2D-13-11

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Bell, discount code expert, comments,


It seems silly that we leave school with
a basic knowledge of all sorts of subjects
20 that, while fascinating, dont necessarily
help us make a practical success of our
lives. But most of us have no idea how
to balance our bank accounts and have to
learn via trial and error!
25
The same goes for emotional literacy,
another fundamental life skill were never
taught. The majority of us leave full time
education with our heads stuffed with a
fantastic stash of exciting knowledge and
30 information, but no idea about how to create
and maintain healthy, loving relationships.
Then theres ecological stuff. Kids
arent taught how to look after their
environment either.
35
Instead theyre left to the mercy of
parental ignorance, with only the media to
turn to for ideas, facts and solutions.
Thats three extremely important
are as of adult life that are currently
40 ignored by our education system. All of
them have an enormous impact on our
lives and future happiness. We believe
children should leave school with a firm
foundation grasp on how to run their
45 finances and emotional lives with a
reasonable level of aplomb adds Bell.
Theyd benefit from learning basic
emotional skills. And these days a deeper
knowledge of the human races impact on
50 the planet is critical.
The future is looking very uncertain.
Global warming continues, on the whole,
unchecked. The world economy is in serious
difficulties. Rampant consumerism doesnt
55 look like a sensible model to follow any
more. Perhaps children need a school for
life just as much as a traditional education.
Thankfully theres a growing
movement campaigning for personal
60 finance to be taught in British schools and
the beginnings of a campaign for emotional
literacy to be included in the educational
curriculum. Bell believes it is very good
news for the future. We cant just carry on
65 like everythings the same. It isnt. We
need to equip our children properly to
cope with the challenges that lie ahead.

Ingls

O texto fala sobre a necessidade de algumas


habilidades de vivncia que a escola no ensina. Dentre elas, a escola falha, principalmente,
no ensino sobre finanas, relacionamentos e
meio ambiente. Alm disso, o autor critica o
fato de a maioria das informaes adquiridas
pelos jovens virem de meios miditicos.
01.
Choose the alternative(s) in which the information
about the words/expressions from the text is
correct.
01) to take care of (line 6) is the opposite
of to look after (line 33).
02) The suffix -al in practical (line 21),
parental (line 36) and Global (line
52) is used to make nouns from adjectives.
04) In the extracts were never taught
(lines 26/27), Instead theyre left to
the mercy (line 35) and Thats three
extremely important areas of adult life
that are currently ignored by our
education system (lines 38-40), the
underlined parts are examples of
passive voice.
08) The word stuff (line 32) is used informally
and means subject.
16) currently (line 39), these days (line
48) and lie ahead (line 67) refer to
events that will happen in the future.
Resoluo
O enunciado consiste de vrias proposies
que devem ser julgadas e as corretas devem
ser somadas. Observa-se, na proposio 04,
que o autor afirma que os trechos sublinhados
esto na voz passiva. Nesse caso, no h necessidade de retorno para verificao no texto,
uma vez que possvel observar a estrutura de
voz passiva presente em todos os destaques.
importante mencionar que o conhecimento
da estrutura verbal foi essencial, no caso acima, para a tomada de deciso quanto veracidade ou no da informao apresentada na
proposio. A outra proposio correta a de
nmero 08, que somada com a 04 equivalente a 12.
Resposta
12 (04 + 08)

Disponvel em: <http://www.journalism.co.uk/pressreleases>. Acesso em: 6 abr. 2011. Adaptado.

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Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Ingls

Resoluo

O exemplo abaixo, retirado do vestibular da


UECE, ilustra a ocorrncia e a necessidade do
conhecimento gramatical e da interpretao
textual para que seja encontrada a resoluo
adequada.

A questo no exige que o aluno retorne ao


texto para confirmar as informaes e pode
ser resolvida, apoiando-se somente no conhecimento gramatical. Observa-se que a primeira e segunda sentenas retiradas do texto
esto na voz ativa em funo da inexistncia
do verbo to be como auxiliar e de o objeto
permanecer na funo de objeto e no de sujeito da passiva. A terceira sentena, alm de
apresentar o sujeito como agente da passiva
students , traz o objeto da sentena old
periodicals como sujeito da passiva.

02.
In terms of voice, the sentences Ive done this
class before in a theater and a lecture hall, In
November students from all three (institutions)
participated in the first Digital Humanities
Conference for Undergraduates. and Old
periodicals have been transcribed and corrected
by students are respectively in the:
a. active voice, passive voice and active
voice.
b. active voice, active voice and passive
voice.
c. passive voice, active voice and passive
voice.
d. passive voice, passive voice and active
voice.

Resposta
B
importante ressalvar que os exemplos dados
mostram ocorrncias isoladas de anlise de
estrutura lingustica. Os vestibulares, frequentemente, abordam o contedo de maneira
mais abrangente e interpretativa.

8. Conjunctions and linking words


As conjunes e as palavras que promovem ligao possibilitam coerncia e coeso entre as
ideias apresentadas no texto. A importncia de se compreender o significado de uma conjuno
ou das palavras que ligam as ideias associa-se imediata interpretao do texto.
Seguem abaixo algumas das conjunes e palavras que promovem ligaes mais significativas:
Funo
also
alternatively
and
as well as
besides
furthermore
in addition to
moreover
whats more

Shes a photographer and also writes books.


We could go to the Indian restaurant, or alternatively, we could try that new
Italian place.
Tidy up your room. And dont forget to make your bed!
I want to visit Andrew as well as Martin.
Besides writing books, shes a photographer.
I suggest we use Barkers as our main suppliers theyre good and
furthermore theyre cheap.
In addition to his flat in London, he has a villa in Italy and a castle in Scotland.
The whole report is badly written. Moreover, its inaccurate.
The decorations were absolutely beautiful and whats more, the children had
made them themselves.

Alternncia/excluso
either...or
neither...nor
or
or else
otherwise

Exemplos
We can either eat now or after the show its up to you.
Neither my mother nor my father went to university.
You can pay now or when you come back to pick up the paint.
We must be there by six, or else well miss the beginning.
Phone home, otherwise your parents will start to worry.

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Exemplos

Adio

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Causa/explicao
as
because
due to
for
now that
seeing that
since

Exemplos
As it was getting late, I decided to book into a hotel.
We cant go to Julias party because were going away that weekend.
Due to wet leaves on the line, this train will arrive an hour late.
She remained silent, for her heart was heavy and her spirits low.
Shes enjoying the job now that shes got more responsibility.
We may as well go to the concert, seeing that weve already paid for the
tickets.
Since weve got a few minutes to wait for the train, lets have a cup of coffee.

Comparao
correspondingly
in like manner
in the same way
likewise
similarly

Exemplos
The cost of living in the city is more expensive, but salaries are supposed to
be correspondingly higher.
Insects that I saw outside while camping didnt do anything to me; in like
manner/in the same way, I didnt do any harm to them.
Just water these plants twice a week, and likewise the ones in the bedroom.
Cars must stop at red traffic lights: similarly, bicycles should stop too.

Contraste
but
however
instead (of)
nevertheless
nonetheless

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on the contrary
on the one handon
the other hand
rather than
unlike
whereas
while
yet
(Concesso)
albeit
although
despite (in spite of)
even though
though

Exemplos
Shes very hard-working but not very imaginative.
This is one possible solution to the problem. However, there are others.
Theres no coffee would you like a cup of tea instead?
You can go instead of me, if you want.
There are serious problems in our country. Nonetheless, we feel this is a
good time to return.
The end of the Cold War has led to fewer nuclear weapons and less
development of new weapons. Nevertheless, spending on nuclear weapons
work has increased dramatically.
Didnt you find the film exciting? On the contrary, I nearly fell asleep half
way through it!
On the one hand Id like a job which pays more, but on the other hand I enjoy
the work Im doing at the moment.
I think Id like to stay at home this evening rather than go out.
Unlike you, Im not a great dancer.
You eat a massive plate of food for lunch, whereas I have just a sandwich.
He gets fifty thousand pounds a year while I get a meagre twenty!
Hes overweight and bald, (and) yet somehow, hes attractive.
The evening was very pleasant, albeit a little quiet.
Hes rather shy, although hes not as bad as he used to be.
She walked home by herself, although she knew that it was dangerous.
I still enjoyed the week despite the weather.
In spite of his injury, Ricardo will play in Saturdays match.
Even though he left school at 16, he still managed to become prime minister.
She hasnt phoned, even though she said she would.
Theyre coming next week, though I dont know which day.

Concluso
finally
in conclusion
in short
in summary

Ingls

Exemplos
Finally, Id like to say my last words.
In conclusion, I would like to thank our guest speaker.
Hes disorganized, inefficient, never there when you want him in short, the
mans hopeless.
In summary, we must aim to maintain a stable supply of crude oil while
protecting the environment.

71

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Condio
as long as
if
in case
on the condition that
provided (that)
so long as
unless
whether

Exemplos
I can come as long as I can leave by 4.00.
Ill pay you double if you get the work finished by Friday.
In case it rains, take an umbrella.
Ill come to the party on the condition that you dont wear those ridiculous
trousers!
Hes welcome to come along, provided (that) he behaves himself.
Ill help you so long as you dont complain.
Unless you call me to say youre not coming, Ill see you at the theatre.
Im wondering whether to have the fish or the beef.

Consequncia
accordingly
as a result
because of
consequently
by reason of
hence
so
then
therefore
thus

Exemplos
Shes an expert in her field, and is paid accordingly.
Profits have declined as a result of the recent drop in sales.
The train was delayed because of bad weather.
I spent most of my money in the first week and consequently had very little
to eat by the end of the holiday.
Hes always asked to these occasions by reason of his position.
His mother was Italian, hence his name Lucca.
My knee started hurting so I stopped running.
Have a rest now, then you wont be so tired this evening.
We were unable to get funding and therefore had to abandon the project.
They planned to reduce staff and thus to cut costs.

nfase
actually
as a matter of fact
certainly
in actual fact
indeed

Exemplos
I didnt actually see her I just heard her voice.
Have you always lived here? As a matter of fact Ive only lived here for
the last three years.
This is rather a difficult question. Yes, its certainly not easy.
I thought she was Portuguese, but in actual fact shes Brazilian.
Evidence suggests that errors may indeed be occurring.

Exemplificao
e.g.(example given)
for example
for instance
in other words

Exemplos
You should eat more food that contains a lot of fibre, e.g. fruit,
vegetables and bread.
Offices can easily become more environmentally-friendly by, for example,
using recycled paper.
In the electronics industry, for instance, 5,000 jobs are being lost.
He was economical with the truth in other words, he was lying.

Maneira
as
as if
as though
how
Propsito
in order to
so as to
sothat

Exemplos
He got divorced, (just) as his parents had done years before.
She looked as if shed had some bad news.
I felt as though Id been lying in the sun for hours.
I dont care about fashion, I dress how I please.
Exemplos
He came home early in order to see the children before they went to bed.
I always keep fruit in the fridge so as to keep insects off it.
I was so tired that I went to bed extra early.

Sequncia
first
next
second

Exemplos
First, you add flour and mix it with the eggs
Next, you prepare the cookie sheet powdering some flour on it
Second, you put it in the oven.
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Ingls

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Tempo
after
as
as soon as
before
in the meantime
now (that)
once
since
then
until/till
when
whenever
while
yet

Ingls
Exemplos

Three months after they moved out, the house was still empty.
I saw him as I was coming into the building.
As soon as I saw her, I knew there was something wrong.
You should always wash your hands before meals.
Your computer wont be arriving till Thursday. In the meantime, you can use
Judes.
Shes enjoying the job now that shes got more responsibility.
Once Ive found somewhere to live Ill send you my address.
Ive been very busy since I came back from holiday.
Give it to me next week I wont have time to read it before then.
I was up until/till three oclock trying to get it finished!
She was only twenty when she had her first baby.
I try to use olive oil whenever possible.
I thought I heard him come in while we were having dinner.
I havent spoken to her yet.

Mas, como isso "cai" no vestibular?


A ocorrncia das conjunes e palavras que promovem ligao entre as ideias no vestibular
constante. importante ressaltar a importncia dessas palavras para a compreenso do texto
uma vez que elas alteram ideias e opinies ora constrastando ora enfatizando, ora exemplificando ora explicando determinado contedo.

EXERCCIOS RESOLVIDOS
dedicated bus-only lanes on Manhattans
East Side to speed transit up and down the
island.
Each of the measures instituted in
the U.S.s largest city turns over what
had been primarily automotive-ruled
space to pedestrians, cyclists or mass
transit. In doing so the city follows a trend
that has caught on in Europe and Latin
America in some cases long ago but
that has been slow to take root in the U.S.
if New York and other American cities
such as Portland, Ore., prove to be on the
vanguard domestically, the changes there
could portend a shift in the way urbanites
in the U.S. use their streets in the years
and decades to come.
It clearly is a trend, says Lester
Brown, president of the nonprofit Earth
Policy Institute in Washington, D.C. "I
think there are many cities that are ahead
on this. Several years ago I was in
Stockholm, and already there were many
blocks where cars were banned."

PV2D-13-11

Os exerccios a seguir caracterizam duas das


formas de abordagem desse tpico. O primeiro deles, retirado do vestibular do ITA,
exemplifica uma forma muito recorrente
de avaliar o conhecimento de conjunes e
palavras de ligao, pois exige que o aluno
conhea a conjuno para poder troc-la
corretamente.
New York City closed several
blocks of Broadway in 2009 to create a
pedestrian plaza around Times Square
a much-publicized experiment that in
February became permanent policy, even
though it did not improve traffic flow as
much as hoped. The Big Apple has also
dabbled in shorter-term but larger-scale
street closures, barring cars on a stretch of
streets leading from the Brooklyn Bridge
to Central Park on a series of summer
Saturdays in 2008 and 2009. And on
June 7, New York City Mayor Michael
Bloomberg announced a somewhat less
sexy but nonetheless significant change
in the citys infrastructure, instituting
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Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Brown points to Enrique Pealosa,


who served as mayor of Bogot, Colombia,
from 1998 to 2001, as a pioneer in the
kinds of changes now reaching the U.S.
Hes the one who really redefined things
when he took office, Brown says. The
citys bus rapid transit (BRT) network,
TransMilenio, is in many ways more like
a subway system, with its own medianprotected lanes and station platforms for
loading and unloading passengers. Similar
BRT systems have sprung up in places
such as Mexico City and Ahmedabad,
India, giving over lanes of the road
exclusively to bus traffic.
Thinking about why these kinds
of reclamation make sense, I always talk
about the spatial efficiency of walking,
biking and buses, says Paul White,
executive director of the New York City
nonprofit advocacy group Transportation
Alternatives. When you think about
what cities are, they are defined by their
density by definition the space between
buildings is limited. The car, he adds, is
the lowest density mode of transportation;
that is, a person traveling by car takes up
far more space than someone on a bicycle
or on a bus. In many respects cities
are all the same in terms of supply and
demand. White says. Theres always
more demand for street use than there are
streets.
Looking forward, White sees a
more malleable future for the way streets
are used. With retractable barriers,
city planners can create so-called
time-flexible streets, which might be
open to vehicle traffic during part of
the day and pedestrian-only at other
times. Youre accommodating peak
use that could be peak deliveries in the
morning and peak pedestrian use during
lunchtime, he says. Thats something I
think youlI see more of, and something
were pushing for.

ros e aliviar o trnsito de pessoas e servios, a


exemplo de centros urbanos europeus e latino-americanos. O enunciado da questo foca,
principalmente, duas ocorrncias notadamente marcadas por palavras que promovem a ligao entre as ideias apresentadas.
01.
As expresses em negrito nas oraes a seguir,
extradas do primeiro pargrafo,
I. ...even though it did not improve traffic
flow as much as hoped.
II. ...but nonetheless significant change in
the citys infrastructure,...
podem ser substitudas, respectivamente, por:
a. although e yet.
b. besides e nevertheless.
c. since e even though.
d. however e therefore.
e. though e moreover.
Resoluo
A primeira delas even though indica que
ainda assim, apesar disso (das medidas tomadas) no houve melhoria no trfego como
era esperado. Nota-se a ideia de contraste/
concesso presente no trecho, permitindo,
assim, a troca por expresses como although,
however e, at mesmo, though.
A segunda but nonetheless traz a mesma
ideia da anterior, indicando que o prefeito
Michael Bloomberg anunciou uma mudana
menos atraente mas, ainda assim, significativa
na infraestrutura da cidade. Entende-se que
apesar de ser menos atraente, a mudana
no deixa de ser significativa. Tal fato restringe
a opo de troca para yet. Sendo assim, a alternativa A a correta.
Resposta
A

By John Matson, June 15, 2010. Disponvel em: <http://


www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=carfree-streets>. Acesso em: 19 jun. 2010. Adaptado.

O texto aborda a questo da proibio do


trfego em algumas reas urbanas de Nova
York com o intuito de reduzir o fluxo de car74

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Ingls

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

O segundo exemplo, retirado do vestibular da


UFTM, mostra outra forma de abordagem das
palavras que promovem ligao.

O autor do texto argumenta o esforo de se


entender a natureza da mente humana. O pargrafo retirado do texto discorre acerca de
uma das controvrsias que questiona se somente funes bsicas sensoriais e motoras
so concebidas em regies funcionalmente
especializadas do crebro ou se isso pode ser
verdade para funes cognitivas mais avanadas.

* O texto foi adaptado para atender s


necessidades exemplificativas.

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Ingls

Functional specificity in the human


brain: a window into the functional
architecture of the mind
[...]
The second ongoing controversy
concerns the question of whether only
basic sensory and motor functions are
carried out in functionally specialized
regions, or whether the same might be true
even for higher-level cognitive functions.
Although one might think that Broca
settled this matter with his demonstration
that the left frontal lobe is specialized for
aspects of language, the current status
of this debate is far from clear. Indeed,
a recent authoritative review of the
brain-imaging literature on language
concludes that areas of the brain that
have been associated with language
processing appear to be recruited
across other cognitive domains. The
case of language is not unique. Indeed,
a backlash against strong functional
specialization seems to be in vogue. A
recent neuroimaging textbook argues that
unlike the phrenologists, who believed
that verycomplex traits were associated
with discrete brain regions,modern
researchers recognize that a single
brain region may participate in more than
one function.

O enunciado da questo consiste em identificar a ideia expressa pela palavra indeed no


trecho presente no pargrafo em questo.
02.
No trecho do texto Indeed, a recent authoritative review of the brain-imaging literature
on language concludes that a palavra indeed
indica ideia de:
a. discordncia.
b. consequncia.
c. questionamento.
d. alternativa.
e. nfase.
Resoluo
A palavra indeed um advrbio, cuja ideia
enftica, ou seja, ela indica nfase.
Resposta
E
Verifica-se que as conjunes e as palavras
que promovem ligao so essenciais para a
interpretao e compreenso do texto.

Disponvel em: <www.pnas.org>. Adaptado.

75

Ingls

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

CAPTULO 05 APPENDIX
1. Prefixes

2) Formao de substantivos indicadores de


profisso e/ou funo/especialidade com o
acrscimo dos sufixos: -er, -or, -ee, -ist, -ant,
-ian, -ess, -ent

Alguns prefixos so importantes na interpretao de textos. Muitos prefixos na lngua inglesa so muito parecidos ou iguais aos da lngua
portuguesa, mas outros so bem diferentes.

to pay payer
to edit editor
to employ employee

Mis-: mal, errado misunderstanding, misbehave


Out-: mais, melhor outnumber, outsmart

journalism journalist

Under-: muito pouco, abaixo underpaid,


undercooked

music musician

to inhabit inhabitant
actor actress

Over-: muito, alm overcrowded, overweight

to study student

2. Negative prefixes

3) Formao de verbos com o acrscimo de:


-ize, -en

De-: defrost, deactivate


Dis-: dishonest, disappear, discover

modern to modernize

Il-: illegal, illiterate

short to shorten

Im-: impatient, impossible, immeasurable

4) Formao de adjetivos com o acrscimo de:


-al, -ic, -ive, -ous, -y, -ly, -able, -ing, -ed, -ful, -less

In-: independent, incomplete, incorrect


Ir-: irresponsible, irregular

nation: national

Non-: non-alcoholic, non-addictive, non-abrasive

hero: heroic

Un-: unhappy, unpopular, unreliable

act: active

3. Suffixes

danger: dangerous

Os sufixos so importantes na formao de


palavras, pois as transformam em adjetivos,
substantivos, advrbios, verbos.

friend: friendly
to eat: eatable
defense: defensible

1) Formao de substantivos abstratos com


o acrscimo dos sufixos: -ment, -tion, -ance,
-ence, -ty, -ness, -ing

to excite: exciting
to excite: excited

to agree agreement

care: careful

to correct correction

care: careless

to exist existence

4) Formao de advrbios com o acrscimo


de: -ly

national nationality
happy happiness

quick: quickly

to feel feeling

beautiful: beautifully

76

PV2D-13-11

salt: salty

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Ingls

4. False cognates

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Ingls Portugus

Portugus Ingls

Actually na verdade, o fato que

Atualmente nowadays, today

Adept especialista, profundo conhecedor

Adepto supporter

Agenda pauta do dia, pauta para discusses

Agenda appointment book, agenda

Amass acumular, juntar

Amassar crush

Anticipate prever, aguardar, ficar na expectativa

Antecipar to bring forward, to move


forward

Apology pedido de desculpas

Apologia to stand up for sth/sb, to advocate

Application inscrio, registro

Aplicao (financeira) investment

Appointment hora marcada, compromisso


profissional

Apontamento note

Appreciation gratido, reconhecimento

Apreciao judgement

Argument discusso, bate-boca

Argumento reasoning, point

Assist ajudar, dar suporte

Assistir to attend, to watch

Assume presumir, aceitar como verdadeiro

Assumir to take over

Attend assistir, participar de

Atender to help, to answer, to see, to


examine

Audience plateia, pblico

Audincia court appearance, interview

Balcony sacada

Balco counter

Baton batuta (msica), cacetete

Batom lipstick

Beef carne de gado

Bife steak

Cafeteria refeitrio universitrio ou industrial

Cafeteria coffee shop, snack bar

Camera mquina fotogrfica

Cmara tube (de pneu), chamber (grupo de


pessoas)

Carton caixa de papelo (leite), pacote de cigarros

Carto card

Casualty baixa (morte por acidente ou na guerra),


fatalidade

Casualidade chance, fortuity

Cigar charuto

Cigarro cigarette

Collar gola, colarinho, coleira

Colar necklace

College faculdade

Colgio (2 grau) high school

Commodity artigo, mercadoria

Comodidade comfort

Competition concorrncia

Competio contest

Comprehensive abrangente, amplo, extenso

Compreensivo understanding

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Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Compromise entrar em acordo, fazer concesso,


acordo, conciliao

Compromisso appointment, date

Contest competio, concurso

Contexto context

Convenient prtico

Conveniente appropriate

Costume fantasia (roupa)

Costume custom, habit

Data dados (nmeros, informaes)

Data date

Deception logro, fraude, o ato de enganar

Decepo disappointment

Defendant ru, acusado

Advogado de defesa defense attorney

Design projetar, criar; projeto, estilo

Designar to appoint

Editor redator

Editor publisher

Educated instrudo, com alto grau de escolaridade

Educado with a good upbringing, wellmannered, polite

Emission descarga (de gases etc.)

Emisso issuing (of a document etc.)

Enroll inscrever-se, alistar-se, registrar-se

Enrolar to roll, to wind, to curl

Eventually finalmente, consequentemente

Eventualmente occasionally

Exciting empolgante

Excitante thrilling

Exit sada, sair

xito success

Expert especialista, perito

Esperto smart, clever

Exquisite belo, refinado

Esquisito strange, odd

Fabric tecido

Fbrica plant, factory

Genial afvel, aprazvel

Genial brilliant

Graduate program Curso de ps-graduao

Curso de graduao undergraduate


program

Gratuity gratificao, gorjeta

Gratuidade the quality of being free of


charge

Grip agarrar firme

Gripe cold, flu, influenza

Hazard risco, arriscar

Azar bad luck

Idiom expresso idiomtica, linguajar

Idioma language

Income tax return declarao de imposto de renda

Devoluo de imposto de renda income tax


refund

Ingenuity engenhosidade

Ingenuidade naivet / naivety

Injury ferimento

Injria insult

Inscription gravao em relevo (sobre pedra, metal


etc.)

Inscrio registration, application

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Ingls

PV2D-13-11

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Ingls

Intend pretender, ter inteno

Entender understand

Intoxication embriaguez, efeito de drogas

Intoxicao poisoning

Jar pote

Jarra pitcher

Journal peridico, revista especializada

Jornal newspaper

Lamp luminria

Lmpada light bulb

Large grande, espaoso

Largo wide

Lecture palestra, aula

Leitura reading

Legend lenda

Legenda subtitle

Library biblioteca

Livraria book shop

Location (n) localizao

Locao rental

Lunch almoo

Lanche snack

Magazine revista

Magazine department store

Mayor prefeito

Maior bigger

Medicine remdio, medicamento

Medicina medical school

Moisture umidade

Mistura mix, mixture, blend

Motel hotel de beira de estrada

Motel love motel, hot-pillow joint, no-tell


motel

Notice aperceber-se, aviso, comunicao

Notcia news

Novel romance

Novela soap opera

Office escritrio

Oficial official

Parents pais

Parentes relatives

Particular especfico, exato

Particular personal, private

Pasta massa (alimento)

Pasta folder, briefcase

Policy poltica (diretrizes)

Polcia police

Port porto

Porta door

Prejudice preconceito

Prejuzo damage, loss

Prescribe receitar

Prescrever expire

Preservative conservante

Preservativo condom

Pretend fingir

Pretender to intend, to plan

Procure conseguir, adquirir

Procurar to look for

Propaganda (n) divulgao de ideias/fatos com


intuito de manipular

Propaganda advertisement, commercial

79

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Ingls
Pull puxar

Pular to jump

Push empurrar

Puxar to pull

Range variar, cobrir

Ranger to creak, to grind

Realize notar, perceber, dar-se conta, conceber uma


ideia

Realizar to carry out, make come true, to


accomplish

Recipient recebedor, agraciado

Recipiente container

Record gravar, disco, gravao, registro

Recordar to remember, to recall

Refrigerant substncia refrigerante usada em


aparelhos

Refrigerante soft drink, soda, pop, coke

Requirement requisito

Requerimento request, petition

Resume retomar, reiniciar

Resumir summarize

Rsum curriculum vitae, currculo

Resumo summary

Retired aposentado

Retirado removed, secluded

Senior idoso

Senhor gentleman, sir

Service atendimento

Servio job

Stranger desconhecido

Estrangeiro foreigner

Stupid burro

Estpido impolite, rude

Support apoiar

Suportar (tolerar) tolerate, can stand

Tax imposto

Taxa rate, fee

Trainer preparador fsico

Treinador coach

Turn vez, volta, curva, virar, girar

Turno shift, round

Vegetables verduras, legumes

Vegetais plants

5. Phrasal verbs

bring about causar

comum, em ingls, os verbos serem acompanhados por preposies ou advrbios. A essa


construo d-se o nome de two-word-verbs ou,
como so comumente conhecidos, phrasal verbs.

He brought about his companys collapse by


his reckless spending.
bring up educar, criar

break down quebrar, romper (relacionamento)

She was brought up by her grandmother.

Our car broke down and we had to push it off


the road.

call off cancelar

Frank and Jane have broken down with their


parents without any reason.

Tomorrows match has been called off because


of the icy weather.
80

PV2D-13-11

Disponvel em: <http://www.sk.com.br/sk-fals.html>. Acesso em: 25 jan. 2012.

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

carry on continuar

keep up with (sb/sth) acompanhar, no ficar


atrs

Lets carry on this discussion at some other time.

He started to walk faster and the children had


to run to keep up.

carry out pr em prtica


The hospital is carrying out tests to find out
whats wrong with her.

Wages are failing to keep up with inflation.


leave out omitir

come about acontecer


How did the problem come about in the first
place?

You can leave the butter out of this recipe if


youre on a low-fat diet.

come across (sth) encontrar


He came across some of his old love letters in
his wifes drawer.

look after cuidar de


We look after the neighbours cat while theyre
away.

do without viver sem, passar sem


Theres no mayonnaise left, so Im afraid youll
just have to do without.
Thank you Kate, we can do without language
like that (= we dont want to hear your rude
language.)

look down on desprezar


She thinks they look down on her because she
didnt go to university.
look up to admirar
Hed always looked up to his uncle.

figure out calcular, entender


Can you figure out the answer to question 5?

make up inventar, compilar


I made up an excuse about having to look after
the kids.

get rid of livrar-se de


I used weedkiller to get rid of the weeds in the
garden.

make up for compensar


No amount of money can make up for the
death of a child.

get over recuperar-se


She was only just getting over the flu when she
got a stomach bug.
PV2D-13-11

Ingls

point out salientar


He was planning to book a rock-climbing holiday,
till I pointed out that Denis is afraid of heights.

give in ceder, dar-se por vencido


He nagged me so much for a new bike that
eventually I gave in.

put off adiar


The meeting has been put off for a week.

give up desistir
Youll never guess the answer do you give
up?

put up with (sb/sth) tolerar, suportar


I can put up with the house being untidy, but I
hate it if its not clean.

keep on continuar falando sobre algo

Hes so moody I dont know why she puts up


with him.

He kept on at me about the money, even though


I told him I hadnt got it.

81

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

6. Prepositions

run into (sb) encontrar casualmente


Graham ran into someone he used to know at
school the other day.

IN
Uso:

run out of ficar sem, no ter mais

espaos: in a room / in a building / in a


garden / in a park
poro de gua: in the water / in the
sea / in a river
referncia linear: in a row / in a line /
in a queue
nomes de pases, estados e cidades:
in Brazil / in the USA / in Alagoas / in
Ribeiro Preto

She ran out of time and didnt finish the last


question.
run (sb/sth)over atropelar
Im afraid weve just run a rabbit over.
show (sth/sb) off exibir-se
She likes to wear short skirts to show her legs off.
show up aparecer, surgir
I invited him for eight oclock, but he didnt
show up until nine-thirty.

AT

Uso:

lugares: at the bus-stop / at the door /


at the cinema / at the end of the street
/ at the bank
lugares em uma pgina: at the top of
the page / at the bottom of the page
localizao de grupos de pessoas: at
the back of the class / at the front of
the class
nomes de lugares: at Unesp/ at USP

take off decolar, sair apressadamente


The plane took off at 8.30 a.m.
When he saw me, he took off in the other
direction.
take over assumir a direo de
She took over as manager two weeks ago.
turn (sth/sb) down recusar

ON
Uso:
superfcies: on the ceiling / on the wall/
on the floor / on the table
direo: on the left / on the right / straight
on BUT in the middle

He offered her a trip to Australia but she


turned it/him down.
turn (sth) in devolver, entregar
Please turn your old parking permits in at the
end of the week.

Importante

turn (sb/sth) into sb/sth transformar-se

In / at / on the corner

The council was hoping to turn a childrens


home into a residence for adolescent girls.

Diz-se in the corner of a room, mas at the


corner (or on the corner) of a street.

The witch turned the two little boys into frogs.

In / at / on the front
Diz-se in the front / in the back of a car.

turn out revelar-se, tornar-se

Diz-se at the front / at the back of buildings /


groups of people.

The truth turned out to be stranger than we


had expected.

Diz-se on the front / on the back of a piece


of paper.

work sth out entender

Disponvel em: <http://tx.english-ch.com/teacher/


ery/others/inonatpreposition-for-place/>.

There will be a full investigation to work out


what caused the accident.
82

PV2D-13-11

Ingls

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Ingls

Prepositions of time
Usa-se:
at para marcar tempo preciso;
in para meses, anos, sculos e perodos longos;
on para dias e datas.
at

in

on

at 3 oclock

in May

on Sunday

at 10.30 a.m.

in summer

on Tuesdays

at noon

in the summer of 1990

on 6 March

at dinnertime

in 1990

on 25 Dec. 2012

at bedtime

in the 1990s

on Christmas Day

at sunrise

in the next century

on Independence Day

at sunset

in the Ice Age

on my birthday

at the moment

in the past/future

on New Years Eve

A proposio at associa-se a algumas expresses padro.


Expression

Example

at night

The stars shine at night.

at the weekend

I dont usually work at the weekend.

at Christmas/Easter

I stay with my family at Christmas.

at the same time

We finished the test at the same time.

at present

Hes not home at present. Try later.

PV2D-13-11

comum o uso das preposies in e on nas seguintes expresses:


in

on

in the morning

on Tuesday morning

in the mornings

on Saturday mornings

in the afternoon(s)

on Sunday afternoons

in the evening(s)

on Monday evening

Quando se usa last, next, every, this, no se usa at, in, on.
I went to London last June. (not in last June)
Hes coming back next Tuesday. (not on next Tuesday)
I go home every Easter. (not at every Easter)
Well call you this evening. (not in this evening)
Disponvel em: <http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/prepositions-at-in-on-time.htm>.

83

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Ingls

Infinitive

Past tense

Past participle

Translation

to arise

arose

arisen

surgir, levantar-se

to awake

awoke or awaked

awoken

despertar

to be

was, were

been

ser, estar

to bear

bore

born or borne

suportar, dar luz

to beat

beat

beaten

bater, derrotar

to become

became

become

tornar-se

to begin

began

begun

comear

to bend

bent

bent

curvar-se, dobrar

to bet

bet

bet

apostar

to bind

bound

bound

amarrar, obrigar, encadernar

to bite

bit

bitten

morder

to bleed

bled

bled

sangrar

to blow

blew

blown

soprar

to break

broke

broken

quebrar

to bring

brought

brought

trazer

to build

built

built

construir

to burn

burnt or burned

burnt or burned

queimar

to burst

burst

burst

irromper, explodir

to buy

bought

bought

comprar

to cast

cast

cast

lanar, fundir

to catch

caught

caught

alcanar, pegar

to choose

chose

chosen

escolher

to cling

clung

clung

agarrar-se, apegar-se

to come

came

come

vir, chegar

to cost

cost

cost

custar

to creep

crept

crept

arrastar-se, engatinhar

to cut

cut

cut

cortar

to deal

dealt

dealt

lidar, tratar, negociar

to dig

dug

dug

cavar

to do

did

done

fazer

to draw

drew

drawn

desenhar, puxar

to dream

dreamt or dreamed

dreamt or dreamed

sonhar

to drink

drank

drunk

beber

to drive

drove

driven

dirigir, impelir

to dwell

dwelt or dwelled

dwelt or dwelled

habitar, residir

to eat

ate

eaten

comer

to fall

fell

fallen

cair

84

PV2D-13-11

7. Irregular verbs list

PV2D-13-11

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Ingls

Infinitive

Past tense

Past participle

Translation

to feed

fed

fed

alimentar

to feel

felt

felt

sentir

to fight

fought

fought

lutar

to find

found

found

achar, encontrar

to flee

fled

fled

fugir

to fling

flung

flung

lanar, mover

to fly

flew

flown

voar, viajar de avio

to forbid

forbade

forbidden

proibir

to forget

forgot

forgotten

esquecer

to forgive

forgave

forgiven

perdoar

to freeze

froze

frozen

congelar

to get

got

gotten or got

obter, chegar, receber

to give

gave

given

dar

to go

went

gone

ir

to grind

ground

ground

moer

to grow

grew

grown

crescer, cultivar

to hang

hung

hung

pendurar

to have

had

had

ter

to hear

heard

heard

ouvir

to hide

hid

hidden

esconder

to hit

hit

hit

bater, atingir

to hold

held

held

segurar, abraar

to hurt

hurt

hurt

ferir, magoar

to keep

kept

kept

conservar, guardar

to kneel

knelt or kneeled

knelt or kneeled

ajoelhar-se

to knit

knit or knitted

knit or knitted

tricotar

to know

knew

known

saber, conhecer

to lay

laid

laid

pr, colocar

to lead

led

led

levar, conduzir

to lean

leant or leaned

leant or leaned

inclinar-se, encostar

to leap

leapt or leaped

leapt or leaped

pular, saltar

to learn

learnt or learned

learnt or learned

aprender

to leave

left

left

abandonar, partir

to lend

lent

lent

emprestar (para)

to let

let

let

deixar, permitir

to lie

lay

lain

deitar-se, jazer, estar situado

to light

lit or lighted

lit or lighted

acender

to lose

lost

lost

perder

85

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Infinitive

Past tense

Past participle

Translation

to make

made

made

fazer

to mean

meant

meant

significar

to meet

met

met

encontrar, conhecer

to mow

mowed

mown or mowed

cortar plantas

to pay

paid

paid

pagar

to put

put

put

pr

to quit

quit

quit

desistir, abandonar

to read

read

read

ler

to ride

rode

ridden

andar de carro, bibicleta, a


cavalo

to ring

rang

rung

tocar, soar

to rise

rose

risen

levantar-se, aumentar, subir

to run

ran

run

correr

to saw

sawed

sawn or sawed

serrar

to say

said

said

dizer

to see

saw

seen

ver

to seek

sought

sought

procurar

to sell

sold

sold

vender

to send

sent

sent

enviar

to set

set

set

pr, instalar

to sew

sewed

sewn or sewed

costurar

to shake

shook

shaken

sacudir, tremer

to shed

shed

shed

derramar, verter

to shine

shone

shone

brilhar

to shoot

shot

shot

atirar, disparar

to show

showed

shown

mostrar

to shrink

shrank

shrunk

encolher

to shut

shut

shut

fechar

to sing

sang

sung

cantar

to sink

sank

sunk

afundar

to sit

sat

sat

sentar

to slay

slew

slain

assassinar

to sleep

slept

slept

dormir

to slide

slid

slid

escorregar, deslizar

to smell

smelt or smelled

smelt or smelled

cheirar

to sow

sowed

sown or sowed

semear

to speak

spoke

spoken

falar

to speed

sped or speeded

sped or speeded

acelerar, correr

86

PV2D-13-11

Ingls

PV2D-13-11

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

Ingls

Infinitive

Past tense

Past participle

Translation

to spell

spelt or spelled

spelt or spelled

soletrar

to spend

spent

spent

gastar, passar (tempo)

to spill

spilt or spilled

spill or spilled

derramar, entornar

to spin

span or spun

spun

fiar, girar

to split

split

split

rachar, dividir

to spread

spread

spread

espalhar

to spring

sprang

sprung

pular, brotar

to stand

stood

stood

ficar em p, suportar

to steal

stole

stolen

roubar

to stick

stuck

stuck

grudar

to sting

stung

stung

picar, ferroar

to strike

struck

struck

bater, atingir

to strive

strove

striven

esforar-se

to swear

swore

sworn

jurar, praguejar

to sweat

sweat or sweated

sweat or sweated

transpirar

to sweep

swept

swept

varrer

to swell

swelled

swollen or swelled

inchar

to swim

swam

swum

nadar

to swing

swung

swung

balanar

to take

took

taken

levar, tirar, pegar, tomar

to teach

taught

taught

ensinar

to tear

tore

torn

rasgar

to tell

told

told

dizer, contar

to think

thought

thought

pensar

to throw

threw

thrown

jogar, lanar

to thrust

thrust

thrust

empurrar

to understand

understood

understood

entender, compreender

to wake

woke or waked

woken or waked

acordar

to wear

wore

worn

usar, vestir

to weave

wove

woven

tecer

to wed

wed

wed

casar-se

to weep

wept

wept

lamentar, chorar

to wet

wet

wet

molhar(-se)

to win

won

won

vencer, ganhar

to wind

wound

wound

dar corda, curvar

to withdraw

withdrew

withdrawn

retirar(-se)

to write

wrote

written

escrever

87

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

8. Economics vocabulary

emprstimo loan

acionistas shareholders

escritura indenture

aes shares

exportao export

agncia de classificao de risco rating


agency

extrato bancrio statement

ajuda financeira bail-out

fornecimento/fornecedor supply/-er

fluxo de caixa cash flow

alvo/objetivo/meta target/aim/goal

fundo de caixa cash fund

ativos assets

fundo mtuo mutual funds

bens goods

fuso de companhias merger

blackmail chantagem

greve strike

bolsa de valores stock exchange

hipoteca mortgage

calote default

honorrio fee

intercmbio exchange

horas extra overtime

capital de giro working capital

imvel real estate

carga tributria tax burden

importao import

cheque check

imposto de renda income tax

cheque devolvido bogus check

imposto retido na fonte withheld tax

cheques a compensar outstanding checks


cifra figure

ndice Nacional de Preos ao Consumidor


(INPC) Consumer Price Index (CPI)

colaborador associate

inflao inflation

comerciante merchant

inventrio inventory

comparecer attend

Imposto sobre a Propriedade predial Territorial e Urbana (IPTU) Real Estate Tax (RET)

comunho de bens common property

juros interest

concordata bankruptcy

lucro profit

conselho fiscal Board of Trustees

mo de obra labor

conta corrente checking account

medida measure

conta de dbito charge account

mercado de aes stock market

contribuinte taxpayer

mercadorias commodities

cpia autenticada certified copy

monoplio monopoly

corretora broker dealer

oligoplio oligopoly

dbito overdraft

oramento budget

deflao deflation

pacote/medidas de salvamento financeiro


rescue package

desfalque embezzlement
despejo eviction
despesas gerais overheads

Produto Interno Bruto (PIB) Gross Domestic


Product (GDP)

economias savings

prejuzo loss

emenda amendment

prestao installment

empreendimento enterprise

queda drop/fall/decrease
88

PV2D-13-11

Ingls

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

renda income

escassez/falta de... lack/shortage

riqueza wealth

esforo de conservao conservation effort

sacar/saque withdraw/-al

esgoto sewage

saldo balance

espcies em extino endangered species

seguridade social (INSS) social security

estrago damage

sindicato dos trabalhadores trade union/


labor union

extino extinction

sociedade civil corporation

fome hunger

floresta tropical rain forest

suborno bribery

fonte source

taxa de cmbio exchange rate

habitat habitat

taxa de juros interest rate

lixo domstico domestic waste

terceirizar outsource

lixo txico/resduo biolgico hazardous waste

testamento will

meio ambiente environment

unidade monetria currency

mudana climtica climate changing

varejista retailer

nvel level
pases desenvolvidos developed countries

9. Environmental vocabulary

pases em desenvolvimento developing


country

alertar warn
ambientalista environmentalist

pesticidas pesticides

ameaa threat

planeta terra Earth

animais selvagens wildlife

poluentes pollutant

aquecimento global global warming

poluio pollution

banir/proibir ban

prioridade priority

cadeia alimentar food chain

recurso resource

calor heat

reflorestamento reforestation

calota polar ice cap

resduo waste

cancergeno carcinogen
PV2D-13-11

Ingls

seca /seco drought/dry

chuva cida acid rain

smog (neblina fotoqumica) smog

combustvel fssil fossil fuel

sustentabilidade sustainability

compensar offset

sustentvel sustainable

contaminado contaminated

terra land

crditos de carbon carbon credits

toxinas toxic chemicals (toxins)

depsito de lixo dumping


derreter melt

10. Juridical vocabulary

desaparecer vanish

acordo settlement/agreement

desmatamento deforestation

acusar/acusao charge

ecossistema ecosystem

advogado lawyer

efeito estufa greenhouse effect

alegar plead

enchente flood

alegar inocncia plead ignorance


89

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

batedor de carteira pickpocket

testemunha witness

condenao conviction

tribunal de justia court of law

condenado convict

veredicto rulling/verdict

contrabando smuggling

11. Medical vocabulary

contraveno misdemeanor

aids acquired immune deficiency syndrome


(aids)

crime grave felony


crime/delito offence

alergia/alrgico allergy/-ic

criminoso perpetrator

ameaa de morte life-threatening

culpado guilty

amostra sample

custdia custody

analgsico pain killer, pain reliever

detrimento/preconceito prejudice

anemia/anmico anaemia/-ic

discusso domstica domestic dispute

antibiticos antibiotics

evidncia evidence

antidepressivo anti-depressant

fiana bail

asma asthma (attack)

ficha criminal criminal record

ataque cardaco heart attack

impresses digitais fingerprints

bao spleen

instruo especfica briefing

bactria bacterium

juiz judge

bactrias bacteria

julgamento trial

benigno benign

juri jury

bexiga bladder

lei law

bipsia biopsy

liberdade condicional parole

cadeira de rodas wheelchair

menor de idade que comete um crime young


offender (juvenile delinquent)

cncer cancer
catapora chickenpox

minor menor de idade

cego blind

multa fine

clulas cells

partido poltico party

clulas-tronco stem cells

priso domiciliar house arrest

crebro brain

processar sue

cesariana caesarean section, c-section

processo lawsuit

check-up rotineiro routine check-up

procurador solicitor

cisto cyst

projeto de lei bill

cogulo sanguneo blood clot

questo/problema issue

coar itch

rape estupro

cold resfriado

ru defendant

consulta appointment

sentena sentence

corao heart

sequestro (de avio) hijacking

corrente sangunea blood stream

sequestro (de pessoas) kidnapping/abduction

crnio skull
90

PV2D-13-11

Ingls

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

curso de medicina medical school (med.


school)

infeco infection

demncia dementia

intestino delgado small intestine

inflamao inflammation

derrame stroke

intestino grosso large intestine

desidratado dehydrated

leso injury

diabete diabetes

licena-maternidade maternity leave

diagnstico diagnosis

maligno malignant

distenso sprain

PV2D-13-11

Ingls

doador de sangue blood donor

medicamento intravenoso intravenuous


medication

doena disease, illness, sickness, ailment

mdico physician

dolorido/inflamado sore (sorethroat)

mdico-legista coroner

dor ache (stomachache)

medula ssea bone marrow

dormente numb

membros limbs

efeitos colaterais side effects

muletas crutches

enfermaria ward

msculos muscles

enfermeira(o) nurse

necrotrio morgue

epilepsia seizure

nervos nerves

escara bedsore

ossos bones

espasmo spasm

ovrio ovary

esqueleto skeleton

picada sting

estado febril feverish

pr-natal prenatal

estmago stomach

presso sangunea blood pressure

farmacutico pharmacist

prstata prostate (gland)

farmcia pharmacy, drugstore

pulmes lungs

fatal fatal

quimioterapia chemotherapy

febre fever/temperature

radiao radiation

ferimento/ferido wound/-ed

receitar prescribe

fgado liver

recm-nascido newborn

fungo fungus

receita mdica prescription

fungos fungi

residncia/residente residency/-t

gesso cast

ressuscitao cardiopulmonar (RCP)


cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

gripe flu (influenza)

rins kidneys

hematoma bruise

sala de emergncia emergency room (ER)

hemograma blood count

sala de operaes operating room (OR)

hemorragia haemorrhage

sangue blood

histrico familiar family history

sarampo measles

inchao swelling

seio breast

inchado swollen
91

Ingls

Conceitos bsicos de lngua inglesa

sistema inumolgico immune system

urticria hives

surdo deaf

tero womb

tala brace

vasos sanguneos blood vessels

tendes tendons

veias veins

tonto/tontura dizzy/-ness

venenoso poisonous

unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI) intensive


care unit (ICU)

vrus virus
vmito/vomitar vomit

PV2D-13-11

uniforme mdico scrubs

92

Exerccios Propostos

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

Ingls

Captulo 01
01. Enem
Leia e observe o cartum e responda questo .

Disponvel em: <http://www.glasbergen.com>. Acesso em: 23 jul. 2010.

PV2D-13-14

Na fase escolar, prtica comum que os professores passem atividades extraclasse e marquem
uma data para que elas sejam entregues para correo. No caso da cena da charge, a professora
ouve uma estudante apresentando argumentos para:
a. discutir o contedo do seu trabalho j entregue.
b. elogiar o tema proposto para o relatrio solicitado.
c. sugerir temas para novas pesquisas e relatrios.
d. reclamar do curto prazo para entrega do trabalho.
e. convencer de que fez o relatrio solicitado.
02. Enem
Leia e observe o cartum e responda questo .

Disponvel em: <http://www.garfield.com>. Acesso em: 29 jul. 2010.

95

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

04. UEG-GO

A tira, definida como um segmento de histrias em quadrinhos, pode transmitir uma mensagem com efeito de humor. A presena desse
efeito no dilogo entre Jon e Garfield acontece
porque:
a. Jon pensa que sua ex-namorada maluca e que Garfield no sabia disso.
b. Jodell a nica namorada maluca que
Jon teve, e Garfield acha isso estranho.
c. Garfield tem certeza de que a ex-namorada de Jon sensata, maluco o amigo.
d. Garfield conhece as ex-namoradas de Jon
e considera mais de uma como maluca.
e. Jon caracteriza a ex-namorada como maluca e no entende a cara de Garfield.

Leia e observe o cartum e responda questo.

Disponvel em: <http://www.waynebarry.com/


blog/wp-content/uploads/2009/01/digitalnatives.gif>. Acesso em: 22 ago. 2011.

Analisando-se o cartum, conclui-se que:


a. a fala da professora refora a mensagem transmitida pelo cartaz que se encontra fixado ao lado da lousa.
b. a professora apresenta ao aluno uma
lousa digital, o que lhe causa espanto
por se tratar de uma novidade para ele.
c. o contedo do texto faz uma crtica ao
descompasso entre o contexto escolar
e a realidade dos alunos, considerados
nativos digitais.
d. os papis tradicionais dos personagens
encontram-se invertidos, visto que a
professora est aprendendo com seu
aluno.
Leia o texto abaixo para responder s questes
5 e 6.

03. FSA-SP

Glossrio

Leia e observe o cartum e responda questo.

brawn: fora fsica

O provrbio cujo vocabulrio melhor se aplica


situao sugerida pela figura :
a. None so blind as those who wont see.
b. The road to hell is paved with good
intentions.
c. Everyone knows where the shoes
pinches.
d. The last drop makes the cup run over.

growth: crescimento
jock :esportista, atleta
prowess: talento, habilidade
to pit sb/sth against sth: testar, pr prova
to scamper: mexer-se, agitar-se, mover-se
to stretch: alongar-se

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

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05. UFSM-RS

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a. o subttulo (ou linha de apoio) apresenta um problema e os dois pargrafos da


coluna da esquerda, a soluo.
b. o ttulo apresenta um dado geral sobre
o qual h detalhes no fragmento da coluna da direita intitulado In Brief.
c. os dois pargrafos da coluna da esquerda listam prticas e crenas sobre um
problema, cuja soluo indicada no
ttulo e no subttulo (ou linha de apoio).
d. juntamente com o ttulo, a imagem
identifica-se com o fragmento direita.
e. as informaes nos dois pargrafos da
coluna da esquerda expressam pontos
de vista que esto em oposio queles
expressos nas informaes do fragmento intitulado In Brief.

Tendo como base o contedo e pistas, como a


fonte de publicao, o layout, a estrutura do
fragmento do texto apresentado, pode-se inferir que a funo comunicativa primordial do
texto :
a. anunciar um produto.
b. noticiar um fato recente.
c. fazer previses sobre o futuro.
d. expor posicionamento sobre crenas
estabelecidas.
e. guiar a montagem de um equipamento.
06. . UFSM-RS
Com relao organizao textual, incorreto
afirmar que:

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

country as well as a tremendous thirst to


find out what the latest trend is. In this
context, Twitter is a phenomenon thats
planting deep roots. My sister is 10 years
old. My grandmother is 82, says Simas
of MTV Brasil. And they both have
Twitter.

07. Fei-SP
Leia o texto para responder questo.

Disponvel em: <http://www.time.com/time/


world/article/0,8599,2026442,00.html>.
Acesso em: 20 out. 2010. Adaptado.

Selecione, dos ttulos abaixo, aquele que melhor corresponde ao contedo do texto.
a. Twitter the most important social
network service in the world today.
b. The many advantages of the Internet
and Twitter.
c. Why should we use Twitter at all?
d. Twitter a comparative study between
Brazil and the US.
e. Why is Twitter so popular in Brazil?

The regular appearance of Portuguese


phrases on Twitters popularity charts
comes as no surprise anymore. A new study
published this month by comScore, a digital
marketing firm, found that 23% of Internet
users in Brazil compared with 11.9% in
the U.S. visited the social media platform
last month, the highest rate of participation
by any country in the world.
Americans are still the best-represented
nationality among the 160 million people
who use Twitter, an information-sharing
website created in 2006 by a pair of San
Francisco software engineers. In Brazil, the
site has carved a truly special niche. In a
country known for its vast gulf between the
rich and poor, the tool has managed to cut
across the class divide. Its not something
thats just for rich Brazilians, says Gabe
Simas, who promotes teen bands for MTV
Brasil through Twitter. The main reason
Twitter is so huge in Brazil is because it
gives access to normal people to contact
their idols. Indeed, the countrys soccer
stars were among the earliest proponents
of Twitter. To take one example, the soccer
idol known as Kak has 2 million followers,
or roughly a million more than American
basketball star LeBron James.
Despite its geographic immensity
spanning the far reaches of the Amazon
to its metropolises on the Atlantic
the country is accustomed to a lack of
diversity in its media. So, when Twitter
arrived on the scene, Brazilians were
ready to embrace this latest media
phenomenon. Theres a keen awareness
of the importance and the power of the

Dear Readers,
Were you bullied at school today?
Did you see someone else being bullied?
According to a 2005 study by researchers
at the University of California at Los
Angeles, nearly one half of middleschool students reported being bullied at
least once during five school days. Even
more kids had seen others being bullied.
Bullying is harmful not only to the kids
that are bullied, but to every kid in school.
Hitting, teasing, name-calling and other
forms of bullying create an atmosphere of
fear and dread. Every kid wonders, Will I
be bullied next?
At TIME For Kids, we want every
kid to feel comfortable, safe and confident
at school, so everyone can focus on
learning and growing. Thats why we are
so proud that the Department of Health
and Human Services has sponsored this
supplement Stop Bullying Now! This is
the first of three issues you will receive
this year presenting bullying scenarios
and showing you ways to cope with them.
Share this comic book, and the two that
follow, with your family and friends.

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Leia o texto para responder s questes de 8


a 11.

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

Bullying behavior has probably been


around for as long as human beings have
walked the earth. We hope to give kids the
tools they need to react appropriately to
bullying situations. Bullying should not
be rewarded or tolerated.
Sincerely yours,
Martha Pickerill
Managing Editor, TIME For Kids

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11. UEPA
A expresso cope with indica a ideia de:
a. cooperar com
b. lidar com
c. livrar-se de

d. atacar
e. compartilhar

12. UEL-PR
Leia o cartaz e responda questo.

Disponvel em: <http://www.edpubs.gov/document/


ed005149p.pdf?ck=308>. Acesso em 6 de set. 2011.

08. UEPA
A seo da revista TIME For Kids na qual o texto veiculado :
a. Atualidades
b. Negcios
c. Editorial
d. Cartas
e. Entrevista

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09. UEPA
De acordo com Martha Pickerill, o tema em
questo pode ser encontrado:
a. nesta e em duas edies posteriores.
b. em trs edies posteriores a esta.
c. nesta e em duas edies anteriores.
d. em duas edies posteriores.
e. nesta e em duas edies dos prximos
anos.

Disponvel em: Revista Newscientist. 21 maio 2011, p.20.

10. UEPA
Estudos realizados em 2005, na Universidade
da Califrnia, revelam que:
I. metade dos alunos americanos j presenciou cenas de bullying.
II. bullying prejudicial a todos os alunos
da escola.
III. caoar e bater so algumas das formas
de bullying utilizadas.
IV. medo e terror so gerados em consequncia desse tipo de violncia.
V. Los Angeles a cidade americana que
registra mais casos de bullying.
De acordo com as afirmativas acima, a alternativa correta :
a. I, II e IV.
d. II, III e V.
b. I, II e V.
e. I, II e III.
c. II, III e IV.

O objetivo desse cartaz divulgar um evento.


a. Que evento esse, onde acontece e
quanto custa para v-lo?
b. De acordo com o cartaz, qual a importncia histrica de James Watt?
Leia o texto e responda s questes 13 e 14.
Facebook: why is the West switching
off?
Writer Tim Lott said in The
Independent on Sunday: Last Summer, I
took a momentous step into the unknown:
at the age of 54, I joined Facebook. I
thought subscribing to the online social
network would open up new frontiers of
creativity by enabling me to exchange
views and insights with like-minded
people. In the event, I most encountered a
deluge of banal gossip, boasting, trivia and
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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

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moronic links to skaterboarding pandas.
Yet, for all its aggravations, I cant bring
myself to quit the compulsevely addictive
site. Other internet users, however, do
appear to be kicking the habbit. Last
month, around 100,000 British users
deactivated their accounts, as did a similar
number of Russians and Norwegians. The
decline was even more marked in the US,
where no fewer than six million users
decided they had better things to do than
check their Facebook pages.
After seven years of phenomenal
growth, it seems the worlds biggest social
network may have reached its peak, said
Stephen Armstrong in The Sunday Times.
People are leaving for various reasons.
For some its a case of digital downsizing:
reacting to the clutter of websites and
smartphones by cutting time online.
Other are concerned about privacy
issues. Alice Needham, a student in
Newcastle, left after her mother started
posting affectionate messages on the
public part of her page. The final straw
was her mothers posting: Good night, my
darling girl, I love you so very, very much.

Yes, it was really sweet, but Anyway, I


thought it was easier to leave (Facebook)
than argue with her, says Alice.
Although the decline sounds bad
for Facebook, the network is still growing
in South America and Asia and will likely
cross the billion-user mark in the next year.
With such a ubiquitous global preence, it
wont be disappearing any time soon.
Disponvel em: The Week, 25 june 2011. Adpatado.

Glossary
boasting: contar vantagem
the last straw: a ltima gota
13. UFF-RJ
Digital Downsizing (paragraph 2) and privacy
issues (paragraph 3) are some of the reasons
for:
a. Facebooks ubiquitous global presence.
b. the growth of Facebooks undesirable
links.
c. the decline of Facebook in some
countries.
d. a deluge of boasting and trivia in
Facebook.
e. users addiction to Facebook.

Europe
Asia & South America

Europe
Asia & South America

d.

Europe
Asia & South America

e.

Europe
Asia & South America

Europe
Asia & South America

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14. UFF-RJ
According to the information in the text, choose the graph which best represents the tendency in
the use of Facebook in Europe, Asia and South America.
a.
b.
c.

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

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15. Unesp
Leia o texto e responda questo.
Why use biofuels for aviation?
The aviation industry has seen huge growth since its beginning. Today, more than two
billion people enjoy the social and economical benefits of flight each year. The ability to fly
conveniently and efficiently between nations has been a catalyst for the global economy and
has shrunk cultural barriers like no other transport sector. But this progress comes at a cost.
In 2008, the commercial aviation industry produced 677 million tones of carbon dioxide
(CO2). This is around 2% of the total man-made CO2 emissions of more than 34 billion tones.
While this amount is smaller compared with other industry sectors, such as power generation and
ground transport, these industries have viable alternative energy sources currently available. For
example, the power generation industry can look to wind, hydro, nuclear and solar technologies
to make electricity without producing much CO2 . Cars and buses can run on hybrid, flexible
fuel engines or electricity. Electric-powered trains can replace diesel locomotives.
The aviation industry has identified the development of biofuels as one of the major
ways it can reduce its greenhouse gas emissions. Biofuels provide aviation with the capability
to partially, and perhaps one day fully, replace carbon-intensive petroleum fuels. They will,
over time, enable the industry to reduce its carbon footprint significantly.
Global CO2 emissions
Land use change and forestry (25%)

Building light and heat (20%)

Industrial processes (3%)

Other electricity and head (12%)

Other energy (10%)


Other transport (2%)
Air (2%)

Chemicals (6%)
Cement (5%)
Other industry (2%)
Road (13%)

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World Resources Institute 2002


Disponvel em: Beginners Guide to Aviation Biofuels, May 2009. Adaptado.

De acordo com o texto, os setores que ocasionam as menores taxas de emisso de CO2 no mundo so:
a. as formas de transporte que excluem os avies, indstrias variadas e de aquecimento.
b. os processos industriais diversos, o transporte rodovirio e as indstrias de cimento.
c. os processos industriais diversos, de aquecimento e as substncias qumicas.
d. o transporte rodovirio e outras formas de transporte, menos os avies.
e. as indstrias variadas, o transporte areo e outras formas de transporte.
Leia o texto e responda s questes 16 e 17.
1
This was my first Cirque du soleil viewing and I was amazed by how
amazing all the acts were I would definately recommend this to ANYONE!!!

Ilya Ivanov, Wednesday, August 31, 2011 7:48 AM

We have seen all shows that come through Chicago and in Vegas. Buying
tickets for family and friends has become a tradition we were proud of. Ovo
was in a word, disappointing. No story, a weak score, over used acts and just
no energy. Now for the venue terrible. Have been under the big top before.
This time, HOT in the concessions with bad attitude clerks, uncomfortable in
the show. AND tap water for $7.00, then with warm tempid refills .... come on,
just down right tacky. Last show for us.

Mark Clausen, Monday, August 01, 2011 9:14 AM

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

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3

I love Cirque du Soleil and the OVO show was good. The costumes
were bright and fanciful, but there didn't seem to be as much action as in
other cirque shows I've seen and something went wrong in the finale and we
didn't get to see the crickets jumping on the wall that everyone raves about.
Kirsten Lescher, Friday, July 01, 2011 9:11 AM

16. Cefet-MG
Reviewers usually use stars to express their opinions. The star ratings for the reviews above are,
respectively:
a.

and

b.

and

c.

and

d.

and

e.

and

17. Cetet-MG
Based on the reviews, one knows that:
a. the tap water was expensive and not always cold.
b. the place where the tent was put up is excellent.
c. the attendants in the souvenir stands were very polite.
d. the acts in the show are lively and have a lot of action.
e. the acts never change from a performance to the other.
18. Fameca-SP

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Leia e observe o cartum abaixo e responda questo 18.

More and more patients are going to the Internet for medical advice. To keep my practice going.
I changed my name to Dr. Google.
Disponvel em: <http://www.glasbergen.com>.

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

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Assinale a alternativa que se refere ao que o mdico apresentado no quadrinho est dizendo.
a. He is sorry because people no longer trust him.
b. He changed his name because people were always asking him for advice.
c. He is now giving medical advice on the Internet.
d. He tried something different in order to preserve his patients.
e. He prefers the Internet to keep his practice going.
19. UEG-GO
Leia e observe o infogrfico e responda questo.
DIGITAL LITERACIES include ability to...
use ICT tools to
create and share
information

search, sift, scan and


sort information

navigate through
screens of
information

locate and evaluate


information

screen read,
surf internet and
text, keyboard mail

use ICT to
research and solve
problems

make multimedia
presentations

retrieve, organize, manage


and create information

send and
receive
messages

Disponvel em: <http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_duQx7gT08y0/TKH5JewoPsl/AAAAAAAAAhs/


sucACM3p91Y/EsquemaUNESCO.bmp>. Acesso em: 19 ago. 2011.

Conforme o contedo do texto, letramento digital pressupe a habilidade de:

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a. apply technological tools to express ideas and discuss different points of view.
b. interpret correctly the content of hypertexts and be able to reproduce theirs ideas.
c. select information and exchange messages through the use of digital resources.
d. use multimedia with the purpose of disseminating knowledge and beliefs.
20. UnB-DF
Leia e observe as imagens e responda ao que se pede.
Why is Girl with a Pearl Earring Vermeers best-loved painting? It must have something to do
with the fact that the girl looks over her shoulder, as though hoping to see who is standing behind
her. Equally important, though, is the subtle rendering of light effects. The pearl is very special,
consisting of little more than two brushstrokes. Then there is the girl herself, wide-eyed, her lips
slightly parted. She makes an uninhibited, somewhat expectant impression that excites our interest, even though we have no idea who she is.

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

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a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

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Analyze the text and the pictures above and choose the correct answer.
a. Picture A matches the description of the mouth and the eyes, and picture D matches the
description of the earring.
b. Picture C matches the description of the mouth and the eyes, and picture E matches the
description of the earring.
c. Picture D matches the description of the light effects and picture F matches the description
of the earring.
d. Picture C matches the description of the earring and picture B matches the description of
the light effects.

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

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CAPTULO 02
a. Usa-se o artigo an somente com o pronome demonstrativo This.
b. Usa-se o artigo an somente com palavras com mais de uma slaba como o
caso do adjetivo experimental.
c. Usa-se o artigo an antes de um substantivo ou um adjetivo iniciado por vogal.
d. O artigo an deve ser usado somente
depois de um substantivo ou adjetivo.
e. O artigo an nunca deve ser usado antes
de vogal.

21. Unemat-MT
Leia o cartum para responder questo .
Living without energy

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Leia o texto e responda s questes de 22 a 24.


Teachers as targets violence against
teachers

Everyone says that we must use less


energy! But how? That is the big question.
In this article, you can read about the
house of the future, which uses hardly any
energy at all.
Most houses use energy lots of it.
We use energy for heating, lighting, for
running our household appliances TVs,
washing machines, fridges, and so on. In
winter time, most houses use dozens of
kilowatts of electricity every day, or the
equivalent in gas.
The house in the photo, on the other
hand, uses virtually nothing: most of the
energy that it uses comes straight from
the sun, the wind or the ground. This is
an experimental house at the University of
Nottingham, and it could be the kind of
house that most people are living in fifty
years from now.
During the daytime, it is rarely
necessary to turn on an electric light, even
in rooms without windows. Sunlight, or
daylight, is "piped" through the house,
into each room, through special highreflection aluminium tubes. You can see
how well they reflect light, by looking at
the reflections of the faces in the picture!

When you think of school violence


you likely think of the children, but
what about when the school violence is
directed at the teachers? Violence against
teachers appears to be on the rise which
is a terrifying thought since we count on
teachers to protect our kids and not be
the victims. Studies have found that by
the year 2000, that twenty-eight out of
every one thousand teachers had been the
victim of a violent crime at school with
just under half having been serious cases
of violence.
Even with all of the measures in
place to try to prevent violence in schools
and keep our children safer, its been
noted that many teachers fear for their
own safety when they go to work, yet
many dont bother to report threats and
acts of violence committed against them.
For some its a matter of believing that
they can control the situation themselves
and others keep quiet out of fear for their
lives or even their jobs fearing that they
look somehow incompetent or incapable
of controlling their students.
Programs have been implemented
around the world in order to help prevent
school violence against children, but little
focus has so far been placed on preventing
violence against teachers even though the
problem seems to be on the rise. While

Disponvel em: <http://linguapress.com/


intermediate/no-energy.htm>.

Na frase This is an experimental house at the


University of Nottingham, observe o artigo
destacado e assinale a alternativa correta.
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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

many are now fighting for governments


and school boards to do something about
the problem, teachers can help by doing a
few things as well.
If you are a teacher who has been
threatened or had a crime committed
against you then the first thing you need
to do is speak out and report it. Keeping
something of this magnitude to yourself
will only aggravate things and allow it
to continue and even escalate. Anyone
who behaves violently towards another
person will continue to do so as long as
they feel they can get away with it and
as long as you continue to let them have
control over the situation. You might think
that youre protecting yourself and your
job by keeping quiet but youre actually
doing the opposite. This type of situation,
if allowed to continue, will not only affect
your job performance and the way you
feel about your career but it will also
increase your chances of further injury
or even death. You also need to consider
the danger that you could be putting your
students in by allowing a violent person to
run free in your school.
Reporting violence against teachers
is crucial if you want to see something
done about the situation and save lives.

c. passaram a ser, depois da direo da escola, as principais vtimas de agresso.


d. so alvos de agresses, mas tambm
agressores em potencial.
23.
Esse texto no traz, entre as informaes difundidas, a que se apresenta na alternativa:
a. a sociedade desconhece os problemas
de agresso enfrentados pelos professores nas escolas.
b. medidas de segurana contra violncia
esto sendo tomadas nas escolas quando se trata de crianas.
c. h professores que no divulgam as
agresses que sofrem por receio de serem vistos como incapazes de controlar
seus alunos.
d. existem professores que se calam diante das agresses sofridas por medo de
perderem o emprego.
24.
A respeito da violncia a que se est exposto
na escola, pode-se afirmar, exceto:
a. O grau de violncia contra professores
aparenta crescimento, embora o foco
maior de preveno a agresses recaia
sobre as crianas.
b. As pessoas comearam a lutar para que
o governo e as autoridades escolares
tomem uma atitude sobre a violncia
contra os professores.
c. Os professores precisam se posicionar,
fazendo denncias para prevenir a violncia contra eles.
d. Os mesmos tipos de providncia tm
sido tomados sobre a violncia contra
alunos e professores.

Disponvel em: <http://www.nssc1.org/violence-againstteachers.html>. Acesso em: 18 abr. 2011. Adaptado.

22.
Nesse texto, sob o aspecto da violncia nas escolas, constata-se que os professores:
a. tm sofrido agresses na mesma proporo que as crianas.
b. esto se tornando vtimas, embora se
espere deles proteo.

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

Ingls

Leia a tirinha e responda s questes de 25 a 28.

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Disponvel em: <www.pixton.com>.

25. Unesp
Nos quadrinhos, conta-se a histria:
a. de um cachorro treinado como policial
e de um gato granfino cujo proprietrio
era um assassino que havia enriquecido por meios ilcitos.
b. de um gato desagradvel, que perseguia pequenos ratos indefesos e um dia
conseguiu assassinar seu prprio dono.
c. de um cachorro treinado especialmente
para proteger os cidados de gatos folgados e de pequenos ratos indefesos.
d. de um gato que tinha uma vida muito
confortvel porque seu dono era um
homem rico, fato que ajudava o gato a
cometer atos ilcitos sem ser punido.
e. de um gato e de um cachorro, que levavam vidas distintas, e que um dia se
encontraram na rua, prximo de uma
priso, e se tornaram bons amigos.

26. Unesp
As expresses kicked the bucket e went to the
sky, relacionadas a uma das personagens do
penltimo quadrinho da histria, significam
que a personagem:
a. chutou o balde a caminho do cu.
b. chutou o balde ao mentir a respeito do
gato.
c. morreu e foi para o cu.
d. no mentiu e mudou sua atitude antes
de morrer.
e. no foi para o cu, foi uma mentira do
gato.

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

27. Unesp
Assinale a alternativa que contm, respectivamente, uma informao correta a respeito do
cachorro e uma informao correta a respeito
do gato.
a. Foi treinado na polcia; alimentava-se
de boa comida.
b. Era muito mimado; aprontava na regio
onde morava.
c. Foi treinado na polcia; era muito rico e
carinhoso.
d. Protegia os gatos da cidade; alimentava-se de boa comida.
e. Era muito mimado; era muito rico e carinhoso.

28. Unesp
Os termos em portugus equivalentes s palavras alleys, lie, mice, neighborhood e scams na
histria so, respectivamente:
a. becos, mentira, ratos, vizinhana, atos
ilcitos.
b. criminosos, mentira, filhotes, guarda-sol,
atos ilcitos.
c. becos, lei, ratos, vizinhana, animais
pequenos.
d. criminosos, lei, filhotes, guarda-sol,
animais pequenos.
e. criminosos, lei, ratos, guarda-sol, animais pequenos.

Leia a tirinha e responda s questes 29 e 30.

Disponvel em: <http://www.seattlepi.com/ comics-and-games/fun/


Hagar_he_Horrible/ 2011-06-28/>. Acesso em: 31 jul. 2011.

c. Somente as afirmativas III e IV so corretas.


d. Somente as afirmativas I, II e IV so corretas.
e. Somente as afirmativas II, III e IV so
corretas.

A comicidade da tirinha reside:


I. no fato de Hagar (ao centro) sentir-se
intelectualmente inferior a seus companheiros.
II. no conflito existente entre a nobreza do
cavaleiro e a rudeza dos vikings.
III. na semelhana sonora existente entre
duas palavras da lngua inglesa.
IV. na concluso de Hagar sobre a tolice
dos personagens que o rodeiam.

30. Uel-PR
As palavras like e alike, utilizadas na tirinha,
referem-se respectivamente, a:
a. discordncia e exemplificao.
b. discordncia e similaridade.
c. apreciao e discordncia.
d. apreciao e exemplificao.
e. exemplificao e similaridade.

Assinale a alternativa correta.


a. Somente as afirmativas I e II so corretas.
b. Somente as afirmativas I e III so corretas.

108

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29. Uel-PR

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

Ingls

Leia a tirinha e responda s questes 31 e 32.

Disponvel em: <http://www.gocomics.com/calvinandhobbes/2011/07/31>. Acesso em: 31 jul. 2011.

31. Uel-PR
Na tira, a expresso pitting our wits against the raging elements pode ser traduzida por:
a. tentar fugir da rotina e do estresse do dia a dia.
b. aprimorar o conhecimento de sobrevivncia na selva.
c. buscar solues inteligentes para superar desafios.
d. interagir com a natureza sem o auxlio da tecnologia.
e. trabalhar em equipe para lidar com o elemento surpresa.

PV2D-13-14

32. Uel-PR
De acordo com o texto, correto afirmar que as personagens no conseguiram pegar nenhum
peixe porque:
I. discordaram sobre o uso da rede.
II. decidiram jogar as iscas na gua.
III. no quiseram manusear as iscas.
IV. no souberam colocar as iscas no anzol.
Assinale a alternativa correta.
a. Somente as afirmativas I e IV so corretas.
b. Somente as afirmativas II e III so corretas.
c. Somente as afirmativas III e IV so corretas.
d. Somente as afirmativas I, II e III so corretas.

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

regarding how much people should give


to charity, lower-class ranks suggest a
higher percentage of ones income than
the percentage recommended by the
wealthy.
Another study cited in the paper
involved giving participants 10 points,
which would later be traded in for money.
The individuals given the points were to
divide them up between themselves and
an anonymous partner. Guess who shared
more of their points?
We found that individuals reporting
lower subjective socioeconomic status
gave more to their partner than did uppersocioeconomic-status participants. In this
context, the next time youre called lowclass, consider it a compliment.

Leia o texto e responda s questes de 33 a 36.


Psychology of money
Study: the rich really are more selfish
by Brad Tuttle
August 12, 2011

Lower-class individuals i.e.,


folks without much money or education
demonstrate more compassion and
empathy than their wealthy counterparts,
according to a series of psychological
studies. In social scientist speech, selforiented behavior is more likely to be
exhibited by people with good education,
prestigious jobs, high income, and overall
higher-ranking social status.
How you rank in society purportedly
has a lot to do with how much you
care about your fellow man. Thats the
gist of Social Class as Culture: The
Convergence of Resources and Rank in
the Social Realm, a new paper written
by University of California psychologists
and social scientists published in the
academic journal Current Directions in
Psychological Science.
The authors write that ones sense of
social class derived mainly from income
and education exerts broad influences
on social thought, emotion, and behavior.
Using various tests that measure empathy,
those who perceive themselves among the
lower classes demonstrate heightened
vigilance of the social context and an
other-focused social orientation. In
other words, poorer, less well-educated
individuals tend to notice, and care more
about the people around them. Upperclass rank perceptions, on the other hand,
trigger a focus away from the context
toward the self, prioritizing self-interest.
How the heck can researchers
measure something like empathy? One
study, for instance, asked participants to
identify the emotions on display in photos
of people with different facial expressions.
Those with high-school-only educations
showed greater empathetic accuracy
than participants with college educations.
The paper also claims that people
with less education and less money tend
to be more generous with what money
they do have. When the question is posed

Disponvel em: <http://moneyland.time.com>. Adaptado.

33. UFTM-MG
Segundo o estudo mencionado no texto:
a. pessoas que completaram apenas o
Ensino Mdio apresentaram maior empatia em relao emoo dos outros.
b. a educao superior um dos fatores
que aumentam a percepo de expresses faciais.
c. as pessoas de baixa renda no conseguem fazer doaes humanitrias, pois
tm pouco dinheiro.
d. o contexto social influencia muito mais
o comportamento do que a renda em si.
e. os ricos fazem poucos, porm vultosos
donativos para os pobres.
34. UFTM-MG
No segundo pargrafo, a expresso has a lot to
do equivale, em portugus, a:
a. h muito que fazer.
b. pouco se v.
c. trabalha demais.
d. tem muito a ver.
e. faz muitas coisas.
35. UFTM-MG
O trecho do quarto pargrafo How the
heck can researchers measure something like
empathy? pode ser reescrito, sem alterao
de sentido, como:
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Ingls

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

pushing for shrinks consumption by just


0.1 to 0.8 per cent. There are other costs,
to be sure: inflation shrinks the value of
peoples savings, and uncertainty about
future prices makes business decisions less
efficient. There's also the risk of inflation
getting out of control. But the historical
record suggests that the risk of three-percent inflation turning into hyperinflation
is very small.
3
So why is inflation unpopular?
The biggest reason, Shiller found, was
simply that people believe higher prices
reduce their standard of living and make
them poorer. This is obviously true
for people living on fixed incomes or
off their savings, but for everyone else,
as many studies have shown, inflation
translates into higher incomes as well as
higher prices, and it typically doesnt have
much of an effect either way on peoples
standard of living. (After all, weve had
sixty years of inflation in the postwar
era, yet were much more prosperous
than we were in 1950.) Thats not how it
feels, though: myopia leads us to focus
on how much more we have to pay,
rather than on how much more we earn.
Inflation also sets off other alarm bells. It
often increases uncertainty, which most
people are averse to, and, because it can
be described as weakening a country's
currency, it affects morale. Shiller found
that people associated rising inflation with
dwindling social cohesion. Theres also a
moral dimension: we connect inflation
to a lack of discipline and failure to live
within our means. The most striking thing
about Shillers study was that no one
surveyed mentioned any possible benefits
of inflation, even though to Americans
currently besieged by debts it would be a
lifesaver.

a. What on earth should a researcher do


to display a feeling like empathy?
b. How was empathy shown to the
community by a researcher?
c. How the heck are researchers able to
measure a thing such as empathy?
d. Would empathy be something easy or
difficult to be quantified?
e. Why should empathy be considered
measurable by researchers?
36. UFTM-MG
No trecho final do texto ... consider it a
compliment a palavra compliment equivale,
em portugus, a:
a. desprezo.
b. complemento.
c. compromisso.
d. elogio.
e. equvoco.
Leia o texto e responda s questes de 37 a 40.

PV2D-13-14

Ingls

The financial page


1
People really, really hate inflation. In
polls, voters regularly cite high prices, as
one of their biggest concerns, even when
inflation is low. A 2001 study that looked
at the macroeconomics of happiness
found that higher inflation put a severe
dent in how happy people reported
themselves to be. The distaste for inflation
is such that a 1996 study (titled, aptly,
Why Do People Dislike Inflation?), by
the Yale economist Robert Shiller, found
that, in countries around the world, sizable
majorities said that they would prefer low
inflation and high unemployment to high
inflation and low unemployment, even if
that meant that millions of extra people
would go without work.
2
Weimar-style hyperinflation is, of
course, an awful thing. But people loathe
inflation even in moderate doses, where
the evidence suggests it does little damage.
The best estimates of the cost of inflation
find that even a ten-per-cent inflation rate
much higher than anyone is currently

James Surowiecki
Disponvel em: The New Yorker, September 27, 2010.

37. FGV-SP
Which of the following is most supported by
the information in the article?
a. People fear inflation because money
brings happiness.

111

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

b. The antipathy that most people have


for inflation is justified.
c. Its impossible to be happy when
inflation is out of control.
d. People have a tendency to react
irrationally to inflation.
e. Many people would prefer to lower
their standard of living than to accept a
high rate of inflation.

40. FGV-SP
According to the information in the article,
which of the following is most likely NOT a
possible negative effect of inflation?
a. People living on fixed incomes have a
lower purchasing power.
b. The value of money in savings accounts
decreases.
c. Even a low inflation rate easily turns
into hyperinflation.
d. Its harder for businesses to make
decisions involving future prices.
e. People have a greater tendency to
become disheartened and anxious.

38. FGV-SP
Which of the following is most supported by
the findings in Robert Shillers study (Why do
People Dislike Inflation?)?
a. Personal happiness depends on
inflation.
b. People in general are willing to sacrifice
the financial and professional wellbeing of others in order to keep prices
stable.
c. People in general are usually satisfied
when unemployment is high but
inflation is low.
d. Inflation destroys a countrys social unity.
e. Governments wanting to guarantee
social stability must keep inflation low,
even if that low inflation results in high
unemployment.

41. UFRR
Leia o enunciado da questo e assinale a alternativa correta.
According to the sentence below, choose the
most appropriate answer: Guess the job! If
something goes wrong with pipes, wash basin
or bath, we usually call for a ________.
a. hairdresser
b. plumber
c. barber
d. florist
e. traffic warden

39. FGV-SP

42. UFRR

Which of the following is probably the main


reason that the author mentions a ten-per-cent
inflation rate in paragraph 2?
a. He believes that anything above this rate
must be considered hyperinflation and
will cause serious economic problems.
b. It is an arbitrary number chosen
because it is neither excessively high
nor excessively low.
c. A ten-per-cent inflation rate can be very
effective in reducing a governments
sovereign debt.
d. He wants to support his argument that
even moderate inflation is less harmful
than people think.
e. Though ten-per-cent is a moderate
inflation rate, the author believes that
it is unacceptable to most people.

Leia o enunciado da questo assinale a


alternativa correta.
Some sentences below are written in singular
and in plural. You have to choose the incorrect
sentence.
a. I have got a three-week holiday in July.
b. The police have arrested Tom.
c. Athletics is my favourite sport.
d. What time is the news on TV?
e. Five thousand pounds were stolen in
the robbery.
43. Unioeste-PR
Leia o texto e responda questo.
Brazil police occupy Rio favela in
World Cup operation
Brazilian security forces have
occupied one of Rio de Janeiro's biggest
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Ingls

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

slums as part of a major crackdown


ahead of the 2014 World Cup and 2016
Olympics.
Some 800 police and special forces
moved into the Mangueira shantytown,
without needing to fire a shot, having
announced the raid in advance.
The slum or favela is close to
Rio's famous Maracana stadium, where
the World Cup final will be played.
The pre-dawn operation involved
armoured vehicles and helicopters.
According to the newspaper, O
Globo, leaflets were thrown out of the
helicopters, some with photos of wanted
criminals.
Others were printed with the police
special forces' telephone number so that
residents could pass on information about
drugs traffickers or weapons.
BBC Brazil correspondent Paulo
Cabral says most of Mangueira's residents
co-operated with the operation, as they
want to rid the area of drug dealers.
He says that Rio's authorities are
making an effort to gain the trust of those
living in the slums, who after decades of
abuse have got used to seeing the police
as their enemy.
Mangueira home to one of Rio's
most famous samba schools is the 18th
favela that the authorities have occupied
recently.

The Brazilian branch of the Lulz


Security hacking collective claimed
responsibility for the attacks.
Lulz members have claimed
responsibility for recent attacks on the
site of electronics giant Sony, along with
the CIA web page and the U.S. Senate
computer system.
The Brazilian presidents office said
in a statement that attacks on the website
of the presidency, along with the nations
internal revenue service and a government
portal began around 12:30 a.m. and lasted
until 3 a.m.
The government said it stopped the
hackers from obtaining data from the
websites, but that the attacks made them
inaccessible for about an hour.
Hours later, people who claimed
to be Lulz members said on Twitter that
they had taken down the website of oil
company Petrobras, whose website was
down Wednesday afternoon. Petrobras
would not confirm whether the problems
with its website were caused by an attack.
On a Twitter page in the name of the
Brazilian branch of Lulz, posters justified
the apparent attack on the Petrobras
website by complaining about the price of
gasoline in Brazil.
Wake up Brazil! We no longer want
to buy gas at 2.75 to 2.78 reais ($1.73 to
$1.75) and export for half of that price!
stated one tweet from the group.

Disponvel em: <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/


world-latin-america-13833037>. Adaptado.

PV2D-13-14

Ingls

Disponvel em: <http://www.washingtonpost.com/


world/americas/brazil-presidency-website-hackedjammedin-attack-claimed-by-lulz-collective/2011/06/22/
AGb53KgH_story.html>. Adaptado.

Mark the noun that does not have the same


plural form as in residents:
a. Criminals
b. Forces
c. Women
d. Slums
e. Dealers
Leia o texto e responda s questes de 44 a 46.
Brazil presidency website hacked,
jammed in attack claimed by Lulz
collective
A cyber attack blocked traffic to the
website of the Brazilian presidency and
two other government sites on Wednesday,
authorities said.

44. Unioeste-PR
Mark the incorrect alternative, according to
the text:
a. Trs sites do governo brasileiro sofreram ataques cibernticos.
b. Lulz assume responsabilidade pelos
ataques.
c. A Petrobras confirma que os problemas
com o seu website foram causados
por hackers.

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

existence in March 1949, in the then


Yugoslav republic of Slovenia. His father
was an economist and civil servant and his
mother was an accountant.
My life is straightforward, he says.
Nothing happened. At 15, I wanted to be
a movie director. But I saw some really
good European films and I accepted that I
couldnt do that. Then, at 17, I decided to
become a philosopher.

d. Membros da Lulz se dizem responsveis


pela invaso de sites, pginas eletrnicas e computadores, dentre outros,
da CIA, Sony e do Senado Americano.
e. O governo brasileiro foi capaz de suspender o ataque dos hackers.
45. Unioeste-PR
According to the text, it is possible to affirm
that people who claimed to be Lulz members
of the Brazilian branch:
a. queriam protestar contra os altos preos da gasolina no Brasil.
b. queriam obter informaes confidenciais.
c. queriam demonstrar a fragilidade do
sistema de segurana brasileiro.
d. queriam alterar dados.
e. queriam parar as operaes brasileiras de exportao de gasolina.

Disponvel em:<http://www.telegraph.co.uk/
culture/books/authorinterviews/7871302/
Slavoj-Zizek-the-worlds-hippest-philosopher.
html>. Acesso em: 12 set. 2011. Adaptado.

Glossary
hippest: mais famoso
gullag: agncia do governo da Unio Sovitica
responsvel pelos principais instrumentos de
represso poltica.
47. UFG-GO
Though iek has an opinion on every subject,
he does not want to think about:

46. Unioeste-PR
Which verb form is used in the sentence:
Wake up Brazil!?
a. Futuro
b. Passado simples
c. Presente Perfeito
d. Imperativo
e. Presente Contnuo

a. life.
b. love.
c. himself.

d. women.
e. family.

48. UFG-GO
Which sentence concerns iek?
a. He disregards he is a famous philosopher.
b. He dislikes the country where he was
born.
c. He believes his parents influenced him.
d. He has good memories of his childhood.
e. He considers becoming a movie director.

Leia o texto e responda s questes 47 e 48.


Slavoj iek: the worlds hippest
philosopher
Slavoj iek has got an opinion on
every subject from decaffeinated coffee
to sex, from seagulls and swearing to
the end of the world. He talks to Helen
Brown.
iek dismisses those who dub him
The Elvis of Philosophy with a brisk:
To the gulag! All of them! It is too
traumatic for me to see myself. Whenever
I see such a thing, my reaction is to ask:
Would a woman allow me to take her
daughter to the cinema? My God! Of
course not! I dont want to deal with
myself. I dont want to exist. I just want
to think.
But whether he wanted to or not,
Slavoj iek came into independent

49. UFG-GO
Leia o texto e responda questo
A guide for new fathers
Being a new dad is overwhelming,
confusing, intimidating and tiring, but also
amazing and really cool.
Thats the message fathers are
sharing with fathers on a new website
designed as a manual for taking care
of your newborn.
WHITE, L. A guide for new fathers. 24 Hours
Toronto: Wednesday, p. 21. 15 jun., 2011.

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Ingls

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

island. We sometimes imagine a desert


island to be a sort of paradise where the
sun always shines. Life there is simple
and good. Ripe fruit falls from the trees
and you never have to work. There is
also the other side of the picture: Life in
a desert island is wretched you either
starve to death or live like Robinson
Crusoe waiting for a boat which never
comes. Perhaps there is an element of
truth in both these pictures, but few of
us have had the opportunity to find out.
Two men who recently spent five
days on a coral island wished they
stayed there longer. They were taking
a badly damaged boat from the Virgin
Islands to Miami to have it repaired.
During the journey, their boat began to
sink. They quickly loaded a small rubber
dinghy with food, matches, and cans of
beer and rowed for a few miles across
the Caribbean until they arrived at a tiny
coral island. There were hardly any trees
on the island and there was no water, but
this didnt prove to a problem since the
men collected rain-water in their rubber
dinghy. As they had brought a spear gun
with them, they had plenty to eat. They
caught lobster and fish every day, and,
as one of them put it, ate like kings!
When a passing tanker rescued them
five days later, both men were genuinely
sorry that they had to leave.

What piece of advice illustrates the idea of


the new fathers sharing experiences between
themselves?
a. Spend more time at home.
b. Support your children's mother.
c. Talk to other dads about fathering.
d. Show affection toward your family.
e. Take on more responsibility.
50. UFG-GO
Leia o texto e responda questo.
Gaddafi vows: we wont
surrender again; we are not
women
A defiant Muammar Gaddafi
vowed to fight to the end against
Libyas new government and its
Nato backers, warning that his
forces would turn the country into
a hell rather than surrender like
women.
[...]
We will fight in every valley,
in every street, in every oasis, and
every town, he said. We wont
surrender again; we are not women;
we will keep fighting, he said,
referring to loyal tribes in the towns
of Sirte and Bani Walid.

PV2D-13-14

Disponvel em: <http://www.guardian.co.uk/


world/2011/sep/01/muammargaddafi-libya>.
Acesso em: 12 set. 2011. Adaptado.

L.G.Alexander, Developing Skills, Longman. Adaptado.

No primeiro pargrafo, na frase Life in a


desert island is wretched a palavra destacada
poderia ser substituda, sem alterao do
sentido do texto, por:

Glossary
Nato: Organizao do Tratado do Atlntico
Norte (OTAN)
backers: apoiadores

a. boring.
b. foolish.
c. miserable.

Women in Gaddafis words are:


a. faithful.
b. arrogant.
c. daring.

Ingls

d. weak.
e. dependent.

d. vile.
e. unlucky.

Leia o texto e responda s questes de 52 a 54.

51. FMJ-MG
Leia o texto e responda questo.
Life on a Desert Island
Most of us have formed an
unrealistic picture of life on a desert
115

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

Ten years of fear, grif, revenge and


resillience.
The Samaritan

d. The work Maguire did some time after


the tragedy gave him some consolation
and comfort in his sorrow.
e. Maguires sister showed him the photo
she had taken from her apartment on
that surreal day.

by John Maguire

It is one of the days most familiar


and most chilling images: rescue
workers carrying the beloved Fire
Department chaplain Father Mychal
Judge from the rubble. But the man
nearest Judge was no rescue worker: he
was a 28-year-old associate at Goldman
Sachs. Seeing papers flying in the air
outside his office, he headed into the
chaos on the ground. Just after the first
tower fell, he found the men struggling
to carry the dying Judge. It was too
late to perform CPR, so John Maguire
started back toward Ground Zero. Then
the second tower collapsed. I jumped
under a truck, and everything went
black, he recalls. I thought, I guess
this is how its going to end.
Maguire eventually made it
to the apartment of his sister, who
showed him the photo the next day: It
seemed surreal. He found solace in an
unexpected place. Recalled to active
duty, the West Point graduate served
as a civic-affairs officer in Iraq from
2006 to 2007. Doing so was his therapy,
alleviating a crushing sense of futility.
Today, Maguire is back at Goldman.
___( I )___ because I commute through
that site every day.

53. Mackenzie-SP
The word rubble in the text means:
a. broken bits and pieces of anything.
b. explosive device used as a weapon to
disperse crowds.
c. violent expansion or bursting with
noise, as of gunpowder.
d. a premature spontaneous burning
due to the high temperature of air
compressed in a cylinder.
e. combustion or consumption of fuel in
such a way as to give off heat, gases
and light.
54. Mackenzie-SP
The right sequence of words that properly fill
in blank I in the text are:
a. Its hard for myself to really dont think
about
b. Its hard for me to really not think
about
c. Its hard for me to really think not
about
d. Its hard to really dont think about for
me
e. Its hard for me not to really think
about...

Disponvel em: <http://www.newsweek.com>.

52. Mackenzie-SP

55. Mackenzie-SP

The text states that:


a. Father Mychal Judge was a rescue
worker working near the site of the
9/11 attacks. He was also a CPR expert.
b. Ground Zero, where the WTC towers
collapsed, is on the west side of New
York City, next to Maguires sisters
apartment.
c. John Maguire escaped the attacks as he
left his office in search of the sheets of
paper which had flown away with the
first explosion.

Leia e o texto e responda questo.


SALOME
A masterpiece of erotic longing
by R. Strauss

Set in the court of King Herod,


Strauss sensational opera tells of the
lives of four desperate people: Herodias,
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Ingls

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

who helped murder her first husband and


has now married his brother Herod, who
in turn lusts after his step-daughter, the
young Salome. But she is mesmerised with
desire for the prophet John the Baptist.
The operas enthralling story is matched
by music of hair-raising excitement.

Ingls
c. The masterpiece of the expedition was
a Frenchman.
d. It was a masterpiece of deceit.
e. Gullivers Travels is Swifts masterpiece.

56. Mackenzie-SP modificado


Leia e o texto e responda questo.

PV2D-13-14

John Horgan

My claim is that science is a bounded


enterprise, limited by social, economic,
physical and cognitive factors. Science is
being threatened, literally, in some cases,
by technophobes like the Unabomber,
by animal rights activists, by creationists
and other religious fundamentalists,
by postmodern philosophers and, most
important of all, by stingy politicians.
John Horgan, a freelance writer, was
a senior writer at Scientific American
from 1986 to 1997. He has also written
for the New York Times, Washington
Post, New Republic, Slate, London
Times, Times Literary Supplement among
other publications. He is the author of
The End of Science; The Undiscovered
Mind; and the recently published Rational
Mysticism: Dispatches from the Border
Between Science and Spirituality.

Conductor: Sebastian Weigle, Director:


Antony Ernst
Cast: Lisa Gasteen, Bernadette Cullen,
Richard Greager, Daniel Sumegi, Barry
Ryan, Donna-Maree Dunlop, Jamie Allen,
Richard Anderson, Jud Arthur, Arend
Baumann, John Brunato, Warwick Fyfe,
Geoffrey Harris, Graeme Macfarlane,
Sally McHugh, Stuart Neilson-Kemp,
Michael Saunders.
Evening: July 21, 25, 29. August 1, 6, 9,
13.
Matinee: August 16.
Evening 7.30 pm, Matinee 1 pm. Sung in
German with Surtitles.
Duration: 1 hour and 45 minutes. Salome
is performed without interval.

Disponvel em: <http://www.edge.


org/3rd_culture/bios/horgan.html>.

The corresponding synonym of the underlined


word in by post-modern philosophers and,
most important of all, by stingy politicians is:
a. modest.
b. skeptical.
c. thoughtful.
d. allergic.
e. mean.

The Sydney Opera House Sydney, Australia

The word masterpiece is wrongly used in:


a. One day Ill paint a masterpiece.
b. This is one of the great masterpieces of
European art.

117

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

who have slashed investment over the past


year, rank graft as their biggest headache
behind appalling infrastructure. Now
Indias anti-corruption chief has been
forced out over, well, corruption.
Graft is hardly new in India:
the Bofors scandal brought down the
government in 1989. But there seems
to be more of it about than ever, if only
because India is getting richer fast, and
the faster the economy grows, the more
chances arise for mindboggling theft. The
government says that in the next five-year
plan period, which starts next year, $1
trillion will be spent on roads, railways,
ports and so on, with billions more on reequipping the armed forces and welfare.
Add in an insatiable appetite for scarce
land, water and minerals and a monsoon
of bribes is forecast.
Some are inclined to shrug their
shoulders. After all, corruption does not
seem to be stopping India from growing.Yet
imagine how much better the country would
be doing without it. Corruption raises costs
not just to Indians, but also to the foreigners
whose capital India needs. Thanks in part to
those scandals, Indias stockmarket was the
worstperforming outside the Muslim world
over the past year.
To its credit, the government has
begun to take action against powerful
individuals. Maharashtra states chief
minister was forced out over a property
scandal. Police have quizzed Suresh
Kalmadi, the politician who ran the
Commonwealth games. Most strikingly,
Andimuthu Raja, the cabinet minister
who oversaw the 2G telecom licences,
was arrested.

57. Fameca-SP
Leia o texto e responda questo.
Hospital emergency departments
(ED) see over 108 million patients
annually in the USA. The critically ill who
are admitted can be hospitalized for up
to 29 hours with recent trends indicating
that this duration may be increasing.
Approximately one fourth of the admitted
patients suffer from various degrees of
injury resulting from traumatic events
such as accidents, violence, or drug use.
During transport or upon ED admission,
these injuries can intensify, causing sepsis
or septic shock, which can eventually lead
to multi-system organ failure, and if not
treated early enough, death.
Disponvel em: <http://www.be.ucsd.educ.com>.

Nos Estados Unidos, de acordo com o texto:


a. um paciente s pode receber, no
mximo, 29 horas de tratamento de
emergncia:
b. pode estar aumentando o nmero
anual de pacientes que recebem
tratamento de emergncia.
c. um quarto dos pacientes que recebem
tratamento de emergncia sua condio a uma causa externa.
d. a intensificao das causas naturais
dos atendimentos de emergncia pode
provocar septicemia.
e. a maior parte dos pacientes que
recebem tratamento de emergncia
morre por no ter recebido pronto
atendimento.
Leia o texto e responda s questes de 58 a 60.
Corruption in India a rotten state
Graft is becoming a bigger problem
and the government should tackle it.
Indians anger over rising corruption
has reached feverish levels. What people
are calling a season of scams include
the alleged theft of billions by officials
behind last years Commonwealth games
in Delhi; $40 billion in revenues lost from
the crooked sale of 2G telecoms licences;
and over $40 billion stolen in Uttar Pradesh
alone from schemes subsidising food and
fuel for the poor. Foreign businessmen,

Disponvel em: <http://www.economist.com>


. Mar 10th 2011.

58. ESPM-SP
According to the main idea expressed by the
text, it is correct to state that:
a. people are willing to tackle the
corruption issue.
b. mighty individuals are being cracked
down by local authorities.

118

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Ingls

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

Everyone says that we must use less


energy! But how? That is the big question.
In this article, you can read about the
house of the future, which uses hardly any
energy at all.
Most houses use energy lots of it.
We use energy for heating, lighting, for
running our household appliances TVs,
washing machines, fridges, and so on. In
winter time, most houses use dozens of
kilowatts of electricity every day, or the
equivalent in gas.
The house in the photo, on the other
hand, uses virtually nothing: most of the
energy that it uses comes straight from
the sun, the wind or the ground. This is
an experimental house at the University of
Nottingham, and it could be the kind of
house that most people are living in fifty
years from now.
During the daytime, it is rarely
necessary to turn on an electric light, even
in rooms without windows. Sunlight, or
daylight, is "piped" through the house,
into each room, through special highreflection aluminium tubes. You can see
how well they reflect light, by looking at
the reflections of the faces in the picture!

c. graft is widespread in India and bothers


both the population and the business
world.
d. there are crooked transactions in
Indias energy private sector.
e. Indias rogue state has been seriously
hitting the poor.
59. ESPM-SP
According to the text:
a. dishonesty was rated as the biggest
hurdle in the corporative scenario.
b. authorities were laid off because they
attempted to fight corruption.
c. the wealthier India becomes, the likelier
it is to get rid of monkey businesses.
d. the police is also involved in rotten
schemes.
e. Indias prime minister was sent to jail
due to a telecom scandal.
60. ESPM-SP

PV2D-13-14

Ingls

In Some are inclined to shrug their shoulders,


the expression, underlined in the text, in the
third paragraph, to shrug their shoulders
means:
a. to discredit the governments initiatives
in curbing corruption.
b. to support the peoples discontent
regarding a rogue state.
c. to have faith in Indias development
despite its scandals.
d. to agree with Indias policy-making
against graft.
e. to overlook the illegal practices taking
place in India.

Disponvel em: <http://linguapress.com/


intermediate/no-energy.htm>.

61. Unemat-MT
De acordo com o texto, correto afirmar.
a. No perodo de inverno, muitas casas
usam dezenas de kilowatts de eletricidade todos os dias ou o equivalente em
gs.
b. No perodo de inverno, muitas casas ficam sem eletricidade ou gs todos os
dias.
c. No perodo de inverno, muitas casas
no usam eletricidade ou gs todos os
dias.
d. No perodo de inverno, muitas casas
usam dzias de kilowatts de eletricidade todos os dias, ou o equivalente em
gs.
e. No perodo de inverno, muitas casas
usam poucos kilowatts de eletricidade
ou gs todos os dias.

Leia o texto e responda s questes de 61 a 63


Living without energy

119

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

Ingls

damaged boat from the Virgin Islands


to Miami to have it repaired. During the
journey, their boat began to sink. They
quickly loaded a small rubber dinghy with
food, matches, and cans of beer and rowed
for a few miles across the Caribbean until
they arrived at a tiny coral island. There
were hardly any trees on the island and
there was no water, but this didnt prove
to a problem since the men collected rainwater in their rubber dinghy. As they had
brought a spear gun with them, they had
plenty to eat. They caught lobster and
fish every day, and, as one of them put it,
ate like kings! When a passing tanker
rescued them five days later, both men
were genuinely sorry that they had to
leave.

62. Unemat-MT
Na frase During the daytime, it is rarely
necessary to turn on an electric light, even
in rooms without windows, o advrbio
destacado pode ser substitudo por:
a. seldom
d. hardly
b. frequently
e. ruggedly
c. always
63. Unemat-MT
Leia as afirmaes.
I. A casa apresentada na foto usa todos
os tipos de energia.
II. Trata-se de um estudo longitudinal
realizado pela Universidade de
Nottingham.
III. um tipo de casa em que muitas pessoas iro viver nos prximos 50 anos.
IV. Durante o dia, a casa necessita apenas
de luz solar.
V. noite ou durante o dia, a casa recebe
em cada cmodo uma iluminao
especial atravs de gs encanado.
Assinale a alternativa
afirmativa(s) correta(s).
a. I, III e V
b. III
c. II e IV

que

indica

L.G.Alexander, Developing Skills, Longman. Adaptado.

O trecho do segundo pargrafo There were


hardly any trees on the island tem o mesmo
sentido, em portugus, que:
a. As rvores da ilha s produziam frutas
de casca dura.
b. As rvores da ilha eram muito mirradas.
c. A ilha havia produzido rvores bem rijas.
d. Havia rvores na ilha, mas poucos frutos.
e. Quase no havia rvores na ilha.

a(s)

d. III, IV e V
e. II, IV e V

65. UEFS-BA

64. FMJ-MG

Leia o texto e responda questo.

Leia o texto e responda questo.

PV2D-13-14

Life on a Desert Island


Most of us have formed an unrealistic
picture of life on a desert island. We
sometimes imagine a desert island to be
a sort of paradise where the sun always
shines. Life there is simple and good. Ripe
fruit falls from the trees and you never have
to work. There is also the other side of the
picture: Life in a desert island is wretched
you either starve to death or live like
Robinson Crusoe waiting for a boat which
never comes. Perhaps there is an element
of truth in both these pictures, but few of us
have had the opportunity to find out.
Two men who recently spent five
days on a coral island wished they stayed
there longer. They were taking a badly

William Ellis Green, 82, was making


his breakfast when he heard somebody in
his garden. I went out the back door, and
suddenly I saw this guy running toward
me. He pushed me out of the way and
took my bicycle from the garden shed.
120

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

Mr. Green did not resist, as he knew he


would end up second-best in a fight with
the intruder. The burglar tried to cycle
away, but the tires on the bike were flat,
making it difficult to ride. He kept falling
off the bicycle, said Mr. Green, at least
three or four times. After the man fled,
Mr. Green called the local police.
When they arrived, officers asked
him to describe the man, but instead he
offered to draw them a picture. When
Mr. Green started drawing, said one of
the police officers, I knew right away
who the burglar was. Actually, Mr.
Green had worked for more than 20 years
in daily newspapers doing caricatures
of Australian soccer players. I had no
difficulty in remembering the mans face
because he was so close to me, he said.
Police cruised the neighborhood in a
patrol car with the sketch in search of the
alleged burglar and found him within half an
hour. The cartoon was a perfect likeness of
the burglar, said another police officer.
The police believe that this is the first
time they have ever caught a suspect by
using a cartoon sketch. Phil Rushford, a
senior police officer, said that in the past
some victims had used their cell phones to
take photographs at crime scenes, but they
had not been as effective.
A 34-year-old man is expected to be
charged with theft, burglary, and assault.
The missing bike was later found on a
nearby street.

The ability to stand upright and stride


on two feet was a critical milestone in
setting the human species apart from our
ape ancestors. Paleoanthropologists say
its what eventually allowed humans to
develop bigger brains, and it likely took
a while to evolve. Based on the fossil
evidence, researchers have long suspected
Australopithecus afarensis, the species
whose most famous member is 3.2-millionyear-old Lucy, was among the first to
spend the majority of its day on two feet.
Problem is, Lucys skeleton is missing key
foot bones, which left researchers to debate
how much time Lucy spent upright most
of the time, like us, or only periodically,
like the apes?
Now scientists report they have found
a crucial clue: a fourth metatarsal, one of
the long bones connecting the toes to the
ankle, from one of Lucys contemporaries.
That fossil speaks volumes about how we
evolved. The bone shows signs of an arch,
both from front to back and from side to
side, which suggests that A. afarensiss foot
could absorb shock and bear the weight
of an animal that stood upright for long
periods. It is strong and stiffer than those
found in most apes flexible, handlike feet,
which not only splay flat on the ground but
can also curl around branches the better
to sustain a tree-based existence. Being
fully upright likely gave Lucy and her ilk
an advantage over other hominids some 3
million years ago, particularly as the cooling
planet caused the dense, lush forests of
eastern Africa to give way to grasslands,
where walking and running would have
been more useful than climbing.

Disponvel em: OXENDEN, Clive; LATHAM-KOENIG,


Christina American English File, MultiPack 4A, 2010. p.51
PV2D-13-14

Ingls

Considering language use in the text, its


correct to say:
a. The verb form heard is in the Past
Participle.
b. The expression right away is the
same as immediately.
c. The word daily is functioning as an
adverb.
d. The word neighborhood is formed by
adding a prefix.
e. The verb form had not been is in the
passive voice.

Disponvel em: Time, February 28, 2011. Adaptado.

Leia o texto e responda s questes de 66 a 71.


121

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

66. Fuvest-SP

a. a condio fsica de nossos ancestrais


permitia-lhes suportar choques e enfrentar situaes adversas.
b. seus ossos possuam resistncia que
lhe permitia mover-se de um lado para
outro.
c. a evoluo de nossa espcie deve-se
no apenas a nosso porte, mas ao desenvolvimento da fala.
d. seus ps podiam absorver impactos e
suportar o peso de seu corpo.
e. a habilidade para andar de nossos ancestrais era similar habilidade dos
chimpanzs de subir em rvores.

De acordo com o texto, a espcie humana evoluiu devido:


a. ao aumento do tamanho do crebro.
b. capacidade de manter-se em p e de
andar.
c. s mudanas em sua formao biolgica.
d. ao aumento de fora de sua ossatura.
e. adaptabilidade com relao a mudanas climticas.
67. Fuvest-SP
Para os pesquisadores mencionados no texto,
h evidncias de que:
a. Lucy, fssil famoso, passava a maior
parte do dia em p.
b. os primeiros homindeos, assim como
Lucy, no tinham os dedos dos ps.
c. homindeos e chimpanzs subiam em
rvores e corriam pelos campos.
d. os homindeos, assim como os chimpanzs, ficavam em p apenas quando
necessrio.
e. o esqueleto de homindeos e chimpanzs era similar, mas as atividades desenvolvidas eram diferentes.

70. Fuvest-SP
O texto informa que:
a. o resfriamento do planeta e as consequentes alteraes no meio-ambiente
reforaram a importncia da mudana
postural dos homindeos.
b. uma das grandes vantagens dos homindeos em relao aos chimpanzs era
que aqueles, diferentemente destes,
preferiam andar no solo a locomover-se
nas rvores.
c. a preservao dos macacos deve-se ao
fato de que eles alimentavam-se de folhagens e dos pastos que vieram a se
formar com o resfriamento do planeta.
d. a flexibilidade da ossatura de homindeos e de chimpanzs permitiu a sobrevivncia de ambos aps o resfriamento
do planeta.
e. o esqueleto humano, hoje, preserva as
mesmas caractersticas dos fsseis de 3
milhes de anos atrs.

68. Fuvest-SP
O texto informa que os pesquisadores tiveram
utilizar outros dados para seu estudo, porque:
a. a evoluo de nossa espcie s pode
ser compreendida a partir de uma
amostra significativa de fsseis.
b. a amplitude da pesquisa dependia da
comparao de fsseis contemporneos
a Lucy.
c. o fssil de Lucy no possua ossos importantes dos ps.
d. a variao dos esqueletos fsseis ao
longo do tempo evidente.
e. a ossatura do p e os ligamentos da
parte anterior da perna revelam as similaridades entre a espcie humana e
os chimpanzs.

71. Fuvest-SP
O advrbio likely na sentena Being fully
upright likely gave Lucy and her ilk... pode ser
traduzido por:
a. certamente.
b. naturalmente.
c. totalmente.
d. prazerosamente.
e. provavelmente.

69. Fuvest-SP
A anlise do fssil A. afarensis, mencionada no
texto, sugere que:
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Ingls

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

72. UESPI

Leia o texto e responda s questes de 72 a 74.

PV2D-13-14

Ingls

According to the text:


a. Women have always been allowed to
vote everywhere.
b. Feminist movements only recently
focused on womens suffrage.
c. Saudi Arabia is still reluctant to allow
womens suffrage.
d. Switzerland has always been a haven
for womens suffrage.
e. Finland was a pioneer in granting
women the right to vote.

Women all around the world are


allowed to vote
Suffrage is one of the oldest issues
that womens rights activist have been
fighting for. The struggle to gain suffrage
is often referred to as the first wave of
feminism. In 1906 Finland became the
first country in the world to grant women
the right to vote and stand in elections.
Now, 105 years later, Saudi women have
also taken a step towards equality with
the decision of King Abdullah to grant
the women of Saudi Arabia the right to
vote and stand for election. The right
for women to vote and stand in elections
hasnt always been the case in the West,
for example in Switzerland women got
suffrage as late as 1971.
According to the decision made by
King Abdullah, Saudi women can take
part in municipal elections the only
public elections in Saudi Arabia. Women
will also be able to be members of the
Shura Council which has the power to
propose laws to the King.
The announcement has been received
with mixed emotions. According to the
international organization of Parliaments,
IPU, the Inter-Parliamentary Union, the
decision means that no country in the
world now discriminates against women
when it comes to electing leaders. Others
remain more sceptical. For example
professor and researcher Stphane Lacroix
said in an interview for French newspaper
Libration that this decision does not
fundamentally change Saudi society.
Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon
welcomes the recent announcements. He
believes that these represent an important
step in the realization by women in Saudi
Arabia of their fundamental civil and
political rights.
It will be interesting to see how this
law will be implemented and if it succeeds
in advancing womens rights in Saudi
Arabia.

73. UESPI
Considering King Abdullahs decision, Saudi
Arabian women:
a. still play an insignificant role when it
comes to suffrage rights.
b. havent experienced anything new in
their country concerning suffrage.
c. are now in a much better standing as
for suffrage rights than before.
d. have refused to be part of such a limited
voting process as offered them.
e. will have the chance of a lifetime to
change their countrys political regime.
74. UESPI
On account of the kings decision, womens
rights:
a. in the Middle East have been criticized
by the UN Secretary-General.
b. are to be implemented after the
country turns into a democracy.
c. have already given strong signs of
vitality in many areas.
d. are yet to be conquered and confirmed
in Saudi Arabia.
e. will certainly go through significant
changes in the near future.
Leia e o texto e responda s questes 75 e 76.
Artist detained in growing crackdown
Ai Weiwei, Chinas most prominent
dissident after imprisoned Nobel laureate
Liu Xiaobo, was detained April 3 at the
Beijing airport as he tried to board a flight
to Hong Kong. Perhaps best known for
codesigning the 2008 Beijing Olympic

Disponvel em: <http://www.create4theun.eu/


women-all-around-the-world-areallowed-to-vote/>
Acesso em: 2 out. 2011.

123

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

stadium known as the Birds Nest, Ai is


an outspoken critic of the government
and has been detained several times.
During one period in custody, he was
allegedly beaten so badly that he required
brain surgery. This arrest comes amid a
widespread crackdown touched off by
online calls for a Tunisian-style jasmine
revolution. Over the past several weeks,
at least 26 activists have been detained,
200 have been put under house arrest, and
more than 30 have disappeared.

Fourteen of Mexicos 32 states grant


licences without setting a practical driving
test. Three of those 14 run compulsory
courses which students pass merely by
attending. Five others have multiplechoice
written exams. In six areas, including
Mexico City, there is no compulsory training
or test of any sort.
Mexico was not always so
freewheeling. Until the 1990s driving tests
were near-universal, but it took unusual
robustness of character to pass without
paying a bribe. Rather than tackle corruption,
some states simply abolished the test.
The disregard for road safety goes
wider. The ring roads that roar around
Mexicos big cities have speed limits of
up to 80kph. By contrast in Costa Rica the
urban speed limit is 40kph. Drivers are slack
about seat belts and child-seats are rarer still.
A breathalyser blitz has helped to
reduce drinkdriving. The new menace is
texting, which is not yet banned. (Talking
on the phone is, though enforcement is
weak.) Since 2004 the city has denied
bail to those arrested for drink-driving or
hit-and-run accidents, following a case
in which an American banker escaped
jail despite drunkenly mowing down five
policemen.
Given the right training, Mexicos
drivers are as safe as any other countrys.
An American study found that Mexican
truckers had fewer accidents in the United
States than their American counterparts.
Until testing becomes universal, Mexicos
roads will remain lethal.

Disponvel em: Time, April 118, 2011.

75. ITA-SP
Segundo o texto, Ai Weiwei:
a. alegou ter sido severamente torturado.
b. foi preso devido a um recrudescimento
da represso na China.
c. embarcou num voo para Hong Kong.
d. foi preso por incitar uma revoluo nos
moldes da tunisiana.
e. foi quem projetou o estdio olmpico
de Pequim.
76. ITA-SP
Segundo o texto:
a. Liu Xiaobo foi preso em 3 de abril no
aeroporto de Pequim.
b. houve, na China, incitao revoluo
via Internet.
c. Ai Weiwei o mais proeminente dissidente chins.
d. a priso domiciliar prtica frequente
em territrio chins.
e. Ai Weiwei faz crticas veladas ao regime
vigente.

Disponvel em: <http://www.economist.com/


node/21531484>. Acesso em: 9 out. 2011.

Leia o texto e assinale V (verdadeiro) ou F (falso) de acordo com a afirmao contida nas
questes de 77 a 80.

77. UFPE
Road traffic accidents in Mexico:
0. are closely associated with the driving
skills of its population.
1. claim the lives of more than half a
million Mexicans every year.
2. have no connection with the quality of
its well preserved roads.
3. involving deaths outnumber those
caused by the Mexican drug mafia.
4. which wipe out lives rank among the
highest in the whole world.

How half of Mexico ended up without


driving tests
Six out of ten road deaths worldwide
take place in just 12 countries, one of
which is Mexico. Every year some 24,000
people lose their lives on Mexicos
potholed roads, almost double the number
that die at the hands of its drug mafias. A
further 600,000 are injured.
In Mexicos case the main problem is
the drivers.
124

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

minding children or pets is being explored


by University of Hertfordshire academics.
The University has taken the robot
out of the laboratory and into the house as
part of a study of humanrobot interaction.
The study aims to research how
humans can comfortably interact with
robots.
Mick Walters, a researcher in the
Universitys School of Computer Science,
described the Schools work on Cognition,
a European integrated project which aims
to develop cognitive robot companions.
He said: Computer scientists and
psychologists are working together on
this project to understand how groups of
individuals would like robots to look and
behave, whether they need to be humanoid
or just computer on wheels, and the level
of closeness and eye contact they would
like if they had a robot living with them.
Professor Kerstin Dautenhahn,
professor in Artificial Intelligence at the
School who is leading the Universitys
contribution to the project commented:
We aim to develop personalized robot
companions. We are studying how a
robot companion can be personalized and
modified according to peoples different
preferences, likes and dislikes.

78. UFPE
In Mexico:
0. passing a driving test a decade ago often
involved corruption.
1. every driver has to sit a test before being
licenced to hit the road.
2. some states have done away with the
driving tests while some havent.
3. there is a uniform mechanism for the
granting of a drivers licence.
4. in order to get a drivers licence its
mandatory to pass a practical test.
79. UFPE
Drivers in Mexico:
0. care about the use of seat belts and
dowear them all the time.
1. can use speed limits in urban areas which
are ot compatible there.
2. carry their children in child-seats as
mandated by law.
3. are not likely to comply with the traffic
laws at any rate.
4. also break the law by driving under the
effect of alcohol.
80. UFPE

PV2D-13-14

Ingls

Driving drunk and texting while driving are


forbidden:
0. despite being harmless for both drivers
and pedestrians.
1. and neither has been a reason for
arresting drivers.
2. and more likely to take place among
untrained Mexican drivers.
3. however, these are still rather popular
among Mexican drivers.
4. whereas using a cell phone is allowed on
Mexican roads.

MARIZA, F.; RUBIN, S.G. Ingls de olho no mundo do


trabalho. Editora Scipione. So Paulo, 2008. Adaptado.

81. UPE
The research the text above talks about is
trying to take robots to:
01. interact with people in houses.
02. work for scientists and psychologists.
03. help the University of Hertfordshire
academics.
04. perform special tasks for human beings.
05. have different likes and dislikes.

Leia o texto e responda s questes 81 e 82.

The correct option(s) is(are):


a. 1 and 5.
b. 3.
c. 1, 2 and 3.
d. 1 and 4.
e. 4 and 5.

How good social companion would a


robot make?
The dream of the future where robots
could be programmed to perform tasks
such as laying the table, taking the rubbish
out, or even more responsible roles such as

125

Ingls

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

On September 11, 2001, in our


time of grief, the American people came
together. We offered our neighbors a hand,
and we offered the wounded our blood.
We reaffirmed our ties to each other, and
our love of community and country. On
that day, no matter where we came from,
what God we prayed to, or what race or
ethnicity we were, we were united as one
American family.
We were also united in our resolve
to protect our nation and to bring those
who committed this vicious attack to
justice. We quickly learned that the 9/11
attacks were carried out by al Qaeda
an organization headed by Osama Bin
Laden, which had openly declared war
on the United States and was committed
to killing innocents in our country and
around the globe. And so we went to war
against Al Qaeda to protect our citizens,
our friends, and our allies ()

82. UPE modificado


Considerando o texto, qual o melhor significado para as palavras taking, being, working,
living e leading respectivamente?
a. jogando, sendo, trabalhando, morar,
liderando.
b. levar, estando, trabalhando, viver, levando.
c. jogar, estando, ocupando, morando,
indo.
d. tomando, sendo, trabalhando, viver,
levando.
e. levar, sendo, trabalhando, morando, liderando.
83. Urca-BA
Leia o texto e responda questo.
Remarks by the president Barack
Obama on Osama Bin Laden (Part I)
THE PRESIDENT: Good evening.
Tonight, I can report to the American
people and to the world that the United
States has conducted an operation that
killed Osama Bin Laden, the leader of Al
Qaeda, and a terrorist whos responsible
for the murder of thousands of innocent
men, women, and children.
It was nearly 10 years ago that a
bright September day was darkened by the
worst attack on the American people in
our history. The images of 9/11 are seared
into our national memory hijacked planes
cutting through a cloudless September
sky; the Twin Towers collapsing to the
ground; black smoke billowing up from
the Pentagon; the wreckage of Flight 93
in Shanksville, Pennsylvania, where the
actions of heroic citizens saved even more
heartbreak and destruction.
And yet we know that the worst
images are those that were unseen to
the world. The empty seat at the dinner
table. Children who were forced to grow
up without their mother or their father.
Parents who would never know the feeling
of their childs embrace. Nearly 3,000
citizens taken from us, leaving a gaping
hole in our hearts.

Feeling in feeling of their childs embrace and


gaping in a gaping hole in our hearts may be
classified, respectively, as:
a. both are nouns
b. adjective, noun
c. verb, adjective
d. noun, adjective
e. both are adjectives
84. Unemat-MT
Leia o texto e responda questo.

PV2D-13-14

Living without energy

Everyone says that we must use less


energy! But how? That is the big question.
In this article, you can read about the
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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

house of the future, which uses hardly any


energy at all.
Most houses use energy lots of it.
We use energy for heating, lighting, for
running our household appliances TVs,
washing machines, fridges, and so on. In
winter time, most houses use dozens of
kilowatts of electricity every day, or the
equivalent in gas.
The house in the photo, on the other
hand, uses virtually nothing: most of the
energy that it uses comes straight from
the sun, the wind or the ground. This is
an experimental house at the University of
Nottingham, and it could be the kind of
house that most people are living in fifty
years from now.
During the daytime, it is rarely
necessary to turn on an electric light, even
in rooms without windows. Sunlight, or
daylight, is "piped" through the house,

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into each room, through special highreflection aluminium tubes. You can see
how well they reflect light, by looking at
the reflections of the faces in the picture!
Disponvel em: <http://linguapress.com/
intermediate/no-energy.htm>.

PV2D-13-14

Leia o texto e responda s questes de 85 a 88.

Na frase You can see how well they reflect


light, by looking at the reflections of the faces
in the picture (paragraph 4), o verbo destacado
aparece no gerndio em virtude:
a. da exigncia da preposico at aps o
uso desse tipo especfico de verbo.
b. de o verbo reflect aparecer na forma do
presente simples.
c. de as preposies at, of e in surgirem
aps esse tipo de verbo.
d. de a preposio by aparecer antes do
verbo.
e. de a frase anterior usar o verbo modal
can.

Disponvel em: <http://www.one.org/international/blog/>. Acesso em: 06 jul. 2011. Adaptado.

85. UFRN
Neste post, o autor pretende que o leitor:
a. assine uma petio destinada ao financiamento de vacinas.
b. acesse informaes sobre vacinas contra pneumonia.
c. informe-se sobre a sade nos pases em desenvolvimento.
d. conscientize-se de que a pneumonia pode ser fatal.
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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

rural areas or urban slums. Research has


shown that increasing the coverage of
family-health teams by 10% resulted in a
4.5% decline in infant mortality.
This and other evidence led the
British Medical Journal to describe
Brazils family-health programme as A
cost effective success that higher income
countries could learn from.
There is no question that innovative
solutions are needed to modernize the
Brazilian health system, to make it more
efficient and better organized. Improving
hospital administration is surely one
possible reform that patients hope for.
Nonetheless, the best injection of reality
is to expand health-care delivery and
improve accessibility.
Diego Victoria, Felix Rigoli; Renato
Tasca. Pan American Health Organisation
World Health Organisation BrazilBrasilia.

86. UFRN
O autor do post argumenta que, para reduzir a
mortalidade infantil, preciso:
a. aumentar a produo de vacinas.
b. levar as vacinas aos locais onde so necessrias.
c. otimizar programas de preveno de
doenas.
d. pressionar os servios de sade pblica.
87. UFRN
O autor do post afirma que o objetivo do encontro dos lderes mundiais decidir sobre:
a. como a campanha de vacinao ser divulgada.
b. quais estratgias de vacinao sero adotadas.
c. os tipos de vacina que sero enviados.
d. a quantia que ser destinada implantao das vacinas.
88. UFRN

Disponvel em: The Economist,


September 2, 2011. Adaptado.

Segundo Stuart McWilliam, entre outros benefcios, a reduo da diarreia e da pneumonia


possibilita:
a. aumentar o tempo de permanncia das
crianas na escola.
b. aprimorar o desempenho escolar de
uma em cada trs crianas.
c. avaliar a segurana dos programas em
desenvolvimento.
d. incentivar pesquisas sobre doenas em
pases pobres.
Leia o texto e responda s questes 89 e 90.

89. Unitau-SP
Choose the correct alternative according to
the text:
a. Os autores deste texto mostram indignao quanto ao que foi exposto sobre o
Sistema nico de Sade pblica no Brasil.
b. Os autores deste texto apontam os sucessos da reforma do Sistema nico de
Sade pblica no Brasil.
c. Os autores deste texto esto surpresos
ao saber que o Sistema nico de Sade
pblica no Brasil atende mais de 50%
da populao rural.
d. Os autores deste texto concordam com
o British Medical Journal, que aponta o
programa de sade da famlia no Brasil
como um dos melhores do mundo.
e. Os autores deste texto acrescentam que
h necessidade de modernizao no
sistema brasileiro de sade, tornando-o
mais eficiente e organizado.

Health care in Brazil


SIR Your article on reforming
Brazils Public Unified Health System
(SUS) did not elaborate on what kind
of reforms are appropriate, given its
successes (An injection of reality, July
30th), SUS family-health teams provide
comprehensive primary-care services
that cover more than 55% the population,
including poor people who live in remote

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

90. Unitau-SP

91. UFPB

As palavras reforming, increasing e improving


destacadas no texto, so formadas pelo sufixo
ING e representam, respectivamente, as seguintes classes de palavras:
a. verbo, adjetivo e verbo.
b. substantivo, substantivo e substantivo.
c. verbo, verbo e verbo.
d. verbo, adjetivo e substantivo.
e. substantivo, adjetivo e verbo.

According to the first paragraph, when Adora


got a laptop from her mother, she started:
a. publishing seventy stories per month.
b. reading thousands of stories weekly.
c. writing a smaller number of stories.
d. typing a great number of stories.
e. telling less and less stories online.
92. UFPB
The text states that:
a. Adoras mother obliges her to write.
b. Adora presents a talk show on CNN.
c. Adora prefers to teach young children.
d. Adoras sister becomes a writer at eleven.
e. Adora intends to promote her own
conference.

Leia o texto e responda s questes 91 e 92.

PV2D-13-14

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Adora Svitak: tiny literary giant at 12


Adora started writing when she was
four years old. She hasnt stopped since.
At six, Adora received a laptop computer
from her mother, on which she quickly
amassed a collection of hundreds of short
stories and hundreds of thousands of
words typing at 70 words per minute.
At the age of seven, Adora achieved
her dream of becoming a published author
with the release of Flying Fingers: Master
the Tools of Learning Through the Joy
of Writing. The book featured several
of Adoras short stories, along with her
writing tips, typing tips, and advice from
her mother. At age 11, Adora published a
second book, Dancing Fingers, with her
older sister, Adrianna.
Today, Adora is 12 and she has
transformed her writing success into
speaking and teaching success. She
has spoken at over 400 schools and
presented at the annual TED (Technology,
Entertainment, Design) conference. Shes
also planning a conference of her own, for
kids and by kids, called TEDx Redmond.
She has been featured on Good Morning
America and on CNN. Adora also
maintains a blog and attends an online
public school. She is in the eighth grade.

93. UERJ
Leia e o texto e responda questo.
Whats in a name?
The trouble with lingo
Remember the campaign in New
York for garbage collectors to be called
sanitation engineers? Near the top of the
strikes agenda was the matter of getting
the respect due to the people doing such
essential work. Unfortunately, the new
euphemistic title clarified nothing about
the work and by now is either simply
not heard for what it means, or is used
in moments of gentle disdain. A clearer
term may have both generated the respect
desired and withstood the test of time.
Clarity and sincerity matter. Terms
which mislead, confuse or cause offence
can become a distraction from the real
content of public debate. In the search
for consensus, since public understanding
is harder to change than terminology,
changing the terminology might be a better
place to start. No additional prejudice or
emotion should be brought to a debate by
the terminology used in it. Here are two
examples.

Disponvel em: <http://juniorbiz.com/adora-svitakinterview>. Acesso em: 02 jun. 2011. Adaptado.

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

Genetic Engineering and Genetic


Modification
Despite the insistence of biotech
scientists that genes of completely
different species are no longer being
mixed, the message isnt being heard.
They insist that they are now involved
only in developments which simply
hasten the natural processes of selective
and cross breeding or cross pollination.
As farmers and horticulturists have been
doing exactly this, unquestioned, for
years, they cannot understand public
resistance.
The problem may well be the
terminology. In this context, the words
scientific or genetic have been
irreparably sullied. If genetic engineering
has, in the publics view, become
synonymous with the indiscriminate mixing
of genes, and if the softer label genetically
modified hasnt been able to shake off a
perception of sinister overtones, these terms
might as well be dropped or left attached
only to experiments in Dr. Frankensteins
laboratory.
Ideally, a new agricultural term
would leave out the word genetic
altogether: it seems to frighten the public.
Assuming it described sciences benign
genetic activities accurately, the term
productivity breeding is not a trivial
call for a euphemism; besides, it would
probably encounter less public opposition.
So, lets have new terms for selective
cross breeding by scientists who simply
speed up the same process that is carried
out in nature.
Clean coal*
If this new term was intended to be
clear, it hasnt worked. In Politics and
the English Language (1946), George
Orwell wrote that because so much
political speech involves defending the
indefensible, it has to consist largely of
euphemism. He insisted that, in politics,
these euphemisms are swindles and
perversions left deliberately vague
in order to mislead. Deliberate or not,

clean coal is one of these. Aside from


being a contradiction in terms, the name is
misleading, creating the impression of the
existence of a new type of coal. In fact,
it is ordinary coal which has been treated
to eliminate most of its destructive
by-products, which are then buried. The
whole process produces emissions. This,
though, isnt clear when it is simply
labelled clean coal. The term just
doesnt seem sincere. Its a red rag to any
green. Its not asking too much to expect
the term describing these procedures to be
more accurate. A clearer term would be
less provocative.
So, whats in a name? A lot. Theres
the possibility of confusion, prejudice,
perversions and swindles. For the sake of
fair debate, lets mean what we say and
say what we mean.

Disponvel em: <http://www.londongrip.com>.

He insisted that, in politics,


these euphemisms are swindles and
perversions left deliberately vague in
order to mislead. (paragraph 8)
In the fragment above, the inverted commas
are used with the following purpose:
a. indicating the title of books.
b. signalling the quotation of terms.
c. conveying the sarcasm of the writer.
d. suggesting the misapplication of words.
94. UFBA
Leia o texto e responda questo.
Men without women

In China, young men will soon outnumber young


women by millions

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In 1927, Ernest Hemingway


published a collection of short stories titled
Men Without Women. Today, less than a
century later, it sums up the predicament
of a rising proportion of mankind.
According to the United Nations,
there are far more men than women on
the planet. The gender gap is especially
pronounced in Asia, where there are a
hundred million more guys than girls. This
may come as a surprise to people in the
Western world, where women outnumber
men because other things being equal
the mortality rate for women is lower than
for men in all age groups. Nobel Prizewinning economist Amartya Sen calls it
the mystery of Asias missing women.
The mystery is partly explicable
in terms of economics. In many Asian
societies, girls are less well looked after
than boys because they are economically
undervalued. The kind of domestic work
they typically do is seen as less important
than paid work done by men. And, of
course, early marriage and minimal birth
control together expose them to the risks
of multiple pregnancies.
When Sen first added up the missing
women women who would exist today
if it were not for selective abortion,
infanticide, and economic discrimination
he put the number at hundred million.
It is surely higher now. For, even as living
standards in Asian countries have soared,
the gender gap has widened. Thats
because a cultural preference for sons over
daughters leads to selective abortion of
female fetuses, a practice made possible
by ultrasound scanning, and engaged in
despite legal prohibitions. The American
feminist Mary Anne Warren called it
gendercide. Notoriously common in
northwestern India, its also rampant in
the worlds most populous country: China.
That has scary implications.
Remember, most of Hemingways stories
in Men Without Women are about violence.
They feature gangsters, bullfighters,

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and wounded soldiers as well. The most
famous story is called simply The
Killers.
It may be that the coming generation
of Asian men without women will find
harmless outlets for their inevitable
frustrations, like team sports or
videogames. But I doubt it. Either this
bachelor generation will be a source of
domestic instability, whether Brazilianstyle crime or Arab-style revolution or,
as happened in Europe, they and their
testosterone will be exported. Theres
already enough shrill nationalism in Asia
as it is. Dont be surprised if, in the next
generation, it takes the form of macho
militarism and even imperialism. Lock up
your daughters.
FERGUSON. Niall. Men without women. Newsweek,
New York, March 14, 2011. p. 8. Adaptado.

Quanto ao uso da linguagem no texto, correto afirmar:


01. people, women e men (paragraph
2) tm uma nica forma para o singular
e o plural.
02. Iower (paragraph 2) e The most
famous (paragraph 5) esto no mesmo
grau de comparao.
04. undervalued (paragraph 3) uma palavra formada por prefixao e sufixao.
08. coming (paragraph 6) est funcionando como adjetivo.
16. their
refere-se
a
women
(paragraph 6).
32. Dont be e Lock up (paragraph 6)
so formas verbais no imperativo.
95. UECE
Leia e o texto e responda questo.
Language is forever changing and
forms such as tweets and text messages
are no less valid than any textbook
version, says the linguist David Crystal,
whose latest book encourages children
to engage with the possibilities of their
lingua franca.

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

Were the English language ever


to need an official guardian, Professor
David Crystal certainly looks the part. But
the professor would, I suspect, quickly
shrug off such a custodial title not
out of modesty, but principle. Though
many endangered languages need their
champions, he would say, English does
not require a guardian; it is vibrant and
evolving and can fend for itself.
Crystals A Little Book of Language
is the latest work of a prolific career. He
already has more than 100 books to his
name; some are academic but many are for
the general inquisitive reader, including By
Hook or by Crook: A Journey in Search of
English and Shakespeare's Words, which
was co-authored by his son, Ben.
For the Crystals, linguistics is clearly
a family affair. In the jaunty early chapters
of A Little Book of Language, Crystal
notes how, when his four children were
young, he would study them. Were
talking the 1960s, when the study of
linguistics had hardly begun people did
not know, in a scientific way, how you
developed language, he recalls. Several
of us linguists at that time would record
our own kids, just to get some data. There
was some literature on it then, but no
day-by-day, blow-by-blow examples. I
recorded all my children over the years
in some shape or form. Its what linguists
do. You dont talk to a linguist without
having what you say taken down and used
in evidence against you at some point in
time.
Something must have rubbed off.
Though his elder two children, Steven and
Sue, eschewed academia, his daughter
Lucy took up copywriting and his son
Ben, an actor, is now following his father.
His book Shakespeare on Toast was
a runaway hit I wish Id written it!
says Crystal, before rapidly, and selfeffacingly, adding: But I couldnt have

because it was so cool and modern and so


street in its approach to Shakespeare. He
has examples of hip-hop Shakespearians
and I would never have dared put any of
that stuff into one of my books.
A Little Book of Language is a
simple history of all language, taking in
phonetics, development, social uses, the
internet, endangered languages and a
touch of literature.
This all sounds very innocent, but
books for children can be a contentious
issue. Language, as much as history, is
part of a national identity and cannot
escape contemporary debates. And since
Crystal began his academic career in the
early 1960s, there have been dramatic
shifts in how the English language is
taught. The ethos of 50 years ago was
that there was one kind of English that
was right and everything else was wrong;
one kind of access that was right and
everything else was inferior, he says.
Then nobody touched language for two
generations. When it gradually came back
in, we didnt want to go back to what we
did in the 1950s. Theres a new kind of
ethos now.
What has replaced it is something
far more fluid descriptive rather than
prescriptive, as the terminology goes. In
schools, appropriateness has replaced
the principle of correctness. Now, one
looks at all varieties of language and asks
why they are used, says Crystal. We are
rearing a generation of kids who are more
equitable and more understanding about
the existence of language variety and why
it is there.
This doesnt sit easy with the
traditionalists, of whom there are still
many. His clearest example is the belief
that text messaging is destroying children's
ability to spell. Its all nonsense, but
people believe it.

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He addressed this in his book Txtng:


the Gr8 Db8, published three years ago, in
which he found that txt speak accounted
for barely 10 per cent of the contents of
the messages exchanged, and noted that
abbreviations have always been part of
the English language. Having solved that
argument with some decent data, he tells
me that hes now moving on to Twitter.
On Twitter [which limits each
written entry to 140 characters], you dont
get the range of texting abbreviations
you get in text messaging. Its a more
sophisticated kind of communicative
medium. You get semantic threads running
through it. When you start counting
thousands and thousands of messages,
you suddenly realise that on the whole its
a new art form in the making.
The breadth of the internet means
that language is morphing not just on
grocers signs and in school playgrounds,
but on a far more fundamental level.
All these different genres instant
messaging, blogging, chatrooms, virtual
worlds have evolved different sets of
communicative strategies, which means
that you can look at the language and say,
That must be an example of a chatroom,
that must be an example of a tweet, and
you can predict it.
Becoming involved in bigger
arguments seems to be an occupational
hazard for a linguist. Whether it be
education, politics or neuroscience, we all
have a vested interest in the implications
of language. Our conversation turns to
the recent news of a man who had been
lying in a vegetative state for seven years
before doctors managed to establish
basic communication by scanning his

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brainwaves. We are moving fast in a
direction where you will be able to see
what people are saying, says Crystal,
optimistically. Weve got to the stage
where you can see the complexity of
language processing. We're not at the stage
yet of being able to see clearly individual
sentence patterns and words, but it's not
long off.
Surely this has huge implications,
not least for personal liberties? It is
the case that virtually every language
issue resolves into a social or political or
psychological issue, Crystal reminds me.
Language has no independent existence
apart from the people who use it. It is not
an end in itself; it is a means to an end
of understanding who you are and what
society is like. At which point, you know
that a linguist has to bow out and say,
This is bigger than me.
by Joy Lo Dico
Disponvel em: <http://www.independent.co.uk>.
Acesso em: 14 mar. 2010 .

In the text, the function of the words


changing, talking, copywriting and blogging is
respectively:
a. verb, verb, noun and noun.
b. adjective, noun, noun and verb.
c. noun, verb, adjective and adjective.
d. verb, verb, noun and verb.
96. UECE
Assinale a alternativa correta.
Not knowing what to do, Jane decided:
a. to stay home reading.
b. having stayed home reading.
c. stayed home reading.
d. stay home reading.

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

PV2D-13-14

Leia o texto e responda s questes de 97 a 100.

Disponvel em: Time, May 24, 2010.

97. Ita-SP
As lacunas I e II devem ser preenchidas, respectivamente, por:
a. led leading.
b. leader led.
c. leading led.
d. led leader.
e. leader leading.

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How to close the achievement gap


All over the world, your chances
of success in school and life depend
more on your family circumstances than
any other factor. By age three, kids with
professional parents are already a full
year ahead of their poorer peers. They
know twice as many words and score 40
points higher on IQ tests. By age 10, the
gap is three years. By then, some poor
children have not mastered basic reading
and math skills, and many never will: this
is the age at which failure starts to become
irreversible.
A few school systems seem to have
figured out how to erase these gaps.
Finland ensures that every kid completes
basic education and meets a rigorous
standard. One Finnish district official,
asked about the number of children who
dont complete school in her city, replied,
I can tell you their names if you want.
In the United States, KIPP (Knowledge
Is Power Program) charter schools enroll
students from the poorest families and
ensure that almost every one of them
graduates high school 80 percent make
it to college. Singapore narrowed its
achievement gap among ethnic minorities
from 17 percent to 5 percent over 20 years.
These success stories offer lessons
for the rest of us. First, get children into
school early. High quality pre-schooling
does more for a childs chances in school
and life than any other educational
intervention. One study, which began in
the 1960s, tracked two groups of students
from disadvantaged backgrounds. Some
were given the opportunity to attend a
high-quality preschool; others were not.
Thirty-five years later, the kids who went
to preschool were earning more, had
better jobs, and were less likely to have
been in prison or divorced.
Second, recognize that the average
kid spends about half his waking hours
up until the age of 18 outside of school
dont ignore that time. KIPP students
spend 60 percent more time in school
than the average American student.
They arrive earlier, leave later, attend
more regularly, and even go to school

98. Ita-SP
Assinale a alternativa que indica a relao das
palavras cabbage e carrots com o restante do
anncio.
a. Servios e produtos oferecidos pelo GE
Capital so sustentveis e ecologicamente corretos.
b. Dentre os servios e produtos oferecidos pelo anunciante constam refeies
preparadas com legumes produzidos
organicamente.
c. A GE Capital oferece a seus clientes um
cardpio nutritivo e balanceado.
d. A GE Capital s estabelece parceria
com empresas que priorizam o desenvolvimento sustentvel.
e. Apenas veculos movidos a biocombustvel so admitidos na frota da GE Capital.
99. Ita-SP

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A opo que traduz the companys long-term


transport needs (l. 3) :
a. h tempos a empresa investe no suprimento de sua necessidade de transporte.
b. as necessidades de transporte a longo
prazo da empresa.
c. o suprimento da necessidade de um
servio de transporte contnuo e eficaz
para a empresa.
d. a empresa firma contratos de longo
prazo para suprir sua necessidade de
transporte.
e. a empresa precisa de transporte a longo prazo.
100. Ita-SP
Que tipo de servio anunciado pela GE Capital?
a. Cardpios nutritivos
b. Assistncia ao produtor agrcola
c. Locao de veculos
d. Servios de logstica
e. Solues financeiras
101. UFBA modificado
Leia o texto e responda questo.
135

every other Saturday. Similarly, in 1966,


Chile extended its school day to add the
equivalent of more than two more years
of schooling.
Third, pour lots of effort into training
teachers. Studies in the United States have
shown that kids with the most effective
teachers learn three times as much as those
with the least effective. Systems such as
Singapores are choosy about recruiting;
they invest in training and continuing
education; they evaluate teachers
regularly; and they award bonuses only to
the top performers.
Finally, recognize the value of
individualized attention. In Finland, kids
who start to struggle receive one-on-one
support from their teachers. Roughly one
in three Finnish students also get extra
help from a tutor each year. If we can
learn the lesson of what works, we can
build on it.

comes as no surprise anymore. A new


study published this month by comScore,
a digital marketing firm, found that 23%
of Internet users in Brazil compared
with 11.9% in the U.S. visited the social
media platform last month, the highest
rate of participation by any country in the
world.
Americans are still the bestrepresented nationality among the 160
million people who use Twitter, an
information-sharing website created in
2006 by a pair of San Francisco software
engineers. In Brazil, the site has carved a
truly special niche. In a country known
for its vast gulf between the rich and
poor, the tool has managed to cut across
the class divide. It's not something
thats just for rich Brazilians, says Gabe
Simas, who promotes teen bands for MTV
Brasil through Twitter. The main reason
Twitter is so huge in Brazil is because it
gives access to normal people to contact
their idols. Indeed, the country's soccer
stars were among the earliest proponents
of Twitter. To take one example, the
soccer idol known as Kak has 2 million
followers, or roughly a million more than
American basketball star LeBron James.
Despite its geographic immensity
spanning the far reaches of the Amazon
to its metropolises on the Atlantic
the country is accustomed to a lack of
diversity in its media. So, when Twitter
arrived on the scene, Brazilians were
ready to embrace this latest media
phenomenon. There's a keen awareness
of the importance and the power of the
country as well as a tremendous thirst to
find out what the latest trend is. In this
context, Twitter is a phenomenon that's
planting deep roots. My sister is 10 years
old. My grandmother is 82, says Simas
of MTV Brasil. And they both have
Twitter.

MOURSHED, Mona; WHELAN, Fenton.


How to close the achievement gap.

Complete the following sentence as requested:


What is the singular form of many
(paragraph 1)?
102. UFRR
Complete the blank in the following sentence:
I did not enjoy the book. It was _______ a
stupid story.
a. such
b. so
c. very

d. much
e. many

Leia o texto e responda s questes 103 a 104.

Disponvel em: <http://www.time.com/time/


world/article/0,8599,2026442,00.html>.
Acesso em: 20 out. 2010. Adaptado.

103. Fei-SP
Das palavras e expresses abaixo, marque
aquela que no texto no est sendo usada
como equivalente da palavra Twitter.

The regular appearance of Portuguese


phrases on Twitter's popularity charts
136

PV2D-13-14

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

Ingls

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

there has been a general reduction in


mortality in the southeast, north, and
centre-west regions but it has increased in
the northeast and the south.
Although the most populous regions
are those with the lowest homicide rates,
the highest rates are in the larger cities.
Some studies have given the intense
urbanisation beginning in the 1990s as
an explanation, although others point to
social disorganisation and decreased law
enforcement capacity. A strong association
between homicide, drug trafficking, and
the possession of illegal weapons has also
been surmised.

a. popularity charts
b. social media platform
c. information-sharing website
d. tool
e. latest media phenomenon
104. Fei-SP
A lack of diversity (paragraph 3) means, in
the context:
a. great diversity.
b. little diversity.
c. rich diversity.
d. trendy diversity.
e. true diversity.

Disponvel em: <http://www.thelancet.com>.


Acesso em: 9 maio 2011. Adaptado.

Leia o texto e responda s questes de 105 a


109.

PV2D-13-14

Ingls

105. Fuvest-SP
De acordo com o texto, no Brasil a taxa mortalidade ligada violncia:
a. aumentou entre 1991 e 2001.
b. ficou estvel entre 2003 e 2007.
c. diminuiu a partir de 2001.
d. voltou a subir a partir de 2003.
e. mantm o mesmo percentual desde
2007.

Homicides, since the 1980s, have


been largely responsible for the rise in
violence-related mortality in Brazil.
Mortality rose from 26.8 per 100,000
people in 1991 to 31.8 per 100,000 in
2001; however, since 2003, there has
been a downturn. By 2007, levels had
returned to what they were in 1991 (26.8
per 100,000). Homicide-related mortality
is still greater than that reported in China
(1.2 per 100,000 in 2007) and Argentina
(5.2 per 100,000 in 2007), yet is below
that of other countries such as South
Africa (36.5 per 100,000 in 2008) and
Colombia (38.8 per 100 000 in 2007).
In Brazil, men are at ten-times
greater risk of dying from homicides than
women; the differences by age group are
equally striking. In the 1980s the increase
in mortality was mainly in children (0-9
years) and adolescents (10-14 years),
whereas in the next decade homicides
also reached young adults aged between
15 and 29 years. In the 2000s, mortality
dropped in nearly all age groups, except
those aged 50 years and older.
The north, northeast, and centrewest regions (the areas of agricultural
frontiers and serious conflicts over land)
had the highest mortality due to homicide,
whereas the southeast and south (the most
heavily populated and developed regions)
had the lowest. Over the period assessed

106. Fuvest-SP
Com relao a outros pases, os ndices brasileiros de mortalidade ligados violncia:
a. so baixos, se comparados aos dos pases asiticos.
b. so comparveis aos da China e da Argentina.
c. esto acima dos registrados na Amrica
Latina em 2001.
d. esto abaixo dos da frica do Sul e Colmbia.
e. so altos e tendem a crescer, como na
Colmbia.
107. Fuvest-SP
Segundo o texto, os homicdios na dcada de
1980 atingiam, principalmente:
a. adultos com mais de 29 anos.
b. jovens entre 15 e 29 anos.
c. crianas e adolescentes at 14 anos.
d. mulheres de at 29 anos.
e. homens com mais de 50 anos.
137

Ingls

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

108. Fuvest-SP

109. Fuvest-SP

De acordo com o texto, no Brasil, no perodo


analisado:
a. grande parte dos homicdios ocorreu
na regio Sudeste, por sua densidade
demogrfica.
b. houve aumento de homicdios nas regies Sul e Nordeste.
c. os maiores ndices de homicdio ocorreram na regio Centro-Oeste, local de
disputa de terras.
d. as regies menos populosas apresentaram ndices baixos de mortalidade.
e. o desenvolvimento de algumas regies
favoreceu o declnio da mortalidade
por homicdio.

O texto informa que as pesquisas:


a. divergem quanto ao modo como relacionam o controle de armas e o trfico
de drogas.
b. indicam que o aumento da urbanizao trar benefcios aos cidados.
c. apontam que o controle do nmero de
armas ilegais pode colaborar para diminuir os ndices de violncia.
d. indicam que um trabalho conjunto
para reforo das leis pode colaborar
para a diminuio de homicdios.
e. divergem com relao s causas dos ndices de homicdios em cidades grandes.

110. UFT-TO

Mark the correct answer:


a. T, T, T, F, T, F.
b. F, F, F, F, T, F.
c. F, F, F, T, T, T.
d. T, T, T, F, F, F.
e. T, T, T, T, T, F.

Mark T (true) or F (false), according to the


opinion expressed in the comics above:
I. The statements try to alert to the
fact that many attitudes adopted by
governments and industries have
effects similar to terrorist actions.
II. The characters speech defends that
the word terrorism should have a much
broader meaning than we are used to.
III. It is possible that society and governments
support actions that are sometimes as
harmful as terrorist actions.
IV. Are considered terrorist actions to
the character only those listed in the
second balloon.
V. Sometimes terrorist actions are indeed
trying to protect society.
VI. The character admits that all actions
taken against the law should be
considered terrorist attitudes.

111. UFT-TO
According to the text, mark the correct answer:
a. In the sentence so a few rich people
can own everything the expression
a few can be replaced by a little.
b. Letting minks out of cages can be
replaced by releasing minks without
changing the main idea of the sentence.
c. Questioning the consumer way of life
is a criticism to communism.
d. Poverty means having a lot of money.
e. The meaning of logging in balloon 2 is
the same as log in.
138

PV2D-13-14

Leia a tirinha e responda s questes 110 e 111.

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

a. no futebol, no se pode utilizar clculos


matemticos para prever o resultado
de uma partida.
b. o novo goleiro do time certamente no
vai engolir frangos.
c. a configurao de um time de futebol
no garante que o time vai ser vencedor.
d. um time de futebol no pode contar
com jogadores que sejam fracos.
e. o nmero de gols que o time far depende da atitude positiva de seus jogadores.

Leia o texto e responda s questes de 112 a


116.

PV2D-13-14

Ingls

Hey Jet fans; dont count your


chickens just yet!
This has been quite the off-season for
us Jets fans. After a heart breaking end to
the 2008 season, we have seen our team
make for some seemingly huge strides.
Eric Mangini has moved on to
Cleveland... gas can and matches in hand.
Rex Son of Buddy Ryan has stepped into
the head coaching role, bringing defensive
stars Bart Scott and Jim Leonhard with
him.
These additions immediately put
the Jets defense back on the radar. More
importantly, he brought a bit of swagger
and a bit of a chip on his shoulder.
Something this team has been sorely
lacking for way too long.
Sports are as much about ego and
attitude as they are about physical skills
and attributes. The mono tone stylings of
Eric Mangini did nothing to impress or
inspire players, media or fans.
Things certainly seem to be looking
up for this team and its fans. Or are they?
Despite all outward appearances, this is a
team that is still only one bad break away
from disaster. Several key positions are
still floating in limbo.
The Jets are way too thin at way too
many positions to truly be successful.
Both the defensive and offensive lines,
parts of the secondary and, of course, the
tight ends are so thin that one injury could
sink the entire boat.
Despite all appearances, Im
actually extremely optimistic about the
coming season. There are a lot of good
things happening with this team too.
Unfortunately, there are also a lot of
questions.

113. Unesp
A funo de Eric Mangini no time Jets era de:
a. jogador atacante.
b. jogador da defesa.
c. jogador da reserva.
d. fisioterapeuta.
e. tcnico.
114. Unesp
No contexto do artigo, a expresso sink the
entire boat, no penltimo pargrafo, utilizada
para enfatizar as informaes apresentadas no
pargrafo sobre a:
a. impossibilidade de o time vencer.
b. pequena possibilidade de o time vencer.
c. fragilidade do time.
d. possibilidade de o time vencer.
e. aparncia fsica dos jogadores.
115. Unesp
Assinale a alternativa correta.
a. O time de futebol americano Jets saiu-se
bem na temporada de 2008.
b. Bart Scott e Jim Leonhard no so considerados bons jogadores.
c. O autor do texto considera que o time
certamente ser vencedor.
d. Ainda no se sabe quais jogadores assumiro posies importantes no time.
e. O time de futebol americano Jets rene
todas as chances de vencer na prxima
temporada.

Disponvel em: <www.ganggreennation.


com/2009/5/16/877030>. Adaptado.

112. Unesp
O ttulo do texto contm parte de um provrbio em ingls, provrbio esse conhecido tambm no Brasil. Pelo contedo do texto, podese inferir que o provrbio foi utilizado no ttulo
porque:

116. Unesp
Utilizou-se a orao there are also a lot of
questions no final do texto porque:
139

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

have been deployed against protesters in


some American states. At a cost of up to
$30,000 they can emit sound at 150-plus
decibels (like a roaring jet engine at close
range). Israel has a fancier version known
as the Scream that affects the inner ear
and induces nausea. When ochlophonics
fail, authorities there have been known to
douse Palestinian protesters with skunk
bombs of smelly liquid.
Eyes are as vulnerable as ears
and noses. A firm called Intelligent
Optical Systems, based in California, is
developing, with government backing, a
strobe torch that makes targets dizzy and
disoriented (at least within a range of 15
metres). Laser Energetics, in New Jersey,
sells Dazer Lasers that emit a green
beam capable of dazzling people up to 2.4
km away.

a. h problemas no time Jets que precisam ser solucionados.


b. no se sabe se o time jogar na prxima
temporada.
c. os jogadores do time Jets no esto em
boas condies fsicas.
d. os torcedores no veem o time com
bons olhos.
e. os torcedores questionam a configurao atual do time.
117. ESPM-SP
Leia o texto e responda questo.
The sound and the fury
New riot-control technology
Quelling unrest is a lucrative trade
Mobs are bad for businesses unless
you are selling riot-control gear, that is.
Even before this weeks riots in Britain
governments were bracing themselves
against protests stoked by the economic
downturn. Firms such as Israels Hagor
Industries are doing a roaring trade in
antiriot shields, batons and helmets.
David Frenkel, the firms production
manager, says demand is growing from
police and military services in Europe,
South America and Africa, bolstered by
war, unrest and natural disasters.
Ochlocracy mob rule was a term
coined in ancient times, when grain prices
or a celebrity murder could spark a riot.
The Roman emperors Praetorian Guard
used cavalry and swords against stonethrowers. Their latter-day counterparts
(human and equine) are better protected,
with goggles, shields and other kit made of
lightweight, flameresistant, unshatterable
and stab-proof materials.
They also have more ways of
disrupting the rioters. Police in India
spray unruly crowds with coloured
water: stained and sodden agitators are
easier to identify. Americas forces have
developed (but not used) a heat ray
designed to clear crowds by painfully
zapping the skin. The unfamiliar tones
of classical music can disperse loiterers,
while big sound-blasters, known as
long-range acoustic devices (LRADS),

Disponvel em: <http://www.economist.


com>. Aug 13th 2011.

According to the main idea expressed by the


text, it is correct to state that:
a. there is a great variety of methods to
disperse the crowd in many different
countries.
b. the police and the military services
are bolstering the demand for anti-riot
technology.
c. investing in the riot-control business
can be profitable.
d. man has developed cruel ways of
tackling social unrest.
e. public disatisfaction caused by
recession fuels anti-riot technology.
Leia o texto e responda s questes de 118 a
120.
The year man becomes immortal
by Lev Grossman

(...), Kurzweil believes that were


approaching a moment when computers
will become intelligent, and not just
intelligent but more intelligent than
humans. When that happens, humanity
our bodies, our minds, our civilization
will be completely and irreversibly
transformed. He believes that this moment
is not only inevitable but imminent.
140

PV2D-13-14

Ingls

PV2D-13-14

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

According to his calculations, the end of


human civilization as we know it is about
35 years away.
Computers are getting faster.
Everybody knows that. Also, computers
are getting faster faster that is, the rate at
which theyre getting faster is increasing.
True? True.
Se if computers are getting so much
faster, se incredibly fast, there might
conceivably come a moment when they
are capable of something comparable
to
human
intelligence.
Artificial
intelligence. All that horsepower could be
put in the service of emulating whatever
it is our brains are doing when they create
consciousness not just doing arithmetic
very quickly or composing piano music but
also driving cars, writing books, making
ethical decisions, appreciating fancy
paintings, making witty observations at
cocktail parties.
If you can swallow that idea, and
Kurzweil and a lot of other very smart
people can, then all bets are off. From
that point on, theres no reason to think
computers would stop getting more
powerful. They would keep on developing
until they were far more intelligent than
we are. Their rate of development would
also continue to increase, because they
would take over their own development
trom their slower-thinking human
creators. Imagine a computer scientist that
was itself a super-intelligent computer. It
would work incredibility quickly. It could
draw on huge amounts of data effortlessly.
It wouldnt even take breaks to play
Farmville.
(...)

Ingls
c. Kurzweil acredita que o fim da civilizao
humana poder acontecer em 35 anos.
d. computadores, cada vez mais rpidos,
igualar-se-o ao crebro humano.
e. a Cincia da Computao ocupa-se,
atualmente, do desenvolvimento de
superinteligncias.

119. ITA-SP
From that point on (paragraph 5) refere-se a:
a. whatever it is our brains are doing.
b. alI bets are off.
c. Kurzweil and a lot of other very smart
people can.
d. if you can swallow that idea.
e. they would keep on developing.
120. ITA-SP
Na sentena They would keep on developing
until they were far more intelligent than we
are (paragraph 5), o vocbulo destacado poderia ser substitudo por:
a. far away.
d. distant.
b. incredible.
e. many.
c. much.
Leia o texto e responda s questes de 121 a
123.
By 2050, the world's population
will hit 9 billion so how will we feed
everyone? The answer, according to a
recent article in The Economist, is that
we will have to become more like Brazil.
In The Miracle of the Cerrado, the
publication examines the giant farms that
have transformed Brazilian agriculture
over the last 30 years, and how other
countries might be able to learn from them
to become more productive.
In less than 30 years Brazil has
turned itself from a food importer into
one of the world's great breadbaskets. It
is the first country to have caught up with
the traditional big five grain exporters
(America, Canada, Australia, Argentina
and the European Union). It is also the
first tropical food-giant; the big five are
all temperate producers.

Disponvel em: <http://www.time.com/


printout/0,8816,2048138,00.html>.
Acesso em: 07 abr. 2011. Adaptado.

118. ITA-SP
De acordo com o texto:
a. Kurzweil est convencido de que os novos computadores podero conduzir
nossa mente e nosso corpo.
b. possvel que, num futuro prximo,
supercomputadores se desenvolvam
independentemente de seus criadores
humanos.

Disponvel em: <http://www.theatlantic.com/health/


archive/2010/08/how-to-feed-a-growing-worldbrazil-might-have-a-solution/62221/>. Adaptado.

141

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

Ingls

2006 by a pair of San Francisco software


engineers. In Brazil, the site has carved a
truly special niche. In a country known for
its vast gulf between the rich and poor, the
tool has managed to cut across the class
divide. Its not something thats just for
rich Brazilians, says Gabe Simas, who
promotes teen bands for MTV Brasil
through Twitter. The main reason Twitter
is so huge in Brazil is because it gives
access to normal people to contact their
idols. Indeed, the countrys soccer stars
were among the earliest proponents
of Twitter. To take one example, the
soccer idol known as Kak has 2 million
followers, or roughly a million more than
American basketball star LeBron James.
Despite its geographic immensity
spanning the far reaches of the Amazon
to its metropolises on the Atlantic
the country is accustomed to a lack of
diversity in its media. So, when Twitter
arrived on the scene, Brazilians were
ready to embrace this latest media
phenomenon. Theres a keen awareness
of the importance and the power of the
country as well as a tremendous thirst to
find out what the latest trend is. In this
context, Twitter is a phenomenon thats
planting deep roots. My sister is 10 years
old. My grandmother is 82, says Simas
of MTV Brasil. And they both have
Twitter.

121. UFRR
The text predicts that in the future the worlds
population will be:
a. smaller
d. larger
b. shorter
e. taller
c. younger
122. UFRR
According to the article mentioned in the text,
other countries should:
a. provide less food to the population.
b. import more food from America.
c. follow the Brazilian example.
d. bake different kinds of bread.
e. invest less in agricultural countries.
123. UFRR
In the first sentence, the question how will
we feed everyone? refers to the problem of:
a. nutrition
b. heating
c. clothing

d. housing
e. education

124. FEI-SP
Leia o texto e responda questo.

The countrys soccer stars were among the


earliest proponents of Twitter in bold in the
text. The earliest, no contexto, significa:
a. os mais arrojados.
b. os principais.
c. os primeiros.
d. os mais populares.
e. os mais famosos.

The regular appearance of Portuguese


phrases on Twitters popularity charts
comes as no surprise anymore. A new
study published this month by comScore,
a digital marketing firm, found that 23%
of Internet users in Brazil compared with
11.9% in the U.S. visited the social media
platform last month, the highest rate of
participation by any country in the world.
Americans are still the bestrepresented nationality among the 160
million people who use Twitter, an
information-sharing website created in

125. Udesc
Leia o texto e responda questo.
2012s second sun
Earth is believed to be getting a
second sun burning in the sky near the
142

PV2D-13-14

Disponvel em: <http://www.time.com/time/


world/article/0,8599,2026442,00.html>.
Acesso em: 20 out. 2010. Adaptado.

PV2D-13-14

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

end of 2012, as the second biggest star in


the universe, Betelgeuse, is dying, which
will lead to multiple days of constant
daylight.
Many ancient cultures have
speculated about the appearance of a
second sun and this event appears to tie in
very closely with the December 21 2012
predictions.
Betelgeuse is the second biggest star
in the universe and the eighth brightest in
the night sky. Scientists have determined
that the star is losing mass at a rapid rate,
which indicates it will go supernova very
soon.
The light emitted from this exploding
star will be so bright that it will appear for
a few weeks at the end of 2012 as a second
sun in the sky. There may be little if no
period of darkness or night according to
senior lecturer of physics at the University
of Southern Queensland, Brad Carter.
Earth will experience brightness
for a brief period of time for a couple of
weeks and then over the coming months it
begins to fade and then eventually it will
be very hard to see at all, explained the
Australian scientist Brad Carter to news.
com.au.
Scientist have known about this
dying star which is 640 light years away
from Earth, since 2005. It is believed
that as Betelgeuse goes supernova it will
not be harmful to Earth. There will be
neutrinos emitted during the supernova
process, said University of Minnesota
physics professor Priscilla Cushman, but
neutrinos, even lots and lots of them, are
only weakly interacting, so they won't
affect life on earth, but that is only
speculation at this point.
The fact is, we as human beings
have never experienced anything like this
before so close to our home planet, and
to be honest, we just dont know for sure
what this event could bring.

Ingls
a. inferiority
b. comparative of superiority
c. superlative
d. equality
e. synonyms

126. UEFS-BA
Leia o texto e responda questo.
Germany to invest in more electric cars

10

15

20

Disponvel em: <http://www.december212012.


com>. Acesso em: 30 ago. 2011.

25

The
German
government
has approved more money to help
companies that build electric cars.
There are only around 2,500 electric
vehicles registered on German roads
at present. The plan is to increase this
figure to a million by 2020.
Germany plans to double
financial aid, particularly to develop
better, lighter batteries, which remain
the brake on the technologys mass
appeal. Cars which emit virtually no
carbon dioxide will be exempt from
tax. Despite its green reputation,
Germany has been slower than other
countries, like Japan, to develop
electric cars. It now aims to change
this, but attitudes may be hard to
change. It is a country where no
speed limits on the motorway is seen
as sacrosanct.
And it is the country of the BMW
(car), though the luxury car-maker is
now trying to develop lighter materials
to make its vehicles greener.
Disponvel em: <http://www.bbc.co.uk/
worldservice/learningenglish/language/
wordsinthenews/2011/05/110518_witn_electric_
cars_page.shtml>. Acesso em: 2 jun. 2011.

The words biggest and brightest in bold in


the text are examples of:

143

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

d. Na maior parte
e. De idade

The word better (l. 10) is the irregular


comparative degree of:
a. ill.
b. bad.
c. well.

d. good.
e. badly.

128. Unioeste-PR
Leia o texto abaixo e responda questo 128.
Brazil police occupy Rio favela in
World Cup operation
Brazilian security forces have
occupied one of Rio de Janeiros biggest
slums as part of a major crackdown
ahead of the 2014 World Cup and 2016
Olympics.
Some 800 police and special forces
moved into the Mangueira shantytown,
without needing to fire a shot, having
announced the raid in advance.
The slum or favela is close to
Rios famous Maracana stadium, where
the World Cup final will be played.
The pre-dawn operation involved
armoured vehicles and helicopters.
According to the newspaper, O
Globo, leaflets were thrown out of the
helicopters, some with photos of wanted
criminals.
Others were printed with the police
special forces telephone number so that
residents could pass on information about
drugs traffickers or weapons.
BBC Brazil correspondent Paulo
Cabral says most of Mangueiras residents
co-operated with the operation, as they
want to rid the area of drug dealers.
He says that Rios authorities are
making an effort to gain the trust of those
living in the slums, who after decades of
abuse have got used to seeing the police
as their enemy.
Mangueira home to one of Rios
most famous samba schools is the 18th
favela that the authorities have occupied
recently.

127. UEL-PR
Leia o texto e responda questo
Phonetic clues hint language is Africaborn
A researcher analyzing the sounds
in languages spoken around the world
has detected an ancient signal that points
to southern Africa as the place where
modern human language originated.
The finding fits well with the evidence
from fossil skulls and DNA that modern
humans originated in Africa. It also
implies, though does not prove, that
modern language originated only once, an
issue of considerable controversy among
linguists.
The detection of such an ancient
signal in language is surprising. Because
words change so rapidly, many linguists
think that languages cannot be traced
very far back in time. The oldest language
tree so far reconstructed, that of the IndoEuropean family, which includes English,
goes back 9,000 years at most.
Quentin D. Atkinson, a biologist
at the University of Auckland in New
Zealand, has shattered this time barrier,
if his claim is correct, by looking not at
words but at phonemes the consonants,
vowels and tones that are the simplest
elements of language. Dr. Atkinson has
found a simple but striking pattern in
some 500 languages spoken throughout
the world: a language area uses fewer
phonemes the farther that early humans
had to travel from Africa to reach it.

Disponvel em: <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/


world-latin-america-13833037>. Adaptado.

Disponvel em: <http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/15/


science/15language.html>. Acesso em: 1 ago. 2011.

The only option that does not contain an


adjective used in the superlative form is:
a. Mangueira is one of Rio de Janeiro's
biggest slums.
b. Mangueira is close to Rio's famous
Maracan stadium.

Assinale a alternativa que apresenta a traduo correta para at most (3 pargrafo).


a. No mximo
b. Ao menos
c. No mnimo
144

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

c. Mangueira is the home to one of Rio's


most famous samba schools.
d. The oldest public park of Brazil is
located in Rio de Janeiro.
e. Maracan is known as one of the largest
football stadiums in the world.

130. UEPB
Which statement is correct according to the
text?
a. Children on the Titanic had less chance
of survival than adults.
b. Old people on the Lusitania had a greater
chance of survival than the young.
c. Men on the Titanic had a better chance
of survival than women.
d. Children on the Lusitania had a greater
chance of survival than people in their
prime.
e. Women on the Titanic had a greater of
survival than men.

Leia o texto e responda s questes de 129 a


132.
The science of chivalry

PV2D-13-14

Ingls

In some disasters its every man for


himself. In others its women and children
first. What determines whether panic or
order prevails? Time, says Benno Torgler,
an economist at Queensland University
of Technology in Australia, who studied
century-old nautical disasters for clues.
The Titanic sank in 1912, the
Lusitania three years later. The passengers
were remarkably similar in age, gender,
and percentage of survivors, Torgler says.
But when he analyzed who survived, the
differences jumped off the page. Women
on the Titanic were 50 percent more
likely to escape the disaster than men, and
children had a 15 percent better chance
than adults. On the Lusitania, though,
people between 16 and 35 had the best
odds. Survival of the fittest was much
stronger on the Lusitania, says Torgler,
who published his findings in March.
The crucial difference was time. The
Lusitania sank in 18 minutes, but it took
the Titanic two hours and 40 minutes to
succumb to the sea, leaving time for social
norms to triumph over selfishness.
Now Torgler is on the hunt for
modern catastrophes he can compare in
the same way to further unlock the science
of chivalry. How long does it take for this
pro-social behavior to emerge? he asks.
Thats a question for neuroscience.

131. UEPB
The text explains that social norms triumphed
over selfshiness on the Titanic because:
a. it took a longer time to sink than the
Lusitania.
b. its passengers were different in age and
gender from those on the Lusitania.
c. its passengers were stronger than
those on the Lusitania.
d. it had fewer passengers than the
Lusitania.
e. it was lighter than the Lusitania.
132. UEPB
The phrase survival of the fittest in the text
means that:
a. the weakest will triumph over the
strongest.
b. the strongest are least likely to survive.
c. the strongest may not survive in the
long run.
d. the weakest may live longer than the
strongest.
e. the strongest are most likely to survive.
133. UPE

Andrew Moseman, Discover, February 2011.

Leia o texto e responda questo.

129. UEPB

Trying to predict what will happen


as our planet warms up is not easy. We
know that ice at the poles is melting and
this is making sea levels rise. Warmer
temperatures are likely to change other
aspects of the weather. Some countries,

According to the text, the Lusitania sank in the


sea in:
a. 1916
d. 1912
b. 1909
e. 1914
c. 1915
145

Ingls

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

such as those in North Africa, may


become ___I___, while other areas,
such as Northern Europe, may become
___II___. There will probably be more
storms, droughts, and flooding.
Impact of climate change. In: The New Childrens
Encyclopedia. London: 2009. p.78. Adaptado.

As lacunas I e II no texto podem ser completadas, de forma correta e na mesma sequncia,


pela opo:
a. more hotter and drier more colder
and wetter
b. as hotter and drier as colder and wetter
c. hotter and drier colder and wetter
d. most hotter and dry most colder and
wet
e. the hotter and drier the colder and
wetter

a. A que experincia o autor do post acima faz referncia?


b. Por que motivo o autor da mensagem
se sente agradecido?
136. Unesp-SP
I started to run because I felt
desperately unfit. But the biggest payoff for me was and still is the deep
relaxation that I achieve by taking
exercise. It tires me out but I find that
it does calm me down. When I started
running seven years ago, I could manage
only 400 meters before I had to stop.
Breathless and aching, I walked the next
quarter of a mile, alternating these two
activities for a couple of kilometers.
When I started to jog I never dreamt
of running in a marathon, but a few years
later I realized that if I trained for it, the
London Marathon, one of the biggest
British sporting events, would be within
my reach. My story shows that an unfit
39-year-old, as I was when I started
running, who had taken no serious exercise
for twenty years, can do the marathon
and that this is a sport in which women
can beat men. But is it crazy to do it? Does
it make sense to run in the expectation of
becoming healthier?
My advice is: if you are under forty,
healthy and feel well, you can begin as I
did by jogging gently until you are out of
breath, then walking, and alternating the
two for about three kilometers. Build up
the jogging in stages until you can do the
whole distance comfortably.

134. UPE
Leia a tirinha e responda questo.

Disponvel em: <http://www.toonpool.com/


cartoons/No!%20-english-_26491>.

Complete the blanks using the degree of


adjectives:
a. small; big
b. smaller; biggest
c. smaller; bigger
d. smaler; bigger
e. small; bigger
135. Unicamp-SP
Observe a imagem textual e responda questo.

Headway Intermediate Students Book.


Oxford University Press. Adaptado.

146

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Leia o texto e responda questo.

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

No texto, as expresses pay-off (1 pargrafo),


a couple of (1 pargrafo), my reach (2 pargrafo) e becoming healthier (2 pargrafo) significam, respectivamente:
a. sem pagamento, alguns, minha riqueza
e tornar-se saudvel.
b. pagamento, uma dupla de, meu objetivo e tornar-se saudvel.
c. corte no pagamento, uma dupla de, minha riqueza e ficar doente.
d. desafio, um casal de, meu objetivo e
tornar-se mais saudvel.
e. recompensa, alguns, meu alcance e
tornar-se mais saudvel.

Quanto aos termos higher yielding e more


efficient, presentes na primeira sentena do
segundo pargrafo, assinale o que for correto.
01. Do um sentido positivo aos substantivos que os seguem.
02. So adjetivos no grau superlativo.
04. So advrbios de lugar.
08. So adjetivos no grau comparativo.
Leia e o texto e responda questo.
How to close the achievement gap
All over the world, your chances
of success in school and life depend
more on your family circumstances than
any other factor. By age three, kids with
professional parents are already a full
year ahead of their poorer peers. They
know twice as many words and score 40
points higher on IQ tests. By age 10, the
gap is three years. By then, some poor
children have not mastered basic reading
and math skills, and many never will: this
is the age at which failure starts to become
irreversible.
A few school systems seem to have
figured out how to erase these gaps.
Finland ensures that every kid completes
basic education and meets a rigorous
standard. One Finnish district official,
asked about the number of children who
dont complete school in her city, replied,
I can tell you their names if you want.
In the United States, KIPP (Knowledge
Is Power Program) charter schools enroll
students from the poorest families and
ensure that almost every one of them
graduates high school 80 percent make
it to college. Singapore narrowed its
achievement gap among ethnic minorities
from 17 percent to 5 percent over 20 years.
These success stories offer lessons
for the rest of us. First, get children into
school early. High quality pre-schooling
does more for a childs chances in school
and life than any other educational
intervention. One study, which began in
the 1960s, tracked two groups of students
from disadvantaged backgrounds. Some
were given the opportunity to attend a
high-quality preschool; others were not.

137. UEPG-PR
Leia o texto e faa a somatria das proposies corretas.

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Ingls

How to feed a growing planet


Heres an uncomfortable math
problem: by 2045 Earths population will
likely have swelled from seven to nine
billion people. To fill all those stomachs
while accounting for shifting consumption
patterns, climate change, and a finite
amount of arable land and potable water
some experts say global food production
will have to double. How can we make the
numbers add up?
Julian Cribb, author of The Coming
Famine, says higher yielding crop varieties
and more efficient farming methods will
be crucial. So will waste reduction. Cribb
and other experts urge cities to reclaim
nutrients and water from waste streams
and preserve farmland. Poor countries,
they say, can improve crop storage and
packaging. And rich nations could cut back
on resource-intensive foods like meat. In
fact, wherever there is easy access to cheap
food, people buy more than they consume.
We could thus all start by shopping smarter
and cleaning our plates.
As Cribb notes, food security is
increasingly a collective challenge.
Its also a chance to pull together on
something we can all agree about, share
and enjoy.

Amanda Fiegl
National Geographic Magazine, July 2011. Adaptado.

147

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

Thirty-five years later, the kids who went


to preschool were earning more, had
better jobs, and were less likely to have
been in prison or divorced.
Second, recognize that the average
kid spends about half his waking hours
up until the age of 18 outside of school
dont ignore that time. KIPP students
spend 60 percent more time in school
than the average American student.
They arrive earlier, leave later, attend
more regularly, and even go to school
every other Saturday. Similarly, in 1966,
Chile extended its school day to add the
equivalent of more than two more years
of schooling.
Third, pour lots of effort into training
teachers. Studies in the United States have
shown that kids with the most effective
teachers learn three times as much as those
with the least effective. Systems such as
Singapores are choosy about recruiting;
they invest in training and continuing
education; they evaluate teachers
regularly; and they award bonuses only to
the top performers.
Finally, recognize the value of
individualized attention. In Finland, kids
who start to struggle receive one-on-one
support from their teachers. Roughly one
in three Finnish students also get extra
help from a tutor each year. If we can
learn the lesson of what works, we can
build on it.

book of the same name. The term itself


had been used occasionally during the
previous decade, though with a more
restricted meaning; the ability to deal
with hypertextual information. Gilsters
idea was much broader, and did not
involve the enumeration of lists of
particular skills, competences or attitudes
defining what it is to be digitally literate.
Rather, he explained the concept quite
generally, as an ability to understand
and to use information from a variety of
digital sources, and regarded it simply as
literacy in the digital age. It is therefore
the current form of the traditional idea of
literacy per se; the ability to read, write
and otherwise deal with information
using the technologies and formats of
the time. In an information society and
a knowledge economy, it is plainly
an essential life skill. This generic
expression of the idea, although it has
irritated some commentators, is one
of the strengths of Gilsters concept,
allowing it to be applied without
concern for the sometimes restrictive
competence lists which have afflicted
some other descriptions of the literacies
of information.
Disponvel em: <http://www.scritopics.com/
digital_html>. Acesso em: 19 ago. 2011. Adaptado.

139. UEG-GO
De acordo como o texto, o conceito de letramento digital introduzido por Paul Gilster :

MOURSHED, Mona; WHELAN, Fenton.


How to close the achievement gap.

a. explicitado a partir de listas de habilidades, competncias e atitudes especficas, embora estas sejam consideradas
restritivas pelo autor.

138. UFBA modificado


Make all the necessary changes, following the
instructions below.
Thirty-five years later, the kids who
went to preschool were earning more, had
better jobs, and were less likely to have
been in prison or divorced.

b. uma contraposio ideia tradicional


de letramento, a qual no leva em considerao o uso de tecnologias contemporneas no acesso informao.
c. um termo genrico que se refere habilidade de se compreender e usar a
informao veiculada por diferentes
fontes digitais.

Give the opposites of the boldfaced words.


Leia o texto e responda s questes 139 e 140.
Digital literacy
The concept of digital literacy,
as the term is now generally used, was
introduced by Paul Gilster, in his 1997

d. usado esporadicamente, nos dias atuais, por alguns autores, com o sentido
de favorecer a habilidade em se lidar
com informao hipertextual.
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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

Ingls
4km underneath the Amazon river. The
Hamza river, named after the head of
the team of researchers who found the
groundwater flow, appears to be as long
as the Amazon river but up to hundreds
of times wider. Both the Amazon and
Hamza flow from west to east and are
around the same length, at 6,000km. But
whereas the Amazon ranges from 1km
to 100km in width, the Hamza ranges
from 200km to 400km. The underground
river starts in the Acre region under the
Andes and flows through the Solimoes,
Amazonas and Marajo basins before
opening out directly into the depths of
the Atlantic Ocean.
The Amazon flows much faster than
the Hamza, however, draining a greater
volume of water. Around 133,000m
of water flow through the Amazon per
second at speeds of up to 5 metres per
second. The underground rivers flow
rate has been estimated at around 3,900m
per second and it barely inches along at
less than a millimetre per hour.
The Hamza was located using
data collected inside a series of 241
abandoned deep wells that were drilled in
the Amazon region by the petrochemical
company Petrobras in the 1970s and
1980s. Elizabeth Tavares Pimentel
and Valiya Hamza of the Department
of Geophysics at Brazil's National
Observatory led the work and presented
their results last week at the International
Congress of the Brazilian Geophysics
Society in Rio de Janeiro.
According to the researchers, the
presence of the Hamza river might
account for the relatively low salinity
of the waters around the mouth of
the Amazon. Professor Hamza said
Pimentel's measurements represented
preliminary work on the discovery of the
new river, but Hamza said he expected
to confirm the existence of the flow with
additional measurements within the next
few years.

140. UEG-GO
Considerando-se os aspectos estruturais do
texto:
a. a sentena The term itself had been
used occasionally during the previous
decade, na voz ativa, seria: They have
been using the term itself during the
previous decade.
b. na sentena he explained the concept
quite generally, o termo quite empregado com o sentido equivalente ao
termo quase.
c. na sequncia although it has irritated
some commentators, o termo em destaque expressa concordncia com a
ideia que foi expressa anteriormente.
d. o oposto da afirmao presente na sentena Gilsters idea was much broader seria: Gilsters idea was much narrower.
141. Puc-SP
Leia o texto e responda questo.
Underground river Rio Hamza
discovered 4km beneath the Amazon
Scientists estimate the subterranean river
may be 6,000km long and hundreds of
times wider than the Amazon

PV2D-13-14

Alok Jha, science correspondent guardian.co.uk


Friday, 26 August 2011

An aerial view of the Amazon river.


Photograph: Frans Lanting/Corbis

Covering more than 7 million


square kilometres in South America,
the Amazon basin is one of the biggest
and most impressive river systems in
the world. But it turns out we have only
known half the story until now.
Brazilian scientists have found a
new river in the Amazon basin around

Disponvel em: <http://www.guardian.co.uk/


environment/2011/aug/26/undergroundriver-amazon/print>. Adaptado.

149

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

No trecho do segundo pargrafo But whereas


the Amazon ranges from 1km to 100km in
width, the Hamza ranges from 200km to
400km a palavra whereas pode ser substituda,
sem alterao de sentido, por:
a. whenever.
b. wherever.
c. while.
d. however.
e. which.

Na frase: It also implies, though does not prove,


that modern language originated only once,
an issue of considerable controversy among
linguists. (2 pargrafo), though indica:
a. nfase.
b. explicao.
c. adio.
d. oposio.
e. causa.

142. UEL-PR

Leia o texto e responda questo.

143. UEA-AM

Leia o texto e responda questo.

Satellite data shows slight increase in


Amazon deforestation over June last
year

Phonetic clues hint language is Africaborn


A researcher analyzing the sounds
in languages spoken around the world
has detected an ancient signal that points
to southern Africa as the place where
modern human language originated.
The finding fits well with the evidence
from fossil skulls and DNA that modern
humans originated in Africa. It also
implies, though does not prove, that
modern language originated only once,
an issue of considerable controversy
among linguists.
The detection of such an ancient
signal in language is surprising. Because
words change so rapidly, many linguists
think that languages cannot be traced
very far back in time. The oldest language
tree so far reconstructed, that of the
Indo-European family, which includes
English, goes back 9,000 years at most.
Quentin D. Atkinson, a biologist
at the University of Auckland in New
Zealand, has shattered this time barrier,
if his claim is correct, by looking not at
words but at phonemes the consonants,
vowels and tones that are the simplest
elements of language. Dr. Atkinson has
found a simple but striking pattern in
some 500 languages spoken throughout
the world: a language area uses fewer
phonemes the farther that early humans
had to travel from Africa to reach it.

Deforestation in the Brazilian


Amazon rose 17 percent in June
compared to the same period a year
earlier, reports Brazils National Institute
for Space Research (INPE). Using its
rapid deforestation detection system
INPE found 312.7 square kilometers
were cleared in June. Nearly 40 percent
of deforestation occurred in the state
of Par. The states of Mato Grosso
(26 percent), Rondonia (21 percent),
and Amazonas (13 percent) also saw
significant forest loss.
Entering the peak deforestation
months July through September/
October deforestation in the Brazilian
Amazon in 2011 is so far outpacing last
years rate, which was the lowest since
annual record-keeping began in the late
1980s.
Most observers expected to see an
increase in deforestation this year due to
higher commodity prices and anticipation
of changes to Brazils Forest Code, which
requires private landowners to maintain
forest cover on the majority of their
holdings. Another contributing factor is
continuing dry conditions across much
of the Amazon basin, which increase the
risk of fires spreading from agricultural
areas into forest zones.
Disponvel em: <http://news.mongabay.com>.
Acesso em: 3 ago. 2011. Adaptado.

Disponvel em: <http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/15/


science/15language.html>. Acesso em: 1 ago. 2011.

150

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

No trecho do ltimo pargrafo Most observers


expected to see an increase in deforestation this
year due to higher commodity prices a expresso due to equivale, em portugus, a:

Ingls

145. UPE
Leia o cartum e responda questo.

a. entretanto.
b. portanto.
c. devido a.
d. apesar de.
e. mesmo se.
144. UPE
Leia o cartum e responda questo

Disponvel em: <http://www.cartoonstock.


com/directory/j/jobs.asp>.

Qual a incoerncia apresentada no cartum


acima?
a. O fato de a abordagem ser inovadora.
b. O fato de a abordagem no ter precedentes.
c. O fato de essa abordagem no poder
ser considerada.
d. O elogio ideia, mas o fato de ela no
ser aprovada por no ter sido aplicada
antes.
e. O fato de o chefe no aceitar ideias inovadoras apresentadas por seus subordinados.

Disponvel em: <http://www.cartoonstock.


com/directory/D/Democracy.as>.

De acordo com o cartum:


01. o homem aceita a opinio dos outros,
sem restries.

PV2D-13-14

02. a opinio dos trs homens diverge da


opinio do outro.

146. UFES modificado

03. todos compartilham da mesma opinio.

Leia o texto e responda questo.


ALL THE QUESTIONS IN THIS EXAM MUST BE
ANSWERED IN ENGLISH

04. no existe divergncia entre os homens.

USE YOUR OWN WORDS to answer the


following questions, according to the text, in
complete sentences. DO NOT COPY FROM THE
TEXT! Answers which are literally transcribed
from the text will NOT be considered.

05. o homem aceita outras opinies, desde


que no seja contrariado.
Somente est correto o que se afirma em:
a. 3 e 4.

Dont mind your language

b. 2.
c. 4 e 5.
d. 2, 3 e 4.
e. 2 e 5.

by Stephen Fry

151

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

(1) For me, it is a cause of some


upset that more Anglophones dont enjoy
language. Music is enjoyable it seems,
so are dance and other, athletic forms of
movement. People seem to be able to find
sensual and sensuous pleasure in almost
anything but words these days. Words, it
seems belong to other people, anyone who
expresses themselves with originality,
delight and verbal freshness is more
likely to be mocked, distrusted or disliked
than welcomed. The free and happy use
of words appears to be considered elitist
or pretentious. Sadly, desperately sadly,
the only people who seem to bother with
language in public today bother with it in
quite the wrong way.
(2) They write letters to broadcasters
and newspapers in which they are rude and
haughty about other peoples usage and in
which they show off their own superior
knowledge of how language should be.
I hate that, and I particularly hate the fact
that so many of these pedants assume that
Im on their side. When asked to join in a
lets persuade this supermarket chain to
get rid of their five items or less sign
I never join in. Yes, I am aware of the
technical distinction between less and
fewer, and between uninterested and
disinterested and infer and imply,
but none of these are of importance to me.
None of these are of importance, I wrote
there, youll notice the old pedantic me
would have insisted on none of them is
of importance.
(3) Well Im glad to say Ive outgrown
that silly approach to language. Oscar
Wilde, and there have been few greater
and more complete lords of language in
the past thousand years, once included
with a manuscript he was delivering to his
publishers a compliment slip in which he
had scribbled the injunction: Ill leave
you to tidy up the woulds and shoulds,
wills and shalls, thats and whiches & c.
Which gives us all encouragement to feel
less guilty, dont you think?
(4) There are all kinds of pedants
around with more time to read and
imitate Lynne Truss and John Humphrys
than to write poems, love-letters, novels

and stories it seems. They whip out


their Sharpies and take away and add
apostrophes from public signs, shake
their heads at prepositions which end
sentences and mutter at split infinitives
and misspellings, but do they bubble and
froth and slobber and cream with joy at
language? Do they ever let the tripping
of the tips of their tongues against the
tops of their teeth transport them to
giddy euphoric bliss? Do they ever yoke
impossible words together for the soundsex of it? Do they use language to seduce,
charm, excite, please, affirm and tickle
those they talk to? Do they? I doubt it.
(5) Theyre too farting busy sneering
at a greengrocers less than perfect use of
the apostrophe. Well sod them to Hades.
They think theyre guardians of language.
Theyre no more guardians of language
than the Kennel Club is the guardian of
dogkind.
(6) The worst of this sorry bunch
of semi-educated losers are those who
seem to glory in being irritated by nouns
becoming verbs. How dense and deaf to
language development do you have to be?
If you dont like nouns becoming verbs,
then for heavens sake avoid Shakespeare
who made a doing-word out of a thingword every chance he got.
(7) He TABLED the motion and
CHAIRED the meeting in which nouns
were made verbs. New examples from
our time might take some getting used
to: He actioned it that day for instance
might strike some as a verbing too far, but
we have been sanctioning, envisioning,
propositioning and stationing for a long
time, so why not action? Because its
ugly, whinge the pedants. Its only ugly
because its new and you dont like it. Ugly
in the way Picasso, Stravinsky and Eliot
were once thought ugly and before them
Monet, Mahler and Baudelaire. Pedants
will also claim, with what I am sure is
eye-popping insincerity and shameless
disingenuousness, that their fight is only
for clarity.
(8) This is all very well, but there is
no doubt what Five items or less means,
just as only a dolt cant tell from the
152

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Ingls

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

context and from the age and education


of the speaker, whether disinterested is
used in the proper sense of non-partisan,
or in the improper sense of uninterested.
No, the claim to be defending language
for the sake of clarity almost never,
ever holds water. Nor does the idea that
following grammatical rules in language
demonstrates clarity of thought and
intelligence of mind. Having said this, I
admit that if you want to communicate
well for the sake of passing an exam or
job interview, then it is obvious that
wildly original and excessively heterodox
language could land you in the soup.
(9) I think what offends examiners
and employers when confronted with
extremely informal, unpunctuated and
haywire language is the implication of
not caring that underlies it. You slip into
a suit for an interview and you dress your
language up too. You can wear what you
like linguistically or sartorially when
youre at home or with friends, but most
people accept the need to smarten up
under some circumstances its only
considerate. But that is an issue of fitness,
of suitability, it has nothing to do with
correctness. There is no right language or
wrong language any more than is right or
wrong clothes. Context, convention and
circumstance are all.

c. Picasso, Stravinsky and Eliot were once


considered ugly.
Today they are thought to be great artists.
(due to however thus)
d. Most educated people are obsessed
about linguistic inadequacy.
Stephen Fry is not obsessed about that.
(furthermore in order to unlike)
147. UFSJ-MG
Leia o texto e responda questo.
Campus that apartheid ruled faces a
policy rift
At the height of apartheid, the
University of Cape Town was once
a citadel of white privilege on the
majestic slopes of Devils Peak. Today,
South Africas finest university is now
resplendently multiracial. However, it is
also engaged in a searching debate about
just how far affirmative action should
go to heal the wounds of an oppressive
history, echoing similar conflicts in the
United States, where half a dozen states
have banned the use of racial preferences
in admissions to public universities.
Are we here because were black or
are we here because were intelligent?
asked Sam Mgobozi, 19, a middle-class
black student who attended a first-rate high
school in Durban and finds affirmative
action offensive, even as he concedes that
poor black applicants may still need it.
The University of Cape Town was
supposed to have settled this debate last
year when its professors supported a
policy that gave admissions preferences
based on apartheid racial categories to
black, mixed-race and Indian students.
Instead, unease with the current
approach has spilled out over the past year
in fierce exchanges on newspaper editorial
pages and formal debating platforms.
Sixteen years after the political ascent of
the black majority, the universitys dilemma
resonates across a society conflicted about
how best to achieve racial redress, whether
in corporate board rooms or classrooms.
Prof. Neville Alexander, a marxist
sociologist, has roused the campus debate

Disponvel em:< http://www.stephenfry.


com/2008/11/04/dont-mind-yourlanguage%E2%80%A6/>. Acesso em: 3 ago. 2010.

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Ingls

Join the two sentences in each item by using


one of the words in parentheses. Make
changes when necessary.
a. Prejudice against linguistic innovations
exists.
Stephen Fry is a strong defender of the free
use of language.
(despite moreover otherwise)
b. Many people are against nouns becoming
verbs.
Stephen Fry often makes use of nouns
changed into verbs.
(although instead then)

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

with the charge that affirmative action


betrays the ideals of non-racialism that
so many fought and died for during the
long struggle against apartheid. Professor
Alexander insists that the University of
Cape Town, which is public, must resist
pressure from the government to use racial
benchmarks in determining how well the
university is performing.
Affirmative actions champion on
campus is Max Price, the vice chancellor.
Dr. Price contends that preferences based on
apartheids racial classifications provide a
means to help those harmed by that system
to gain critical educational opportunities.
He estimated that about half of the most
privileged black applicants would not
make the cut without racial preferences.
In such a situation, he said, whites would
dominate the top ranks of the class, while
many disadvantaged blacks struggled with
failure, reinforcing stereotypes.

148. UFSJ-MG
Leia o texto e responda questo.
Sesame Street pair Bert and Ernie will
not marry

Bert and Ernie have lived together for more than 40 years

Disponvel em: <http://www.nytimes.com/2010/11/23/


world/africa/23safrica.html?pagewanted=all>.
Acesso em: 19 ago. 2011. Adaptado.

Choose the alternative which contains a


correct substitute for the word in bold in each
of the following sentences:
a. Instead, unease with the current
approach has spilled out over the past
year in fierce exchanges on newspaper
editorial pages and formal debating
platforms. (paragraph 4)
Instead = For example
b. South Africas finest university is now
resplendently multiracial. However, it
is also engaged in a searching debate
about just how far affirmative action
should go (paragraph 1)
However = Because of this
c. echoing similar conflicts in the United
States, where half a dozen states have
banned the use of racial preferences
in admissions to public universities.
(paragraph 1)
banned = prohibited
d. Prof. Neville Alexander, a marxist
sociologist, has roused the campus
debate with the charge that affirmative
action betrays the ideals of nonracialism (paragraph 5)
roused = finished

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15

20

25

30

35

154

The makers of Sesame Street


say characters Bert and Ernie will not
marry in a same-sex ceremony despite
an online petition calling for the union.
Campaigners say the best friends
should marry as a way to encourage
tolerance of gay people.
Nearly 7,000 have signed
the petition, with more than 3,000
joining a Bert and Ernie Get Married
Facebook page.
A statement from the show's
makers said: They remain puppets
and do not have a sexual orientation.
But they conceded that the pair
are male characters and possess many
human traits and characteristics.
The confirmed bachelors have
lived together for 40 years and sleep in
the same bedroom, albeit in single beds.
Bert and Ernie are best friends,
the statement from Sesame Workshop
added. They were created to teach
preschoolers that people can be good
friends with those who are very
different from themselves.
The online petition states: We
are not asking that Sesame Street
do anything crude or disrespectful,
adding, It can be done in a tasteful
way. Let us teach tolerance of those
that are different.
Sesame Street was created by
TV producer Joan Ganz Cooney and
psychologist Lloyd Morrisett in 1969

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

and gained a huge following, led by the


creations of master puppeteer Jim Henson.
Beloved characters include Elmo,
the Cookie Monster and Big Bird.

In the text, the expression as a result


(paragraph 1) and Furthermore (paragraph 2)
introduce, respectively, the ideas of:
a. exemplification and enumeration
b. emphasis and contrast
c. comparison and explanation
d. consequence and addition

Disponvel em: <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/


entertainment-arts-14504208>. Acesso em: 18 ago. 2011.

The word albeit (line 20) could be replaced by:


a. therefore.
b. moreover.

c. although.
d. then.

150. UFSM-RS
Leia o texto e responda questo.

149. UFSJ-MG

Smart jocks: sport helps kids


classroom performance
When kids exercise, they boost
brainpower as well as brawn

Leia o texto e responda questo.

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Ingls

Saving affirmative action from itself


Today, the future of affirmative action
at universities is in danger in the United
States. A series of states among them
Michigan, California, Florida, Nebraska,
and Arizona prohibited the consideration
of race and ethnicity in all units of state
government, including public universities.
As a result, state universities with great
capacity for accepting minorities are
increasingly incapable of doing this.
Furthermore, these universities
cannot count on the public for support
on affirmative action. Studies conducted
in 2009 showed that 36-55% of people
believe that the government should
completely abolish affirmative action and
33-61% oppose affirmative action for
blacks in university entry.
This negative view of affirmative
action in university education is, in part,
explained by the political changes of the
country since 1980 and the pressures the
present recession has put on state budgets.
However, more important is the way in
which affirmative action went away from
its 1960s origins and lost sight of its own
history.
Today, the only way affirmative
action in universities can save itself from
losing still more public support is to
become much more inclusive in practice.
It needs to help students who for a variety
of reasons not just because of their race
or ethnicity are disadvantaged in the
fight to enter university.

by Steve Ayan

10

15

Disponvel em: <http://www.3quarksdaily.


com/3quarksdaily/2011/07/saving-affirmative-actionfrom-itself.html>. Acesso em: 19 ago. 2011. Adaptado.

155

Despite frequent reports that


regular exercise benefits the adult
brain, when it comes to schoolchildren,
the concept of the dumb jock persists.
The star quarterback stands in stark
contrast to the math-team champion.
After all, the two types require
seemingly disparate talents: physical
prowess versus intellect. Letting kids
run around or throw a ball seems, at
best, tangential to the real work of
learning and, at worst, a distraction
from it.
Parents, teachers and education
policy makers have pitted athletics
against academics even as they trumpet
exercise as an antidote to obesity and
poor health. From preschool onward,

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

teachers encourage children to sit still


rather than scamper. Many schools
have cut back on physical education
to make room for the three R's. And
when student scores on standardized
tests become of primary importance
to parents, politicians or other
stakeholders in the education system,
educators may feel pressured to direct
students toward academic pursuits
and away from athletic ones.
In brief
Students who are fit based on
their high aerobic capacity and low
body fat also tend to perform well in
school and on standardized tests.
In addition to regular exercise,
brief periods of movement such
as jumping or stretching can help
improve children's concentration.
Exercise may turbocharge the
brain by raising levels of neuronal
growth factors, which foster the
formation of new connections
between brain cells.

151. Unesp
Leia o texto e responda questo.
Why use biofuels for aviation?
The aviation industry has seen huge
growth since its beginning. Today, more
than two billion people enjoy the social
and economical benefits of flight each
year. The ability to fly conveniently and
efficiently between nations has been a
catalyst for the global economy and has
shrunk cultural barriers like no other
transport sector. But this progress comes
at a cost.
In 2008, the commercial aviation
industry produced 677 million tones of
carbon dioxide (CO2). This is around 2%
of the total man-made CO2 emissions
of more than 34 billion tones. While
this amount is smaller compared with
other industry sectors, such as power
generation and ground transport, these
industries have viable alternative energy
sources currently available. For example,
the power generation industry can
look to wind, hydro, nuclear and solar
technologies to make electricity without
producing much CO2 . Cars and buses
can run on hybrid, flexible fuel engines
or electricity. Electric-powered trains can
replace diesel locomotives.
The aviation industry has identified
the development of biofuels as one of the
major ways it can reduce its greenhouse
gas emissions. Biofuels provide aviation
with the capability to partially, and
perhaps one day fully, replace carbonintensive petroleum fuels. They will, over
time, enable the industry to reduce its
carbon footprint significantly.

Disponvel em: <http://www.scientificamerican.


com/article.cfm?id=smart-jocks>.

Glossrio
brawn: fora fsica
growth: crescimento
jock: esportista, atleta
prowess: talento, habilidade
to pit sb/sth against sth: testar, pr prova
to scamper: mexer-se, agitar-se, mover-se
to stretch: alongar-se
A expresso rather than (l.20) significa:
a. em vez de.
d. para que.
b. ainda que.
e. alm de.
c. melhor ento.
Global CO

emissions

Land use change and forestry (25%)

Building light and heat (20%)

Industrial processes (3%)

Other electricity and head (12%)

Other energy (10%)


Other transport (2%)
Air (2%)

Chemicals (6%)
Cement (5%)
Other industry (2%)
Road (13%)

156

Disponvel em: Beginners Guide to


Aviation Biofuels, May 2009. Adaptado.

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

Using various tests that measure empathy,


those who perceive themselves among the
lower classes demonstrate heightened
vigilance of the social context and an
other-focused social orientation. In
other words, poorer, less well-educated
individuals tend to notice, and care more
about the people around them. Upperclass rank perceptions, on the other hand,
trigger a focus away from the context
toward the self, prioritizing self-interest.
How the heck can researchers
measure something like empathy? One
study, for instance, asked participants to
identify the emotions on display in photos
of people with different facial expressions.
Those with high-school-only educations
showed greater empathetic accuracy
than participants with college educations.
The paper also claims that people
with less education and less money tend
to be more generous with what money
they do have. When the question is posed
regarding how much people should give
to charity, lower-class ranks suggest a
higher percentage of ones income than the
percentage recommended by the wealthy.
Another study cited in the paper
involved giving participants 10 points,
which would later be traded in for money.
The individuals given the points were to
divide them up between themselves and
an anonymous partner. Guess who shared
more of their points?
We found that individuals reporting
lower subjective socioeconomic status
gave more to their partner than did uppersocioeconomic-status participants. In this
context, the next time youre called lowclass, consider it a compliment.

A partcula but, na ltima orao do primeiro


pargrafo, estabelece um contraste entre:
a. os benefcios do desenvolvimento da
indstria aeronutica e o alto custo do
progresso, que afeta a economia global.
b. as barreiras culturais estabelecidas pela
economia global e o desenvolvimento
da indstria aeronutica.
c. as barreiras culturais estabelecidas pela
economia global e o alto custo do desenvolvimento da aviao no mundo.
d. o desenvolvimento da aviao e seus
benefcios para a sociedade, e uma
consequncia negativa do crescimento
do setor areo.
e. o desenvolvimento da indstria aeronutica e o seu alto custo, como o estabelecimento de barreiras culturais.
152. UFTM-MG
Leia o texto e responda questo.
Psychology of money
Study: the rich really are more selfish
by Brad Tuttle
August 12, 2011

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Ingls

Lower-class individuals i.e.,


folks without much money or education
demonstrate more compassion and
empathy than their wealthy counterparts,
according to a series of psychological
studies. In social scientist speech, selforiented behavior is more likely to be
exhibited by people with good education,
prestigious jobs, high income, and overall
higher-ranking social status.
How you rank in society purportedly
has a lot to do with how much you
care about your fellow man. Thats the
gist of Social Class as Culture: The
Convergence of Resources and Rank in
the Social Realm, a new paper written by
University of California psychologists and
social scientists published in the academic
journal Current Directions in Psychological
Science.
The authors write that ones sense of
social class derived mainly from income
and education exerts broad influences
on social thought, emotion, and behavior.

Disponvel em: <http://moneyland.time.com>. Adaptado.

No trecho do terceiro pargrafo Upper-class


rank perceptions, on the other hand, trigger
a focus away from the context toward the self,
prioritizing self-interest a expresso on the
other hand indica:
a. alternativa.
b. direo.
c. adio.
d. concluso.
e. contraste.
157

As a consequence, Christine Rubino was


pulled from the classroom in February and
may even lose her job.
Ms. Rubinos online outburst was
only the latest example of its kind. In
April, a first-grade teacher in Paterson,
NJ, was suspended for writing on her
Facebook page that she felt like a warden
overseeing future criminals. In February,
a high school English teacher in suburban
Philadelphia was suspended for a blog entry
calling her students rude, disengaged, lazy
whiners.
Such teachers have become minor
Internet celebrities, applauded by their fans
for exposing students insolent manners
and desultory work habits. But these
defenders have it backward. The truly scary
restrictions on teacher speech lie inside the
schoolhouse walls, not beyond them. And
by supporting teachers right to rant against
students online, we devalue their status as
professionals and actually make it harder
to protect real academic freedom in the
classroom.
All professionals restrict their own
speech, after all, reflecting the special
purposes and responsibilities of their
occupations. A psychologist should not
discuss his patients darkest secrets on a
crowded train, which would violate the trust
and confidence they have placed in him.
Outside school, teachers must also
avoid public language that mocks or
demeans the children they instruct. Cruel
blog posts about lazy or disobedient
students echo the irreverent and offensive
culture of cable TV talk shows. And they are
unacceptable in a truly democratic dialogue.

153. UFF-RJ
Leia os textos e responda questo.
As questes devem ser respondidas em INGLS.

When teachers talk out of school


by Jonathan Zimmerman

In 1927, Helen Clark, a schoolteacher


in Secaucus, lost her teaching license. The
reason? Somebody had seen her smoking
cigarettes after school hours. In communities
across the United States, that was a ground
for dismissal. So was card-playing, dancing
and failure to attend church. Today, teachers
can be suspended, and even fired, for what
they write on Facebook.
Just ask Christine Rubino, the New
York City math teacher who may soon be
dismissed for posting angry messages about
her students. Last June, just before summer
vacation began, a Harlem schoolgirl
drowned during a field trip to a beach. Ms.
Rubino had nothing to do with that incident,
but the following afternoon, she typed a
quick note on Facebook about a particularly
difficult group of Brooklyn students under
her responsibility.
After today, Im thinking the beach is
a good trip for my class, she wrote. I hate
their guts. One of Ms. Rubinos Facebook
friends then asked: Wouldnt you throw a
life jacket to little Kwami? No, I wouldnt
for a million dollars, Ms. Rubino replied.

Jonathan Zimmerman, a professor of


education and history at New York University,
is the author of Small Wonder: The Little Red
Schoolhouse in History and Memory.

Editorial: Teachers who vent

158

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

To the Editor:
I am a teacher, and I do not understand
adults writing every mundane or angry
thought that crosses their minds, in a
public forum, for all to see. What is it about
posting this kind of stuff on Facebook? I
understand when a 14-yearold does it,
but an adult? Teachers who wrote these
things, in public, on the Internet, what
were you thinking? Sure, teaching can be
tiring, frustrating, difficult, discouraging
at times, but it is also something amazing
and I wouldnt trade it for the world. If
you are feeling this much vitriol for your
students, you need to get out, and soon
it is not fair to your students for you to
be their teacher. They deserve better than
you.

Glossary
ground: reason
to be fired/dismissed: to lose ones job
to drown: to die under water
warden: prison guard
to have it backward: to be mistaken
to rant: to complain angrily
to vent: to speak freely
to trade it for the world: to exchange it for
something
vitriol: bitter and frustrated
In the first letter to the Editor, the adjectives
tiring, frustrating, difficult and discouraging
are contrasted with another adjective.
a. What adjective are they contrasted
with?
b. What connecting word is used to
establish the contrast?
154. UFBA
Leia o texto e responda questo.

LYNNIN
NY, June 4th, 2011

PV2D-13-14

To the Editor:
Teachers must be allowed to
participate in the public conversations
that our society should be having.
Including, Cruel blog posts about lazy
or disobedient students. I wonder about
whether or not a teacher who posts such
remarks should be teaching, but they
certainly have the right to say what they
like as long as they dont refer to specific
children. When I became a teacher, I did
not give up my right to free speech. While
not in the classroom, teachers should have
the right to make stupid, tasteless remarks,
just like everybody else.


Ingls

Men without women

MICHAEL H.
Alameda, CA, June 4th, 2011
Disponvel em: <http://www.nytimes.com>.

In China, young men will soon outnumber young


women by millions

To the Editor:
The problem, it seems to me, is not
with teachers, but with the illusion of
privacy created by Facebook and similar
online sites. Just like adolescents, who are
shocked to discover that the supposedly
private comments they make on the Web
are now public knowledge, these teachers
have been fooled into thinking they are
speaking privately, when in fact, anything
posted on Facebook is literally there for
the world to see.

10

ROBERT BEECH
New Haven, CT, June 4th, 2011

159

In 1927, Ernest Hemingway


published a collection of short stories
titled Men Without Women. Today,
less than a century later, it sums up the
predicament of a rising proportion of
mankind.
According to the United Nations,
there are far more men than women on
the planet. The gender gap is especially
pronounced in Asia, where there are a
hundred million more guys than girls.
This may come as a surprise to people
in the Western world, where women

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

outnumber men because other


things being equal the mortality rate
for women is lower than for men in
all age groups. Nobel Prize-winning
economist Amartya Sen calls it the
mystery of Asias missing women.
The mystery is partly explicable
in terms of economics. In many Asian
societies, girls are less well looked
after than boys because they are
economically undervalued. The kind
of domestic work they typically do is
seen as less important than paid work
done by men. And, of course, early
marriage and minimal birth control
together expose them to the risks of
multiple pregnancies.
When Sen first added up the
missing women women who
would exist today if it were not for
selective abortion, infanticide, and
economic discrimination he put
the number at hundred million. It is
surely higher now. For, even as living
standards in Asian countries have
soared, the gender gap has widened.
Thats because a cultural preference
for sons over daughters leads to
selective abortion of female fetuses, a
practice made possible by ultrasound
scanning, and engaged in despite
legal prohibitions. The American
feminist Mary Anne Warren called it
gendercide. Notoriously common in
northwestern India, its also rampant
in the worlds most populous country:
China.
That has scary implications.
Remember, most of Hemingways
stories in Men Without Women
are about violence. They feature
gangsters, bullfighters, and wounded
soldiers as well. The most famous
story is called simply The Killers.
It may be that the coming
generation of Asian men without
women will find harmless outlets for
their inevitable frustrations, like team
sports or videogames. But I doubt it.
Either this bachelor generation will
be a source of domestic instability,
whether Brazilian-style crime or Arab-

70

style revolution or, as happened in


Europe, they and their testosterone
will be exported. Theres already
enough shrill nationalism in Asia as it
is. Dont be surprised if, in the next
generation, it takes the form of macho
militarism and even imperialism.
Lock up your daughters.
FERGUSON. Niall. Men without women. Newsweek,
New York, March 14, 2011. p. 8. Adaptado.

Correspondem circunstncia indicada ao


lado as expresses transcritas em
01. Iess than (I. 4) comparao.
02. if (I. 33) dvida.
04. for (I. 33) explicao.
08. as well (I. 56) adio.
16. whether [...] or (I. 65) alternncia.
32. as happened (I. 66) finalidade.
155. Uerj
Leia o texto e responda questo.
The fortune teller
Your lucks going to change, she
said, locking the door to bar my way. Im
closing now. Come back tomorrow. Ill be
here after ten.
I needed it to change. It had been
a grim couple of months: I had lost my
job and failed to lure a woman into my
life. Cant you see me now?, I asked,
wanting to bring on the metamorphosis as
soon as possible.
Ive finished for today. I have things
to do. She took my hand and squeezed
gently as we stood on the pavement
outside the rickety cabin that served as her
office. Another day wont hurt. Come
back tomorrow, she smiled. Your lucks
going to change, and how.
I hadnt imagined that a fortune teller
could be pretty, but thinking about it, I
suppose they can be anything that anyone
else could be: young, old, fat, thin, rich
or dirt poor. But this one was pretty and,
more than that, I thought I saw something
in her eyes, a hint of a come on, maybe.
But it had been so long since Id seen that
look that I wasnt sure I recognised it.
Be here tomorrow, she said again.
Bye, I called, cheerfully confused.
160

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

It seemed like fate. The first time I


ever pick up one of those trashy magazines
and theres her advert, extolling the
virtues of knowing whats around the
corner. Then, when I get to her place, I
find a good looking woman who seems
interested in me. Tomorrow cant come
quick enough.
I couldnt sleep for thinking about
her. During the night, she changed from
mere pretty to beautiful. Her smile had
broadened and the hand-squeeze had
tightened.
Id wanted to be on her doorstep before
her arrival, but Id made myself late by
worrying about how I looked and smelled.
In due course, I was at the cabin and after
straightening my tie, prepared to knock on
the door. It was then that I noticed the hastily
written note that was pinned just below
the knocker. It read: Closed today due to
unforeseen circumstances.

footprint. The story is the same across the


developing world: fueled by market buzz,
miners wielding picks, pans, and dredging
machines are heading to locations as farflung as the Australian outback and the
Nigerian jungle. On Indonesias Paradise
Island, hundreds of illegal claims have
sprung up in the last three years, digging
up the storied mountains behind the famed
tourist resorts.
Yet nowhere has the impact been
greater than in Latin America, which is
blessed and cursed by some of the
richest veins of mineral ore in the world.
The post-crisis gold rush is on fire in some
of the remotest stretches of the American
tropics, and once again it comes with the
snarling of chain saws, infectious disease,
and a whiff of cordite. Every time theres
a significant rise in gold prices, marginal
gold mines spring back to life in the
remotest regions, says Marcio Santilli,
who works for a Brazilian indigenousrights group, Instituto Socioambiental.
That often means trouble.
Ten years ago, with the easy alluvial
gold all but gone and ore prices sagging,
most wildcat miners had quit the jungle
camps for the cities, trying their luck
with odd jobs in the urban slums of Boa
Vista, Cuzco, Manaus, Porto Velho, and
Quito. But with ore prices up nearly 50
percent in value over the last 12 months,
gold fever has swept the rainforest again.
What brings gold mining back to life is
cheaper fuel and high prices for gold, and
thats exactly what we have right now,
says Luciano Borges, an economist who
advises Brazilian mining companies.
In Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana,
Brazil, and especially Peru, miners are on
the move, scraping away forests, rifling
the soil, and turning over streambeds for
specks of gold.
Ground zero for the new treasure
hunt is the Peruvian Amazon, where some
40,000 miners swarm claims along the
Madre de Dios river, which rises in the
southern Andes and flows east into Brazil.
Though its hard to imagine, this army in
rags roots up nearly 20 percent of Perus
annual take of 175 metric tons of gold.

Alan Liptrot
Disponvel em: <http://www.helium.com>.

No final da histria, o personagem principal


depara-se com o seguinte recado:
Closed today due to unforeseen circumstances.
Traduza a frase acima e explique o efeito de
humor que ela produz no contexto.
156. ESPM-SP
Leia o texto e responda questo.

PV2D-13-14

Ingls

The new gold rush


Soaring gold prices are causing a new
mining boom thats threatening the
Amazon rainforest
As stocks and bonds tumble from
the Dow to the DAX, investors are
scrambling for fireproof assets and
for many market watchers, the refuge
of choice right now is gold. The ancient
hedge for troubling economic times
has soared since the economic collapse
of 2008, spiking 23 percent just since
January. By this week the price of an
ounce of gold was close to $1,800, a
nearly sevenfold increase over 2001.
But in the stampede to safety, fortune
hunters are leaving behind a heavy
161

Ingls

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

It also leaves a wake of destruction


behind it. Riverbanks dissolve as
prospectors power-hose the clay, sucking
up the detritus into diesel-powered
dredges. Globs of toxic mercury, which
prospectors use to bind with alluvial gold,
fall into streams, where the mercury is
taken up by plants and fish and eventually
humans. Though few strike it rich, and
those who do often blow their take in a
single bender, expectation pulses through
the miners camps like aguardiente, the
cheap cane rum that fuels imaginations
and brawls. Prostitutes and thieves troll

the Amazon boomtowns, where theres


also a brisk business in guns and drugs.
Disponvel em: <http://www.newsweek.
com>. Acesso em: 19 ago. 2011.

The underlined word though could be


replaced, without changing its meaning, by:
a. whereas
b. albeit
c. moreover
d. rather than
e. hence

157. ESPM-SP

PV2D-13-14

Leia e observe o cartum para responder a questo

In the second strip, the sentence Either moms cooking dinner, or someone got sick in the
furnace duct, either...or... expresses the idea of:
a. exclusion.
b. alteration.
c. exemplification.
d. variation.
e. opposition.

162

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

a voice-activated computer game,


and one suggestion is that a stickon voicebox circuit could be used in
covert police operations where it might
be too dangerous to speak into a radio
transmitter. The blurring of electronics
and biology is really the key point here,
said Yonggang Huang, professor of
engineering at Northwestern University in
Evanston, Illinois. All established forms
of electronics are hard, rigid. Biology is
soft, elastic. Its two different worlds. This
is a way to truly integrate them.
Engineers have built test circuits
mounted on a thin, rubbery substrate that
adheres to the skin. The circuits have
included sensors, light-emitting diodes,
transistors, radio frequency capacitors,
wireless antennas, conductive coils and
solar cells. We threw everything in our
bag of tricks on to that platform, and
then added a few other new ideas on top
of those, to show that we could make it
work, said John Rogers, professor of
engineering at the University of Illinois at
Urbana-Champaign, a lead author of the
study, published in the journal Science.

Leia o texto e responda s questes 158 e 159.


How computers will soon get under
our skin
by Steve Connor, Science Editor
12 August 2011

PV2D-13-14

Ingls

It may soon be possible to wear your


computer or mobile phone under your
sleeve, with the invention of an ultra-thin
and flexible electronic circuit that can be
stuck to the skin like a temporary tattoo.
The device, which is almost invisible, can
perform just as well as more conventional
electronic machines but without the
need for wires or bulky power supplies,
scientists said. The development could
mark a new era in consumer electronics.
The technology could be used for
applications ranging from medical
diagnosis to covert military operations.
The epidermal electronic system
relies on a highly flexible electrical circuit
composed of snake-like conducting
channels that can bend and stretch without
affecting performance. The circuit is
about the size of a postage stamp, is
thinner than a human hair and sticks to the
skin by natural electrostatic forces rather
than glue. We think this could be an
important conceptual advance in wearable
electronics, to achieve something that is
almost unnoticeable to the wearer. The
technology can connect you to the physical
world and the cyberworld in a very
natural way that feels comfortable, said
Professor Todd Coleman of the University
of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, who led
the research team.
A simple stick-on circuit can
monitor a persons heart rate and muscle
movements as well as conventional
medical monitors, but with the benefit of
being weightless and almost completely
undetectable. Scientists said it may also
be possible to build a circuit for detecting
throat movements around the larynx
in order to transmit the information
wirelessly as a way of recording a persons
speech, even if they are not making any
discernible sounds.
Tests have already shown that
such a system can be used to control

Disponvel em: <http://www.


independent.co.uk>. Adaptado.

158. Unifesp
The sentence based on the second paragraph
The circuit sticks to the skin by natural
electrostatic forces rather than glue means
that:
a. the skin produces natural glue that
attracts the circuit like electrostatic
forces.
b. while electrostatic glue may be used,
the skins natural glue holds the circuit.
c. electrostatic forces produced by the
circuit in contact with the skin create a
sticky circuit.
d. the circuit is glued to the skin through a
natural sticky secretion.
e. natural electrostatic forces, instead of
glue, stick the circuit to the skin.
159. Unifesp
No trecho do terceiro pargrafo A simple
stick-on circuit can monitor a persons heart
rate and muscle movements as well as
163

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

healthy lifestyle the medical community


has put forth, you are much more likely to
live past 80.
The study was published online last
week in The Journal of the American
Geriatrics Society.

conventional medical monitors, but with


the benefit of being weightless and almost
completely undetectable a expresso as well
as equivale, em portugus, a:
a. de modo adequado.
b. to bem como.
c. bem como.
d. tambm.
e. de modo melhor que.

Disponvel em: <http://www.nytimes.com>. Adaptado.

No trecho do segundo pargrafo Long-lived


men were less likely to be obese than their
younger counterparts, although no less likely
to be overweight a palavra although pode
ser substituda, sem alterao de sentido, por:
a. but.
b. so.
c. or.
d. since.
e. thus.

160. Unifesp
Leia e o texto abaixo e responda questo 160.
Longevity: habits may extend life only
so much
by Nicholas Bakalar
August 8, 2011

The eating, drinking and exercise


habits of extremely old but healthy people
differ little from those of the rest of us,
a new study has found. Gerontologists at
the Albert Einstein College of Medicine
recruited 477 Ashkenazi Jews ages 95
to 112 who were living independently.
The researchers took blood samples,
did physical examinations and obtained
detailed personal and medical histories
from each participant. Then they
compared them with 1,374 non-Hispanic
white adults, ages 65 to 74, from the
general population. For both men and
women, consumption of alcohol, amount
of physical activity and the percentage of
people on low-calorie or low-salt diets
were almost identical in the two groups.
Long-lived men were less likely to
be obese than their younger counterparts,
although no less likely to be overweight.
The oldest women were more likely
to be overweight and less likely to be
obese. More men among the oldest were
nonsmokers, but smoking habits were not
significantly different among the women.
Does this mean that it all depends
on genes, and we might as well eat,
drink and be merry? No, according to the
senior author, Dr. Nir Barzilai, director
of the Institute for Aging Research at
Albert Einstein College of Medicine.
For most of us who do not have genes
for longevity, he said, if you follow the

161. Unitau-SP
Leia o texto e responda questo.
Pollution in Brazil
The silvery Tiet
A Brazilian radio programme
broadcast in 1990, The Meeting of
the Rivers, compared the condition
of Londons River Thames with So
Paulos Tiet. The Thames had been
reborn, starting from Joseph Bazalgette,
a Victorian engineer, who began to build
sewers that diverted the filth downstream.
The Tiet was choking in waste from
33,000 factories and sewage from 13m
people, more than four filths of it untreated.
The river was biologically dead as far as
Barra Bonita, 260 km downstream from
So Paulo city.
The show struck a chord. Newspapers
and NOGS joined the campaign to clean
up the river. A petition attracted 1.2m
signatures. Finally, in 1992, Projeto Tiet
was launched.
Unlike many other infrastructure
projects in Brazil, this one kept going
through hyperinflation, financial crises
and changing political leaders. Cheap
loans helped the biggest industrial
polluters to become cleaner. New watertreatment plants were built and sewage
pipes laid.
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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

Twenty years later, the Tiet is still


stinking and filthy as it flows darkly
through So Paulo. But not for much
longer. Today 55% of the citys sewage
is treated; by 2018, 85% should be. The
state governor, Geraldo Alckmin, is trying
to get the 35 municipalities in the Tiet
basin to co-operate: until 2010 Guarulhos,
a satellite city of 1.2m people, treated not
a drop of its sewage.
So Paulos pollution now reaches
only as far as Salto, 100 km downstream.
By 2018, says Monica Porto, a waterquality expert at the University of So
Paulo, the benefits should be visible and
sniffable in the city itself.
Paulistanos used to love their river,
says Janes Jorge, whose book, The River
the City Lost, tells its history. Artists
painted it; swimmers and rowers raced on
it; families had days out on its islands and
banks. Sorting out the citys sewage is just
a start, Mr Jorge says: much of what sullies
the Tiet is rubbish thrown on the street
and dust and oil from cars. The rivers
problems are an expression of the citys
problems of poverty and environmental
degradation. Its clean-up may show that
all this is slowly being overcome.

d. Mesmo com a hiperinflao, a crise financeira e a mudana de lderes polticos, este projeto se superou.
e. Assim como outros projetos brasileiros
de infraestrutura, a hiperinflao, a crise
financeira e a mudana de lderes polticos no permitiram sua continuidade.
162. UPE
Leia o texto e responda questo.
Am I all right?
While John Gilbert was in hospital,he
asked his doctor to tell him whether his
operation had been successful, but the
doctor refused to do so. The following day,
the patient asked for a bedside telephone.
When he was alone, he telephoned the
hospital exchange and asked for Doctor
Millington. When the doctor answered the
phone, Mr. Gilbert said he was inquiring
about a certain patient, a Mr. John Gilbert.
He asked if Mr. Gilberts operation had
been successful and the doctor told him
that it had been. He then asked when Mr.
Gilbert would be allowed to go home and
the doctor told him that he would have to
stay in hospital for another two weeks.
Then Dr. Millington asked the caller if
he was a relative of the patient. No, the
patient answered, I am Mr. John Gilbert.

Disponvel em: The Economist October


22nd-28th, 2011. Adaptado.

Disponvel em: Alexander, L. G. Practice and


progress. Longman. London, 1978.

Releia a sentena a seguir e assinale a alternativa que apresenta a traduo mais adequada.

PV2D-13-14

Ingls

A synonym for the word whether, in bold in


the text, can be:
a. what.
d. if.
b. weather.
e. infer.
c. wherever.
163. FEI-SP

Unlike many other infrastrucuture projects


in Brazil, this one kept going through
hyperinflation, financial crises and changing
political leaders.
a. Como em outros projetos brasileiros de
infraestrutura, este se manteve, apesar
da inflao, da crise financeira e da mudana de lideres polticos.
b. Parecido com outros projetos brasileiros, este superou a hiperinflao, a
crise financeira e a mudana de lderes
polticos.
c. Diferente de muitos outros projetos
de infraestrutura no Brasil, este se
manteve atravs da hiperinflao, das
crises financeiras e da mudana de lderes polticos.

Leia o texto e responda questo.

165

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

The regular appearance of Portuguese


phrases on Twitters popularity charts
comes as no surprise anymore. A new
study published this month by comScore,
a digital marketing firm, found that 23%
of Internet users in Brazil compared
with 11.9% in the U.S. visited the social
media platform last month, the highest
rate of participation by any country in the
world.
Americans are still the bestrepresented nationality among the 160
million people who use Twitter, an
information-sharing website created in
2006 by a pair of San Francisco software
engineers. In Brazil, the site has carved a
truly special niche. In a country known for
its vast gulf between the rich and poor, the
tool has managed to cut across the class
divide. Its not something thats just for
rich Brazilians, says Gabe Simas, who
promotes teen bands for MTV Brasil
through Twitter. The main reason Twitter
is so huge in Brazil is because it gives
access to normal people to contact their
idols. Indeed, the countrys soccer
stars were among the earliest proponents
of Twitter. To take one example, the
soccer idol known as Kak has 2 million
followers, or roughly a million more
than American basketball star LeBron
James.
Despite its geographic immensity
spanning the far reaches of the Amazon
to its metropolises on the Atlantic
the country is accustomed to a lack of
diversity in its media. So, when Twitter
arrived on the scene, Brazilians were
ready to embrace this latest media
phenomenon. Theres a keen awareness
of the importance and the power of the
country as well as a tremendous thirst to
find out what the latest trend is. In this
context, Twitter is a phenomenon thats
planting deep roots. My sister is 10 years
old. My grandmother is 82, says Simas
of MTV Brasil. And they both have
Twitter.

Indeed, in bold in the text, means:


a. fortunately.
b. however.
c. so.
d. in fact.
e. therefore.
164. UFBA modificado
Leia o texto e responda questo.
How to close the achievement gap
All over the world, your chances
of success in school and life depend
more on your family circumstances than
any other factor. By age three, kids with
professional parents are already a full
year ahead of their poorer peers. They
know twice as many words and score 40
points higher on IQ tests. By age 10, the
gap is three years. By then, some poor
children have not mastered basic reading
and math skills, and many never will: this
is the age at which failure starts to become
irreversible.
A few school systems seem to have
figured out how to erase these gaps.
Finland ensures that every kid completes
basic education and meets a rigorous
standard. One Finnish district official,
asked about the number of children who
dont complete school in her city, replied,
I can tell you their names if you want.
In the United States, KIPP (Knowledge
Is Power Program) charter schools enroll
students from the poorest families and
ensure that almost every one of them
graduates high school 80 percent make
it to college. Singapore narrowed its
achievement gap among ethnic minorities
from 17 percent to 5 percent over 20 years.
These success stories offer lessons
for the rest of us. First, get children into
school early. High quality pre-schooling
does more for a childs chances in school
and life than any other educational
intervention. One study, which began in
the 1960s, tracked two groups of students
from disadvantaged backgrounds. Some
were given the opportunity to attend a
high-quality preschool; others were not.
Thirty-five years later, the kids who went
to preschool were earning more, had

Disponvel em: <http://www.time.com/time/


world/article/0,8599,2026442,00.html>.
Acesso em: 20 out. 2010. Adaptado.

166

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

better jobs, and were less likely to have


been in prison or divorced.
Second, recognize that the average
kid spends about half his waking hours
up until the age of 18 outside of school
dont ignore that time. KIPP students
spend 60 percent more time in school
than the average American student.
They arrive earlier, leave later, attend
more regularly, and even go to school
every other Saturday. Similarly, in 1966,
Chile extended its school day to add the
equivalent of more than two more years
of schooling.
Third, pour lots of effort into training
teachers. Studies in the United States have
shown that kids with the most effective
teachers learn three times as much as those
with the least effective. Systems such as
Singapores are choosy about recruiting;
they invest in training and continuing
education; they evaluate teachers
regularly; and they award bonuses only to
the top performers.
Finally, recognize the value of
individualized attention. In Finland, kids
who start to struggle receive one-on-one
support from their teachers. Roughly one
in three Finnish students also get extra
help from a tutor each year. If we can
learn the lesson of what works, we can
build on it.

The National Industry Confederation


poll with over 1,600 companies found
the shortages are making manufacturers
less competitive relative to peers abroad.
One major issue is the precarious state of
Brazils primary and secondary education.
What brings the most attention is the
fact that companies are feeling the pinch
of something that universities and other
specialized education institutions are too
the poor quality of basic education,
Renato da Fonseca, head of research at the
Brasilia-based group, known as CNI, said.
That underscores a challenge for
Brazil to keep growing steadily ahead, as
labor shortages push wage costs higher
and hamper profits in the long run. Nearly
all of Brazilian companies polled by CNI
are at the moment not being able to fill
in open positions. About 78 percent of
companies are investing on their own
training programs to overcome the lack of
specialized labor, CNI said.
Brazils state-controlled oil company
Petrobras, for example, set an 11-monthlong training program for newly-hired
engineers, to strengthen their knowledge
before going on the field to work. Petrobras
has spent more than 100 million reais ($61.9
million) per year to qualify its engineers.
Education Minister Fernando Haddad
told Reuters in July that the perceived
lack of qualified workers was a shortterm issue and said increasing education
investments could help close the gap. The
ministrys budget for 2010 was 60 billion
reais, 16 percent higher than in the prior
year, and twice as much that of 2006.
However, public investment in education
in the past years was less than 5 percent
of gross domestic product. Some analysts
say the Brazilian government should
invest at least 7 percent of GDP a year in
order to improve the education system.

MOURSHED, Mona; WHELAN, Fenton.


How to close the achievement gap.
Disponvel em: Newsweek, New York, Aug.

PV2D-13-14

Ingls

Complete the following sentence as requested:


The conjunction if , in bold in the text,
expresses _____________.
Leia o texto e responda s questes de 165 a
167.
Lack of skilled labor hampers
Brazilian companies
by Cesar Bianconi

So Paulo Seven in every 10


Brazilian companies are currently facing
a shortage of skilled workers, a fact that
is weighing on their competitive position
and lifting costs, a survey by the countrys
largest industrial lobby showed on
Wednesday.

Disponvel em: http://www.reuters.com>. Adaptado.

165. UFTM-MG
No trecho do terceiro pargrafo as labor
shortages push wage costs higher , a palavra
as introduz uma:

167

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

Graft is hardly new in India:


the Bofors scandal brought down the
government in 1989. But there seems
to be more of it about than ever, if only
because India is getting richer fast, and
the faster the economy grows, the more
chances arise for mind-boggling theft. The
government says that in the next five-year
plan period, which starts next year, $1
trillion will be spent on roads, railways,
ports and so on, with billions more on reequipping the armed forces and welfare.
Add in an insatiable appetite for scarce
land, water and minerals and a monsoon
of bribes is forecast.
Some are inclined to shrug their
shoulders. After all, corruption does not
seem to be stopping India from growing.
Yet imagine how much better the country
would be doing without it. Corruption
raises costs not just to Indians, but also to
the foreigners whose capital India needs.
Thanks in part to those scandals, Indias
stockmarket was the worstperforming
outside the Muslim world over the past
year.
To its credit, the government has
begun to take action against powerful
individuals. Maharashtra states chief
minister was forced out over a property
scandal. Police have quizzed Suresh
Kalmadi, the politician who ran the
Commonwealth games. Most strikingly,
Andimuthu Raja, the cabinet minister
who oversaw the 2G telecom licences,
was arrested.

a. causa.
b. comparao.
c. consequncia.
d. concluso.
e. condio.
166. UFTM-MG
No trecho do ltimo pargrafo However,
public investment in education in the past years
, a palavra however pode ser substituda, sem
alterao de sentido, por:
a. Thus.
b. Therefore.
c. Then.
d. So.
e. Yet.
167. UFTM-MG
No trecho do ltimo pargrafo in order to
improve the education system , a expresso
in order to significa, em portugus:
a. com o fim de.
b. pela ordem.
c. assim que.
d. devido a.
e. desde que.
168. ESPM-SP
Leia o texto e responda questo.
Corruption in India a rotten state
Graft is becoming a bigger problem
and the government should tackle it
Indians anger over rising corruption
has reached feverish levels. What people
are calling a season of scams includes
the alleged theft of billions by officials
behind last years Commonwealth games
in Delhi; $40 billion in revenues lost from
the crooked sale of 2G telecoms licences;
and over $40 billion stolen in Uttar Pradesh
alone from schemes subsidising food and
fuel for the poor. Foreign businessmen,
who have slashed investment over the past
year, rank graft as their biggest headache
behind appalling infrastructure. Now
Indias anti-corruption chief has been
forced out over, well, corruption.

Disponvel em: <http://www.economist.com>.

A synonym for yet, underlined in the text in


the third paragraph, in Yet imagine how much
better the country would be doing without it
would be:
a. therefore
b. despite that
c. due to

d. instead of
e. furthermore

Leia o texto e responda s questes 169 e 170.


Life on a desert island
Most of us have formed an unrealistic
picture of life on a desert island. We
168

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

sometimes imagine a desert island to be


a sort of paradise where the sun always
shines. Life there is simple and good.
Ripe fruit falls from the trees and you
never have to work. There is also the other
side of the picture: life in a desert island is
wretched you either starve to death or
live like Robinson Crusoe waiting for a
boat which never comes. Perhaps there is
an element of truth in both these pictures,
but few of us have had the opportunity to
find out.
Two men who recently spent five days
on a coral island wished they stayed there
longer. They were taking a badly damaged
boat from the Virgin Islands to Miami to
have it repaired. During the journey, their
boat began to sink. They quickly loaded a
small rubber dinghy with food, matches,
and cans of beer and rowed for a few miles
across the Caribbean until they arrived at
a tiny coral island. There were hardly any
trees on the island and there was no water,
but this didnt prove to a problem since the
men collected rain-water in their rubber
dinghy. As they had brought a spear gun
with them, they had plenty to eat. They
caught lobster and fish every day, and, as
one of them put it, ate like kings! When
a passing tanker rescued them five days
later, both men were genuinely sorry that
they had to leave.

a. from.
b. although.
c. because.

Leia o texto e responda questo.


Smart jocks: sport helps kids
classroom performance
When kids exercise, they boost
brainpower as well as brawn

by Steve Ayan

169. FMJ-MG
PV2D-13-14

d. therefore.
e. whether.

171. UFSM-RS

Disponvel em: L.G.Alexander, Developing


Skills, Longman. Adaptado.

A terceira e quarta frases do texto Life there


is simple and good. Ripe fruit falls from the
trees and you never have to work. poderiam
ser ligadas, sem alterao do sentido, por
meio da palavra:
a. though.
b. however.
c. despite.

Ingls

10

d. because.
e. then.

15

170. FMJ-MG
A palavra destacada no trecho do segundo
pargrafo but this didnt prove to a problem
since the men collected rain-water in the rubber
dinghy pode ser substituda, sem alterao
do sentido do texto, por:

20

169

Despite frequent reports that


regular exercise benefits the adult
brain, when it comes to schoolchildren,
the concept of the dumb jock persists.
The star quarterback stands in stark
contrast to the math-team champion.
After all, the two types require
seemingly disparate talents: physical
prowess versus intellect. Letting kids
run around or throw a ball seems, at
best, tangential to the real work of
learning and, at worst, a distraction
from it.
Parents, teachers and education
policy makers have pitted athletics
against academics even as they trumpet
exercise as an antidote to obesity and
poor health. From preschool onward,
teachers encourage children to sit still
rather than scamper. Many schools
have cut back on physical education
to make room for the three R's. And
when student scores on standardized
tests become of primary importance

25

30

35

40

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

to parents, politicians or other


stakeholders in the education system,
educators may feel pressured to direct
students toward academic pursuits and
away from athletic ones.
In brief
Students who are fit based on
their high aerobic capacity and low
body fat also tend to perform well in
school and on standardized tests.
In addition to regular exercise,
brief periods of movement such as
jumping or stretching can help improve
children's concentration.
Exercise may turbocharge the
brain by raising levels of neuronal
growth factors, which foster the
formation of new connections between
brain cells.

ALL THE QUESTIONS IN THIS EXAM MUST BE


ANSWERED IN ENGLISH
USE YOUR OWN WORDS to answer the
following questions, according to the text, in
complete sentences. DO NOT COPY FROM THE
TEXT! Answers which are literally transcribed
from the text will NOT be considered.
Dont mind your language

by Stephen Fry

(1) For me, it is a cause of some


upset that more Anglophones dont enjoy
language. Music is enjoyable it seems,
so are dance and other, athletic forms of
movement. People seem to be able to find
sensual and sensuous pleasure in almost
anything but words these days. Words,
it seems belong to other people, anyone
who expresses themselves with originality,
delight and verbal freshness is more likely
to be mocked, distrusted or disliked than
welcomed. The free and happy use of
words appears to be considered elitist
or pretentious. Sadly, desperately sadly,
the only people who seem to bother with
language in public today bother with it in
quite the wrong way.
(2) They write letters to broadcasters
and newspapers in which they are rude and
haughty about other peoples usage and in
which they show off their own superior
knowledge of how language should be.
I hate that, and I particularly hate the fact
that so many of these pedants assume that
Im on their side. When asked to join in a
lets persuade this supermarket chain to get
rid of their five items or less sign I never
join in. Yes, I am aware of the technical
distinction between less and fewer, and
between uninterested and disinterested
and infer and imply, but none of these
are of importance to me. None of these are
of importance, I wrote there, youll notice
the old pedantic me would have insisted on
none of them is of importance.
(3) Well Im glad to say Ive outgrown
that silly approach to language. Oscar
Wilde, and there have been few greater

Disponvel em: <http://www.scientificamerican.


com/article.cfm?id=smart-jocks>.

Glossrio
brawn: fora fsica
growth: crescimento
jock: esportista, atleta
prowess: talento, habilidade
to pit sb/sth against sth: testar, pr prova
to scamper: mexer-se, agitar-se, mover-se
to stretch: alongar-se
Associe as colunas, indicando a relao lgica estabelecida por cada um dos marcadores
destacadas nos fragmentos.
1. And when student scores on standardized
tests [...] (l.22-24)
( ) soma
2. Despite frequent reports that regular
exercise benefits [] (l.01-02) ( ) tempo
3. In addition to regular exercise [] (l.35)

( ) concesso
A sequncia correta :
a. 2 3 1.
b. 3 1 2.
c. 1 2 3.
d. 2 1 3.
e. 1 3 2.
172. UFES modificado
Leia o texto e responda questo.

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and more complete lords of language in


the past thousand years, once included
with a manuscript he was delivering to his
publishers a compliment slip in which he
had scribbled the injunction: Ill leave you
to tidy up the woulds and shoulds, wills and
shalls, thats and whiches & c. Which gives
us all encouragement to feel less guilty,
dont you think?
(4) There are all kinds of pedants
around with more time to read and imitate
Lynne Truss and John Humphrys than to
write poems, love-letters, novels and stories
it seems. They whip out their Sharpies and
take away and add apostrophes from public
signs, shake their heads at prepositions
which end sentences and mutter at split
infinitives and misspellings, but do they
bubble and froth and slobber and cream with
joy at language? Do they ever let the tripping
of the tips of their tongues against the tops of
their teeth transport them to giddy euphoric
bliss? Do they ever yoke impossible words
together for the sound-sex of it? Do they use
language to seduce, charm, excite, please,
affirm and tickle those they talk to? Do
they? I doubt it.
(5) Theyre too farting busy sneering
at a greengrocers less than perfect use of
the apostrophe. Well sod them to Hades.
They think theyre guardians of language.
Theyre no more guardians of language than
the Kennel Club is the guardian of dogkind.
(6) The worst of this sorry bunch of
semi-educated losers are those who seem to
glory in being irritated by nouns becoming
verbs. How dense and deaf to language
development do you have to be? If you
dont like nouns becoming verbs, then for
heavens sake avoid Shakespeare who made
a doing-word out of a thing-word every
chance he got.
(7) He TABLED the motion and
CHAIRED the meeting in which nouns
were made verbs. New examples from our
time might take some getting used to: He
actioned it that day for instance might strike
some as a verbing too far, but we have been
sanctioning, envisioning, propositioning
and stationing for a long time, so why not
action? Because its ugly, whinge the
pedants. Its only ugly because its new and

Ingls
you dont like it. Ugly in the way Picasso,
Stravinsky and Eliot were once thought
ugly and before them Monet, Mahler and
Baudelaire. Pedants will also claim, with
what I am sure is eye-popping insincerity
and shameless disingenuousness, that their
fight is only for clarity.
(8) This is all very well, but there is
no doubt what Five items or less means,
just as only a dolt cant tell from the context
and from the age and education of the
speaker, whether disinterested is used in
the proper sense of non-partisan, or in
the improper sense of uninterested. No,
the claim to be defending language for the
sake of clarity almost never, ever holds
water. Nor does the idea that following
grammatical rules in language demonstrates
clarity of thought and intelligence of mind.
Having said this, I admit that if you want to
communicate well for the sake of passing an
exam or job interview, then it is obvious that
wildly original and excessively heterodox
language could land you in the soup.
(9) I think what offends examiners
and employers when confronted with
extremely informal, unpunctuated and
haywire language is the implication of
not caring that underlies it. You slip into
a suit for an interview and you dress your
language up too. You can wear what you
like linguistically or sartorially when youre
at home or with friends, but most people
accept the need to smarten up under some
circumstances its only considerate. But
that is an issue of fitness, of suitability, it has
nothing to do with correctness. There is no
right language or wrong language any more
than is right or wrong clothes. Context,
convention and circumstance are all.
Disponvel em:< http://www.stephenfry.
com/2008/11/04/dont-mind-yourlanguage%E2%80%A6/>. Acesso em: 3 ago. 2010.

Join the two sentences in each item by using


one of the words in parentheses. Make changes when necessary.
Language is constantly changing.
Writers should be as updated as possible.
(besides rather than therefore)

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

them and get used to their accent,


intonation, lexical choice and pace. This is
a point that cannot be ignored and is worth
looking into.
___(IV)___ the question we need
to ask ourselves is: how effective is the
language we use in the classroom and to
what extent this effectiveness plays a vital
role in helping our students understand
the world around them in English? ___
(V)___, in a communicative context, the
teacher is but should not be the ultimate
language model for the students, so
students should not gauge their listening
competence by the teacher. The catch is
exposing students to more and more real
language in the classroom and fostering
effective listening strategies.

Leia o texto e responda s questes 173 e 174.


How effective is your teacherese?
by Stephan Hughes

Why is it that most of our students


whine that they are able to almost fully
understand what we say in the classroom
but when faced with English in a reallife situation, the level of comprehension
falls to near bottom, leading to their
puzzlement, frustration and despair (in
that order)?
Some reasons for the phenomenon:
teachers use a special language called
teacherese. It is tailored form of the English
language, which allows students to follow
and obtain at least a global comprehension
of what is being uttered. The speed is
toned down somewhat, the lexis is full
of Portuguese-like cognates so as to help
students make necessary associations
and/or simultaneous translations. Its
linguistic variation is limited, especially
at lower proficiency levels. ___(I)___
what is most noteworthy of teacherese
is that its inability to stretch students
listening skills may lie more in the fact
that teachers, non-native in particular,
barely use the rich idiomatic language
that is used in magazines, newspapers, TV
shows, movies, songs in short, in real life
situations that they usually face. The lexis
may not necessarily be second nature to
ELT professionals, ___(II)___ its absence
in everyday use in the classroom.
Another reason: apart from using
teacherese, most teachers dont have
any legitimate speaking opportunities
outside of the classroom, ___(III)___
reducing their oral skills to instructional
and explanatory phrases or typical fixed
expressions prescribed in the course book.
Giving these educators opportunities
to use the language naturally be it in
conversational settings arranged by the
institutions or with native speakers in
loco or online may be crucial to whittle
away at the problem. A third and final
reason: familiarity breeds ease, which in
turn breeds comprehension. The more
time students stay with a said teacher, the
easier it might be for them to understand

Braz-Tesol Newsletter

173. Mackenzie-SP
According to teacher Stephan Hughes:
a. teacherese is quite complex and only
spoken by native teachers of English
and similar languages.
b. teachers who are skillful in speaking
a language are able to perform
simultaneous translations much better
than educators who are not exposed to
the mother tongue.
c. students should be encouraged to use
teacherese as often as possible in class.
d. what is recommended is that students
listen to and use more authentic
materials.
e. comprehension of instructional phrases
can lead to a proficiency level never
before reached in teacherese.
174. Mackenzie-SP
The words that properly fill in blanks I, II, III, IV
and V, in the text, are:
a. Thus as a result then Yet For
b. Just consequently furthermore
And Only
c. Or therefore in addition But So
d. Then however for So that In
short
e. But hence thus So After all

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talking the 1960s, when the study of


linguistics had hardly begun people did
not know, in a scientific way, how you
developed language, he recalls. Several
of us linguists at that time would record
our own kids, just to get some data. There
was some literature on it then, but no
day-by-day, blow-by-blow examples. I
recorded all my children over the years
in some shape or form. Its what linguists
do. You dont talk to a linguist without
having what you say taken down and used
in evidence against you at some point in
time.
Something must have rubbed off.
Though his elder two children, Steven and
Sue, eschewed academia, his daughter
Lucy took up copywriting and his son
Ben, an actor, is now following his father.
His book Shakespeare on Toast was
a runaway hit I wish I'd written it!
says Crystal, before rapidly, and selfeffacingly, adding: But I couldnt have
because it was so cool and modern and so
street in its approach to Shakespeare. He
has examples of hip-hop Shakespearians
and I would never have dared put any of
that stuff into one of my books.
A Little Book of Language is a
simple history of all language, taking in
phonetics, development, social uses, the
internet, endangered languages and a
touch of literature.
This all sounds very innocent, but
books for children can be a contentious
issue. Language, as much as history, is
part of a national identity and cannot
escape contemporary debates. And since
Crystal began his academic career in the
early 1960s, there have been dramatic
shifts in how the English language is
taught. The ethos of 50 years ago was
that there was one kind of English that
was right and everything else was wrong;
one kind of access that was right and
everything else was inferior, he says.
Then nobody touched language for two
generations. When it gradually came back
in, we didnt want to go back to what we
did in the 1950s. Theres a new kind of
ethos now.

175. Mackenzie-SP
Leia a citao e responda questo.
I have always made it _________
every woman feels special.
Silvio Berlusconi, Italys prime minister, dismissing
protests against him shortly before a judge
ordered him to stand trial on charges of paying
for sex with an underage prostitute.
Newsweek

The blank, in the text, must be correctly


completed with:
a. nevertheless (indicating concession).
b. therefore (indicating consequence).
c. so that (indicating purpose).
d. furthermore (indicating addition).
e. in order to (indicating obligation).
176. UECE
Leia o texto para responder questo.
by Joy Lo Dico

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Language is forever changing and


forms such as tweets and text messages
are no less valid than any textbook
version, says the linguist David Crystal,
whose latest book encourages children
to engage with the possibilities of their
lingua franca.
Were the English language ever
to need an official guardian, Professor
David Crystal certainly looks the part. But
the professor would, I suspect, quickly
shrug off such a custodial title not
out of modesty, but principle. Though
many endangered languages need their
champions, he would say, English does
not require a guardian; it is vibrant and
evolving and can fend for itself.
Crystals A Little Book of Language
is the latest work of a prolific career. He
already has more than 100 books to his
name; some are academic but many are for
the general inquisitive reader, including By
Hook or by Crook: A Journey in Search of
English and Shakespeare's Words, which
was co-authored by his son, Ben.
For the Crystals, linguistics is clearly
a family affair. In the jaunty early chapters
of A Little Book of Language, Crystal
notes how, when his four children were
young, he would study them. Were
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What has replaced it is something


far more fluid descriptive rather than
prescriptive, as the terminology goes. In
schools, appropriateness has replaced the
principle of correctness. Now, one looks at
all varieties of language and asks why they
are used, says Crystal. We are rearing a
generation of kids who are more equitable
and more understanding about the existence
of language variety and why it is there.
This doesnt sit easy with the
traditionalists, of whom there are still
many. His clearest example is the belief
that text messaging is destroying children's
ability to spell. Its all nonsense, but
people believe it.
He addressed this in his book Txtng:
the Gr8 Db8, published three years ago, in
which he found that txt speak accounted
for barely 10 per cent of the contents of
the messages exchanged, and noted that
abbreviations have always been part of
the English language. Having solved that
argument with some decent data, he tells
me that hes now moving on to Twitter.
On Twitter [which limits each written
entry to 140 characters], you dont get the
range of texting abbreviations you get in
text messaging. Its a more sophisticated
kind of communicative medium. You get
semantic threads running through it. When
you start counting thousands and thousands
of messages, you suddenly realise that on
the whole it's a new art form in the making.
The breadth of the internet means that
language is morphing not just on grocers
signs and in school playgrounds, but on a
far more fundamental level.
All these different genres instant
messaging, blogging, chatrooms, virtual
worlds have evolved different sets of
communicative strategies, which means
that you can look at the language and say,
That must be an example of a chatroom,
that must be an example of a tweet, and
you can predict it.
Becoming involved in bigger
arguments seems to be an occupational
hazard for a linguist. Whether it be
education, politics or neuroscience, we all
have a vested interest in the implications
of language. Our conversation turns to

the recent news of a man who had been


lying in a vegetative state for seven years
before doctors managed to establish basic
communication by scanning his brainwaves.
We are moving fast in a direction where
you will be able to see what people are
saying, says Crystal, optimistically.
Weve got to the stage where you can see
the complexity of language processing.
Were not at the stage yet of being able to
see clearly individual sentence patterns and
words, but it's not long off.
Surely this has huge implications, not
least for personal liberties? It is the case
that virtually every language issue resolves
into a social or political or psychological
issue, Crystal reminds me. Language has
no independent existence apart from the
people who use it. It is not an end in itself; it
is a means to an end of understanding who
you are and what society is like. At which
point, you know that a linguist has to bow
out and say, This is bigger than me.
Disponvel em: <http://www.independent.
co.uk>. Acesso em: 14 mar. 2010 .

The clause Were the English language ever to


need an official guardian, [...]. (paragraph 2)
would adequately be rephrased as:
a. If the English language ever needed an
official guardian, [...].
b. The English language is ever to need an
official guardian, [...].
c. The English language would need an
official guardian, [...].
d. Though the English language needed
an official guardian, [...].
177. PUC-MG
Leia o texto para responder questo.
Life as a ghost tweeter
Celebrities have embraced social
media outlets like Facebook and Twitter,
making it easy for fans to establish a
connection with their favorite stars. Regular
updates give fans an inside look at a
stars day-to-day activities with pictures,
locational information and promotional
materials. But the busy and glamorous lives
of many celebrities make it impossible for
them to spend their time hunched over their
computers, and some stars hire social media
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interns to help. Some interns help so much


that they do the writing for them. Many stars
now use ghost writers who pen the 140character messages in the celebritys voice.
Many ghost tweeters have to get
into the heads of the celebrities they are
channeling. With the sheer volume of
social media action, its understandable that
celebrities would be tempted to hire social
media interns, but ghost tweeters might be
an exception rather than a rule. A social
media intern typically works to monitor and
advise, rather than act as the celebrity.
Much like a brand, celebrities have
teams of people working behind the scenes
to help promote them. When a celebrity
becomes a brand, managing all the facets
of an identity can become a big task. We
recommend that everyone whether theyre
brands or celebrities are closely involved
at all stages of managing their presence.
However, recognizing that at times this
can be impossible, they should only allow
trusted parties who have an intimate
understanding of what they are about,
says Yunus Akseki, a director of the media
agency Imperial Leisure.
Because most celebrities dont
disclose whether or not they have hired
someone to be a ghost tweeter it may be
difficult to tell if the tweets are authentic
or not. So followers might never know if
they're fans of their favorite celebrities or of
their social media interns.

downturn. Firms such as Israels Hagor


Industries are doing a roaring trade in
antiriot shields, batons and helmets.
David Frenkel, the firms production
manager, says demand is growing from
police and military services in Europe,
South America and Africa, bolstered by
war, unrest and natural disasters.
Ochlocracy mob rule was a term
coined in ancient times, when grain prices
or a celebrity murder could spark a riot. The
Roman emperors Praetorian Guard used
cavalry and swords against stone-throwers.
Their latter-day counterparts (human and
equine) are better protected, with goggles,
shields and other kit made of lightweight,
flameresistant, unshatterable and stabproof materials.
They also have more ways of
disrupting the rioters. Police in India spray
unruly crowds with coloured water: stained
and sodden agitators are easier to identify.
Americas forces have developed (but
not used) a heat ray designed to clear
crowds by painfully zapping the skin. The
unfamiliar tones of classical music can
disperse loiterers, while big sound-blasters,
known as long-range acoustic devices
(LRADS), have been deployed against
protesters in some American states. At a
cost of up to $30,000 they can emit sound at
150-plus decibels (like a roaring jet engine
at close range). Israel has a fancier version
known as the Scream that affects the inner
ear and induces nausea. When ochlophonics
fail, authorities there have been known to
douse Palestinian protesters with skunk
bombs of smelly liquid.
Eyes are as vulnerable as ears and
noses. A firm called Intelligent Optical
Systems, based in California, is developing,
with government backing, a strobe torch
that makes targets dizzy and disoriented
(at least within a range of 15 metres). Laser
Energetics, in New Jersey, sells Dazer
Lasers that emit a green beam capable of
dazzling people up to 2.4 km away.

PV2D-13-14

Disponvel em: <http://www.bbc.co.uk/


news/magazine-12676791>.

The word to in to help promote them.


(paragraph 3) conveys an idea of:
a. purpose.
b. cause.

Ingls

c. opposition.
d. conclusion.

178. ESPM-SP
Leia o texto para responder questo.
The sound and the fury
New riot-control technology
Quelling unrest is a lucrative trade
Mobs are bad for businesses unless
you are selling riot-control gear, that is.
Even before this weeks riots in Britain
governments were bracing themselves
against protests stoked by the economic

Disponvel em: <http://www.economist.


com>. Aug 13th 2011.

Another way of saying: Mobs are bad for


businesses unless you are selling riot-control
gear would be:
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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

reflect the mythical entanglement of love


and war. [...]
In sport, Romans took Greek pursuits
and turned them into big business, with
stadiums and gambling. Watch todays
racing, horses or Formula One, and you
cant help thinking of chariot racing in
the Circus Maximus. The celebrities and
hysteria in boxing, wrestling, rugby and
football recall Rome's gladiators. [...]
Oxford classics professors recently
urged the British government to give
Latin the same status in schools as modern
languages. The Department for Education
replied: Latin is an important subject,
valuable for learning of modern languages
and a useful basis for many disciplines. It
is, however, not classified in curriculum as
modern language as pupils cannot interact
with native Latin speakers or visit parts of
the world where Latin is spoken as native
language. A diplomatic response!

a. Unless you are selling riot-control gear,


mobs are not bad for business.
b. If you are selling riot-control gear, mobs
are not bad for business.
c. Unless you are not selling riot-control
gear, mobs are bad for business.
d. If you are not selling riot-control gear,
mobs are not bad for business.
e. Provided you are not selling riot-control
gear, mobs are not bad for business.
Leia o texto e responda s questes 179 e 180.
Williams words Confessions of a
Latin teacher (part 2)
by Justin Ratcliffe

The UK government has ignored


demands to offer Latin in all schools.
But the ancient world still holds our
imaginations, from law and politics
through to films like Clash of Titans and
Percy Jackson and the Lightning Thief.
Politically, Roman laws passed
through two houses. The UK copied this
arrangement. The US went further, placing
the Senate and House of Representatives
on Capitol Hill. Money stamped with our
leaders faces is inspired by Roman coins.
The Romans gave us public and civil law,
trial by jury and the principle innocent
till proven guilty. Todays politicians
are still influenced by Ciceros oratory.
We take rhetorical devices from classical:
simile and metaphor, synecdoche and
metonymy. Although we may prefer films
to poetry, we use their literary genres:
tragedy and comedy, epic and satire.
Ever since Freud, psychology has used
classical words and concepts. We are aware
of our ego, id and superego. We recognise
narcissism, mania and the Oedipus
complex. Philosophy is built upon Plato
and Aristotle, giving us arguments a
priori and a posteriori, syllogism and
reduction ad absurdum. Everybody knows
Descartes phrase: Cogito ergo sum.
Science is full of Latin from
geometry's humble oval to paleontologys
mighty Tirannosaurus rex. In meteorology,
we have cumulo-nimbus clouds; in physics,
the quantum. We named the planets after
Roman gods. Neighbours Venus and Mars

179. UFT-TO
According to the text, mark the correct answer.
a. In a diplomatic way, the British
government accepted the proposal
of the Oxford classics professors of
offering Latin in every school in the
United Kingdom.
b. The influences of the Roman Empire in
modern western societies are found in
many fields, such as science, politics,
entertainment, languages, sports, law,
etc.
c. The teaching of Latin in the UK schools
will improve the interaction between
the British and the native Latin
speakers.
d. The idea of the Oedipus complex is a
Latin heritage that belongs only to the
philosophical area.
e. Nowadays the literary genres are only
related to oratory ability.
180. UFT-TO
In the sentence innocent till proven guilty
(paragraph 2) the word till can be replaced,
without changing its meaning, by:
a. until
d. after
b. still
e. but
c. however
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Ingls

CAPTULO 03
181. IFMG

The pronoun in bold them refers to:


a. cooperation.
b. the movies producers.
c. Mark Z.
d. executives.

PV2D-13-14

Leia o texto e responda questo.


Facebook movie producers changed
movie to appease angry execs and
Mark Zuckerberg
The premiere of the Facebook movie
The Social Network is a month or so
away, and both sides are staking out their
positions. The company is dismissing the
movie as fiction and hoping everyone
will just ignore it. The movies producers,
led by mega-mogul Scott Rudin, are saying
the movie reveals the conflicting truths
of Facebooks controversial beginnings
and hope it will define a generation, the
way Wall Street or The Big Chill did
in prior decades. In, Michael Cieply and
Miguel Helft reveal that, behind closed
doors, Facebook executives have been
struggling to influence the producers and
the movie and they appear to have had
at least minor success. The producers
apparently made minor changes to
appease them, probably to encourage
more cooperation. That cooperation has
since ceased. The movies major conceit,
that Mark Zuckerberg screwedhis early
partners and colleagues and built the
company largely to get girls and friends,
apparently remains. Chris Hughes, a cofounder, dismisses the latter charge as
crazy.
Two senior Facebook executives,
president
Cheryl
Sandberg
and
communications boss Elliot Schrage,
have apparently seen the movie and hate
it. According to the NYT, their response
will be to ignore it and hope it goes away.
On a positive note for Mark Z, the actor
who plays him, is a pleasant-looking
fellow. If youre going to go through the
hell of having your life fictionalized in
a major motion picture when youre all
of 25, youd at least like to be able to
console yourself by thinking the guy who
plays you looks good.

182. Unimontes-MG
Leia o texto e responda questo.
Teachers as targets violence against
teachers
When you think of school violence
you likely think of the children, but
what about when the school violence is
directed at the teachers? Violence against
teachers appears to be on the rise which
is a terrifying thought since we count on
teachers to protect our kids and not be
the victims. Studies have found that by
the year 2000, that twenty-eight out of
every one thousand teachers had been the
victim of a violent crime at school with
just under half having been serious cases
of violence.
Even with all of the measures in
place to try to prevent violence in schools
and keep our children safer, its been
noted that many teachers fear for their
own safety when they go to work, yet
many dont bother to report threats and
acts of violence committed against them.
For some its a matter of believing that
they can control the situation themselves
and others keep quiet out of fear for their
lives or even their jobs fearing that they
look somehow incompetent or incapable
of controlling their students.
Programs have been implemented
around the world in order to help prevent
school violence against children, but little
focus has so far been placed on preventing
violence against teachers even though the
problem seems to be on the rise. While
many are now fighting for governments
and school boards to do something about
the problem, teachers can help by doing a
few things as well.
If you are a teacher who has been
threatened or had a crime committed

Disponvel em: <http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.


cgi?f=/g/a/2010/08/23/businessinsider-facebookmovie-the-social-network-mark-zuckerberg>.

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Lobatos Caadas de Pedrinho was


made into a famous television series
in the 1980s which is still broadcast in
Portuguese language-speaking countries
today. In the late 1990s it was adopted as
teaching material in schools throughout
Brazil, and it has also been part of a
government program that distributes
books to children in public schools.
However, at the end of 2010 a citizen
filed a complaint claiming the book does
not follow NCEs courseware directives,
particularly regarding the absence of
prejudice, estereotypes or doctrination,
in a list of criteria that also includes
the quality of the text, the theme, the
graphic quality and the reading potential,
considering the target audience.
Monteiro Lobato is the mastermind
responsible for books that have entertained
generations of Brazils children. Viewed
as a national hero, he has made a
significant contribution to the countrys
cultural heritage.
They probably dont even imagine
that fictional characters have their own
say which is not necessarily the same as
the authors. And what if they were alike?
Wouldnt this be a good point with which
to foster debate at school?

against you then the first thing you need


to do is speak out and report it. Keeping
something of this magnitude to yourself
will only aggravate things and allow it
to continue and even escalate. Anyone
who behaves violently towards another
person will continue to do so as long as
they feel they can get away with it and
as long as you continue to let them have
control over the situation. You might think
that youre protecting yourself and your
job by keeping quiet but youre actually
doing the opposite. This type of situation,
if allowed to continue, will not only affect
your job performance and the way you
feel about your career but it will also
increase your chances of further injury
or even death. You also need to consider
the danger that you could be putting your
students in by allowing a violent person to
run free in your school.
Reporting violence against teachers
is crucial if you want to see something
done about the situation and save lives.
Disponvel em: <http://www.nssc1.org/violence-againstteachers.html>. Acesso em: 18 abril 2011. Adaptado.

When you think of school violence you likely


think of the children [] (paragraph 1)
A que alternativa se refere you, em destaque
no trecho acima, de acordo com o contexto
em que est inserido?
a. Ao professorado, apenas.
b. Aos cidados, de modo geral.
c. s crianas e aos professores, apenas.
d. Aos aliciadores de crianas em portas
de escolas.

Disponvel em: <http://www.globalvoicesonline.


org/brazil-children-book-racism-debate/>.
Acesso em: 18 abr. 2011 . Adaptado.

And what if they were alike? (paragraph 5)


De acordo com o contexto em que se apresenta, they em destaque nesse trecho , faz
referncia a/aos:
a. Monteiro Lobato e aos outros escritores de sua poca.
b. personagens ficcionais de antigamente.
c. personagens ficcionais e a seus autores.
d. alunos e aos livros por eles lidos na escola.

183. Unimontes-MG
Leia o texto e responda questo.
Brazil: childrens book sparks racism
debate
During recent months Brazilian
citizen media has been debating literature,
censorship, racism and education,
following the suggestion by the countrys
National Council on Education (NCE)
to withdraw celebrated author Monteiro
Lobatos book Caadas de Pedrinho
(Pete.s Hunting) from schools.

Leia o texto e responda s questes de 184 a


187.
Argentina builds a tower of books
This is simply an audio and visual
celebration of the book any books, all
books, in whichever language you like.
Works by Jane Austen, Dickens, Henry
178

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Blake, Ernest Hemingway, Cervantes,


Vargas Llosa, Tolstoy and Argentinas
own favourites, Borges and Sabato, line
the walls of this tower, each wrapped in
plastic for its own protection.
The United Nations has designated
the city as the 2011 World Book Capital.
This book tower is 25 metres high and
lined with 30,000 donations from more
than 50 embassies. Itll be dismantled at
the end of the month and the books will
form the beginning of a multi-lingual
library.
The Buenos Aires Book Fair, one of
the biggest in the world, has just ended,
recording more visitors than ever before.
The city boasts hundreds of bookshops
and some cafes even supply works by
Argentinas most renowned literary icon,
Jorge Luis Borges, to read over coffee.
Buenos Aires is a city that loves its books
and now it has a tower to prove it.

186. Unioeste-PR
O pronome it em It will be dismantled
refere-se a:
a. embaixadas.
b. livros.
c. doaes.
d. biblioteca.
e. torre de livros.
187. Unioeste-PR
De acordo com o texto:
a. a torre ser desmontada no comeo do
ms e os livros sero doados a embaixadas.
b. a torre ser construda no comeo do
ms e os livros sero encapados em
plstico.
c. a torre ser desmontada no final do
ms e os livros formaro o incio de
uma biblioteca multilngue.
d. a torre ser construda no final do ms
para abrigar o acervo de uma biblioteca
multilngue.
e. a torre ser desmontada no final do
ms e os livros sero encaminhados
para uma biblioteca multidisciplinar.

Daniel Schweimler, BBC News, Buenos Aires


Disponvel em: <http://www.bbc.co.uk/
worldservice/learningenglish/language/
wordsinthenews/2011/05/110516_witn_
buenosaires_books_page1.shtml>.

184. Unioeste-PR
De acordo com o texto, os autores favoritos
dos argentinos so:
a. Jane Austen, Dickens e Borges.
b. Dickens, Borges e Sabato.
c. Vargas Llosa, Tolstoy e Cervantes.
d. Borges e Sabato.
e. Henry Blake, Cervantes, Borges e Sabato.
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188. UEPG-PR
Leia o para responder questo.
Stranger than fiction
by Hillel E. Silverman

When the Old and New Cities


of Jerusalem were reunited in 1967, a
recently widowed Arab woman, who had
been living in Old Jerusalem since 1948,
wanted to see once more the house in
which she formerly lived. Now that the
city was one, she searched for and found
her old home. She knocked on the door of
the apartment, and a Jewish widow came
to the door and greeted her.
The Arab woman explained that she
had lived there until 1948 and wanted
to look around. She was invited in and
offered coffee. The Arab woman said,
When I lived here, I hid some valuables.
If they are still here, I will share them with
you half and half.
The Jewish woman refused. If they
belonged to you and are still here, they are

185. Unioeste-PR
De acordo com o texto:
a. a torre um presente das Naes Unidas para os cidados da Argentina.
b. as Naes Unidas nomearam Buenos
Aires como a capital do livro para o ano
de 2011.
c. os livros no foram encapados para formar a torre.
d. os autores dos livros que formam a torre foram escolhidos pelas Naes Unidas em 2011.
e. as Naes Unidas designaram a torre
como capital da cultura argentina.
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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

yours. After much discussion back and


forth, they entered the bathroom, loosened
the floor planks, and found a hoard of gold
coins. The Jewish woman said, I shall
ask the government to let you keep them.
She did and permission was granted.
The two widows visited each other
again and again, and one day the Arab
woman told her new friend, You know,
in the 1948 fighting here, my husband and
I were so frightened that we ran away to
escape. We grabbed our belongings, took
the children, and each fled separately. We
had a three-month-old son. I thought my
husband had taken him, and he thought
I had. Imagine our grief when we were
reunited in Old Jerusalem to find that
neither of us had taken the child.
The Jewish woman turned pale, and
asked the exact date. The Arab woman
named the date and the hour, and the
Jewish widow told her: My husband
was one of the Israeli troops that entered
Jerusalem. He came into this house and
found a baby on the floor. He asked if he
could keep the house and the baby, too.
Permission was granted.
At that moment, a twenty-year-old
Israeli soldier in uniform walked into the
room, and the Jewish woman broke down
in tears. This is your son, she cried.
This is one of those incredible tales
we hear. And the aftermath? The two
women liked each other so much that the
Jewish widow asked the Arab mother:
Look, we are both widows living alone.
Our children are grown up. This house
has brought you luck. You have found
your son our son. Why dont we live
together? And they do.

189. UFSM- RS
Leia o texto e responda questo.
Smart jocks: sport helps kids
classroom performance
When kids exercise, they boost
brainpower as well as brawn
by Steve Ayan

10

15

Disponvel em: <http://www.perso.ch/tio.family/


page 196.html>. Acesso em: maro 2011. Adaptado

Com relao ao que se refere o pronome


him, em destaque no quarto pargrafo, assinale o que for correto. Faa a somatria das
respostas corretas.
01. A um dos filhos da mulher rabe.
02. A um dos filhos da mulher judia.
04. A um beb de trs meses de idade.
08. Ao marido da mulher rabe.

20

25

180

Despite frequent reports that


regular exercise benefits the adult
brain, when it comes to schoolchildren,
the concept of the dumb jock persists.
The star quarterback stands in stark
contrast to the math-team champion.
After all, the two types require
seemingly disparate talents: physical
prowess versus intellect. Letting kids
run around or throw a ball seems, at
best, tangential to the real work of
learning and, at worst, a distraction
from it.
Parents, teachers and education
policy makers have pitted athletics
against academics even as they trumpet
exercise as an antidote to obesity and
poor health. From preschool onward,
teachers encourage children to sit still
rather than scamper. Many schools
have cut back on physical education
to make room for the three Rs. And
when student scores on standardized
tests become of primary importance
to parents, politicians or other
stakeholders in the education system,
educators may feel pressured to direct

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30

35

40

students toward academic pursuits


and away from athletic ones.
In brief
Students who are fit based on
their high aerobic capacity and low
body fat also tend to perform well in
school and on standardized tests.
In addition to regular exercise,
brief periods of movement such
as jumping or stretching can help
improve childrens concentration.
Exercise may turbocharge the
brain by raising levels of neuronal
growth factors, which foster the
formation of new connections
between brain cells.

unemployment, the menopause, losing a


parent, or seeing children leave home.
Some experts say that the rise in
what are called late-onset eating disorders
is linked to the fact that some women
in their 40s and 50s feel under pressure
to look young. This is often due to the
prominence of age-defying older female
celebrities, such as Madonna and Sharon
Stone.
Five or ten years ago I wouldve seen
one case of an older person developing
an eating disorder about once every year
or two. But now I see them more often
about five new patients a year with lateonset anorexia nervosa or bulimia, said
doctor Sylvia Dahabra, a psychiatrist in
Newcastle who works for the regional
specialist eating disorders service.
Sian, who didnt want to be fully
identified, tells the story of her mother,
Fiona, who died of anorexia in 2008 aged
48. The trauma of me moving out of the
family home at 18 to live nearby, and then
relocating further away to Bournemouth
when I was 21, triggered her serious
decline. I was pretty much mums life,
and me leaving meant she was alone. She
ended up weighing just six stone when she
passed away when I was 21, said Sian.
Fiona died in her sleep after contracting
bronchial pneumonia. []
Dahabra has helped several women
who have developed dysfunctional eating
behaviours after their husbands left them.
In one case the husbands parting words
to her were a derogatory comment about
her weight. She associated the breakup
with being overweight, began dieting.
In the end she was found unconscious at
home and hospitalized because her blood
sugar level was very dangerously low.
[]

Disponvel em: <http://www.scientificamerican.


com/article.cfm?id=smart-jocks>.

Glossrio
brawn: fora fsica
growth: crescimento
jock: esportista, atleta
prowess: talento, habilidade
to pit sb/sth against sth: testar, pr prova
to scamper: mexer-se, agitar-se, mover-se
to stretch: alongar-se
A palavra it (l.13) refere-se a:
a. disparate talents.
b. a ball.
c. the real work of learning.
d. physical prowess.
e. Letting kids run around.
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190. UFT-TO
Leia o para responder questo.
The new anorexics
by Denis Campbell

Eating disorder experts are treating


growing numbers of women who are
developing anorexia or bulimia in
adulthood, long after the teenage years
when the conditions usually emerge.
Psychiatrists are seeing more patients
who have become seriously ill with either
of the crippling conditions for the first
time in their 30s, 40s, 50s and occasionally
60s. In many cases, the illness has been
triggered by a relationship breaking down,

Speak up. So Paulo: Editora Peixes, n


282, ano XXIII, p. 14-15. Adaptado.

Judge the sentences according to the text:


I. Fiona is an example of someone who
became ill because of a relationship
breaking down.
II. In the sentence She ended up weighing
just six stone when she passed away
181

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

nationally, despite a surge of immigration.


The laws supporters said it reflected
frustration over inaction by the federal
government, while critics said it would
lead to harassment of Hispanics and turn
the presumption of innocence upside
down.
The legislated requires police
officers, when practicable, to detain
people they reasonably suspect are in the
country without authorization and to verify
their status with federal officials, unless
doing so would hinder an investigation
or emergency medical treatment. The
law also makes it a state crime a
misdemeanor to not carry immigration
papers. In addition, it allows people to
sue local government or agencies if they
believe federal or state immigration law is
not being enforced.

when I was 21, the expression passed


away can be replaced by died.
III. To the experts, the growing numbers of
women developing anorexia or bulimia
in adulthood is due to the fact that
some women in their 40s or 50s refuse
to look young like Madonna and Sharon
Stone do.
IV. Bulimia and anorexia are examples
of crippling conditions that threaten
adults health if they are under these
vulnerable conditions: moving to
another place, starting a new career,
or seeing children become homeless
people.
V. In the following extract In one case
the husbands parting words to her
were a derogatory comment about her
weight, the underlined words are used,
respectively, as an object pronoun and
as a possessive adjective.
a. I and III are correct.
b. I and IV are correct.
c. II and V are correct.
d. All the alternatives are correct.
e. All the alternatives are incorrect.

Disponvel em: <http://www.newyorktimes.


com>. Acesso em: 11 Abril 2011. Adaptado.

No texto, o pronome it, destacado e utilizado na frase as it is nationally, refere-se a:


a. law.
b. Arizona.
c. smuggling.
d. immigration.
e. crime.

191. Fuvest-SP
Leia o texto e responda questo.

Leia o texto e responda s questes 192 e 193.

In April 2010, Arizona adopted


the nations toughest law on illegal
immigration, provoking a nationwide
debate and a Justice Department lawsuit.
On July 28, one day before the law was
to take effect, a federal district court
judge struck down its most controversial
provisions, including sections that
called for officers to check a persons
immigration status while enforcing other
laws and that required immigrants to carry
their papers at all times.
The law, known locally as SB1070
or Senate Bill 1070, was aimed at
discouraging illegal immigrants from
entering or remaining in the state. It
coincided with economic anxiety and
followed a number of high-profile crimes
attributed to illegal immigrants and
smuggling, though federal data suggest
that crime is falling in Arizona, as it is

Sustainable flight
TAM was the first airline in South
America to carry out an experimental
flight using biofuel on November 22,
2010. Produced from the oil of 100%
domestic
nettlespurge,
known
in
Portuguese as pinho-manso, it reduces
carbon emissions by between 65% and
80% compared with petroleum-derived
kerosene, according to research. Besides,
the plant does not threatens the food
chain, as it is not edible for humans nor
animals. Compared with other biofuels,
the fuel from this plant is very promising
for the Brazilian scenario, says Paulus
Figueiredo, TAMs fuel manager. The
next step in the project is to implement a
farming unit, in reduced scale, at TAMs
Technological Center in So Carlos (SP),
exclusively to conduct studies and make
182

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better cultivation techniques viable. The


objective is to carry out studies concerning
technical and economic viability to build
a biofuel Brazilian platform based on
nettlespurge, explains TAMs CEO,
Lbano Barroso. The experimental flight
was a joint effort between TAM, Airbus,
CFM International (joint venture between
U.S.s GE and the French Safran Group)
and Air BP. The trip was authorized by
Brazils National Civil Aviation Agency
(ANAC) and by the European Aviation
Safety Agency (EASA).

Industries are doing a roaring trade in


antiriot shields, batons and helmets.
David Frenkel, the firms production
manager, says demand is growing from
police and military services in Europe,
South America and Africa, bolstered by
war, unrest and natural disasters.
Ochlocracy mob rule was a term
coined in ancient times, when grain prices
or a celebrity murder could spark a riot.
The Roman emperors Praetorian Guard
used cavalry and swords against stonethrowers. Their latter-day counterparts
(human and equine) are better protected,
with goggles, shields and other kit made of
lightweight, flameresistant, unshatterable
and stab-proof materials.
They also have more ways of
disrupting the rioters. Police in India
spray unruly crowds with coloured
water: stained and sodden agitators are
easier to identify. Americas forces have
developed (but not used) a heat ray
designed to clear crowds by painfully
zapping the skin. The unfamiliar tones
of classical music can disperse loiterers,
while big sound-blasters, known as
long-range acoustic devices (LRADS),
have been deployed against protesters in
some American states. At a cost of up to
$30,000 they can emit sound at 150-plus
decibels (like a roaring jet engine at close
range). Israel has a fancier version known
as the Scream that affects the inner ear
and induces nausea. When ochlophonics
fail, authorities there have been known to
douse Palestinian protesters with skunk
bombs of smelly liquid.
Eyes are as vulnerable as ears and
noses. A firm called Intelligent Optical
Systems, based in California, is developing,
with government backing, a strobe torch
that makes targets dizzy and disoriented
(at least within a range of 15 metres). Laser
Energetics, in New Jersey, sells Dazer
Lasers that emit a green beam capable of
dazzling people up to 2.4 km away.

TAM News, January 2011. Adaptado.

192. Unesp
A utilizao do pinho-manso em biocombustveis vantajosa porque:
a. somente animais podem se alimentar
de pinho-manso.
b. o pinho-manso abundante no territrio brasileiro.
c. o sucesso dos biocombustveis no Brasil
est garantido.
d. somente seres humanos gostam de comer pinho-manso.
e. essa tecnologia no interfere na cadeia
alimentar.
193. Unesp

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Ingls

A que se refere o pronome it, na orao it reduces


carbon emissions by between 65% and 80%?
a. Ao combustvel de origem vegetal.
b. Ao pinho-manso.
c. Ao voo experimental da TAM.
d. emisso de carbono.
e. Ao querosene derivado do petrleo.
194. ESPM-SP
Leia o texto e responda questo.
New riot-control technology
The sound and the fury
Quelling unrest is a lucrative trade
Mobs are bad for businesses unless
you are selling riot-control gear, that is.
Even before this weeks riots in Britain
governments were bracing themselves
against protests stoked by the economic
downturn. Firms such as Israels Hagor

Disponvel em: <http:// www.economist.


com>. Acesso em: 13ago. 2011.

The underlined pronoun they in At a cost of


up to $ 30,000 they can emit sound at 150-plus
decibels, refers to:
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Congress in December 2010, prevents


the Defense Department from buying
Chinese-made solar panels a measure
that is likely to dismay Chinese officials.

a. tones of classical music.


b. loiteres.
c. big sound-blasters.
d. long-range acoustic devices.
e. protesters.

Disponvel em: <http://www.nytimes.com>.


Acesso em: 10 jan. 2011. Adaptado.

The pronoun it in It accounted for at least


half the worlds production in 2010, and its
market share is rising rapidly, underlined in
the text, refers to:
a. China.
b. the worlds dominant producer.
c. solar panels.
d. solar power.
e. the last two years.

195. ESPM-SP
Leia o texto e responda questo.
Solar energy
From magnifying glasses to steam
engines, scientists through the centuries
have found innovative ways to harness
the power of the sun. Converting more
solar power into electricity is high on the
political agenda in many countries, amid
the push to find domestic energy sources
that are less polluting than fossil fuels.
Despite rapid growth in recent
years, solar power accounts for less than
1 percent of United States electricity
use. Solar power is more entrenched
in European countries such as Spain
and Germany, which have promoted its
development with strong incentives called
feed-in tariffs, which require electric
utilities to buy solar power at a high, fixed
price. In the United States, California is
by far the leading solar state.
China has emerged as the worlds
dominant producer of solar panels in the
last two years. It accounted for at least
half the worlds production in 2010, and
its market share is rising rapidly. The
United States accounts for $1.6 billion of
the worlds $29 billion market for solar
panels; market analyses typically have not
broken out military sales separately.
The perception that Beijing unfairly
subsidizes the Chinese solar industry to
the detriment of American companies
and other foreign competitors has drawn
concern in Congress. The issue of cleanenergy subsidies is also at the heart of
a trade investigation under way by the
Obama administration, which plans to
bring a case against China before the
World Trade Organization.
And a little noticed Buy American
provision, created mainly by House and
Senate conferees during a flurry of activity
at the end of the lame-duck session of

Leia o texto para responder, em portugus, s


questes de nmero 196 e 197.
Gattaca Review

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by James Brundage
(January 15th, 1999)

Gattaca is a character drama in the


guise of a thriller, the same way that The
Truman Show was a drama in the guise
of a comedy. Andrew Niccol works his
beautiful charms with both of them. In
Gattaca, he offers us a stunning vision
of the not-so-distant future, a time where
genetic engineering is so commonplace
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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

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that it is common practice. The world, of


course, has the drawback that anyone who
was not genetically engineered is part of
a new class of society, called an invalid.
Vincent Freeman was born this way.
He chooses, however, not to remain an
invalid but to become what is known as
a de-generate, someone who uses other
peoples blood, urine, hair etc. to fake a
genetic code superior to their own. His
dream was to end up in space and being
this particularly loathed thing is the only
way he is able to do it. Lending his dream
to the real Gerome Morrow, a suicidal
cripple, the two band together to get him
into space. Everything is going well, he is
set to leave in a week. Then the mission
director is murdered.
This occurs, in my opinion, only to
keep less intelligent viewers interested in
the story, which contains enough pathos to
warrant me watching it if it didnt involve
a murder at all. As Vincent tries to keep
his secret, he is falling in love with Irene
Cassini, another worker at Gattaca, the
storys equivalent of Cape Canaveral. The
panic caused by the moment causes each
person involved to examine themselves,
society, and the state of the world.
The sad thing about Gattaca is that so
many people will hate this movie because
of its utterly slow pace. It does not keep
the interest of someone not intrigued by
people, which encompasses most every
viewer today. So that takes out studio
fans, and its Star Trek target audience.

Ingls

198. Unesp- modificado.


Leia o texto e responda questo.
Personal Marketing: Selling yourself
Before you begin a job search
campaign you must have a personal
marketing strategy. A personal marketing
strategy provides you with a game plan
for your job search campaign.
You should look at the job search as
a marketing campaign, with you, the job
seeker, as the product. Every product,
even the best ones, wont succeed without
a strong marketing strategy. This begins
with a comprehensive, yet flexible plan.
First you must know to whom you are
marketing. You must identify the types of
employers who would be looking for an
employee with your qualifications. Are
they all within a certain industry? Are
there many industries that hire employees
with your background?
You already know that personal
marketing skills are important to your
career and perhaps to find a better job,
but the only problem is that the art of self
marketing is difficult for a lot of people.
Selling yourself well doesnt mean
talking just about yourself or arrogantly
telling others how great you are. By
selling yourself, in an interview or an
informal networking meeting, I mean
thinking first about the employers needs
and expectations and figuring out how you
can create value for their organization.
What does the potential employer really
need from a new employee? What specific
technical skills, workplace competencies
and personal qualities is the employer
looking for? Now if you can ask those
questions dispassionately, you should be
able to identify your own strengths that
match and gently weave them into every
conversation you have in the world of
good jobs and prospective careers.

Disponvel em: <http://www.


killermovies.com>. Adaptado.

196. Unesp
Quem era denominado pelo termo invalid no
contexto da histria do filme? O que significava ser um de-generate, no mesmo contexto?
197. Unesp
Segundo a crtica, por que o diretor da misso
espacial foi assassinado? Havia realmente necessidade de esse fato ocorrer?

Disponvel em: <http://careerplanning.about.com


e www.your-career-change.com>. Adaptado.

Liste quatro aspectos importantes a serem


considerados, segundo o texto, para se realizar
uma propaganda de si mesmo com a finalidade de conseguir um emprego.
185

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

199. UERJ

50

Leia o texto e responda questo.


1

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

The fortune teller


Your lucks going to change,
she said, locking the door to bar my
way. Im closing now. Come back
tomorrow. Ill be here after ten.
I needed it to change. It had been
a grim couple of months: I had lost my
job and failed to lure a woman into
my life. Cant you see me now?,
I asked, wanting to bring on the
metamorphosis as soon as possible.
Ive finished for today. I have
things to do. She took my hand and
squeezed gently as we stood on the
pavement outside the rickety cabin
that served as her office. Another day
wont hurt. Come back tomorrow,
she smiled. Your lucks going to
change, and how.
I hadnt imagined that a fortune
teller could be pretty, but thinking
about it, I suppose they can be
anything that anyone else could be:
young, old, fat, thin, rich or dirt poor.
But this one was pretty and, more than
that, I thought I saw something in her
eyes, a hint of a come on, maybe. But
it had been so long since Id seen that
look that I wasnt sure I recognised it.
Be here tomorrow, she said
again. Bye, I called, cheerfully
confused.
It seemed like fate. The first time
I ever pick up one of those trashy
magazines and theres her advert,
extolling the virtues of knowing
whats around the corner. Then, when
I get to her place, I find a good looking
woman who seems interested in me.
Tomorrow cant come quick enough.
I couldnt sleep for thinking
about her. During the night, she
changed from mere pretty to beautiful.
Her smile had broadened and the
hand-squeeze had tightened.
Id wanted to be on her doorstep
before her arrival, but Id made myself
late by worrying about how I looked
and smelled. In due course, I was at the

cabin and after straightening my tie,


prepared to knock on the door. It was
then that I noticed the hastily written
note that was pinned just below the
knocker. It read: Closed today due to
unforeseen circumstances.

Alan Liptrot
Disponvel em: <http://www.helium.com>.

I needed it to change. (l. 5)


but thinking about it, (l. 20-21)
I wasnt sure I recognised it. (l. 28)
It read: (l. 53)
O pronome it pode fazer referncia a termos
ou ideias j enunciados, como nos fragmentos
acima.
Indique o referente desse pronome em cada
um dos fragmentos.
200. FGV-SP
Leia o texto e responda questo.
House of cards
1
In tough times, businesses will do
nearly anything to get new customers
look at the big markdowns at retailers and
the cheap financing at auto dealerships.
But there is an exception to the rule:
these days, credit-card companies are
trying to get rid of customers. Theyre
shutting down accounts, shrinking
credit lines, and, in some cases, actually
paying customers to go away. American
Express recently offered some of its
customers three hundred dollars if they
would pay off their balance and close
their account.
2
This is a pretty startling change
of direction for the lords of plastic.
For decades, theyve been deluging
Americans with come-ons (in 2007, 5.2
billion offers for new cards were sent
out), so much so that, as of 2006, there
were nearly 1.5 billion charge cards in
circulation. And these cards did not go
unused: between 2000 and 2006, even as
Americans real income was essentially
stagnant and their savings rate
negligible, credit-card borrowing rose
by about thirty per cent. Our willingness
to spend beyond our means served the
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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

credit-card companies well: their profits


jumped forty-five per cent between 2003
and 2008. But while making borrowing
easier boosted the companies profits,
it also increased the risks they faced,
risks that started to hit home once the
economic slowdown began. According
to Fitch Ratings, credit-card chargeoffs debts that companies determine
they will not be able to collect rose
to almost 7.5 per cent in December, up
forty per cent from a year earlier. And,
as unemployment continues to rise, so,
too, will the number of people who are
unable to pay their bills.
3
But credit-card companies have
created a strange business, in which
theres a fine line between good and
bad customers. Their best customers
arent those who dutifully pay off their
balance every month; instead, theyre
the ones who charge a lot and pay only
a little every month, carrying a sizable
balance and racking up interest charges
and late fees. These are the revolvers,
and the credit-card business feeds on
them. Credit-card companies dont
necessarily want revolvers to pay off
their debts; if they did, thered be no
interest or fees to collect. They want
their loans to be, in the words of a
banking regulator, a perpetual earning
asset. And theyve thought a lot about
how to keep those interest payments
coming. For instance, they used to keep
minimum payments relatively high. But,
over time, companies started lowering
minimum payments, sometimes to just
two per cent of the balance. The lower
the minimum payment the less people
pay off each month and the longer they
stay on the hook.

Ingls
c. Auto dealerships are closing their doors
and facing bankruptcy.
d. Credit-card companies are looking
for ways to reduce their number of
credit-card holders.
e. Retail customers searching for ways to
reduce their expenses are getting rid of
their credit cards.

Leia o texto e responda s questes de 201 a


203.

Brazilian student fitting in at Triopia

by Jake Russell

A transition from a city of about


40,000 people to a town of about 600 can
be a shock. But thats what Carol Miranda
did to finish her senior year. Hailing from
near Sao Paulo, Brazil, Miranda decided
to come to Triopia High School her senior
year. Sao Paulo is the largest city in Brazil,
with a population of about 11.3 million.
Her hometown, with a population of about
40,000, is small for Brazil, she said.
Miranda lives with Shawn and Kim
Rigor, who she said were instrumental in
her transition. She wouldve graduated in
December in Brazil, but decided to push it
to spring so she could work on improving
her English, learning another culture and
living by herself and not with her parents.
Shell be in the region until early summer.
Ive really improved my English,
she said. I can already feel the difference.
Shawn and Kim Rigor have a
relative involved with the agency that
placed Miranda, Principal Cheri Madson

James Surowiecki
The New Yorker, march 16, 2009.

In paragraph 1, the phrase Theyre shutting


down accounts most likely refers to which
of the following?
a. Businesses are desperate to find ways
to reduce their risks.
b. Retailers are frantically reducing the
prices of their items.
187

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

said. They decided they wanted to host a


foreign exchange student so they called
the school and asked if they could enroll
her.
Different programs require specific
classes, Madson said. In Mirandas case,
her program requires English, math and
American History. When Miranda first
found out about where shed stay, it came
as a bit of a shock to her, Madson said,
but shes slid right in here.
In her three months at Triopia
High School, Miranda has had quite the
high school experience; she was part of
the Homecoming court, shes attended
football games and painted her face as a
way to show support for her friends and
cheer the team on.
These kinds of activities arent in
Brazilian schools, she said. Shed never
played volleyball before and was on the
volleyball team, Madson said. Shes also
made some good friends.
Theyre all really nice, she said.
At first I was scared, but now Im glad
Im here and that the schools small
because I can make friends easily.
When she first arrived, she almost
gave up and wanted to go back home,
but its become easier with time, Miranda
said. The Rigor family helped her
tremendously. Now were like family,
said Adrienne McLain, sitting with her
during lunch on Thursday. We love her
accent.
In Brazil, Miranda doesnt eat
lunch at school, so even that has been a
transition.
When we talk to her, sometimes we
know she has no idea what were saying
because she just nods and then shakes her
head, Katie Clayton said.
When Miranda attended her first
football game, she didnt understand
any of the rules. Shes starting to get it,
though. Its a cool experience, Clayton
said. Ive never had a foreign exchange
student in my class and its cool asking
questions and looking at differences
between cultures and schools.

201. Unitau-SP
Choose the alternative which contains the
reference to the pronouns in bold typeface in
the sentence below, withdrawn from the text:
In her three months at Triopia High School,
Miranda has had quite the high school
experience; she was part of the Homecoming
court, shes attended football games and
painted her face as a way to show support for
her friends and cheer the team on.
a. Triopia High School / experience / court
/ face / friends
b. Triopia High School / Carol Miranda /
Carol Miranda / face / friends
c. Carol Miranda / Carol Miranda / Carol
Miranda / Carol Miranda / Carol Miranda
d. Triopia High School / high school
experience / Carol Miranda / Carol
Miranda / Carol Miranda
e. Three months / Carol Miranda / football
games / face / friends
202. Unitau-SP
Choose the alternative which contains an
incorrect statement in relation to the first
paragraph of the text.
a. Brazilian student Carol Miranda moved
in to a large city.
b. Brazilian student Carol Miranda moved
in to a small town.
c. Brazilian student Carol Miranda decided
to finish her senior year in Triopia High
School.
d. Brazilian student Carol Miranda moved
in to a town of around 600 inhabitants.
e. Brazilian student Carol Mirandas
hometown is a city of about 40,000
inhabitants.
203. Unitau-SP
Choose the alternative which contains an
incorrect statement in relation to the text.
a. Uma das adaptaes a que Carol Miranda teve de fazer foi almoar na escola, o que no fazia no Brasil.
b. Ela jogava vlei no Brasil, e isso a ajudou a
fazer muitos amigos na nova escola.
c. Quando Carol Miranda assistiu a seu primeiro jogo de futebol Americano, ela no
conseguiu entender nenhuma das regras.

Copyright 2011 Freedom Communications. All


Rights Reserved. http://www.myjournalcourier.com

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

Ingls
Despite its geographic immensity
spanning the far reaches of the Amazon
to its metropolises on the Atlantic the
country is accustomed to a lack of diversity
in its media. So, when Twitter arrived
on the scene, Brazilians were ready to
embrace this latest media phenomenon.
Theres a keen awareness of the importance
and the power of the country as well as
a tremendous thirst to find out what the
latest trend is. In this context, Twitter is
a phenomenon thats planting deep roots.
My sister is 10 years old. My grandmother
is 82, says Simas of MTV Brasil. And
they both have Twitter.

d. Carol Miranda disse que seu ingls melhorou bastante e que ela consegue
sentir a diferena.
e. Segundo os pais americanos de Carol
Miranda, eles conseguem perceber
quando ela no entende nada do que
eles dizem, pois ela apenas balana a
cabea em sinal de concordncia.
Leia o texto e responda s questes de 204 a
206.

Disponvel em: <http://www.time.com/time/


world/article/0,8599,2026442,00.html>.
Acesso em: 20 out. 2010. Adaptado.

PV2D-13-14

204. FEI-SP
O fato que suscitou a publicao deste texto
em outubro de 2010 foi:
a. a divulgao do nome de um brasileiro
como dolo no Twitter, vencendo
superstars americanos.
b. a publicao de dados sobre o nmero
de visitantes brasileiros, no ms anterior, no Twitter.
c. a surpresa perante o surgimento da lngua portuguesa como campe em popularidade na Internet.
d. a descoberta inesperada de que 23% dos
brasileiros usam a Internet regularmente.
e. o reconhecimento de que o Twitter
permite acesso a pessoas de todas as
idades e classes sociais.

The regular appearance of Portuguese


phrases on Twitters popularity charts
comes as no surprise anymore. A new
study published this month by comScore,
a digital marketing firm, found that 23%
of Internet users in Brazil compared with
11.9% in the U.S. visited the social media
platform last month, the highest rate of
participation by any country in the world.
Americans are still the bestrepresented nationality among the 160
million people who use Twitter, an
information-sharing website created in
2006 by a pair of San Francisco software
engineers. In Brazil, the site has carved a
truly special niche. In a country known
for its vast gulf between the rich and
poor, the tool has managed to cut across
the class divide. Its not something
thats just for rich Brazilians, says Gabe
Simas, who promotes teen bands for MTV
Brasil through Twitter. The main reason
Twitter is so huge in Brazil is because it
gives access to normal people to contact
their idols. Indeed, the countrys soccer
stars were among the earliest proponents
of Twitter. To take one example, the
soccer idol known as Kak has 2 million
followers, or roughly a million more than
American basketball star LeBron James.

205. FEI-SP
Marque a alternativa correta de acordo com
o texto.
a. O governo utiliza o Twitter para diminuir
a disparidade social entre pobres e ricos.
b. Kak desponta como lder mundial em
nmero de seguidores na Internet.
c. 160 milhes de americanos usam o
Twitter hoje.
d. Os brasileiros responderam muito rapidamente ao advento do Twitter.
e. A imensido do territrio brasileiro
empecilho para a expanso de novas
mdias.
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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

Underground river Rio Hamza


discovered 4km beneath the Amazon
Scientists estimate the subterranean river
may be 6,000km long and hundreds of
times wider than the Amazon

206. FEI-SP
O adjetivo possessivo its aparece trs vezes
na frase Despite its geographic immensity
spanning the far reaches of the Amazon to its
metropolises on the Atlantic the country is
accustomed to a lack of diversity in its media. A que substantivo ele se refere?
a. immensity
b. diversity
c. media
d. metropolises
e. country

Alok Jha, science correspondent guardian.co.uk


Friday, 26 August 2011

207. UPE
Leia o texto e responda questo.
The couple married only six months
ago, and already they are famous for their
fights. Neighbors complained that they
could hear them shouting from across the
street. Ann West, who lives next door,
said, First I asked them nicely to stop
because my baby couldnt get to sleep, but
they didnt. Then my husband knocked on
their door and told them to stop, but they
refused to listen. They threw a chair out
of the window at him. It just missed him!
So we called the police and asked them to
come right away.
The Bradys admitted they had
been arguing. Mrs. Brady said that she
had accused her husband of wasting
their money on drinking and gambling.
However, they denied throwing the chair.
The judge clearly did not believe them.
[]

Covering more than 7 million


square kilometres in South America,
the Amazon basin is one of the biggest
and most impressive river systems in
the world. But it turns out we have only
known half the story until now.
Brazilian scientists have found a
new river in the Amazon basin around
4km underneath the Amazon river. The
Hamza river, named after the head of
the team of researchers who found the
groundwater flow, appears to be as long
as the Amazon river but up to hundreds
of times wider. Both the Amazon and
Hamza flow from west to east and are
around the same length, at 6,000km. But
whereas the Amazon ranges from 1km
to 100km in width, the Hamza ranges
from 200km to 400km. The underground
river starts in the Acre region under the
Andes and flows through the Solimoes,
Amazonas and Marajo basins before
opening out directly into the depths of
the Atlantic Ocean.
The Amazon flows much faster than
the Hamza, however, draining a greater
volume of water. Around 133,000m
of water flow through the Amazon per
second at speeds of up to 5 metres per
second. The underground rivers flow
rate has been estimated at around 3,900m
per second and it barely inches along at
less than a millimetre per hour.

SOARS, Liz and John. New Headway: Intermediate.


Students book. Oxford: OUP, 2003. Adaptado.

The words him , her and them, in bold in the


text, refer to:
a. Anns husband / Mrs. Brady / the Bradys
b. The baby / Ann West / the neighbors
c. Mr. Brady / the judge / the Wests
d. The baby / Mrs. Brady / the police
e. Anns husband / the judge / the
neighbors
Leia o texto e responda s questes 208 e 209.

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PV2D-13-14

An aerial view of the Amazon river.


Photograph: Frans Lanting/Corbis

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

The Hamza was located using


data collected inside a series of 241
abandoned deep wells that were
drilled in the Amazon region by the
petrochemical company Petrobras in
the 1970s and 1980s. Elizabeth Tavares
Pimentel and Valiya Hamza of the
Department of Geophysics at Brazil's
National Observatory led the work and
presented their results last week at the
International Congress of the Brazilian
Geophysics Society in Rio de Janeiro.
According to the researchers, the
presence of the Hamza river might
account for the relatively low salinity
of the waters around the mouth of
the Amazon. Professor Hamza said
Pimentel's measurements represented
preliminary work on the discovery
of the new river, but Hamza said he
expected to confirm the existence of
the flow with additional measurements
within the next few years.

Ingls
c. tem este nome em homenagem a um
cientista que morreu durante as pesquisas.
d. foi localizado a partir de poos abandonados da Petrobras.
e. nasce nas geleiras da cordilheira dos
Andes.

Leia o texto para responder s questes de


210 a 212.

Disponvel em: <http://www.guardian.co.uk/


environment/2011/aug/26/undergroundriver-amazon/print>. Adaptado.

PV2D-13-14

208. Puc-SP
Segundo o texto:
a. o rio Hamza um afluente do rio Solimes, que se torna subterrneo no
trecho entre o rio Amazonas e a ilha de
Maraj.
b. o rio Hamza tem comprimento similar
ao do rio Amazonas, porm muito
mais largo.
c. o rio Hamza corre em paralelo com o
rio Amazonas a uma profundidade de
400 metros abaixo de seu leito.
d. o fluxo do rio Amazonas bastante lento comparado ao do rio Hamza.
e. as guas pluviais so filtradas pelo solo
e alimentam tanto o rio Hamza como o
rio Amazonas.

Cool beans, rents! Mothers and


fathers are finally being given a chance
to understand Teenglish. They can study
a new glossary of baffling vocabulary to
prevent them looking like a fudge in
front of their offspring.
The guide, Pimp Your Vocab, aims
to demystify the jargon used by teenagers
and young people. It translates words they
regularly use including cool beans which
means something is great. Rents means
parents, combining the last half of the word
with the fact they often provide rent-free
accommodation. A fudge is an idiot.
Author Lucy Tobin said she got the
idea during her English degree course when
a tutor was confused by a student declaring:
I was IM-ing ... She added: After we

209. Puc-SP
O rio Hamza:
a. foi descoberto por pesquisadores da
Sociedade Brasileira de Geofsica.
b. foi considerado o maior rio do mundo
pelo Observatrio Nacional do Brasil.
191

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

students explained IM-ing when you talk


to friends online via instant messaging I
wrote a guide to the language kids use.
Miss Tobin believes that the guide could
help improve staff-student communication.
She said: In communicating with a
Teenglish-speaking randomer (an outsider to
your social group) their words can seem like
a new language.
Teachers and academics have already
complained that Teenglish and text message
speak are creeping into exam answers.
But last year, John Wells, president
of the Spelling Society, claimed that the
informal language of texts, chat rooms and
emails were the way forward.
He said that people should stop
worrying about text message speak
creeping into general usage and called for
the apostrophe to be abolished.
Professor Wells said: Lets stop
worrying if people sometimes spell you
as u, your and youre both as ur; and
whose and whos both as whos.
Nowadays we often see light written
as lite and through as thru.

e. facilitar a compreenso da linguagem


utilizada por adolescentes e jovens,
traduzindo-a para o ingls normalmente empregado pelos adultos.
211. UEL-PR
De acordo com o texto, na viso de John Wells:
a. a linguagem informal utilizada na comunicao representa o futuro da lngua inglesa.
b. o uso do apstrofo deveria ser aperfeioado para evitar problemas de comunicao.
c. a simplificao ortogrfica um indcio
da degenerao gradativa da lngua inglesa.
d. a informalidade das mensagens de texto, salas de bate-papo e e-mails preocupante.
e. as simplificaes lingusticas representam uma ameaa lngua padro.
212. UEL-PR
Sobre o Teenglish, considere as afirmativas a
seguir.
I. Pode parecer uma lngua estranha a
quem no pertence ao grupo de jovens
e adolescentes que a utiliza.
II. Facilita a comunicao entre jovens e
adolescentes falantes de diferentes lnguas que se relacionam no ambiente
escolar norte-americano.
III. uma linguagem que deve desaparecer medida que os jovens e adolescentes forem se habituando a utilizar o
ingls padro.
IV. Tem sido motivo de preocupao de
professores e acadmicos, que j veem
sinais dessa linguagem em provas e trabalhos escolares.
Assinale a alternativa correta.
a. Somente as afirmativas I e III so corretas.
b. Somente as afirmativas I e IV so corretas.
c. Somente as afirmativas II e III so corretas.
d. Somente as afirmativas I, II e IV so corretas.
e. Somente as afirmativas II, III e IV so
corretas.

HARRIS, S. Teenglish: From Frape to Neek the


words used by teenagers that baffle adults.
Disponvel em: <http://www.dailymail.co.uk/
news/article-1213626/Teenglish-From-FrapeNeek-words-used-teenagers-baffle-adults.
html#>. Acesso em: 13 jul. 2011. Adaptado.

210. UEL-PR
De acordo com o texto, o livro Pimp Your Vocab
objetiva:
a. tecer uma crtica linguagem dos adolescentes e jovens, que se deixam influenciar pela liberdade lingustica possibilitada pela internet.
b. apresentar exemplos de linguagem inapropriada utilizada por adolescentes e
jovens americanos no dia a dia e nos
ambientes acadmicos.
c. encorajar pais e professores a adotarem a linguagem dos jovens e adolescentes para otimizar a comunicao
entre ambas as partes.
d. estabelecer uma comparao entre as
expresses da lngua inglesa usadas por
jovens e adolescentes antes e depois
do advento da era digital.
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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

it to college. Singapore narrowed its


achievement gap among ethnic minorities
from 17 percent to 5 percent over 20 years.
These success stories offer lessons
for the rest of us. First, get children into
school early. High quality pre-schooling
does more for a childs chances in school
and life than any other educational
intervention. One study, which began in
the 1960s, tracked two groups of students
from disadvantaged backgrounds. Some
were given the opportunity to attend a
high-quality preschool; others were not.
Thirty-five years later, the kids who went
to preschool were earning more, had
better jobs, and were less likely to have
been in prison or divorced.
Second, recognize that the average
kid spends about half his waking hours
up until the age of 18 outside of school
dont ignore that time. KIPP students
spend 60 percent more time in school
than the average American student.
They arrive earlier, leave later, attend
more regularly, and even go to school
every other Saturday. Similarly, in 1966,
Chile extended its school day to add the
equivalent of more than two more years
of schooling.
Third, pour lots of effort into training
teachers. Studies in the United States have
shown that kids with the most effective
teachers learn three times as much as those
with the least effective. Systems such as
Singapores are choosy about recruiting;
they invest in training and continuing
education; they evaluate teachers
regularly; and they award bonuses only to
the top performers.
Finally, recognize the value of
individualized attention. In Finland, kids
who start to struggle receive one-on-one
support from their teachers. Roughly one
in three Finnish students also get extra
help from a tutor each year. If we can
learn the lesson of what works, we can
build on it.

213. Unicamp-SP
Observe o quadro e responda questo.

Disponvel em: <http://politicalhumor.about.com/od/


politicalcartoons/ig/Political-Cartoons/Federal-SpendingWaste.htm>. Acesso em: 30 set. 2011. Adaptado.

a. Indique dois tipos de gastos especficos


do governo federal norte-americano
explicitados no cartum.
b. Qual a crtica feita pelo cartum ao
americano mdio?
214. UFBA modificado
Leia o texto e responda questo.

PV2D-13-14

Ingls

How to close the achievement gap


All over the world, your chances of
success in school and life depend more on
your family circumstances than any other
factor. By age three, kids with professional
parents are already a full year ahead of their
poorer peers. They know twice as many
words and score 40 points higher on IQ
tests. By age 10, the gap is three years. By
then, some poor children have not mastered
basic reading and math skills, and many
never will: this is the age at which failure
starts to become irreversible.
A few school systems seem to have
figured out how to erase these gaps.
Finland ensures that every kid completes
basic education and meets a rigorous
standard. One Finnish district official,
asked about the number of children who
dont complete school in her city, replied,
I can tell you their names if you want.
In the United States, KIPP (Knowledge
Is Power Program) charter schools enroll
students from the poorest families and
ensure that almost every one of them
graduates high school 80 percent make

MOURSHED, Mona; WHELAN, Fenton.


How to close the achievement gap.
Newsweek, New York, Aug.

Say to which words or phrases the following


words refers to:
193

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

The paper also claims that people


with less education and less money tend
to be more generous with what money
they do have. When the question is posed
regarding how much people should give
to charity, lower-class ranks suggest a
higher percentage of ones income than
the percentage recommended by the
wealthy.
Another study cited in the paper
involved giving participants 10 points,
which would later be traded in for money.
The individuals given the points were to
divide them up between themselves and
an anonymous partner. Guess who shared
more of their points?
We found that individuals reporting
lower subjective socioeconomic status
gave more to their partner than did uppersocioeconomic-status participants. In this
context, the next time youre called lowclass, consider it a compliment.

others (paragraph 3);


its (paragraph 4).
Leia o texto e responda s questes de 215 a
218.
Psychology of money
Study: the rich really are more selfish
by Brad Tuttle
August 12, 2011

Lower-class individuals i.e.,


folks without much money or education
demonstrate more compassion and
empathy than their wealthy counterparts,
according to a series of psychological
studies. In social scientist speech, selforiented behavior is more likely to be
exhibited by people with good education,
prestigious jobs, high income, and overall
higher-ranking social status.
How you rank in society purportedly
has a lot to do with how much you
care about your fellow man. Thats the
gist of Social Class as Culture: The
Convergence of Resources and Rank in
the Social Realm, a new paper written
by University of California psychologists
and social scientists published in the
academic journal Current Directions in
Psychological Science.
The authors write that ones sense of
social class derived mainly from income
and education exerts broad influences
on social thought, emotion, and behavior.
Using various tests that measure empathy,
those who perceive themselves among the
lower classes demonstrate heightened
vigilance of the social context and an
other-focused social orientation. In
other words, poorer, less well-educated
individuals tend to notice, and care more
about the people around them. Upperclass rank perceptions, on the other hand,
trigger a focus away from the context
toward the self, prioritizing self-interest.
How the heck can researchers
measure something like empathy? One
study, for instance, asked participants to
identify the emotions on display in photos
of people with different facial expressions.
Those with high-school-only educations
showed greater empathetic accuracy
than participants with college educations.

Disponvel em: <http://moneyland.time.com>. Adaptado.

215. UFTM-MG
According to the paper mentioned in the text:
a. wealthier societies tend to invest more
in social well being.
b. the perceived social class influences
the way one behaves towards others.
c. education is the main factor that
promotes social awareness.
d. some people are generous, no matter
their income or class.
e. empathy was mainly observed in
female subjects of the study.
216. UFTM-MG
One of the components of the social class
definition presented in the text is:
a. self-oriented behavior.
b. prestigious job.
c. emotion.
d. social context.
e. education.
217. UFTM-MG
People who belong to lower-class are likely to:
a. feel more self-centred and selfish.
b. show less sympathetic awareness.
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c. display a more generous behavior.


d. have a self-oriented approach to life.
e. be more rational, rather than emotional.

a. the thick trees are planted by a sick


mans bed.
b. there arent any trees next to the grave.
c. there are thin trees surrounding a
faded stone.
d. the sick mans bed was within a
pyramid.
e. an old sphinx was being built.

218. UFTM-MG
In the excerpt of the sixth paragraph Guess
who shared more of their points?, the word
their refers to:
a. anonymous partners.
b. participants.
c. lower-class individuals.
d. upper-class participants.
e. researchers.

220. Udesc
The pronoun her (verse 3) and his (verse 4)
refer consecutively to the:
a. Earth and the sick man.
b. owl and the lizard.
c. trees and the sun.
d. pyramid and the sphinx.
e. throne and the show.

Leia o texto e responda s questes 219 e 220.


The grave of Shelley
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by Oscar Wilde

Like burnt-out torches by a sick


[mans bed
Gaunt cypress-trees stand round
[the sun-bleached stone;
Here doth the little night-owl make
[her throne,
And the slight lizard show his
[jewelled head.
And, where the chaliced poppies
[flame to red,
In the still chamber of yon pyramid
Surely some Old-World Sphinx
[lurks darkly hid,
Grim warder of this pleasaunce of
[the dead.

Leia o texto e responda s questes de 221 a


224.
Psychology of money
Want happiness? Dont buy more stuff
Go on vacation!
When it comes to spending money on
things or experiences, the research is
clear: doing brings more happiness than
owning
by Gary Belsky & Tom Gilovich
July 21, 2011

Given that its vacation season for


many folks, we thought it a good time to
devote this Mind Over Money post to a
brief discussion of what personal finance
is ultimately all about. Some people, of
course, really enjoy counting their money,
deriving great satisfaction simply from
watching their bottom line grow, often
quite removed from any thought of what
they might do with their riches. But for
most of us, money is just a token for what
we can do with it pay the mortgage or
rent, send kids to college, buy a TV or
travel to Italy. And for nearly all of us,
money is finite; there isnt enough to do
all we want, so we must be selective. That
raises a crucial question: if we want to
maximize the happiness or satisfaction
we get from our money, how should we
spend it?

Ah! Sweet indeed to rest within the


[womb
Of Earth, great mother of eternal
[sleep,
But sweeter far for thee a restless
[tomb
In the blue cavern of an echoing
[deep,
Or where the tall ships founder in
[the gloom
Against the rocks of some wave[shattered steep.
Disponvel em: <http://www.poetry-archive.com>.

219. Udesc
The text says that:

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Theres been a lot of recent research


on this subject, much of it conducted
at Toms home institution, Cornell
University. And the answer is clear.
If youre conflicted about whether to
spend money on a material good (say, a
computer) or personal experience (say,
a vacation), the research says youll get
much more satisfaction and for longer
if you choose the experience. Most of
us, it turns out, get more bang from the
experiential buck. Indeed, when people
are asked to recall their most significant
material and experiential purchases over
the previous five years, they report that
the experience brought more joy, was a
source of more enduring satisfaction and
was more clearly money well spent.
This might seem counter-intuitive.
After all, when faced with a trade-off
between doing and buying, many people
opt for the material good because it will
still be there long after the experience
would have been enjoyed. In one sense
thats correct: The material good lasts
while the experience is fleeting. But
psychologically its the reverse. We
quickly adapt to the material good, but the
experience endures in the memories we
cherish, the stories we tell and the very
sense of who we are.

c. servio funerrio.
d. viagem de navio.
e. colgio para os filhos.
223. Fatec-SP
No primeiro pargrafo do texto, o pronome
demonstrativo this, empregado em this Mind
Over Money post, refere-se a:
a. post.
d. vacation.
b. mind.
e. discussion.
c. money.
224. UFSJ-MG
Leia o texto e responda questo.
Saving affirmative action from itself
Today, the future of affirmative action
at universities is in danger in the United
States. A series of states among them
Michigan, California, Florida, Nebraska,
and Arizona prohibited the consideration
of race and ethnicity in all units of state
government, including public universities.
As a result, state universities with great
capacity for accepting minorities are
increasingly incapable of doing this.
Furthermore, these universities
cannot count on the public for support
on affirmative action. Studies conducted
in 2009 showed that 36-55% of people
believe that the government should
completely abolish affirmative action and
33-61% oppose affirmative action for
blacks in university entry.
This negative view of affirmative
action in university education is, in part,
explained by the political changes of the
country since 1980 and the pressures the
present recession has put on state budgets.
However, more important is the way in
which affirmative action went away from
its 1960s origins and lost sight of its own
history.
Today, the only way affirmative action
in universities can save itself from losing
still more public support is to become much
more inclusive in practice. It needs to help
students who for a variety of reasons not
just because of their race or ethnicity are
disadvantaged in the fight to enter university.

Disponvel em: <http://moneyland.time.


com>. Acesso em 25 ago. 2011. Adaptado.

221. Fatec-SP
De acordo com o texto:
a. o dinheiro um dia termina para todos.
b. comum gastar dinheiro com artigos
suprfluos.
c. fazer uma viagem traz mais felicidade
do que adquirir algo material.
d. muitas pessoas se arrependem de ter
gasto dinheiro com uma viagem.
e. a grande maioria das pessoas prefere
gastar dinheiro com uma viagem do
que com uma aquisio material.
222. Fatec-SP
De acordo com as informaes do primeiro pargrafo, com dinheiro se pode pagar:
a. hipoteca.
b. moratria.

Disponvel em: <http://www.3quarksdaily.


com/3quarksdaily/2011/07/saving-affirmative-actionfrom-itself.html>. Acesso em: 19 ago. 2011. Adaptado.

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obesity prevalence as it undergoes rapid


nutrition transition. There has been
a rapid increase in obesity where the
prevalence among urban men with high
incomes is about 10%, but still only 1%
in rural areas. Women in all regions are
generally more obese than men and the
prevalence for those on low income is
still increasing. However, the rate of
obesity among women with high income
is becoming stable or even declining.

In the sentence As a result, state universities


with great capacity for accepting minorities
are increasingly incapable of doing this
(paragraph 1), the word this refers to:
a. increasingly incapable.
b. accepting minorities.
c. state universities.
d. great capacity.
225. Fuvest-SP

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Leia o texto e responda questo.


The prevalence of obesity is
increasing throughout the worlds
population. But the distribution varies
greatly between and within countries.
In the US, over the past 30 years, the
prevalence of obesity rose from about
12-20% of the population from 1978
to 1990. The UK has experienced an
increase in the prevalence of obesity
from 7% in 1980 to 16% in 1995. Other
countries, such as The Netherlands, have
experienced much smaller increases
from a low baseline of about 5% in the
1980s to about 8% in 1997.
In Asia, the prevalence of obesity
has rapidly increased. In the last 8 years
the proportion of Chinese men with a
body mass index (BMI) >25kg/m2 has
tripled from 4 to 15% of the population
and the proportion in women has
doubled from 10 to 20%.
The obesity epidemic moves
through a population in a reasonably
consistent pattern over time and this
is reflected in the different patterns
in low and high income countries.
In low income countries, obesity is
more common in people of higher
socioeconomic status and in those
living in urban communities. It is often
first apparent among middle-aged
women. In more affluent countries, it
is associated with lower socioeconomic
status, especially in women, and rural
communities. The sex differences are
less marked in affluent countries and
obesity is often common amongst
adolescents and younger children.
Brazil is an example of a country
with well-documented changes in

Public Health Nutrition, 7(1A), 123-146, 2004. Adaptado.

O pronome those, em those on low


income...: (paragraph 4), refere-se a um
termo do texto que se traduz como:
a. mulheres.
b. homens.
c. regies.
d. obesos.
e. pobres.
Leia o texto e responda s questes de 226 a
229.
Were not as moral as we think (and
how that gets us in trouble)
by Daniel Honan

Whats the Big Idea?


Nearly any man can stand adversity,
said Lincoln, but if you want to test a mans
character, give him power. Americas
16th president certainly knew a lot about
that. Consider Lincolns frustrations with
the egomaniacal commander George B.
McClellan, who was just one in a long
succession of incompetent generals
Lincoln ended up firing.
Numerous bankers, politicians,
athletes and celebrities have proven
Lincoln true, time and again. And yet,
that does not necessarily make all of these
people bad, per se, argues Nitin Nohria in
his interview with Big Think.
Nohria, the dean of Harvard Business
School, is not looking to create excuses
for mistakes or immoral actions. Instead,
Nohria is trying to get us to think beyond
the knee-jerk reaction of simply labeling
a person good or evil, as if a character
flaw is the only thing that motivates us
to do bad things, or that the only kind of
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person capable of moral failure is simply


a bad seed.
Nohria argues that overconfidence in
our own moral capacity is what really gets
us into trouble. In other words, since we
are so often convinced that we will never
be led astray, when we actually face a
complex moral choice we lack the critical
skills necessary to do the right thing.
Whats the significance?
As dean of Harvard Business School,
the idea of teaching these skills is of great
importance for Nohria. In fact, Nohria
has promoted an MBA oath that pledges
socially responsible leadership. Like the
Hippocratic Oath in medicine, the MBA
oath is a professional credo for MBA
graduates. The oath has been embraced
globally and has been signed by over
5,000 students.
If we are to expect the next generation
of business leaders not to mention the
future leaders in all fields to truly honor
such a commitment, students must be given
the tools to properly evaluate the situations
that challenge their moral judgment. Then,
in Lincoln's words, the better angels of our
nature might prevail.
Nitin Nohria: Whenever we see
examples of ethical or moral failure, our
knee-jerk reaction is to say that was a bad
person. We like to sort the world into good
people who had stable and enduringly
strong, positive characters, and bad people
who had weak or frail characters. And this
belief that somehow our behavior or our
conduct is largely shaped by who we are and
our true selves is, I think, one of the great
assumptions that we need to challenge if we
have to get a better handle on what leads
people to go astray.
Lincoln was once asked, what is a
measure of a persons character? And he
says, you know, My experience is that
most people think that the true measure of
a persons character is how they respond
to adversity. I have found, Lincoln
said, that the real test of a persons
character is to give them power. And I
have been surprised how often I have been
disappointed by peoples character when
they have been given power.

The overconfidence that people have in


their own moral capacity is one of the things
that we have to be very careful about. Most
people think I am good; I have the proper
moral compass. I will never be led astray.
That form of moral over confidence, I think,
is sometimes what gets people into trouble
when they find themselves in situations
where the pressures are so great that they
are led astray. Thinking hard about what it is
about situations that are more likely to tempt
us and what it is that are about situations that
are more likely to give us moral courage is,
in my view, one of the most important things
that we need to understand.
This is in no way intended to excuse
or provide or not hold people accountable
when they commit a mistake. I just think
that we always end up focusing on the
character of the person as if there was a
bad seed that they always were rather than
recognizing that people change. that they
find themselves in circumstances where
they can be frail and where their own sense
of moral confidence can fail them. So I am
much more inclined, and this is one of the
things we are trying to teach at Harvard
Business School is through cases to allow
people to see that there are circumstances
in which, if you have very, very high
powered incentives that are tied to particular
measures, you may be tempted at the margin
to gain to achieve those measures.

Disponvel em: <http://bigthink.com/ideas>.

226. Unitau-SP
Choose the alternative which contains an
incorrect statement in relation to the first
paragraph of the text:
a. America's 16th president said that if
you want to test a man's character, give
him power.
b. George B. McClellan said that nearly any
man can stand adversity, but if you want
to test his character, give him power.
c. Abraham Lincoln said that any man can
stand adversity.
d. President Lincoln ended up firing a long
succession of incompetent generals .
e. The egomaniacal commander George
B. McClellan was just one incompetent
general President Lincoln ended up firing.
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227. Unitau-SP

a. what to do when we actually face a


complex moral choice
b. the tools to properly evaluate the
situations that challenge our moral
judgment
c. the essential critical adeptness to act
befittingly
d. the critical skills unnecessary to do the
right thing
e. thinking hard about situations that are
more likely to tempt us and situations
that are more likely to give us moral
courage

Choose the alternative which contains the


reference to the pronoun in bold typeface in
the sentence below, withdrawn from the text:
Americas 16th president certainly knew a lot
about that.
a. The idea that the character of a man
can be tested as he is given power.
b. The idea that any man can stand
adversity.
c. The frustrations derived from the fact of
not being an egomanical commander.
d. America.
e. America's 16th presidency.

Leia o texto e responda s questes 230 e 231.

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Haitis horrendous teenage prostitution


problem
With fewer shelters, more girls many
orphans from the quake have no choice but
to have sex just to scrape by. Lisa Armstrong
reports on their brutal reality and the aid
groups trying to help.
This is how we make money. This is
how we eat, says Madeleine, a 16-year-old
with dark eyes, full lips, and a shoulderlength black weave. But I am ashamed. I
feel embarrassed of what I am doing. I have
no choice, I must accept what is going on,
but it is not my will. It is not like teenage
prostitution didnt exist in Haiti before
the January 2010 earthquake that left 1.5
million displaced, tens of thousands of
them living in haphazardly-placed tents
in Champs de Mars. But in the 16 months
since, the number of girls, some as young as
8, who have been forced to have sex in order
to survive has drastically increased.
The situation will likely get worse as
in late May, shortly after President Michel
Martelly took office, police destroyed about
200 makeshift tents in Delmas, leaving their
occupants without anywhere else to go.
According to the International Organization
of Migration, 25 percent of those in camps
have been threatened with eviction.
If there are no safe places for girls
to go, no plan for transition, some will be
forced to exchange sex for shelter, says
Emilie Parry, a consultant with Refugees
International.

Choose the alternative which contains a correct


statement in relation to the text:
a. Nitin Nohria, the dean of Harvard
Business School, is looking to create
excuses for mistakes or immoral
actions.
b. Nitin Nohria is trying to get us to think
beyond of simply labeling a person
good or evil, as if a character flaw is the
only thing that motivates us to do bad
things.
c. Nitin Nohria says that overconfidence
in our own moral capacity isn't what
really gets us into trouble.
d. Nitin Nohria says that since we are
so often convinced that we will be
led astray, when we face a complex
moral choice we have the critical skills
necessary to do the right thing.
e. Nitin Nohria argues in his interview
with Big Think that numerous bankers,
politicians, athletes and celebrities
have not proven Lincoln true, time and
again
229. Unitau-SP
Choose the alternative which does not contain
the reference to the words in bold typeface in
the sentence below, withdrawn from the text:
As dean of Harvard Business School, the idea
of teaching these skills is of great importance
for Nohria.

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Many girls were orphaned when their


parents died in the disaster, and were left to
fend for themselves, often having sex with
men in order to secure a place in a tent or
under a tarp. The problem was exacerbated
when organizations stopped distributing
food in the camps.

I think there are honest acts all over


the place, but perhaps theyre quieter acts.
Being honest is much bigger than just not
lying. Its doing the right thing no matter
what. Its not rationalizing your actions
(because if youre trying to rationalize,
you already know somethings wrong,
right?).
Being honest also requires a bit of
courage sometimes. I wrote previously
about the little boy who appeared on my
doorstep with his dad to tell me about
something hed done. I know that took
courage, and I appreciated it immensely.
But more than that, he learned that being
honest is the right thing to do and you can
feel happy when you are honest. Honest
people are people of character and are
trustworthy. You want to be around people
you can trust and who you know will deal
with you justly.
Dishonesty hurts you and others.
It hurts your spirit and your ability to
feel Gods influence when youre doing
something wrong. You have to remember
that honesty extends beyond others: being
honest with yourself and the Lord are
sometimes even more important because
your spiritual well-being is on the line.

Disponvel em: <http://www.thedailybeast.com/


articles/2011/06/17/haiti-s-teenage-prostitutionproblemaid-groups-trying-to-help.html>. Newsweek. Adaptado.

230. Unisa-SP
According to the text, the teenage prostitution
in Haiti:
a. is higher in urban areas.
b. affects 25% of Haitian teenagers.
c. has been eliminated by the local police.
d. might threaten more girls.
e. was denied by the Refugees International.
231. Unisa-SP
A palavra those em police destroyed
about 200 makeshift tents in Delmas, leaving
their occupants without anywhere else to go.
According to the International Organization of
Migration, 25 percent of those in camps have
been threatened with eviction refere-se a:
a. police.
b. 200 makeshift tents.
c. occupants.
d. International Organization of Migrations.
e. camps.

Disponvel em: <http://lds.families.com/blog/


for-the-strength-of-youth-series-honesty>
Acesso em: 5 set. 2011. Adaptado.

In the sentence He then thanked me for my


honesty and commented that hed never seen
that happen before, the word that refers to:
a. the womans rightful act towards the
shoe shop.
b. the clerks disbelief at the shoe episode.
c. the womans amazing pair of shoes.
d. the clerks uncommon simple words.
e. the womans accident close to a shoe
store.

232. UFPB
Leia o texto e responda questo.
Honesty
by Lisa Mabey

I once returned a pair of shoes that


was sent to me by accident. I had paid
for one pair in the store, and a second
pair was sent to my home by accident.
So I took the second pair back into the
store, and handed them to the store clerk
explaining the situation. He held the
shoebox in his hand in disbelief and just
looked at me. He then thanked me for my
honesty and commented that hed never
seen that happen before. I was amazed
that such a simple act of honesty was met
with such incredulity. Is honesty really
that uncommon?

233. UFBA modificado


Leia o texto e responda questo.
How to close the achievement gap
All over the world, your chances of
success in school and life depend more on
your family circumstances than any other
factor. By age three, kids with professional
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much as those with the least effective.
Systems such as Singapores are choosy
about recruiting; they invest in training
and continuing education; they evaluate
teachers regularly; and they award
bonuses only to the top performers.
Finally, recognize the value of
individualized attention. In Finland, kids
who start to struggle receive one-on-one
support from their teachers. Roughly one
in three Finnish students also get extra help
from a tutor each year. If we can learn the
lesson of what works, we can build on it.

parents are already a full year ahead of their


poorer peers. They know twice as many
words and score 40 points higher on IQ
tests. By age 10, the gap is three years. By
then, some poor children have not mastered
basic reading and math skills, and many
never will: this is the age at which failure
starts to become irreversible.
A few school systems seem to have
figured out how to erase these gaps. Finland
ensures that every kid completes basic
education and meets a rigorous standard.
One Finnish district official, asked about
the number of children who dont complete
school in her city, replied, I can tell you their
names if you want. In the United States,
KIPP (Knowledge Is Power Program)
charter schools enroll students from the
poorest families and ensure that almost
every one of them graduates high school
80 percent make it to college. Singapore
narrowed its achievement gap among ethnic
minorities from 17 percent to 5 percent over
20 years.
These success stories offer lessons for
the rest of us. First, get children into school
early. High quality pre-schooling does more
for a childs chances in school and life than
any other educational intervention. One
study, which began in the 1960s, tracked
two groups of students from disadvantaged
backgrounds. Some were given the
opportunity to attend a high-quality
preschool; others were not. Thirty-five years
later, the kids who went to preschool were
earning more, had better jobs, and were less
likely to have been in prison or divorced.
Second, recognize that the average
kid spends about half his waking hours up
until the age of 18 outside of school dont
ignore that time. KIPP students spend 60
percent more time in school than the average
American student. They arrive earlier, leave
later, attend more regularly, and even go to
school every other Saturday. Similarly, in
1966, Chile extended its school day to add
the equivalent of more than two more years
of schooling.
Third, pour lots of effort into training
teachers. Studies in the United States
have shown that kids with the most
effective teachers learn three times as

MOURSHED, Mona; WHELAN, Fenton.


How to close the achievement gap.
Newsweek, New York, Aug.

Say to which words or phrases the following


word refers to:
those (paragraph 5).
Leia o texto e responda s questes 234 e 235.
1

10

15

20

25

30
201

The inside story


I live in the storytelling capital
of the world. I tell stories for a living.
Youre probably familiar with many of
my films, from Rain Man and Batman
to Midnight Express to Gorillas in the
Mist to this years The Kids Are All
Right.
But in four decades in the
movie business, Ive come to see that
stories are not only for the big screen,
Shakespearean plays, and John
Grisham novels. Ive come to see that
they are far more than entertainment.
They are the most effective form
of human communication, more
powerful than any other way of
packaging information. And telling
purposeful stories is certainly the
most efficient means of persuasion
in everyday life, the most effective
way of translating ideas into action,
whether youre green-lighting a
$90 million film project, motivating
employees to meet an important
deadline, or getting your kids through
a crisis.
PowerPoint presentations may be
powered by state-of-the-art technology.
But reams of data rarely engage people
to move them to action. Stories, on

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the other hand, are state-of-the-heart


technology they connect us to others.
They provide emotional transportation,
moving people to take action on your
cause because they can very quickly
come to psychologically identify with
the characters in a narrative or share
an experience courtesy of the images
evoked in the telling.
Equally important, they turn the
audience/listeners into viral advocates
of the proposition, whether in life or
in business, by paying the story not
just the information forward.
Stories,
unlike
straight-up
information, can change our lives
because they directly involve us,
bringing us into the inner world of the
protagonist. As I tell the students in
one of my UCLA graduate courses,
Navigating a Narrative World, without
stories not only would we not likely
have survived as a species, we couldnt
understand ourselves. They provoke our
memory and give us the framework for
much of our understanding. They also
reflect the way the brain works. While
we think of stories as fluff, accessories
to information, something extraneous
to real work, they turn out to be the
cornerstone of consciousness.
Much of what I know about
narrative and its power I learned
over the course of working in the
entertainment industry. In the early
1980s, I was chairman of PolyGram
Filmed Entertainment as well as a
producer at that studio. I was pitched a
movie to finance and distribute based
on a book then titled The Execution
of Charles Horman. It told the true
story of Ed Horman, Charless father,
a politically conservative American
who goes to South America in search
of his missing journalist son. Ed
joins with his daughter-in-law Beth,
who, like her husband, is politically
polarized from the father, in prying
through bureaucracy and dangerous
government intrigue in search of their
son and husband. Gradually, the father

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comes to realize his own government


is concealing the truth.
Although the project had enlisted
a great filmmaker Oscar winner
Costa Gavras (for the thriller Z) I
didnt find it compelling. A Latin
American revolution was a tough
sell for a commercial American film,
along with the story of a father who
had no relationship with his son and
the fact that you already knew the
ending: the son is dead without the
father ever finding him. This story
was dead on arrival as an investment.
Out of courtesy, I met with the
father, who knew I was not a fan. After
a few polite introductions, he nodded
to some pictures of my then-teenage
daughters on my bookcase. Do you
really know your children? he asked.
Really know them? He went on to
tell me a story that the search for his
son was more a search for who he was
than where he was, because he always
suspected he was dead. But the journey
was a revelation, not least about the
many values father and son in fact
shared. It was a love story, not a death
story.
His telling engaged me in a
unique personal way, emotionally
transporting me into the search for
his child, and it made me wonder
whether I really knew my daughters,
their values and beliefs, their hopes
and dreams. If the writer could focus
the film as a love story/thriller and an
actor could engage those emotions
and pique those questions, and the
film could be executed to get critical
acclaim, it really might be worth
backing.
by Peter Guber Psychology Today
Disponvel em: <http://www.psychologytoday.
com/articles/201103/the-inside-story>.
Acesso em: 15 ago. 2011. Adaptado.

234. PUC-RJ
Check the correct statement concerning
reference.
a. In because they can very quickly come
to psychologically identify with (lines 3536) the pronoun they refers to stories.
202

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there many industries that hire employees


with your background?
You already know that personal
marketing skills are important to your
career and perhaps to find a better job,
but the only problem is that the art of self
marketing is difficult for a lot of people.
Selling yourself well doesnt mean
talking just about yourself or arrogantly
telling others how great you are. By
selling yourself, in an interview or an
informal networking meeting, I mean
thinking first about the employers needs
and expectations and figuring out how you
can create value for their organization.
What does the potential employer really
need from a new employee? What specific
technical skills, workplace competencies
and personal qualities is the employer
looking for? Now if you can ask those
questions dispassionately, you should be
able to identify your own strengths that
match and gently weave them into every
conversation you have in the world of
good jobs and prospective careers.

b. In Equally important, they turn the


audience/listeners into (lines 40-41),
the pronoun they refers to people.
c. In It told the true story (line 71), It
refers to the movie.
d. In This story was dead on arrival
(lines 94-95) the pronoun This refers
to the story that the father tells.
e. In His telling (line 111), His refers to
the son.
235. PUC-RJ
Mark the incorrect option concerning the
statements, based on the text.
a. In they are far more than entertainment
(lines 13), far means much.
b. The expression not only would we not
likely have survived as a species (lines
52-53) means that it is not probable
that we would have survived.
c. In While we think of stories (lines 5758), while could be substituted by
although.
d. The phrase Out of courtesy (line 96)
suggests that the author wanted to be
polite.
e. The phrase not least about the many
values (lines 107-108) means that
the father and sons values were not
important.

Disponvel em: <http://careerplanning.about.com


e www.your-career-change.com>. Adaptado

Qual o significado da orao if you can ask


those questions dispassionately no texto? A
quais perguntas se faz referncia nessa orao?
237. FGV-SP

236. Unesp

Leia o texto para responder questo.

Leia o texto e responda questo.

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Not so perfect after all


1
For the past four decades or so,
Botswana has been Africas golden boy.
The former British possession has grown
as fast as almost any country in the world.
It has built an enviable reputation for
good governance and political stability.
It has a decent record on civil liberties
and a relatively free press. Once one of
the worlds poorest countries, it now
ranks among the richer middle-income
ones. A lot has to do with the discovery
of diamonds, of which it is the worlds
biggest producer, soon after independence
in 1996. But unlike many other mineralrich countries, it has invested wisely. It
has been ranked as Africas least corrupt
country.

Personal Marketing: Selling yourself


Before you begin a job search
campaign you must have a personal
marketing strategy. A personal marketing
strategy provides you with a game plan
for your job search campaign.
You should look at the job search as
a marketing campaign, with you, the job
seeker, as the product. Every product,
even the best ones, wont succeed without
a strong marketing strategy. This begins
with a comprehensive, yet flexible plan.
First you must know to whom you are
marketing. You must identify the types of
employers who would be looking for an
employee with your qualifications. Are
they all within a certain industry? Are
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2
But for the past two months it
has been shaken by its first nationwide
public-sector strike. Botswanas 2m
people, generally a deferential lot, were
shocked when their normally unarmed
police used tear-gas and rubber bullets to
disperse rioting secondary-school pupils
after they went on the rampage in April.
The government closed all state schools,
though they have since reopened.
3
The affair started as an ordinary
pay dispute. Permitted for the first time
to join trade unions under a new law, the
countrys 120,000 public-sector workers
promptly demanded a 16% pay rise after a
three-year wage freeze. The government,
pleading poverty following a slump in
the diamond market during the global
recession, offered just 5% conditional on
future economic growth. Eager to flex their
muscles, the newly formed unions stood
their ground. But the government, the
countrys biggest employer, accounting
for 40% of formal jobs, also refused to
budge.
4
On April 18th the unions called
an all-out strike claiming that 80%
responded. Even at its peak, says the
government, no more than half of its
employees walked out, leaving most
ministries and services operating more
or less normally. But the government
has dealt with the dispute with a heavy
hand, firing 1,400 striking health workers,
including some 50 doctors, claiming they
were providing an essential service and
as such were banned under the constitution
from striking. Worn down by almost two
months without pay, the unions have
agreed to accept the governments revised
unconditional 3% offer, provided all
sacked workers are reinstated. This, the
government is refusing to do.

c. giving certain public-sector workers


their jobs back.
d. offering a wage increase of more than
3% to Botswanas 120,000 publicsector workers.
e. paying the public-sector workers for
the time that they were on strike.
238. Unifesp
Leia o texto para responder questo.
How computers will soon get under
our skin
by Steve Connor, Science Editor
12 August 2011

It may soon be possible to wear your


computer or mobile phone under your
sleeve, with the invention of an ultra-thin
and flexible electronic circuit that can be
stuck to the skin like a temporary tattoo.
The device, which is almost invisible, can
perform just as well as more conventional
electronic machines but without the
need for wires or bulky power supplies,
scientists said. The development could
mark a new era in consumer electronics.
The technology could be used for
applications ranging from medical
diagnosis to covert military operations.
The epidermal electronic system
relies on a highly flexible electrical circuit
composed of snake-like conducting
channels that can bend and stretch without
affecting performance. The circuit is
about the size of a postage stamp, is
thinner than a human hair and sticks to the
skin by natural electrostatic forces rather
than glue. We think this could be an
important conceptual advance in wearable
electronics, to achieve something that is
almost unnoticeable to the wearer. The
technology can connect you to the physical
world and the cyberworld in a very
natural way that feels comfortable, said
Professor Todd Coleman of the University
of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, who led
the research team.
A simple stick-on circuit can
monitor a persons heart rate and muscle
movements as well as conventional
medical monitors, but with the benefit of
being weightless and almost completely

The Economist June 11th 17th 2011.

In the last sentence of paragraph 4, This in


This the government is refusing to do most
likely refers to the act of:
a. authorizing a 16% pay increase for
Botswanas public-sector workers.
b. increasing the number of workers in
the public sector.
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The perils down south


1
Over the past decade Mexico may
not have enjoyed explosive economic
growth, but it has achieved something
equally valuable. As it has transited rather
painlessly from seven decades of rule by
the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)
to a competitive democracy, the country
has discovered a new stability. Problems
and poverty remain, but thanks partly
to the much-maligned North American
Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA) linking
Mexicos economy to those of the United
States and Canada, there was quiet
progress. Most Mexicans can now claim
to be middle-class.
2 This stability looks in jeopardy. A
crackdown on drug-trafficking, launched
by Felipe Caldern after he narrowly won
the presidency in 2006, has provoked a
wave of violence. Albeit fairly localised,
this shows no sign of subsiding. Efforts
to create a new, uncorrupt police force
are moving very slowly. Worse, Mexico
has been deeply hurt by recession, mainly
because much of its industry is tied to
the sickest segments of the American
economy cars and construction while
its migrant workers north of the border are
sending less money home. And now swine
flu has knocked out the tourist industry.
The economy is set to shrink by around
6% this year. Unemployment is soaring.
Migration to the United States no longer
offers a safety valve: crossing the border
has become riskier, and those who make it
have little prospect of a job.
3
Unlike the last deep recession in
1994-95, this one was not caused by
Mexicos own mistakes. But that is little
comfort. Last time the economy bounced
back quickly. That may be harder now.
Border security checks are slowing
trade flows; violence may discourage
foreign investors. At home, public and
private monopolies dominate activities
from energy to telecommunications and
education, caging animal spirits. Mexico
has slipped down the world rankings of
competitiveness.
4
None of this means that Mexico is
about to become a failed state, as some

undetectable. Scientists said it may also


be possible to build a circuit for detecting
throat movements around the larynx
in order to transmit the information
wirelessly as a way of recording a persons
speech, even if they are not making any
discernible sounds.
Tests have already shown that
such a system can be used to control a
voice-activated computer game, and one
suggestion is that a stick-on voicebox
circuit could be used in covert police
operations where it might be too dangerous
to speak into a radio transmitter. The
blurring of electronics and biology is really
the key point here, said Yonggang Huang,
professor of engineering at Northwestern
University in Evanston, Illinois. All
established forms of electronics are hard,
rigid. Biology is soft, elastic. Its two
different worlds. This is a way to truly
integrate them.
Engineers have built test circuits
mounted on a thin, rubbery substrate that
adheres to the skin. The circuits have
included sensors, light-emitting diodes,
transistors, radio frequency capacitors,
wireless antennas, conductive coils and
solar cells. We threw everything in our
bag of tricks on to that platform, and
then added a few other new ideas on top
of those, to show that we could make it
work, said John Rogers, professor of
engineering at the University of Illinois at
Urbana-Champaign, a lead author of the
study, published in the journal Science.
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Disponvel em: <http://www.


independent.co.uk>. Adaptado.

In the excerpt of the fourth paragraph This is


a way to truly integrate them the word this
referes to:
a. two different worlds.
b. electronics.
c. biology.
d. control a voice activated device.
e. blurring of electronics and biology.
Leia o texto para responder s questes 239
e 240.

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

analysts in Washington have suggested.


But the country does risk losing its hardwon stability. The recession has blown a
hole in the public finances. Because of the
gross inefficiency of Pemex, the state oil
monopoly, oil output is plunging. Mexico
may soon lose its cherished investmentgrade credit rating. If the recession drags
on, the risk of social turmoil will rise. The
worry is that economic and sociopolitical
instability may start to feed on each other.
5 Despite all this Mr. Caldern remains
popular. He is a decent man doing a
difficult job. (His weakness has been to
fill too many senior posts with lacklustre
people.) He has pushed through modest
reforms of energy and education. But
that was not enough for his party to
avoid defeat in last Sundays mid-term
election. The PRI and its allies now have
a majority in the lower house of Congress
which writes the budget whereas the
presidents party will lack the numbers
to veto legislation. This hardens political
deadlock.

a. the current recession will probably end


sooner than the last one did.
b. the current recession has not hurt
Mexicos economy as much as the last
one did.
c. Mexico is not to blame for its current
recession.
d. as soon as the United States economy
recovers, Mexicos economy will also
recover.
e. though Mexicos economy is in trouble,
foreign investment has remained
stable.
Leia o texto e responda s questes 241 e 242.
Remarks by the President Barack
Obama on Osama Bin Laden (Part I)
THE PRESIDENT: Good evening.
Tonight, I can report to the American
people and to the world that the United
States has conducted an operation that
killed Osama bin Laden, the leader of al
Qaeda, and a terrorist whos responsible
for the murder of thousands of innocent
men, women, and children.
It was nearly 10 years ago that a
bright September day was darkened by the
worst attack on the American people in
our history. The images of 9/11 are seared
into our national memory hijacked planes
cutting through a cloudless September
sky; the Twin Towers collapsing to the
ground; black smoke billowing up from
the Pentagon; the wreckage of Flight 93
in Shanksville, Pennsylvania, where the
actions of heroic citizens saved even more
heartbreak and destruction.
And yet we know that the worst
images are those that were unseen to
the world. The empty seat at the dinner
table. Children who were forced to grow
up without their mother or their father.
Parents who would never know the feeling
of their childs embrace. Nearly 3,000
citizens taken from us, leaving a gaping
hole in our hearts.
On September 11, 2001, in our
time of grief, the American people came
together. We offered our neighbors a hand,
and we offered the wounded our blood.
We reaffirmed our ties to each other, and

The Economist July 11th 2009.

239. FGV-SP
The last phrase in paragraph 2, those who
make it have little prospect of a job, most likely
means the same as which of the following?
a. Mexicans who are able to get into the
United States probably wont find work.
b. Mexicans have discovered that it is also
very difficult for them to find work in
the American tourist industry.
c. Mexicans who used to work in the
domestic car industry have little hope
of finding work in the American car
industry.
d. Mexicos government can no longer
count on the United States economy to
absorb unemployed Mexican workers.
e. Even Mexicans who receive visas to
work in the United States cant get a job.
240. FGV-SP
In paragraph 3, that in the sentence But
that is little comfort most likely refers to the
fact that:

206

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our love of community and country. On


that day, no matter where we came from,
what God we prayed to, or what race or
ethnicity we were, we were united as one
American family.
We were also united in our resolve
to protect our nation and to bring those
who committed this vicious attack to
justice. We quickly learned that the 9/11
attacks were carried out by al Qaeda
an organization headed by Osama bin
Laden, which had openly declared war
on the United States and was committed
to killing innocents in our country and
around the globe. And so we went to war
against al Qaeda to protect our citizens,
our friends, and our allies.
()

As lacunas seriam corretamente preenchidas


de acordo com a alternativa:
a. Smoking themselves
b. To smoke them
c. Smoke their
d. Smoked theirs
e. To smoke they
Leia o texto e responda s questes de 244 a
246.
Brazil police occupy Rio favela in
World Cup operation
Brazilian security forces have
occupied one of Rio de Janeiros biggest
slums as part of a major crackdown ahead
of the 2014 World Cup and 2016 Olympics.
Some 800 police and special forces
moved into the Mangueira shantytown,
without needing to fire a shot, having
announced the raid in advance.
The slum or favela is close to
Rios famous Maracana stadium, where
the World Cup final will be played.
The pre-dawn operation involved
armoured vehicles and helicopters.
According to the newspaper, O Globo,
leaflets were thrown out of the helicopters,
some with photos of wanted criminals.
Others were printed with the police
special forces telephone number so that
residents could pass on information about
drugs traffickers or weapons.
BBC Brazil correspondent Paulo
Cabral says most of Mangueiras residents
co-operated with the operation, as they
want to rid the area of drug dealers.
He says that Rios authorities are
making an effort to gain the trust of those
living in the slums, who after decades of
abuse have got used to seeing the police
as their enemy.
Mangueira home to one of Rios
most famous samba schools is the 18th
favela that the authorities have occupied
recently.

241. URCA-BA
Cloudless means:
a. full of clouds.
b. without cloud.
c. dark.
d. empty.
e. rainy.
242. URCA-BA

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The prefix un- (in unseen), re- (in reaffirmed)


means, respectively:
a. Negation, three times.
b. One, repetition.
c. With, without.
d. Negation, repetition.
e. Absence, once.
243. Fameca-SP
Leia o cartum e responda questo.

Disponvel em: <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/


world-latin-america-13833037>. Adaptado.

244. Unioeste-PR
According to the text, all the alternatives
below are correct, except:
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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

just to look around. They have to buy


___I ___. Shopaholics often buy clothes
without trying them on and often make
themselves unhappy by buying more than
they can use or pay for. The shopaholic
who runs out of money will sometimes
resort to shoplifting (stealing small items
from shops). Compulsive shopping is a
type of ___II___ similar to the ones to
alcohol or cigarettes.

a. panfletos, alguns deles com fotos de


foragidos da polcia, foram lanados de
helicptero.
b. a polcia e as foras armadas ocuparam
a favela da Mangueira como tentativa
das autoridades de ganhar a confiana
das pessoas que l moram.
c. a polcia e as foras armadas vm ocupando diferentes favelas no Rio, a fim
de melhorar a segurana da cidade
para a Copa do Mundo de 2014 e as
Olimpadas de 2016.
d. a polcia e as foras armadas tiveram o
apoio da populao da favela da Mangueira.
e. foi necessrio o uso de armas de fogo
para conter a populao da favela.

COSTA, Marcelo Baccarin. Globetrekker.


So Paulo: Macmillan, 2008.

As lacunas I e II no texto acima podem ser


completadas, de forma correta e na mesma
sequncia, pela opo:
a. anything acquisition
b. something place
c. someone person
d. something addiction
e. nothing job

245. Unioeste-PR
In the word traffickers, the sufix -er has the
same meaning as in:
I. worker.
II. danger.
III. writer.
IV. prettier.

Leia o texto para responder s questes de


248 a 250.
Honesty
by Lisa Mabey

I once returned a pair of shoes that


was sent to me by accident. I had paid
for one pair in the store, and a second
pair was sent to my home by accident.
So I took the second pair back into the
store, and handed them to the store
clerk explaining the situation. He held
the shoebox in his hand in disbelief and
just looked at me. He then thanked me
for my honesty and commented that
hed never seen that happen before. I
was amazed that such a simple act of
honesty was met with such incredulity.
Is honesty really that uncommon?
I think there are honest acts all over
the place, but perhaps theyre quieter
acts. Being honest is much bigger than
just not lying. Its doing the right thing
no matter what. Its not rationalizing
your actions (because if youre trying
to rationalize, you already know
somethings wrong, right?).
Being honest also requires a bit of
courage sometimes. I wrote previously
about the little boy who appeared on my

Mark the correct alternative.


a. I and IV.
b. II and III.
c. I and III.
d. I and II.
e. II and IV.
246. Unioeste-PR
Shantytown or slum can be best defined as:
a. a settlement of people who live in
improvised houses made from scrap
materials.
b. a urban developed area.
c. a rich commercial area.
d. a urban industrial area.
e. a developed area.
247. UPE
Leia o texto e responda questo.
Shopaholics are people who buy
things compulsively without really
needing them. They cannot go into a shop
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doorstep with his dad to tell me about


something hed done. I know that took
courage, and I appreciated it immensely.
But more than that, he learned that being
honest is the right thing to do and you
can feel happy when you are honest.
Honest people are people of character
and are trustworthy. You want to be
around people you can trust and who
you know will deal with you justly.
Dishonesty hurts you and others.
It hurts your spirit and your ability to
feel Gods influence when youre doing
something wrong. You have to remember
that honesty extends beyond others: being
honest with yourself and the Lord is
sometimes even more important because
your spiritual well-being is on the line.

Leia o texto e responda as questes 251 e 252.


Pollution in Brazil
The silvery Tiet
A Brazilian radio programme
broadcast in 1990, The Meeting of
the Rivers, compared the condition
of Londons River Thames with So
Paulos Tiet. The Thames had been
reborn, starting from Joseph Bazalgette,
a Victorian engineer, who began to
build sewers that diverted the filth
downstream. The Tiet was choking in
waste from 33,000 factories and sewage
from 13m people, more than four filths
of it untreated. The river was biologically
dead as far as Barra Bonita, 260km
downstream from So Paulo city.
The show struck a chord. Newspapers
and NOGS joined the campaign to clean
up the river. A petition attracted 1.2m
signatures. Finally, in 1992, Projeto Tiet
was launched.
Unlike many other infrastructure
projects in Brazil, this one kept going
through hyperinflation, financial crises
and changing political leaders. Cheap
loans helped the biggest industrial
polluters to become cleaner. New watertreatment plants were built and sewage
pipes laid.
Twenty years later, the Tiet is still
stinking and filthy as it flows darkly
through So Paulo. But not for much
longer. Today 55% of the citys sewage
is treated; by 2018, 85% should be. The
state governor, Geraldo Alckmin, is trying
to get the 35 municipalities in the Tiet
basin to co-operate: until 2010 Guarulhos,
a satellite city of 1.2m people, treated not
a drop of its sewage.
So Paulos pollution now reaches
only as far as Salto, 100km downstream.
By 2018, says Monica Porto, a waterquality expert at the University of So
Paulo, the benefits should be visible and
sniffable in the city itself.
Paulistanos used to love their river,
says Janes Jorge, whose book, The River
the City Lost, tells its history. Artists
painted it; swimmers and rowers raced on
it; families had days out on its islands and

Disponvel em: <http://lds.families.com/blog/


for-the-strength-of-youth-series-honesty>
Acesso em: 5 set. 2011. Adaptado.

248. UFPB
According to the text, it is correct to say that
it is:
a. a novel about an honest girl.
b. a testimony about being honest.
c. a play about honesty and courage.
d. a sermon about an honest store clerk.
e. an essay about honesty and lying.
249. UFPB

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In the first paragraph of the text, the store


clerks reaction to Lisas attitude made her
feel:
a. frightened.
b. delighted.
c. pleased.
d. surprised.
e. relieved.
250. UFPB
The text states that a dishonest person hurts:
a. himself alone.
b. everyone physically.
c. both himself and other people.
d. no one but God.
e. himself only spiritually.

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banks. Sorting out the citys sewage is just


a start, Mr Jorge says: much of what sullies
the Tiet is rubbish thrown on the street
and dust and oil from cars. The rivers
problems are an expression of the citys
problems of poverty and environmental
degradation. Its clean-up may show that
all this is slowly being overcome.

Leia o texto e responda as questes 253 e 254.


Go easy on yourself
by Stuart Bradford

Do you treat yourself as well as you


treat your friends and family?
That simple question is the basis for
a burgeoning new area of psychological
research called self-compassion how
___(I)___ people view themselves. People
who find it ___(II)___ to be supportive
and understanding to others often score
___(III)___ low on self-compassion tests.
They get ___(IV)___ with themselves for
perceived failures like being overweight
or not exercising.
Anxious
The research suggests that giving
ourselves a break and accepting our
imperfections may be the first step toward
better health. People who score high
on tests of self-compassion have less
depression and anxiety, and tend to be
happier and more optimistic. Preliminary
data suggest that self-compassion can
even influence how much we eat and may
help some people lose weight.
This idea does seem at odds with
the advice dispensed by many doctors
and self-help books, which suggest that
willpower and self-discipline are the
keys to better health. But Kristin Neff, a
pioneer in the field, says self-compassion
is not to be confused with self-indulgence
or lower standards.
I found in my research that the
biggest reason people arent more selfcompassionate is that they are afraid
theyll become self-indulgent, said Dr.
Neff, an associate professor of human
development at the University of Texas
at Austin. They believe self-criticism
is what keeps them in line. Most people
have gotten it wrong because our culture
says being hard on yourself is the way
to be.

The Economist October 22nd-28th, 2011. Adaptado.

251. Unitau-SP
Assinale a alternativa correta.
According to the text:
I. The condition of Londons Thames River
is worse than So Paulos Tiet River.
II. The campaign to clean up Tiet started
20 years ago.
III. Nowadays 55% of Guarulhos sewage is
treated.
IV. The citys sewage is just one of the
problems of So Paulo city.
V. 85% of So Paulos sewage is treated
today.
a. Sentences I and II are false; III, IV and
V are true.
b. Sentences II and IV are true; I, III and V
are false.
c. Sentences I and V are false; II, III, IV and
V are true.
d. Sentences II, III, V are true; I and IV are
false.
e. Sentences I, II, V are false; III and IV are
true.
252. Unitau-SP
Assinale a alternativa correta.
As palavras formadas por sufixos como: visible
sniffable; smimmers rowers; biologically
slowly; financial political, pertencem a quais
classes de palavras, respectivamente:
a. adjetivo, substantivo, advrbio e adjetivo.
b. substantivo, adjetivo, advrbio e adjetivo.
c. advrbio, substantivo, advrbio, e advrbio.
d. adjetivo, substantivo, substantivo e adjetivo.
e. substantivo, advrbio, advrbio e adjetivo.

Disponvel em: <www.NYTimes.com>.

253. Mackenzie-SP
The message conveyed by the text states that:
a. anxiety and depression can be
overcome by reading self-help books.
b. being hard on yourself is the way to be.
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c. self-criticism is immediately linked with


self-indulgence.
d. wed better forgive and love ourselves
even if we fail.
e. willpower is a psychological side of
self-compassion if associated with selfcriticism and overcoming of personal
failures.
254. Mackenzie-SP
The words that properly fill in the blanks I, II, III
and IV in the text are:
a. kind, easily, surpirsing and anger.
b. kind, easily, surpirse and angrily.
c. kindly, easy, surpirsingly and angry.
d. kindly, easily, surpirsingly and angrily.
e. kind, ease, surpirsing and anger.

Analyze the sentences:


I. burnt-out (verse 1) means destroyed
by the fire and it is being used as an adjective.
II. slight (verse 4) means long and it is
being used as a verb.
III. Surely (verse 7) means certainly and
it is being used as an adverb.
IV. indeed (verse 9) means flavor and it
is being used as an idiom.
V. some (verse 14) means a given number
and it is being used as an article.
Mark the correct alternative:
a. II and IV are correct.
b. I, III and IV are correct.
c. I and III are correct.
d. Only III is correct.
e. All alternatives are correct.

255. Udesc
Leia o texto e responda questo.

Leia o texto e responda s questes 256 e 257.

The grave of Shelley


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Our Conquering Swords

by Oscar Wilde

Like burnt-out torches by a sick mans


[bed
Gaunt cypress-trees stand round the
[sun-bleached stone;
Here doth the little night-owl make
[her throne,
And the slight lizard show his
[jewelled head.
And, where the chaliced poppies
[flame to red,
In the still chamber of yon pyramid
Surely some Old-World Sphinx
[lurks darkly hid,
Grim warder of this pleasaunce of
[the dead.

Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593)

1. Our conquering swords hall marshall


[us the way
2. We use to march upon the slaughterd
[foe,
3. Trampling their bowels with our
[horses hoofs,
4. Brave horses bred on the white
[Tartarian hills.
5. My camp is like to Julius Caesars
[host,
6. That never fought but had the victory;
7. Nor in Pharsalia was there such hot
[war
8. As these, my followers, willingly
[ would have.
9. Legions of spirits, fleeting in the air,
10. Direct our bullets and our weapons
[points,
11. And make your strokes to wound the
[senseless light;
12. And when she sees our bloody
[colours spread,
13. Then Victory begins to take her
[flight,
14. Resting herself upon my milk-white
[tent

Ah! Sweet indeed to rest within the


[womb
Of Earth, great mother of eternal
[sleep,
But sweeter far for thee a restless
[tomb
In the blue cavern of an echoing
[deep,
Or where the tall ships founder in
[the gloom
Against the rocks of some wave[shattered steep.
Disponvel em: <http://www.poetry-archive.com>.

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15. But come, my lords, to weapons let


[us fall;
16. The field is ours, the Turk, his wife,
[and all.

Leia o texto e responda s questes de 258 a


260.
Bullying and Empathy

Disponvel em: <http://www.poetry-archive.


com/m/marlowe_christopher.html>.

by Kate Altman

Glossary
fleeting: passing quickly; lasting only a short
time.
shall: modal verb indicating future predictions.
slaughter: kill (animals or people) in large
numbers.
sword: weapon with a long thin metal blade
and a protected handle.
trample: tread heavily on sth/sb so as to cause
damage or destruction.
wound: give a wound to (sb). Wound (n):
injury caused deliberately to part of the body
by cutting, shooting, etc, esp. as the result of
an attack.

Newsweek offers an article


on how schools are using
empathy-trainlng programs in
an effort to reduce bullying in
schools

256. UFT-TO
The main idea of the poem is:
a. an agreement of peace between two
peoples.
b. an apology to the Muslim Empire.
c. an invitation to soldiers to surrender in
the battle of Pharsalia.
d. a prayer to those who bred the brave
horses.
e. an encouragement to soldiers going to
war.

10

257. UFT-TO
Mark the correct answer according to the
poem.
a. The words conquering (verse 1) and
trampling (verse 3) are in the same
grammatical category because they are
both adverbs.
b. Our (verse 1) is a possessive pronoun,
while us (verse 1) is a possessive
adjective.
c. The pronoun their (verse 3) refers to
the word swords.
d. The suffix -less represents lack of,
so the word senseless (verse 11)
means without sense.
e. The construction milk-white (verse
14) is an adverb.

15

20

25

212

The effective __ of such programs


is unclear at this point, and experts are
divided on whether it makes more sense
to offer the programs to young children
(elementary school age) or older
children (middle school age) (both, is
probably the answer). High school kids
are simply difficult to reach logistically,
since they all have different schedules
all day. Unsurprisingly, some experts
have found that the most important
component to empathy training is to
include the parents.
In assessing these programs
and the broader issues of empathytraining and bullying, there are
multiple factors to consider and no
clear answers. First of all, empathy
is one of the most difficult and leastunderstood skills we can develop
adults and kids alike. Empathy is the
process of viewing and understanding
the
world
through
anothers
experience, and it is often confused
with sympathy, which is, essentially,
compassion and lacks the walking in
anothers shoes component (which
is not to say it is not an admirable

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30

35

40

45

50

55

60

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65

70

75

trait, its just different from empathy).


Developmentally, children may not be
able to truly understand and practice
empathy until they are closer to the
pre-teen years, but introducing the
concept early and often is a good
primer for its later development.
Another big question to
consider: are programs focused on
empathy simply band-aids on much
larger, more systemic problems?
Why are kids bullying other kids in
the first place? What family issues,
societal issues, educational issues,
are contributing to the need/urge to
humiliate and attack other children
for some sort of personal gain and
satisfaction? My guess is that for many
kids, participating in a brief (or even
a few brief) empathy-skills seminars
simply is not enough, and will not get
at the root(s) of the problems(s), no
matter how young they are when the
programs begin.
Im not saying that the programs
are not a good idea. I imagine that
they have a lot of benefits and could
especially help kids who would not
necessarily be bullies themselves,
but may have quietly stood by while
witnessing bullying, to become
more confident about standing up to/
reporting bullies. However, to truly
reduce bullying, society and schools
need to find ways to identify and
work with aggressive children and
their families from a young age to
troubleshoot factors (from not having
basic needs met, to divorce, to models
of aggression in the home, etc.) that
contribute to triggering aggressive
behavior. Such an approach would
be expensive and time-consuming
and would command a lot of schools
resources, but it is hard to imagine
a more lightweight approach being
nearly as effective.

Ingls

258. ITA-SP
Para estar adequada ao contexto em que
aparece, a palavra effective (linha 1) deve ser
acrescida de:
a. fully.
b. by.
c. ness.
d. fuI.
e. lessly.
259. ITA-SP
A opo que descreve a palavra empathy :
a. essentially compassion.
b. walking in anothers shoes.
c. an admirable trait.
d. a band-aid on more systemic problems.
e. societal and educational issues.
260. ITA-SP
Segundo o texto:
a. difcil incluir os alunos de Ensino Mdio nos empathy training programs,
por serem mais velhos e demandarem
uma abordagem diferenciada.
b. o componente mais importante na empatia a relao familiar.
c. simpatia est estritamente relacionada
empatia.
d. intil trabalhar o conceito de empatia
anteriormente pr-adolescncia.
e. h, provavelmente, fatores mais determinantes para a prtica de bullying do
que a falta de empatia.
Leia o texto e responda s questes de 261 a
265.
Not far from the tree
by Mariana de Viveiros

They say the apple doesnt fall far


from the tree. So, the son of a circus
performer is likely to be also an artist
himself. 12-year-old Matheus Felipe
Jesus Silva was born in the circus. That
is, ever since he was a baby, hes lived
in a trailer (a mobile home pulled by a
car or a truck). His mother is a ballet
dancer at CircoSpacial, where Matheus
himself is also a performer since the age
of 3. He started doing presentations with
clowns and nowadays he is a trapeze

Disponvel em: <http://www. newsweek.


com/2010/12/15/can-schools-teachkids-not-to-bully.html>.

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artist (just like his dad, who works in


Europe), equilibrist and acrobat.
As the circus travels all over Brazil,
Matheus changes schools very often. He
studies in the morning, has rehearsals
in the afternoon and, at weekends, he
performs in the circus ring. He says that
this routine doesnt disturb his studies
and he wants to graduate in Physical
Education. But I want to work in the
circus forever. On account of the
mobility of his life and his outgoing
nature, Matheus makes new friends
wherever he goes and keeps in touch
with them through the internet. Kids
think that I have a peculiar way of life
and come to the circus to watch my
show, he adds.
On his days off, he likes to go to the
movies, to the mall and to shows. Read on to
see his favorite film, book, CD and website.

264. UEMA
Which option pictures Matheus leisure?
a. mall x dancing.
b. presentation x studies.
c. sports x internet.
d. movies x shows.
e. book x circus ring.
265. UEMA
What does Matheus father do for a living?
a. An acrobat.
b. An equilibrist.
c. A trapeze artist.
d. A clown.
e. A trailer driver.
266. UFPB
Leia o texto e responda questo.
Adora Svitak: tiny literary giant at 12
Adora started writing when she was
four years old. She hasnt stopped since.
At six, Adora received a laptop computer
from her mother, on which she quickly
amassed a collection of hundreds of short
stories and hundreds of thousands of
words typing at 70 words per minute.
At the age of seven, Adora achieved
her dream of becoming a published author
with the release of Flying Fingers: Master
the Tools of Learning Through the Joy
of Writing. The book featured several
of Adoras short stories, along with her
writing tips, typing tips, and advice from
her mother. At age 11, Adora published a
second book, Dancing Fingers, with her
older sister, Adrianna.
Today, Adora is 12 and she has
transformed her writing success into
speaking and teaching success. She
has spoken at over 400 schools and
presented at the annual TED (Technology,
Entertainment, Design) conference. Shes
also planning a conference of her own, for
kids and by kids, called TEDx Redmond.
She has been featured on Good Morning
America and on CNN. Adora also
maintains a blog and attends an online
public school. She is in the eighth grade.

Revista TAM Kids, julho/agosto 2011.

261. UEMA
Which means of communication does Matheus
usually use to get in touch with his pals?
a. Mail.
b. Phone.
c. Internet.
d. Post-office.
e. Letters.
262. UEMA
How long has Matheus been working at the
CircoSpacial?
a. For 9 years.
b. For 3 years.
c. For 12 years.
d. Since he was born.
e. Since his mother has delivered him.
263. UEMA
One can relate ...mobility of his life... to the
words:
a. clowns and kids.
b. trucks and trailers.
c. circus and ballet dancers.
d. cars and lack of routine.
e. movies and new friends.

Disponvel em: <http://juniorbiz.com/adora-svitakinterview>. Acesso em: 02 jun. 2011. Adaptado.

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Dishonesty hurts you and others.


It hurts your spirit and your ability to
feel Gods influence when youre doing
something wrong. You have to remember
that honesty extends beyond others: being
honest with yourself and the Lord is
sometimes even more important because
your spiritual well-being is on the line.

Identify the questions whose answers are


found in paragraph three of the text:
I. How old is Adora now?
II. What grade is Adora at school?
III. Where has she presented conferences?
IV. How many schools does Adora maintain?
V. Which media has Adora been featured
on?

Disponvel em: <http://lds.families.com/blog/


for-the-strength-of-youth-series-honesty>
Acesso em: 5 set. 2011. Adaptado.

267. UFPB
Leia o texto e responda questo.

Identify the questions whose answers are


found in the text.
I. How did the clerk react to the shoe
episode?
II. How did Lisa get the second pair of
shoes?
III. How must someone treat a dishonest
person?
IV. How did Lisa respond to the little boys
attitude?
V. How should people deal with store
clerks?

Honesty
by Lisa Mabey

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I once returned a pair of shoes that


was sent to me by accident. I had paid
for one pair in the store, and a second
pair was sent to my home by accident.
So I took the second pair back into the
store, and handed them to the store clerk
explaining the situation. He held the
shoebox in his hand in disbelief and just
looked at me. He then thanked me for my
honesty and commented that hed never
seen that happen before. I was amazed
that such a simple act of honesty was met
with such incredulity. Is honesty really
that uncommon?
I think there are honest acts all over
the place, but perhaps theyre quieter acts.
Being honest is much bigger than just not
lying. Its doing the right thing no matter
what. Its not rationalizing your actions
(because if youre trying to rationalize,
you already know somethings wrong,
right?).
Being honest also requires a bit of
courage sometimes. I wrote previously
about the little boy who appeared on my
doorstep with his dad to tell me about
something hed done. I know that took
courage, and I appreciated it immensely.
But more than that, he learned that being
honest is the right thing to do and you can
feel happy when you are honest. Honest
people are people of character and are
trustworthy. You want to be around people
you can trust and who you know will deal
with you justly.

Leia o texto e responda s questes 268 e 269.


Earth may once have had two moons
A new theory suggests the Earth once
had a small second moon that disappeared
after a collision with its big sister.
Researchers say in an article in the journal
Nature that the slow speed of the collision
may explain the build up of highlands on the
rarely seen part of the Moon.
This new theory builds on the idea that
around four billion years ago the Earth was
struck by a Mars-like planet, but instead of
the smash producing enough debris for one
moon, this scientific essay argues there was
enough for two.
This small second moon became
stuck in a gravitational tug of war between
the Earth and its much larger sister. After
millions of years in this position the new
moon was drawn into a collision at a speed
of less than three kilometers per second.
The scientists say this slow paced crash
may have caused a build up of material and
the formation of highlands on the Moons far
side, the face of the Moon that cant be seen

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from the Earth. For decades scientists have


been trying to understand why the visible
near side of the Moon is covered in craters
while the far side has mountain ranges
higher than 3,000 meters. The researchers
hope that NASA observational missions
might prove this new theory within a year.

270. UEFS-BA
Leia o texto e responda questo.

McGRATH, Matt. Earth may once have had two moons.


Disponvel em: <www.bbc.co.uk/
worldservice/learningenglish/language/
wordsinthrnews/2011/08/110805_witn_moons_
page.shtml>. Acesso em: 12 out. 2011.

Fill in the parentheses with T (True) or F (False).


About Earths second moon its correct to say:
( ) It may have been destroyed after having hit
the bigger moon.
( ) Its collision with the present moon would
have occurred at a relatively low speed.
( ) It used to be fixed between the Earth and
the bigger moon.
( ) It didnt seem to be affected by the force
of gravity.

William Ellis Green, 82, was making


his breakfast when he heard somebody in
his garden. I went out the back door, and
suddenly I saw this guy running toward me.
He pushed me out of the way and took my
bicycle from the garden shed. Mr. Green did
not resist, as he knew he would end up secondbest in a fight with the intruder. The burglar
tried to cycle away, but the tires on the bike
were flat, making it difficult to ride. He kept
falling off the bicycle, said Mr. Green, at
least three or four times. After the man fled,
Mr. Green called the local police.
When they arrived, officers asked him
to describe the man, but instead he offered
to draw them a picture. When Mr. Green
started drawing, said one of the police
officers, I knew right away who the burglar
was. Actually, Mr. Green had worked for
more than 20 years in daily newspapers
doing caricatures of Australian soccer
players. I had no difficulty in remembering
the mans face because he was so close to
me, he said.
Police cruised the neighborhood in a
patrol car with the sketch in search of the
alleged burglar and found him within half an
hour. The cartoon was a perfect likeness of
the burglar, said another police officer.
The police believe that this is the first
time they have ever caught a suspect by
using a cartoon sketch. Phil Rushford, a
senior police officer, said that in the past
some victims had used their cell phones to
take photographs at crime scenes, but they
had not been as effective.

According to the text, the correct sequence,


from top to bottom, is:
a. T, F, T, F
b. F, T, F, T
c. F, F, T, T
d. T, T, T, F
e. T, T, T, T
269. Unicentro-PR
This new theory builds on the idea that around
four billion years ago the Earth was struck by
a Mars-like planet, but instead of the smash
producing enough debris for one moon, this
scientific essay argues there was enough for
two. (paragraph 2)
The only question to which there is no answer
in this fragment of the article is in alternative:
a. What was that planet like?
b. What were the moons made of?
c. Why was there the creation of two
moons?
d. How often did those collisions use to
happen?
e. When did another planet crash into the
Earth?
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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

A 34-year-old man is expected to be


charged with theft, burglary, and assault.
The missing bike was later found on a
nearby street.

Ingls

a. porque sua me, vinte e cinco anos


atrs, recebeu um tratamento especial
nessa instituio.
b. devido inexistncia, nessa instituio,
de desafios que punham em dvida
suas habilidades clnicas.
c. porque se trata de um hospital-escola
que vai lhe permitir a transmisso de
suas capacidades.
d. porque se sente incentivado pelas realizaes e avanos conseguidos pela
instituio.
e. devido ao destaque da instituio entre
os melhores 25 hospitais dos Estados
Unidos.
272. FAMECA-SP

OXENDEN, Clive; LATHAM-KOENIG, Christina


American English File, MultiPack 4A, 2010. p.51

The only question to which there is no answer


in paragraphs 4 and 5 is in alternative:
a. Whos Phil Rushford?
b. When was the bike found?
c. What did victims use to do at crime
scenes?
d. Why cant the burglar be convicted of
the theft?
e. How often have the police arrested a
suspect by using a cartoon sketch?
Leia o texto e responda s questes 271 e 272.

Com relao ao Garden City Hospital, o anncio:


a. procura atrair o pblico em geral para
a instituio.
b. destina-se obteno de novos prmios para o hospital.
c. tem por objetivo atrair mdicos jovens
para a instituio.
d. quer atrair novos alunos para a escola
da instituio.
e. procura dar destaque a outras instituies similares da comunidade.

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273. Unicamp-SP
Leia o texto e responda questo.

Disponvel em: <www.ghosp.org.com>.

271. FAMECA-SP
O mdico do anncio escolheu o Garden City
Hospital:

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

Why we need a food revolution

The U .S. is at least partly to blame


for Russias recent upsurge. Since
2006 Washington has aggressively
cut back weapons sales to countries
judged unstable or soft on terror (read:
Venezuela). Thats just fine with
Moscow which seems more than happy
to rush in to fill the demand.

by James Oliver

Were losing the war against obesity


in the US. Its sad, but true. Our kids are
growing up overweight and malnourished
from a diet of processed foods, and todays
children will be the first generation ever
to live shorter lives than their parents. Its
time for change. Its time we switch to
fresh food and home cooking. Its time for
a Food Revolution.

MARGOLlS, Mac. Russian arms flood latin


market. Newsweek, New York, Mar. 1, 2010.

So perguntas cujas respostas esto contidas


no texto:
01. What role has Washington seemed to
play in the Russian arms market?
02. How often did Russia use to negotiate
with Latin American countries?
04. Why has Moscow succeeded in selling
arms to Latin America?
08. What advantages did Russia have in
signing deals with Latin American
countries?
16. Which Latin American country has
bought the fewest weapons from
Russia?
32. Whats Washingtons view of Latin
America?
64. Whose oil reserves will be negotiated
with the American government?

Disponvel em: <http://www.jamieoliver.


com/foundation/jamies-food-revolution/>.
Acesso em: 28 set. 2011. Adaptado.

a. Quais so, segundo o texto, as consequncias da atual dieta das crianas


norte-americanas?
b. No que consiste a revoluo alimentar
proposta por James Oliver?
274. UFBA-BA
Leia o texto e responda questo.
Russian arms flood latin market
Latin America is becoming the
hottest new market for Russian arms
and Washington seems to be the
unwitting facilitator. According to a
new report by the International lnstitute
for Strategic Studies, Russia has signed
deals with Venezuela, Peru, Brazil,
Mexico, and Colombia worth a total
of $5.8 billion in 2008 in exchange
for access to oil and gas reserves, and
is actively negotiating with Bolivia,
Uruguay, and Ecuador. Though Latin
American defense spending is modest,
and U.S. allies Mexico and Colombia
have the biggest defense budgets,
Russia is making big inroads in a
region that Washington thinks of as its
backyard. Venezuela has emerged as
Russias preferred client, buying four
billion dollars in tanks, father jets, and
assault rifles since 2007. Last year
Moscow extended about two billion in
credit to Caracas for the purchase of
Russian weapons. In turn, Russian oil
companies will be given ample access
to Venezuelan oilfields.

Faa o somatrio das proposies corretas.


Leia o texto e responda s questes 275 e 276.
Responda s questes, em potugus, de forma
clara e legvel. Entretanto, haver uma questo envolvendo construo e/ou transformao de frases em ingls.
How to close the achievement gap
All over the world, your chances of
success in school and life depend more on
your family circumstances than any other
factor. By age three, kids with professional
parents are already a full year ahead of their
poorer peers. They know twice as many
words and score 40 points higher on IQ
tests. By age 10, the gap is three years. By
then, some poor children have not mastered
basic reading and math skills, and many
never will: this is the age at which failure
starts to become irreversible.

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A few school systems seem to have


figured out how to erase these gaps.
Finland ensures that every kid completes
basic education and meets a rigorous
standard. One Finnish district official,
asked about the number of children who
dont complete school in her city, replied,
I can tell you their names if you want.
In the United States, KIPP (Knowledge
Is Power Program) charter schools enroll
students from the poorest families and
ensure that almost every one of them
graduates high school 80 percent make
it to college. Singapore narrowed its
achievement gap among ethnic minorities
from 17 percent to 5 percent over 20 years.
These success stories offer lessons
for the rest of us. First, get children into
school early. High quality pre-schooling
does more for a childs chances in school
and life than any other educational
intervention. One study, which began in
the 1960s, tracked two groups of students
from disadvantaged backgrounds. Some
were given the opportunity to attend a
high-quality preschool; others were not.
Thirty-five years later, the kids who went
to preschool were earning more, had
better jobs, and were less likely to have
been in prison or divorced.
Second, recognize that the average
kid spends about half his waking hours
up until the age of 18 outside of school
dont ignore that time. KIPP students
spend 60 percent more time in school
than the average American student.
They arrive earlier, leave later, attend
more regularly, and even go to school
every other Saturday. Similarly, in 1966,
Chile extended its school day to add the
equivalent of more than two more years
of schooling.
Third, pour lots of effort into training
teachers. Studies in the United States have
shown that kids with the most effective
teachers learn three times as much as those
with the least effective. Systems such as
Singapores are choosy about recruiting;
they invest in training and continuing
education; they evaluate teachers
regularly; and they award bonuses only to
the top performers.

Ingls
Finally, recognize the value of
individualized attention. In Finland, kids
who start to struggle receive one-on-one
support from their teachers. Roughly one
in three Finnish students also get extra
help from a tutor each year. If we can
learn the lesson of what works, we can
build on it.

MOURSHED, Mona; WHELAN, Fenton.


How to close the achievement gap.
Disponvel em: Newsweek, New York, Aug.

275. UFBA
Answer the following questions according to
the text:
How do 3-year-old kids with
professional parents differ from their
poorer peers?
As far as children education is
concerned, what does Finland do?
Whats the strategy used by KIPP
charter schools in the United States?
What did Singapore manage to do with
its achievement gap among ethnic
minorities?
276. UFBA
Make all the necessary changes, following the
instructions below.
One study, which began in the 1960s,
tracked two groups of students (paragraph 3)
Ask a question so that the phrase in bold is the
answer.
277. UFBA
Leia as citaes e provrbios e responda
questo.
Responda s questes, em portugus, de forma clara e legvel. Entretanto, haver uma
questo envolvendo construo e/ou transformao de frases em ingls.
Wise Quotes and Sayings
Education is what remains after
one has forgotten what one has learned in
school. Albert Einstein
He who opens a school door closes a
prison. Victor Hugo
Education is a better safeguard of
liberty than a standing army. Edward Everett
219

A single conversation with a wise


man is better than ten years of study. Chinese
proverb
The illiterate of the 21st century will
not be those who cannot read and write,
but those who cannot learn, unlearn, and
relearn. Alvin Toffler

likely to be mocked, distrusted or disliked


than welcomed. The free and happy use
of words appears to be considered elitist
or pretentious. Sadly, desperately sadly,
the only people who seem to bother with
language in public today bother with it in
quite the wrong way.
(2) They write letters to broadcasters
and newspapers in which they are rude and
haughty about other peoples usage and in
which they show off their own superior
knowledge of how language should be.
I hate that, and I particularly hate the fact
that so many of these pedants assume that
Im on their side. When asked to join in a
lets persuade this supermarket chain to
get rid of their five items or less sign
I never join in. Yes, I am aware of the
technical distinction between less and
fewer, and between uninterested and
disinterested and infer and imply,
but none of these are of importance to me.
None of these are of importance, I wrote
there, youll notice the old pedantic me
would have insisted on none of them is
of importance.
(3) Well Im glad to say Ive outgrown
that silly approach to language. Oscar
Wilde, and there have been few greater
and more complete lords of language in
the past thousand years, once included
with a manuscript he was delivering to his
publishers a compliment slip in which he
had scribbled the injunction: Ill leave
you to tidy up the woulds and shoulds,
wills and shalls, thats and whiches & c.
Which gives us all encouragement to feel
less guilty, dont you think?
(4) There are all kinds of pedants
around with more time to read and
imitate Lynne Truss and John Humphrys
than to write poems, love-letters, novels
and stories it seems. They whip out
their Sharpies and take away and add
apostrophes from public signs, shake
their heads at prepositions which end
sentences and mutter at split infinitives
and misspellings, but do they bubble and

Wise quotes and sayings.


Disponvel em: <http//www.quotegarden.com/
education.html>. Acesso em: 21 set. 2011.

Answer the following questions:


How does Albert Einstein define
education?
According to Victor Hugo, what happens
when someone opens a school door?
Whats Edward Everetts view about
education?
What does the Chinese proverb say?
In Alvin Tofflers view, who will be the
illiterate of the 21st century?
278. Ufes
Leia o texto e responda questo.
ALL THE QUESTIONS IN THIS EXAM MUST BE
ANSWERED IN ENGLISH
USE YOUR OWN WORDS to answer the
following questions, according to the text, in
complete sentences. DO NOT COPY FROM THE
TEXT! Answers which are literally transcribed
from the text will NOT be considered.
Dont mind your language

by Stephen Fry

(1) For me, it is a cause of some


upset that more Anglophones dont enjoy
language. Music is enjoyable it seems,
so are dance and other, athletic forms of
movement. People seem to be able to find
sensual and sensuous pleasure in almost
anything but words these days. Words, it
seems belong to other people, anyone who
expresses themselves with originality,
delight and verbal freshness is more

220

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Ingls

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

Ingls
of the speaker, whether disinterested
is used in the proper sense of nonpartisan, or in the improper sense
of uninterested. No, the claim to be
defending language for the sake of clarity
almost never, ever holds water. Nor does
the idea that following grammatical
rules in language demonstrates clarity
of thought and intelligence of mind.
Having said this, I admit that if you
want to communicate well for the sake
of passing an exam or job interview, then
it is obvious that wildly original and
excessively heterodox language could
land you in the soup.
(9) I think what offends examiners
and employers when confronted with
extremely informal, unpunctuated and
haywire language is the implication of
not caring that underlies it. You slip into
a suit for an interview and you dress your
language up too. You can wear what you
like linguistically or sartorially when
youre at home or with friends, but most
people accept the need to smarten up
under some circumstances its only
considerate. But that is an issue of fitness,
of suitability, it has nothing to do with
correctness. There is no right language or
wrong language any more than is right or
wrong clothes. Context, convention and
circumstance are all.

froth and slobber and cream with joy at


language? Do they ever let the tripping
of the tips of their tongues against the
tops of their teeth transport them to
giddy euphoric bliss? Do they ever yoke
impossible words together for the soundsex of it? Do they use language to seduce,
charm, excite, please, affirm and tickle
those they talk to? Do they? I doubt it.
(5) Theyre too farting busy sneering
at a greengrocers less than perfect use of
the apostrophe. Well sod them to Hades.
They think theyre guardians of language.
Theyre no more guardians of language
than the Kennel Club is the guardian of
dogkind.
(6) The worst of this sorry bunch
of semi-educated losers are those who
seem to glory in being irritated by nouns
becoming verbs. How dense and deaf to
language development do you have to be?
If you dont like nouns becoming verbs,
then for heavens sake avoid Shakespeare
who made a doing-word out of a thingword every chance he got.
(7) He TABLED the motion and
CHAIRED the meeting in which nouns
were made verbs. New examples from
our time might take some getting used
to: He actioned it that day for instance
might strike some as a verbing too far, but
we have been sanctioning, envisioning,
propositioning and stationing for a long
time, so why not action? Because its
ugly, whinge the pedants. Its only ugly
because its new and you dont like it. Ugly
in the way Picasso, Stravinsky and Eliot
were once thought ugly and before them
Monet, Mahler and Baudelaire. Pedants
will also claim, with what I am sure is
eye-popping insincerity and shameless
disingenuousness, that their fight is only
for clarity.
(8) This is all very well, but there is
no doubt what Five items or less means,
just as only a dolt cant tell from the
context and from the age and education

Disponvel em:< http://www.stephenfry.


com/2008/11/04/dont-mind-yourlanguage%E2%80%A6/>. Acesso em: 3 ago. 2010.

01. In Stephen Frys view, what do people


usually think of those who delight in
the use of language?
02. According to Stephen Fry, what do
pedants use language for?
03. Why does Stephen Fry end the fourth
paragraph saying I doubt it?
04. Why does Stephen Fry advise language
pedants to avoid Shakespeare?
05. Why does Stephen Fry compare the use
of language to wearing clothes?

221

No, I wouldnt for a million dollars,


Ms. Rubino replied. As a consequence,
Christine Rubino was pulled from the
classroom in February and may even lose
her job.
Ms. Rubinos online outburst was
only the latest example of its kind. In
April, a first-grade teacher in Paterson,
NJ, was suspended for writing on
her Facebook page that she felt like a
warden overseeing future criminals.
In February, a high school English teacher
in suburban Philadelphia was suspended
for a blog entry calling her students rude,
disengaged, lazy whiners.
Such teachers have become minor
Internet celebrities, applauded by their
fans for exposing students insolent
manners and desultory work habits. But
these defenders have it backward. The
truly scary restrictions on teacher speech
lie inside the schoolhouse walls, not
beyond them. And by supporting teachers
right to rant against students online, we
devalue their status as professionals and
actually make it harder to protect real
academic freedom in the classroom.
All professionals restrict their own
speech, after all, reflecting the special
purposes and responsibilities of their
occupations. A psychologist should not
discuss his patients darkest secrets on a
crowded train, which would violate the
trust and confidence they have placed in
him.
Outside school, teachers must also
avoid public language that mocks or
demeans the children they instruct. Cruel
blog posts about lazy or disobedient
students echo the irreverent and offensive
culture of cable TV talk shows. And they
are unacceptable in a truly democratic
dialogue.

Leia os textos e responda s questes 279 e


280.
As questes devem ser respondidas em ingls.

When teachers talk out of school


by Jonathan Zimmerman

In 1927, Helen Clark, a schoolteacher


in Secaucus, lost her teaching license.
The reason? Somebody had seen her
smoking cigarettes after school hours. In
communities across the United States,
that was a ground for dismissal. So was
card-playing, dancing and failure to attend
church. Today, teachers can be suspended,
and even fired, for what they write on
Facebook.
Just ask Christine Rubino, the New
York City math teacher who may soon
be dismissed for posting angry messages
about her students. Last June, just before
summer vacation began, a Harlem
schoolgirl drowned during a field trip to a
beach. Ms. Rubino had nothing to do with
that incident, but the following afternoon,
she typed a quick note on Facebook about
a particularly difficult group of Brooklyn
students under her responsibility.
After today, Im thinking the beach
is a good trip for my class, she wrote.
I hate their guts. One of Ms. Rubinos
Facebook friends then asked: Wouldnt
you throw a life jacket to little Kwami?

Jonathan Zimmerman, a professor of


education and history at New York University,
is the author of Small Wonder: The Little Red
Schoolhouse in History and Memory.

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

Editorial: Teachers who vent

To the Editor:
The problem, it seems to me, is not
with teachers, but with the illusion of
privacy created by Facebook and similar
online sites. Just like adolescents, who are
shocked to discover that the supposedly
private comments they make on the Web
are now public knowledge, these teachers
have been fooled into thinking they are
speaking privately, when in fact, anything
posted on Facebook is literally there for
the world to see.

To the Editor:
I am a teacher, and I do not understand
adults writing every mundane or angry
thought that crosses their minds, in a public
forum, for all to see. What is it about
posting this kind of stuff on Facebook? I
understand when a 14-yearold does it, but
an adult? Teachers who wrote these things,
in public, on the Internet, what were you
thinking? Sure, teaching can be tiring,
frustrating, difficult, discouraging at times,
but it is also something amazing and I
wouldnt trade it for the world. If you are
feeling this much vitriol for your students,
you need to get out, and soon it is not fair
to your students for you to be their teacher.
They deserve better than you.

ROBERT BEECH
New Haven, CT, June 4th, 2011
Disponvel em: <http://www.nytimes.com>.

Glossary
ground: reason
to be fired/dismissed: to lose ones job
to drown: to die under water
warden: prison guard
to have it backward: to be mistaken
to rant: to complain angrily
to vent: to speak freely
to trade it for the world: to exchange it for
something
vitriol: bitter and frustrated

LYNIN
NY, June 4th, 2011

To the Editor:
Teachers must be allowed to
participate in the public conversations
that our society should be having.
Including, Cruel blog posts about lazy
or disobedient students. I wonder about
whether or not a teacher who posts such
remarks should be teaching, but they
certainly have the right to say what they
like as long as they dont refer to specific
children. When I became a teacher, I did
not give up my right to free speech. While
not in the classroom, teachers should have
the right to make stupid, tasteless remarks,
just like everybody else.
PV2D-13-14

Ingls

279. UFF-RJ
Why does the author use Helen Clarks story to
discuss Christine Rubinos case?
280. UFF-RJ
What is the name of the author of the letter
who
a. presents a different aspect of the
matter?
b. disagrees with Jonathan Zimmermans
opinion?
c. agrees with Jonathan Zimmermans
opinion?

MICHAEL H.
Alameda, CA, June 4th, 2011

223

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

Ingls

CAPTULO 04
c. devemos ficar sem energia no futuro.
d. no dependeremos de energia no futuro.
e. conseguiremos viver sem energia no
futuro.

Leia o texto e responda s questes de 281 a


283.
Living without energy

282. Unemat-MT
Qual a traduo da frase During the daytime,
it is rarely necessary to turn on an electric light
(paragraph 4)?
a. Durante o dia, raramente necessrio
usar luz eltrica.
b. Durante o dia, raramente necessrio
desligar luz eltrica.
c. Durante o dia, raramente necessrio
ligar luz eltrica.
d. Durante o dia, necessrio usar luz eltrica.
e. Durante o dia, no necessrio ligar luz
eltrica.

Everyone says that we must use less


energy! But how? That is the big question.
In this article, you can read about the
house of the future, which uses hardly any
energy at all...
Most houses use energy lots of
it. We use energy for heating, lighting,
for running our household appliances
TVs, washing machines, fridges, and
so on. In winter time, most houses use
dozens of kilowatts of electricity every
day, or the equivalent in gas.
The house in the photo, on the other
hand, uses virtually nothing: most of the
energy that it uses comes straight from
the sun, the wind or the ground. This is
an experimental house at the University
of Nottingham, and it could be the kind
of house that most people are living in
fifty years from now.
During the daytime, it is rarely
necessary to turn on an electric light, even
in rooms without windows. Sunlight, or
daylight, is piped through the house,
into each room, through special highreflection aluminium tubes. You can see
how well they reflect light, by looking at
the reflections of the faces in the picture!

283. Unemat-MT

Leia o texto e responda s questes de 284 a


286.
Anti-nuclear protests held in Japan
Hundreds of people joined anti-nuclear
protests in Japan on Sunday following the
countrys worst ever atomic accident at the
tsunami-stricken Fukushima plant. In the
capital, about 300 people some wearing
gas masks marched past the headquarters
of Tokyo Electric Power, operator of the
crippled Fukushima Daiichi power station,
chanting: We don't need nuclear plants!
A similar number of demonstrators
turned out in the central Japanese city of
Nagoya, gathering outside the offices of
regional energy company Chubu Electric

Disponvel em: <http://linguapress.com/


intermediate/no-energy.htm>.

281. Unemat-MT
Conforme o texto, correto afirmar que:
a. devemos usar menos energia.
b. no vivemos sem energia.
224

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Na frase ...most of the energy that it uses


comes straight from the sun, the wind or the
ground (paragraph3), o verbo destacado pode
ser traduzido por:
a. reflete direto
b. infiltra direto
c. canaliza direto
d. atravessa direto
e. vem direto

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

Power shouting We dont want another


Fukushima.

sede da Central Eltrica de Tquio protestando contra as usinas nucleares.

Channel NewsAsia
Disponvel em: <http://www.newsonjapan.com/>.

285. IFTO
A forma do tempo passado (Past tense) da
sequncia frasal: "We don't need nuclear
plants!" :
a. We not did need nuclear plants.
b. No, we need not nuclear plants.
c. We did not need nuclear plants.
d. No, we not need nuclear plants.
e. We have not needed nuclear plants.

284. IFTO

PV2D-13-14

Ingls

A propsito do texto, pode se afirmar que:


a. trata-se de um texto que visa informar
sobre os protestos antinucleares no
Japo aps o pior acidente atmico na
usina Fukushima, atingida pelo maremoto. Na capital, aproximadamente
300 pessoas algumas usando mscaras de gs desfilaram na sede da Central Eltrica de Tquio, cantando que
precisam das usinas nucleares.
b. trata-se de um texto que visa informar sobre os protestos antinucleares
no Japo aps o pior acidente atmico na usina Fukushima, atingida pelo
maremoto. Na capital, aproximadamente 300 pessoas algumas usando mscaras de gs , percorreram
a sede da Central Eltrica de Tquio,
protestando a favor das usinas nucleares.
c. trata-se de um texto que visa informar sobre os protestos antinucleares
no Japo, aps o pior acidente atmico na usina Fukushima, atingida pelo
maremoto. Na capital, aproximadamente 300 pessoas algumas usando mscaras de gs , desfilaram na
sede da Central Eltrica de Tquio.
Todos, irritados, gritavam Ns precisamos das Usinas nucleares
d. trata-se de um texto que descreve os
protestos antinucleares no Japo na
usina Fukushima atingida pelo maremoto. Na capital, aproximadamente
300 pessoas algumas usando mscaras de gs , desfilaram na sede da
Central Eltrica de Tquio. Todos os
participantes afirmam a necessidade
de rever o papel das usinas nucleares.
e. trata-se de um texto que visa informar
sobre os protestos antinucleares no
Japo, aps o pior acidente atmico
na usina Fukushima atingida pelo maremoto. Na capital, aproximadamente
300 pessoas algumas usando mscaras de gs , passaram em frente

286. IFTO
A sequncia: "We don't want another
Fukushima", no final do 2 pargrafo, revela:
a. a necessidade de reparos nas usinas nucleares do Japo por causa do maremoto.
b. o motivo do protesto antinuclear da
populao de Tquio.
c. a necessidade de uma reforma na segurana das usinas nucleares.
d. o motivo do protesto da populao de
Tquio para implantao de mais uma
usina em Fukushima.
e. que a populao deseja a destruio da
usina Fukushima.
287. UFPB
Leia o texto e responda questo.
Honesty
by Lisa Mabey

I once returned a pair of shoes that


was sent to me by accident. I had paid
for one pair in the store, and a second
pair was sent to my home by accident.
So I took the second pair back into the
store, and handed them to the store
clerk explaining the situation. He held
the shoebox in his hand in disbelief and
just looked at me. He then thanked me
for my honesty and commented that
hed never seen that happen before. I
was amazed that such a simple act of
honesty was met with such incredulity.
Is honesty really that uncommon?
I think there are honest acts all over
the place, but perhaps theyre quieter
acts. Being honest is much bigger than
just not lying. Its doing the right thing
225

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

no matter what. Its not rationalizing


your actions (because if youre trying
to rationalize, you already know
somethings wrong, right?).
Being honest also requires a bit of
courage sometimes. I wrote previously
about the little boy who appeared on my
doorstep with his dad to tell me about
something hed done. I know that took
courage, and I appreciated it immensely.
But more than that, he learned that being
honest is the right thing to do and you
can feel happy when you are honest.
Honest people are people of character
and are trustworthy. You want to be
around people you can trust and who
you know will deal with you justly.
Dishonesty hurts you and others.
It hurts your spirit and your ability
to feel Gods influence when youre
doing something wrong. You have to
remember that honesty extends beyond
others: being honest with yourself
and the Lord is sometimes even more
important because your spiritual wellbeing is on the line.

William Ellis Green, 82, was making


his breakfast when he heard somebody in
his garden. I went out the back door, and
suddenly I saw this guy running toward
me. He pushed me out of the way and
took my bicycle from the garden shed.
Mr. Green did not resist, as he knew he
would end up second-best in a fight with
the intruder. The burglar tried to cycle
away, but the tires on the bike were flat,
making it difficult to ride. He kept falling
off the bicycle, said Mr. Green, at least
three or four times. After the man fled,
Mr. Green called the local police.
When they arrived, officers asked
him to describe the man, but instead he
offered to draw them a picture. When
Mr. Green started drawing, said one of
the police officers, I knew right away
who the burglar was. Actually, Mr.
Green had worked for more than 20 years
in daily newspapers doing caricatures
of Australian soccer players. I had no
difficulty in remembering the mans face
because he was so close to me, he said.
Police cruised the neighborhood in
a patrol car with the sketch in search of
the alleged burglar and found him within
half an hour. The cartoon was a perfect
likeness of the burglar, said another
police officer.
The police believe that this is the first
time they have ever caught a suspect by
using a cartoon sketch. Phil Rushford, a
senior police officer, said that in the past
some victims had used their cell phones to
take photographs at crime scenes, but they
had not been as effective.
A 34-year-old man is expected to be
charged with theft, burglary, and assault.
The missing bike was later found on a
nearby street.

Disponvel em: <http://lds.families.com/blog/


for-the-strength-of-youth-series-honesty>
Acesso em: 5 set. 2011. Adaptado.

Considering the quality of being honest expressed


in the text, identify the correct statements:
I. Honesty makes people feel happy.
II. Honesty involves you and others.
III. Honesty destroys people around you.
IV. Honesty conquers peoples trust in you.
V. Honesty demands being courageous.
288. UEFS-BA
Leia o texto e responda questo.

OXENDEN, Clive; LATHAM-KOENIG, Christina


American English File, MultiPack 4A, 2010. p.51

About Mr. Green, its correct to say that he:


a. cant cook.
b. is bad at drawing.
c. is a senior citizen.
d. is a middle-aged man.
e. lives in an apartment.
226

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

Ingls

Leia e observe o cartum e responda s questes de 289 a 291.

PV2D-13-14

SCHULZ. Peanuts. Speak up. So Paulo: Peixes, 2006. p. 49.

289. UFES-BA

291. UFES-BA

Analyze the following statements.


a. Lucy argues strongly with Charlie.
b. Lucy sings out to Charlie.
c. Lucy looks down at Charlie.
d. Lucy pulls the ball away.
e. Lucy dares Charlie to kick the ball.

If theres anyone in this world I do trust, its


my mother! (6th picture) The verb do in this
sentence is being used:
a. as a main verb.
b. as an ordinary transitive verb.
c. as an ordinary intransitive verb.
d. to avoid repeating the main verb.
e. to emphasize the meaning of a positive
statement.

The order in which these facts take place in


this comic strip is:
a. B D A E C
b. D A B C E
c. B E A D C
d. E C B A D
e. D E C B A

Leia o texto e responda s questes 292 e 293.


Not far from the tree
by Mariana de Viveiros

They say the apple doesnt fall far


from the tree. So, the son of a circus
performer is likely to be also an artist
himself. 12-year-old Matheus Felipe
Jesus Silva was born in the circus. That
is, ever since he was a baby, hes lived
in a trailer (a mobile home pulled by a
car or a truck). His mother is a ballet
dancer at CircoSpacial, where Matheus
himself is also a performer since the age
of 3. He started doing presentations with

290. UFES-BA
In the 4th picture Charlie Brown is:
a. pretending.
b. apologizing.
c. complaining.
d. complimenting.
e. encouraging.

227

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

clowns and nowadays he is a trapeze


artist (just like his dad, who works in
Europe), equilibrist and acrobat.
As the circus travels all over Brazil,
Matheus changes schools very often. He
studies in the morning, has rehearsals
in the afternoon and, at weekends, he
performs in the circus ring. He says that
this routine doesnt disturb his studies
and he wants to graduate in Physical
Education. But I want to work in the
circus forever. On account of the
mobility of his life and his outgoing
nature, Matheus makes new friends
wherever he goes and keeps in touch
with them through the internet. Kids
think that I have a peculiar way of life
and come to the circus to watch my
show, he adds.
On his days off, he likes to go to the
movies, to the mall and to shows. Read
on to see his favorite film, book, CD and
website.

Leia o texto para responder s questes 294


e 295.
Smashing the cubicles
By designing new spaces around tablets,
smart phones, and social technologies,
companies can operate with far fewer
desks
by Tom Simonite / Massachusetts, Technology
Review, MIT, September/October 2011

The quick expansion of social


and mobile technologies is creating a
widely distributed workforce. To better
suit employees who come into offices
more sporadically, some companies and
design firms are testing radically new
and more efficient configurations for
physical offices, betting that improved
technology will make the experiment
more successful than similar ones in the
1990s.
A project at the headquarters of
Cisco Systems in San Jose, California,
for example, overthrows decades-old
conventions about office space. Called
Connected Workplace, it replaces
individual cubicles with open clusters
of wheeled desks that belong to groups,
not individuals; personal belongings are
largely confined to lockers.
There are no PCs at the desks,
because
employees
use
mobile
technologies. Rick Hutley, a Cisco vice
president, chooses his desk according to
which colleagues are present and whats
on the days agenda. Then he docks his
tablet to a desktop port that includes a
phone handset. The tablet handles voice
and video calls whether its docked
or mobile, and it can be used to share
documents at meetings.

Revista TAM Kids, julho/agosto 2011.

292. Unicentro-PR
The proverb the apple doesnt fall far from
the tree is equivalent in Portuguese to option:
a. O que no visto, no lembrado.
b. Pau que nasce torto, morre torto.
c. Ele caiu de maduro.
d. Quem nasce para ma, nunca chega
a uva.
e. Filho de peixe, peixinho .
293. Unicentro-PR
The morphological function of the word
studies, as in I and II, is respectively:
I. He studies in the morning
II. ...this routine doesnt disturb his
studies...
a. adverb/verb.
b. noun/verb.
c. adjective/adverb.
d. verb/noun.
e. adverb/noun.

228

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Ingls

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

It can also be plugged into a monitor


and keyboard to be used like a full PC.
You can walk around with your entire
world with you in this device, Hutley
says. My laptop would often stay on
my desk, but the tablet never does.
If he needs to make a private voice or
video call, he can step into one of the
rooms at the edges of the cluster.
Ciscos vision is an example
of a broader effort to reshape office
technologies and environments. We
used to have boring stuff at work and
more interesting technology at home,
says Prith Banerjee, leader of HewlettPackards research arm. Now office
technology will make use of the same
cool experiences and interfaces.
Such changes could save a lot of
money. Ciscos project, for example, was
launched after an internal study found
that cubicles were vacant two-thirds
of the time while people roamed the
campus or worked remotely. Company
calculations show that the building used
for the project can accommodate 140
employees, up from 88 in designs used in
traditional Cisco buildings, and that realestate costs should drop by 37 percent.
Over the long term, Cisco hopes to
save on health costs, too, because people
who move around more frequently are
less likely to suffer health problems. The
company is planning to study whether
the more mature technology of today
can conquer resistance that hobbled
previous attempts to build offices with
little private space.

Ingls

295. UCPEL-RS
O trecho cubicles were vacant two-thirds of
the time while people roamed the campus or
worked remotely. (pargrafo 6) est escrito
no Passado Simples (Simple Past). Qual opo
abaixo apresenta a forma correta do trecho no
Presente Simples (Simple Present)?
a. cubicles are vacant two-thirds of the
time while people roams the campus
or work remotely.
b. cubicles were vacant two-thirds of the
time while people roams the campus or
works remotely.
c. cubicles are vacant two-thirds of the
time while people roam the campus or
work remotely.
d. cubicles are vacant two-thirds of the
time while people roam the campus or
works remotely.
e. cubicles were vacant two-thirds of the
time while people roam the campus or
work remotely.
Leia o texto e responda s questes 296 e 297.
SALOME
A masterpiece of erotic longing
by R. Strauss

Set in the court of King Herod,


Strauss sensational opera tells of the
lives of four desperate people: Herodias,
who helped murder her first husband and
has now married his brother Herod, who
in turn lusts after his step-daughter, the
young Salome. But she is mesmerised
with desire for the prophet John the
Baptist. The operas enthralling story
is matched by music of hair-raising
excitement.

Disponvel em: <http://www.technologyreview.com/


business/38407/?p1=Mag_story1>. Adaptado.

294. UCPEL-RS
49. Na sentena My laptop would often stay
on my desk, but the tablet never does. (pargrafo 4), but the tablet never does quer
dizer:
a. o tablet nunca fica.
b. o tablet nunca faz.
c. o tablet nunca funciona.
d. o tablet nunca ligado.
e. o tablet nunca usado.
229

Ingls

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

Sally McHugh, Stuart Neilson-Kemp,


Michael Saunders.
Evening: July 21, 25, 29. August 1, 6, 9,
13.
Matinee: August 16.
Evening 7.30 pm, Matinee 1 pm. Sung in
German with Surtitles.
Duration: 1 hour and 45 minutes. Salome
is performed without interval.
The Sydney Opera House Sydney, Australia

296. Mackenzie-SP
According to the review above:
a. the story is extremely prophetic.
b. Salome is King Herods sister.
c. John the Baptist was killed by Salome.
d. Herodias daughter is in love with Herod.
e. Salome contains sensational music.
Conductor: Sebastian Weigle, Director:
Antony Ernst
Cast: Lisa Gasteen, Bernadette Cullen,
Richard Greager, Daniel Sumegi, Barry
Ryan, Donna-Maree Dunlop, Jamie Allen,
Richard Anderson, Jud Arthur, Arend
Baumann, John Brunato, Warwick Fyfe,
Geoffrey Harris, Graeme Macfarlane,

297. Mackenzie-SP
The corresponding synonym of the word in
bold in But she is mesmerized with desire for
the prophet John the Baptist is:
d. immoral.
e. lightened.

PV2D-13-14

a. fascinated.
b. funny.
c. bored.

230

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

Many of Vargas Llosas works are


influenced by the writers perception of
Peruvian society and his own experiences
as a native Peruvian. Increasingly, however,
he has expanded his range, and tackled
themes that arise from other parts of the
world. Another change over the course
of his career has been a shift from a style
and approach associated with literary
modernism, to a sometimes playful
postmodernism.
Like many Latin American authors,
Vargas Llosa has been politically active
throughout his career; over the course
of his life, he has gradually moved from
the political left towards liberalism
or neoliberalism, a definitively more
conservative political position. While he
initially supported the Cuban revolutionary
government of Fidel Castro, Vargas Llosa
later became disenchanted with the Cuban
dictator and his authoritarian regime. He
ran for the Peruvian presidency in 1990
with the center-right Frente Democrtico
(FREDEMO)
coalition,
advocating
neoliberal reforms.

298. ESPM-SP
Leia e observe o cartum para responder
questo.
According to the comic strip:
a. Calvin thought someone in the family
was ill due to his mom dinner.
b. the weird dish Calvins mom is cooking
smells terrific.
c. food will be crispy and tasty in less than
half an hour.
d. Calvin is keen on eating monkey heads.
e. Calvin's dad refuses to eat monkey
heads.
299. UFPR
Leia o texto e responda questo.

PV2D-13-14

Ingls

Jorge Mario Pedro Vargas Llosa, was


born on March 28, 1936, in the Peruvian
provincial city of Arequipa. He is a writer,
politician, journalist, essayist, and Nobel
Prize laureate. Vargas Llosa is one of Latin
Americas most significant novelists and
essayists, and one of the leading authors
of his generation. Some critics consider
him to have had a larger international
impact and worldwide audience than
any other writer of the Latin American
Boom. He was awarded the 2010 Nobel
Prize in Literature for his cartography
of structures of power and his trenchant
images of the individuals resistance,
revolt, and defeat.
Vargas Llosa rose to fame in the
1960s with novels such as The Time of the
Hero (La ciudad y los perros, literally The
City and the Dogs, 1963/1966), The Green
House (La casa verde, 1965/1968), and the
monumental Conversation in the Cathedral
(Conversacin en la catedral, 1969/1975).
He writes prolifically across an array of
literary genres, including literary criticism
and journalism. His novels include
comedies, murder mysteries, historical
novels, and political thrillers. Several,
such as Captain Pantoja and the Special
Service (1973/1978) and Aunt Julia and
the Scriptwriter (1977/1982), have been
adapted as feature films.

Disponvel em: <http://www.wikipedia.org>. Adaptado.

Are these statements about Vargas Llosa TRUE


(T) or FALSE (F), according to the text?
( ) He was born in the city of Arequipa, Peru.
( ) He is a journalist, a lawyer, a writer and a
Nobel Prize laureate.
( ) Some critics consider him to be the greatest
writer in the Americas.
( ) He is one of the leading writers of the Latin
American Boom.
( ) He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature
in 1990.
Mark the alternative which presents the
correct sequence, from top to bottom.
a. F T F T F.
b. T F F T F.
c. F T T F T.
d. T T F F T.
e. T F T T F.

231

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

300. UERJ

50

Leia o texto e responda questo.


1

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

The fortune teller


Your lucks going to change,
she said, locking the door to bar my
way. Im closing now. Come back
tomorrow. Ill be here after ten.
I needed it to change. It had been
a grim couple of months: I had lost my
job and failed to lure a woman into
my life. Cant you see me now?,
I asked, wanting to bring on the
metamorphosis as soon as possible.
Ive finished for today. I have
things to do. She took my hand and
squeezed gently as we stood on the
pavement outside the rickety cabin
that served as her office. Another day
wont hurt. Come back tomorrow,
she smiled. Your lucks going to
change, and how.
I hadnt imagined that a fortune
teller could be pretty, but thinking
about it, I suppose they can be
anything that anyone else could be:
young, old, fat, thin, rich or dirt poor.
But this one was pretty and, more than
that, I thought I saw something in her
eyes, a hint of a come on, maybe. But
it had been so long since Id seen that
look that I wasnt sure I recognised it.
Be here tomorrow, she said
again. Bye, I called, cheerfully
confused.
It seemed like fate. The first time
I ever pick up one of those trashy
magazines and theres her advert,
extolling the virtues of knowing
whats around the corner. Then, when
I get to her place, I find a good looking
woman who seems interested in me.
Tomorrow cant come quick enough.
I couldnt sleep for thinking
about her. During the night, she
changed from mere pretty to beautiful.
Her smile had broadened and the
hand-squeeze had tightened.
Id wanted to be on her doorstep
before her arrival, but Id made myself
late by worrying about how I looked
and smelled. In due course, I was at the

cabin and after straightening my tie,


prepared to knock on the door. It was
then that I noticed the hastily written
note that was pinned just below the
knocker. It read: Closed today due to
unforeseen circumstances.
Alan Liptrot
Disponvel em: <http://www.helium.com>.

Um tempo verbal pode se referir aos seguintes


momentos: presente, passado ou futuro.
Observe o fragmento a seguir:
The first time I ever pick up one of those trashy
magazines and theres her advert, (l. 32-34)
Identifique o tempo verbal em que se encontram os verbos sublinhados e a que momento
eles se referem.
Em seguida, explique o efeito produzido no
contexto pelo uso desse tempo verbal.
Leia o texto e responda s questes de 301 a
304.
Microsoft is buying Skype
One is the giant business, whose
software powers more than 90% of the
worlds computers. The other is the
firm, which has revolutionised the way
many communicate. Now Skype is being
swallowed up by Microsoft.
Its just eight years since Skype
started helping people to make calls over
the internet for nothing, and this is the
third time it's been bought and sold.
Microsoft has been struggling to prove
it can compete with the likes of Google and
Apple. Now as it tries to make an impact
on the mobile-phone world, it wants Skype
to help it become a bigger force.
Skype is now used by 170 million
people around the world (each month),
not just on their computers, but on the
move on their mobile phones and even
on their tablet devices.
Microsoft wants to tap in to this
connected community, but its paying a
huge price for a business that isnt even
profitble.
Rory Cellan-Jones, BBC News.
Disponvel em: <http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/
learningenglish/language/wordsinthenews/2
011/05/110511witn_skype_page.shtml>.

232

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Ingls

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

301. Unioeste-PR

b. faz oito anos que o Skype ajuda as pessoas a fazerem chamadas gratuitas.
c. a oitava vez que o Skype vendido.
d. o Skype foi vendido quatro vezes em
oito anos.
e. o Skype foi comprado e vendido quatro
vezes.

Onde se l Microsoft is buying Skype, correto afirmar que:


a. a Microsoft est vendendo o Skype.
b. o Skype est sendo vendido pela
Microsoft.
c. a Microsoft est comprando o Skype.
d. o Skype est se despedindo da
Microsoft.
e. a Microsoft est perdendo o Skype.

305. Unicentro-PR
Leia o texto e responda questo.

302. Unioeste-PR

De acordo com o texto, correto afirmar que:


a. a Microsoft uma gigante dos negcios e
o Skype uma firma que revolucionou a
forma de muitos se comunicarem.
b. o Skype um negcio gigante que revolucionou os negcios da Microsoft.
c. a Microsoft uma firma revolucionria
que vende o Skype como meio de comunicao.
d. o Skype um gigante dos negcios e a
Microsoft uma firma que revolucionou
a forma de muitos se comunicarem.
e. a Microsoft um negcio revolucionrio que mudou o modo de as pessoas
se comunicarem.

10

15

303. Unioeste-PR

PV2D-13-14

Ingls

Ainda de acordo com o texto, correto afirmar


que:
a. o Skype usado por 170 milhes de
pessoas por ano ao redor do mundo.
b. o Skype no funciona nos celulares de
170 milhes de pessoas ao redor do
mundo.
c. o Skype usado por 170 milhes de
pessoas por ms ao redor do mundo.
d. o Skype no pode ser usado em celulares e tablets de 170 milhes de pessoas
ao redor do mundo.
e. o Skype foi comprado por 170 milhes
de pessoas por ms ao redor do mundo.

20

25

30

35

304. Unioeste-PR

Scientists identify cause of baldness


American scientists say that
theyve discovered why some men go
bald. They blame faulty cells which
seem to produce hair that is so thin that
it is invisible to the naked eye. They
expect to find a cure for baldness.
For some men, bald is beautiful.
The iconic look may work for a few
especially celebrities like the rugged
Die Hard star Bruce Willis and Star
Treks Patrick Stewart. For many,
though, hair loss is no laughing matter.
But now researchers in America say
theyve uncovered a cure.
An academic medical centre
has found that hair follicles actually
shrink, but dont disappear. Dr George
Cotsarelis, dermatology professor at
Pennsylvania University, found the
discovery exciting. What we found
surprised us. The stem cells were
present but they were not doing their
job.
The discovery of invisible hair
sounds too good to be true. But what
does it mean? It really gives us hope
that because the stem cells are present
it lowers the bar for developing
treatments that could activate the stem
cells and get them to form a new hair
follicle, said Dr Cotsarelis.
Treating these faulty stem
cells means that, rather than just
maintaining hair, we could soon
regenerate hair.
LOBEL, Mark , BBC News.

De acordo com o texto:


a. o Skype faz chamadas gratuitas h trs
anos.

Disponvel em: <www.bbc.co.uk/


worldservice/learningenglish/language/
wordsinthenews/2010/12/110107_witn_
baldness_page.shtml>. Acesso em: 12 out. 2011.

233

Ingls

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

off the bicycle, said Mr. Green, at least


three or four times. After the man fled,
Mr. Green called the local police.
When they arrived, officers asked
him to describe the man, but instead he
offered to draw them a picture. When
Mr. Green started drawing, said one of
the police officers, I knew right away
who the burglar was. Actually, Mr.
Green had worked for more than 20 years
in daily newspapers doing caricatures
of Australian soccer players. I had no
difficulty in remembering the mans face
because he was so close to me, he said.
Police cruised the neighborhood in
a patrol car with the sketch in search of
the alleged burglar and found him within
half an hour. The cartoon was a perfect
likeness of the burglar, said another
police officer.
The police believe that this is the first
time they have ever caught a suspect by
using a cartoon sketch. Phil Rushford, a
senior police officer, said that in the past
some victims had used their cell phones to
take photographs at crime scenes, but they
had not been as effective.

The only false cognate is in alternative:


a. cells (l. 3).
b. produce (l. 4).
c. cure (l. 6).
d. actually (l. 16).
e. present (l. 22).
306. UPE
Leia o texto e responda questo.
Freddie Mercury was born ____
September 5th, 1946. He was the vocalist
____ the band rock Queen and composed
many hits ____ the band. As the lead ____
Queen, he travelled all ____ the world.
Freddie Mercury died ____ 1991.
As lacunas seriam corretamente preenchidas
por:
a. for of of of under in
b. on of for of around in
c. in of of all over on
d. at at in in of at
e. to at on at around at
307. UEFS
Leia o texto e responda questo.

Disponvel em: OXENDEN, Clive; LATHAM-KOENIG,


Christina American English File, MultiPack 4A, 2010. p.51

Leia o texto e responda s questes de 308 a


310.
Brazil
1. The Brazilian economys solid
performance during the financial crisis
and its strong and early recovery, including
2010 growth of 7.5%, have contributed to
the countrys transition from a regional
to a global power. Expected to continue
to grow in the 4% to 5% range, the
economy is the worlds eighth-largest and
is expected to rise to fifth within the next
few years.

William Ellis Green, 82, was making


his breakfast when he heard somebody in
his garden. I went out the back door, and
suddenly I saw this guy running toward
me. He pushed me out of the way and
took my bicycle from the garden shed.
Mr. Green did not resist, as he knew he
would end up second-best in a fight with
the intruder. The burglar tried to cycle
away, but the tires on the bike were flat,
making it difficult to ride. He kept falling

234

PV2D-13-14

The only false cognate is in alternative:


a. intruder.
b. local.
c. describe.
d. Actually.
e. caricatures.

PV2D-13-14

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

2. Brazil has been a leading player


in the World Trade Organizations
Doha Round negotiations and continues
to seek to bring that effort to successful
conclusion. To further increase its
international profile both economically and
politically, the Rousseff administration
is seeking expanded trade ties with
developing countries.
3. Agriculture is a major sector of
the Brazilian economy, and is a key factor
in terms of economic growth and foreign
exchange. Agriculture accounts for
about 6% of GDP (25% when including
agribusiness) and 36% of Brazilian
exports. Brazil enjoyed a positive
agricultural trade balance of US$ 55
billion in 2009. Brazil is the world's largest
producer of sugarcane, coffee, tropical
fruits, frozen concentrated orange juice,
and has the worlds largest commercial
cattle herd (50% larger than that of the
United States) at 170 million head. Brazil
is also an important producer of soybeans
(second to the United States), corn, cotton,
cocoa, tobacco, and forest products. The
remainder of agricultural output is in the
livestock sector, mainly the production
of beef and poultry (second to the United
States), pork, milk, and seafood.
4. Brazil is a leader in science and
technology in South America and a global
leader in some fields, such as biofuels,
agricultural research, deep-sea oil
production, and remote sensing. Brazil's
diverse industries include automobiles and
parts, machinery and equipment, textiles,
shoes, cement, computers, aircraft, and
consumer durables. Brazil continues to
be a major world supplier of commodities
and natural resources, with significant
operations in lumber, iron ore, tin, other
minerals, and petrochemicals. Brazil
has a diverse and sophisticated services
industry as well, including developed
telecommunications, banking, energy,
commerce, and computing sectors. The
Brazilian financial sector is secure and
provides local firms with a wide range
of financial products, yet interest rates
remain among the highest in the world.

Ingls
5. Brazil announced in early 2008
the discovery of the Tupi and Carioca
oil fields _______ the coast _______
Rio de Janeiro. The oil reserves in these
fields _______ conservatively estimated
_______ between 30 billion and 80
billion barrels, which would put Brazil
in the top 10 countries in the world
in reserves. Output from the existing
Campos Basin and the discovery of
the new fields could make Brazil a
significant oil exporter by 2015. Brazil is
one of the worlds leading producers of
hydroelectric power. Of its total installed
electricity-generation capacity of 112,000
megawatts, hydropower accounts for
77,000 megawatts (69%). Brazil is also
the worlds largest biofuels exporter and
sugar-based ethanol makes up over 50%
of its vehicle fuel usage.
TDS Travel Document Systems

308. Acafe-SC
Based on the text (second paragraph) what
is meant by the Rousseff administration is
seeking expanded trade ties with developing
countries?
a. The Rousseff administration is not
interested in doing business with
developing countries.
b. The Rousseff administration intends
to trade only with underdeveloped
countries.
c. The Rousseff administration aims to do
business only with rich countries.
d. The Rousseff administration wants
to increase trading activities with
developing countries.
309. Acafe-SC
According to the text (third paragraph) which
is the correct statement below?
a. The Brazilian agricultural trade balance
in 2009 had a loss of US$ 55 billion.
b. The USA produces more soybeans than
Brazil.
c. Brazil produces more poultry than the
USA.
d. Brazil is the worlds number one
producer of cotton.
235

Ingls

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

to encourage more cooperation. That


cooperation has since ceased. The movies
major conceit, that Mark Zuckerberg
________ his early partners and colleagues
and ________ the company largely to get
girls and friends, apparently remains. Chris
Hughes, a co-founder, dismisses the latter
charge as crazy.
Two senior Facebook executives,
president
Cheryl
Sandberg
and
communications boss Elliot Schrage, have
apparently seen the movie and hate it.
According to the NYT, their response
will be to ignore it and hope it goes away.
On a positive note for Mark Z, the actor
who plays him, is a pleasant-looking fellow.
If youre going to go through the hell of
having your life fictionalized in a major
motion picture when youre all of 25, you'd
at least like to be able to console yourself by
thinking the guy who plays you looks good.

310. Acafe-SC
Which is the correct sequence of the missing
words in the fifth paragraph?
a. off of are at
b. in off are on
c. at on is in
d. of off is at
311. IFMG
Leia o texto e responda questo.
Facebook movie producers changed
movie to appease angry execs and
Mark Zuckerberg
The premiere of the Facebook movie
The Social Network is a month or so
away, and both sides are staking out their
positions. The company ________ the
movie as fiction and hoping everyone
will just ignore it. The movies producers,
led by mega-mogul Scott Rudin, ________
the movie reveals the conflicting truths of
Facebooks controversial beginnings and
hope it will define a generation, the way
Wall Street or The Big Chill did in prior
decades. In, Michael Cieply and Miguel
Helft reveal that, behind closed doors,
Facebook executives have been struggling
to influence the producers and the movie
and they appear to have had at least minor
success. The producers apparently made
minor changes to appease them, probably

Disponvel em: <http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.


cgi?f=/g/a/2010/08/23/businessinsider-facebookmovie-the-social-network-mark-zuckerberg>.

Choose the option that best completes the


gaps in the text:
a. is dismissing; are saying; screwed; built
b. dismissed; said; were screwing; was
building
c. isnt dismissing; arent saying; didnt
screw; built
d. dismisses; is saying; didnt screw; built

PV2D-13-14

Leia o texto e responda s questes 312 e 313.

Newsweek, 29 nov. 2010.

236

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

of the remotest stretches of the American


tropics, and once again it comes with the
snarling of chain saws, infectious disease,
and a whiff of cordite. Every time theres
a significant rise in gold prices, marginal
gold mines spring back to life in the
remotest regions, says Marcio Santilli,
who works for a Brazilian indigenousrights group, Instituto Socioambiental.
That often means trouble.
Ten years ago, with the easy alluvial
gold all but gone and ore prices sagging,
most wildcat miners had quit the jungle
camps for the cities, trying their luck
with odd jobs in the urban slums of Boa
Vista, Cuzco, Manaus, Porto Velho, and
Quito. But with ore prices up nearly 50
percent in value over the last 12 months,
gold fever has swept the rainforest again.
What brings gold mining back to life is
cheaper fuel and high prices for gold, and
thats exactly what we have right now,
says Luciano Borges, an economist who
advises Brazilian mining companies.
In Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Brazil,
and especially Peru, miners are on the move,
scraping away forests, rifling the soil, and
turning over streambeds for specks of gold.
Ground zero for the new treasure
hunt is the Peruvian Amazon, where some
40,000 miners swarm claims along the
Madre de Dios river, which rises in the
southern Andes and flows east into Brazil.
Though its hard to imagine, this army in
rags roots up nearly 20 percent of Perus
annual take of 175 metric tons of gold.
It also leaves a wake of destruction
behind it. Riverbanks dissolve as prospectors
power-hose the clay, sucking up the detritus
into diesel-powered dredges. Globs of toxic
mercury, which prospectors use to bind
with alluvial gold, fall into streams, where
the mercury is taken up by plants and fish
and eventually humans. Though few strike
it rich, and those who do often blow their
take in a single bender, expectation pulses
through the miners camps like aguardiente,
the cheap cane rum that fuels imaginations
and brawls. Prostitutes and thieves troll the
Amazon boomtowns, where theres also a
brisk business in guns and drugs.

312. FSA/FMABC-SP
A expresso is raising eyebrows, no texto,
quer dizer que Dilma est:
a. causando m impresso.
b. surpreendendo favoravelmente.
c. dividindo opinies.
d. chocando a opinio pblica.
313. FSA/FMABC-SP
De acordo com o texto, Dilma tem como
prioridade:
a. a classe mdia.
b. a populao pobre.
c. os idosos.
d. o controle da imprensa.

PV2D-13-14

Ingls

Leia o texto para responder s questes 314


a 316.
The New Gold Rush
Soaring gold prices are causing a
new mining boom thats threatening
the Amazon rainforest.
As stocks and bonds tumble from the
Dow to the DAX, investors are scrambling
for fireproof assets and for many market
watchers, the refuge of choice right now
is gold. The ancient hedge for troubling
economic times has soared since the
economic collapse of 2008, spiking 23
percent just since January. By this week
the price of an ounce of gold was close to
$1,800, a nearly sevenfold increase over
2001.
But in the stampede to safety, fortune
hunters are leaving behind a heavy
footprint. The story is the same across the
developing world: Fueled by market buzz,
miners wielding picks, pans, and dredging
machines are heading to locations as farflung as the Australian outback and the
Nigerian jungle. On Indonesias Paradise
Island, hundreds of illegal claims have
sprung up in the last three years, digging
up the storied mountains behind the famed
tourist resorts.
Yet nowhere has the impact been
greater than in Latin America, which is
blessed and cursed by some of the
richest veins of mineral ore in the world.
The post-crisis gold rush is on fire in some

Disponvel em: <http://www.newsweek.


com>. Acesso em: 19 ago. 2011.

237

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

314. ESPM-SP

Leia o texto para responder s questes de


317 a 320.

According to the text:


a. The 2008 economic downturn has
made gold prices plummet.
b. The 2008 economic downturn has
made gold skyrocket.
c. The price of the ounce of gold has increased at least seven times since 2001.
d. The Amazon is teeming with gold as are
the Australian outback and the Nigerian
jungle, but suffering less impact by the
gold rush.
e. The new gold rush puts the Amazon
rainforest preservation in jeopardy.

The double mirror


How Pakistans intelligence service plays
both sides
by David Ignatius

(...) I found that I couldnt capture


ISIs nuances in newspaper columns.
So my eighth novel, Bloodmoney, is
set largely in Pakistan; it centers on a
fictional ISI and a CIA whose operations
inside Pakistan have spun out of control.
I describe the director general of my
imaginary ISI this way: To say that the
Pakistani was playing a double game did
not do him justice; his strategy was far
more complicated than that.
This Janus-like quality is true of
all intelligence services, I suppose, but I
have never seen an organization quite like
the ISI. It is at once very secretive and
very open, yet ISI officials get especially
peeved at the charge of duplicity: I can
not go on defending myself forever, even
when I am not doing what I am blamed
for, wrote one of my ISI contacts,
after I had written a column noting the
organizations double game with the
U.S. I shall do what I think is good for
PAKISTAN, my country. I am sure you
will do the same for US.
What this official wanted me
to understand was that Pakistan was
suffering under its own onslaught of
terrorism. An ISI briefer almost shouted at
me in 2010: Mr. David Ignatius! Look at
the casualties we have suffered fighting
terrorism! Were in alongside the U.S.,
ISI officials insist. Yet they are caught in
the backwash of an anti-American rhetoric
they help create. The ISIs press cell
feeds Pakistani newspapers constantly;
presumably, it thinks its U.S.-bashing
leaks will hide the reality of the ISIs
cooperation. But the puppeteer has gotten
caught in the strings. Anti-Americanism
has taken a virulent form that threatens
the ISI too.

315. ESPM-SP
In the underlined sentence But in the
stampede to safety, fortune hunters are
leaving behind a heavy footprint, the author
means that:
a. fortune hunters are making history.
b. fortune hunters are traced by their
footprints.
c. fortune hunters are making their names
for themselves.
d. fortune hunters are leaving their mark.
e. fortune hunters are marking the way
not to get lost.
316. ESPM-SP
According to the text:
a. Whenever gold is ranked as a valuable
commodity, outlaws spring out in gold
mines.
b. Back in the early 2000s, when mines
ran out of alluvial gold, gold hunters
left for the shantytowns getting by with
weird jobs.
c. With the boom of gold, miners wreak
havoc everywhere they dig.
d. In Peru, the army is taking almost 20
percent of the miners annual revenues.
e. There is also trade of guns and drugs,
such as aguardiente, among gold miners.

ISI = Inter-Services Intelligence


Time, May 23, 2011 Essay. Adaptado.

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

worlds computers. The other is the


firm, which has revolutionised the way
many communicate. Now Skype is being
swallowed up by Microsoft.
Its just eight years since Skype
started helping people to make calls over
the internet for nothing, and this is the
third time its been bought and sold.
Microsoft has been struggling to prove
it can compete with the likes of Google and
Apple. Now as it tries to make an impact
on the mobile-phone world, it wants Skype
to help it become a bigger force.
Skype is now used by 170 million
people around the world (each month),
not just on their computers, but on the
move on their mobile phones and even
on their tablet devices.
Microsoft wants to tap in to this
connected community, but its paying a
huge price for a business that isnt even
profitble.

317. ITA-SP
Segundo o texto, possvel afirmar que:
a. h particularidades no modo de agir da
ISI que o autor nunca viu em organizaes semelhantes.
b. a ISI trata com virulncia a questo do
antiamericanismo para que ele no
contamine suas fileiras.
c. Bloodmoney uma novela encenada,
em grande parte, no Paquisto.
d. as operaes da ISI e da CIA, no Paquisto, fugiram de controle.
e. o autor correspondente jornalstico
no Paquisto.
318. ITA-SP
A opo cujo significado mais se aproxima do
vocbulo peeved :
a. mistrustful.
b. challenged.
c. irritated.
d. worried.
e. encouraged.

Rory Cellan-Jones, BBC News.


Disponvel em: <http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/
learningenglish/language/wordsinthenews/2
011/05/110511witn_skype_page.shtml>.

319. ITA-SP

321. Unioeste-PR

A palavra casualties:
a. sinnimo de eventualities.
b. pode ser entendida como desgastes.
c. expressa uma relao de causa e consequncia.
d. o mesmo que ataques.
e. pode ser substituda por losses.

Em its been bought and sold, tem-se uma


construo verbal no tempo:
a. Passado simples.
b. Passado contnuo.
c. Particpio passado.
d. Presente perfeito.
e. Passado perfeito contnuo.

320. ITA-SP
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Ingls

322. Unioeste-PR

A sentena I cannot go on defending myself


forever, even when I am not doing what I am
blamed for sugere que aquele que a pronunciou:
a. seguramente carrega consigo alguma
culpa.
b. se autocondena ao tentar explicar-se.
c. se responsabiliza pela prpria defesa.
d. se defende de uma acusao formal.
e. est farto de defender-se do que no faz.

De acordo com o ltimo pargrafo:


a. a Microsoft est pagando caro por um
negcio que no nem ao menos lucrativo.
b. a Microsoft est pagando caro pelo negcio, porque quer lucrar com isso.
c. a Microsoft est pagando pouco pelo
negcio, com vistas a lucrar muito no
futuro.
d. a Microsoft est lucrando muito com a
venda do Skype.
e. a Microsoft est investindo no Skype,
porque os lucros dessa empresa interessam a uma comunidade bem conectada.

Leia o texto e responda s questes 321 e 322.


Microsoft is buying Skype
One is the giant business, whose
software powers more than 90% of the
239

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

a. an indolent child.
b. a famous prodigy.
c. an unpublished writer.
d. a frustrated kid.
e. a limited speaker.

Leia o texto e responda s questes 323 e 324.


Adora Svitak: tiny literary giant at 12
Adora started writing when she was
four years old. She hasnt stopped since.
At six, Adora received a laptop computer
from her mother, on which she quickly
amassed a collection of hundreds of short
stories and hundreds of thousands of
words typing at 70 words per minute.
At the age of seven, Adora achieved
her dream of becoming a published author
with the release of Flying Fingers: Master
the Tools of Learning Through the Joy
of Writing. The book featured several
of Adoras short stories, along with her
writing tips, typing tips, and advice from
her mother. At age 11, Adora published a
second book, Dancing Fingers, with her
older sister, Adrianna.
Today, Adora is 12 and she has
transformed her writing success into
speaking and teaching success. She
has spoken at over 400 schools and
presented at the annual TED (Technology,
Entertainment, Design) conference. Shes
also planning a conference of her own, for
kids and by kids, called TEDx Redmond.
She has been featured on Good Morning
America and on CNN. Adora also
maintains a blog and attends an online
public school. She is in the eighth grade.

Leia o texto e responda s questes 325 e 326.


2012s second sun
Earth is believed to be getting a
second sun burning in the sky near the
end of 2012, as the second biggest star in
the universe, Betelgeuse, is dying, which
will lead to multiple days of constant
daylight.
Many ancient cultures have
speculated about the appearance of a
second sun and this event appears to tie in
very closely with the December 21 2012
predictions.
Betelgeuse is the second biggest star
in the universe and the eighth brightest in
the night sky. Scientists have determined
that the star is losing mass at a rapid rate,
which indicates it will go supernova very
soon.
The light emitted from this exploding
star will be so bright that it will appear for
a few weeks at the end of 2012 as a second
sun in the sky. There may be little if no
period of darkness or night according to
senior lecturer of physics at the University
of Southern Queensland, Brad Carter.
Earth will experience brightness for
a brief period of time for a couple of weeks
and then over the coming months it begins
to fade and then eventually it will be very
hard to see at all, explained the Australian
scientist Brad Carter to news.com.au.
Scientist have known about this
dying star which is 640 light years away
from Earth, since 2005. It is believed
that as Betelgeuse goes supernova it will
not be harmful to Earth. There will be
neutrinos emitted during the supernova
process, said University of Minnesota
physics professor Priscilla Cushman, but
neutrinos, even lots and lots of them, are
only weakly interacting, so they won't
affect life on earth, but that is only
speculation at this point.
The fact is, we as human beings
have never experienced anything like this

Disponvel em: <http://juniorbiz.com/adora-svitakinterview>. Acesso em: 02 jun. 2011. Adaptado.

323. UFPB
The sentence [...] Adora achieved her dream
of becoming a published author [...] (line 4)
means that:
a. Adora is having her first book published.
b. Adora may have her first book
published.
c. Adora already had her first book
published.
d. Adora will have her first book published.
e. Adora should have her first book
published.
324. UFPB
According to the text, it is concluded that
Adora is:

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

before so close to our home planet, and


to be honest, we just dont know for sure
what this event could bring.

Ingls
c. should have been given some kind of
diversity product.
d. will have to be given some kind of
diversity product.

Disponvel em: <http://www.december212012.


com>. Acesso em: 30 ago. 2011.

328. Acafe-SC

325. Udesc

Leia e observe a tirinha e responda questo.

It is correct to say that the text is about:


a. a prediction of an Earth mass destruction.
b. a big explosion from our Sun.
c. a big planet will come towards the Earth.
d. a future great change on Earths sky soon.
e. a mad disaster from a lunatic.

DIAS, Reinildes et al. Prime: ingls para o


Ensino Mdio So Paulo: Macmillan, 2009.
Disponvel em: <http://www.pirateparty.org.uk/forum/
viewtopic.php?f=11&t=2656>. Acesso em: 14 jan. 2012.

326. Udesc
The verb tenses have speculated, have
determined and have known are:
a. Past perfect
b. Simple present
c. Present perfect
d. Past participle
e. Gerund

De acordo com a tira cmica, o personagem


Dilbert:
a. afirma que o telefone celular o objeto
de desejo de todas as mulheres que ele
conhece atualmente.
b. acredita que sua psicanalista, por quem
ele sente atrao, sabe ouvi-lo melhor
que a maioria das mulheres.
c. acha que as mulheres so, geralmente,
atenciosas, embora ele no consiga se
comunicar bem com elas.
d. acha que sua psicanalista no consegue
entender sua forte atrao pelas mulheres e por seu telefone celular.
e. acredita que o telefone, objeto pelo
qual se diz apaixonado, tem muitas
qualidades e pode at superar as de
uma mulher.

327. UFSJ-MG
Leia e observe o cartum e responda questo.

PV2D-13-14

Leia o texto e responda s questes 329 e 330.

Disponvel em: <http://joshreads.


com/?cat=41&paged=2>. Acesso em: 2 set. 2011.

The man in the cartoon thinks the cat:


a. was recently given some kind of
diversity product.
b. was given some diversity product a
long time ago.

William Ellis Green, 82, was making


his breakfast when he heard somebody in
241

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

his garden. I went out the back door, and


suddenly I saw this guy running toward
me. He pushed me out of the way and
took my bicycle from the garden shed.
Mr. Green did not resist, as he knew he
would end up second-best in a fight with
the intruder. The burglar tried to cycle
away, but the tires on the bike were flat,
making it difficult to ride. He kept falling
off the bicycle, said Mr. Green, at least
three or four times. After the man fled,
Mr. Green called the local police.
When they arrived, officers asked
him to describe the man, but instead he
offered to draw them a picture. When
Mr. Green started drawing, said one of
the police officers, I knew right away
who the burglar was. Actually, Mr.
Green had worked for more than 20 years
in daily newspapers doing caricatures
of Australian soccer players. I had no
difficulty in remembering the mans face
because he was so close to me, he said.
Police cruised the neighborhood in a
patrol car with the sketch in search of the
alleged burglar and found him within half an
hour. The cartoon was a perfect likeness of
the burglar, said another police officer.
The police believe that this is the first
time they have ever caught a suspect by
using a cartoon sketch. Phil Rushford, a
senior police officer, said that in the past
some victims had used their cell phones to
take photographs at crime scenes, but they
had not been as effective.
A 34-year-old man is expected to be
charged with theft, burglary, and assault.
The missing bike was later found on a
nearby street.

According to the text, the correct sequence,


from top to bottom, is:
a. F, T, T, F
b. F, T, F, T
c. T, ,T, T, F
d. T, F, T, T
e. T, T, T, T
330. UEFS-BA
About the cartoon sketch of the burglar, its
correct to say that it:
a. looked just like him.
b. had been badly drawn.
c. vaguely resembled him.
d. looked like someone else.
e. bore no resemblance to him.
Leia o texto e responda s questes 331 e 332.
Looking for freedom
by David Hasselhoff

One morning in june some twenty years



[ago
I was born a rich mans son
I had everything that money could buy
But freedom I had none
Ive been lookin for freedom
Ive been lookin so long
Ive been lookin for freedom
Still the search goes on
Ive been lookin for freedom
Since I left my home town
Ive been lookin for freedom
Still it cant be found

OXENDEN, Clive; LATHAM-KOENIG, Christina


American English File, MultiPack 4A, 2010. p.51

I headed down the track, my baggage


[on my back
I left the city far behind
Walkin down the road, with my heavy

[load
Tryin to find some peace of mind
Father said youll be sorry, son,
If you leave your home this way
And when you realize the freedom
[money buys
Youll come running home some day

329. UEFS-BA
Fill in the parentheses with T (True) or F (False).
( ) The burglar had a lot of trouble riding the
bike.
( ) After having fallen off the bike, the burglar
gave up trying to steal it.
( ) It was pretty easy for Mr. Green to draw a
picture of the burglar.
( ) It took the police no more than thirty
minutes to find the burglar.
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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

I paid a lotta dues, had plenty to lose


Travelling across the land
Worked on a farm, got some muscle in
[my arm
But still Im not a self-made man
Ill be on the run for many years to
[ come
Ill be searching door to door
But, given some time, some day Im
[gonna find
The freedom Ive been searchin for

images of the individual's resistance,


revolt, and defeat".
Vargas Llosa rose to fame in the
1960s with novels such as The Time of
the Hero (La ciudad y los perros, literally
The City and the Dogs, 1963/1966), The
Green House (La casa verde, 1965/1968),
and the monumental Conversation in the
Cathedral (Conversacin en la catedral,
1969/1975). He writes prolifically across
an array of literary genres, including
literary criticism and journalism. His
novels include comedies, murder
mysteries, historical novels, and political
thrillers. Several, such as Captain Pantoja
and the Special Service (1973/1978)
and Aunt Julia and the Scriptwriter
(1977/1982), have been adapted as feature
films.
Many of Vargas Llosa's works are
influenced by the writer's perception of
Peruvian society and his own experiences
as a native Peruvian. Increasingly, however,
he has expanded his range, and tackled
themes that arise from other parts of the
world. Another change over the course
of his career has been a shift from a style
and approach associated with literary
modernism, to a sometimes playful
postmodernism.
Like many Latin American authors,
Vargas Llosa has been politically active
throughout his career; over the course
of his life, he has gradually moved from
the political left towards liberalism
or neoliberalism, a definitively more
conservative political position. While he
initially supported the Cuban revolutionary
government of Fidel Castro, Vargas Llosa
later became disenchanted with the Cuban
dictator and his authoritarian regime. He
ran for the Peruvian presidency in 1990
with the center-right Frente Democrtico
(FREDEMO)
coalition,
advocating
neoliberal reforms.

Disponvel em: <http://www.lyrics007.com/


David%20Hasselhoff%20Lyrics/Looking%20For%20
Freedom%20Lyrics.html>. Acesso em: 13 jul. 2011.

331. UFPB
According to the text, it is correct to affirm
that the young man:
a. has already gotten freedom.
b. has not found freedom yet.
c. has never desired freedom.
d. has not left home for freedom.
332. UFPB
Considering the consequences of the young
mans experiences so far, identify the correct
statements:
I. Hes paid a high price.
II. Hes become an athlete.
III. Hes had to work very hard.
IV. Hes got some muscle working.
V. Hes become a successful farmer.
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Ingls

Leia o texto e responda s questes de 333 a


335.
Jorge Mario Pedro Vargas Llosa, was
born on March 28, 1936, in the Peruvian
provincial city of Arequipa. He is a writer,
politician, journalist, essayist, and Nobel
Prize laureate. Vargas Llosa is one of Latin
America's most significant novelists and
essayists, and one of the leading authors
of his generation. Some critics consider
him to have had a larger international
impact and worldwide audience than
any other writer of the Latin American
Boom. He was awarded the 2010 Nobel
Prize in Literature "for his cartography
of structures of power and his trenchant

Disponvel em: <http://www.wikipedia.org>. Adaptado.

333. UFPR
Which of these statements does not
correspond to information given in the text
about Vargas Llosa?
a. He became famous in the 1960s.
243

b. His texts involve a wide range of literary


genres.
c. Most of his novels have been adapted
to films.
d. His novels include themes such as
politics, murder mysteries and thrillers.
e. One of the first novels he wrote was
The Time of the Hero.

15

20

334. UFPR
According to the text, Vargas Llosas writings:
a. do not evolve around themes
concerning different parts of the world.
b. are all about his early life in Arequipa.
c. have shifted from a romantic to a
modern style.
d. should be more universal and deal with
themes related to the most important
cultures.
e. have been influenced by the society of
his country.

25

30

35

335. UFPR
According to the text, Vargas Llosa:
a. has been politically active only after
1990, when he ran for President.
b. became the President of Peru in 1990.
c. strongly supports Fidel Castro and his
revolutionary government.
d. has moved from the left to a more
liberal or neoliberal political position.
e. is a member of the communist party in
Peru.

40

45

336. PUC-RJ
Leia o texto para responder questo.
The inside story

50

by Peter Guber Psychology Today

10

I live in the storytelling capital of


the world. I tell stories for a living.
Youre probably familiar with many
of my films, from Rain Man and
Batman to Midnight Express to
Gorillas in the Mist to this years
The Kids Are All Right.
But in four decades in the
movie business, Ive come to see
that stories are not only for the
big screen, Shakespearean plays,

55

60

244

and John Grisham novels. Ive


come to see that they are far more
than entertainment. They are the
most effective form of human
communication, more powerful
than any other way of packaging
information. And telling purposeful
stories is certainly the most efficient
means of persuasion in everyday
life, the most effective way of
translating ideas into action, whether
youre green-lighting a $90 million
film project, motivating employees
to meet an important deadline, or
getting your kids through a crisis.
PowerPoint presentations may
be powered by state-of-the-art
technology. But reams of data rarely
engage people to move them to
action. Stories, on the other hand, are
state-of-the-heart technology they
connect us to others. They provide
emotional transportation, moving
people to take action on your cause
because they can very quickly come
to psychologically identify with the
characters in a narrative or share an
experience courtesy of the images
evoked in the telling.
Equally important, they turn the
audience/listeners into viral advocates
of the proposition, whether in life or
in business, by paying the story not
just the information forward.
Stories, unlike straight-up
information, can change our lives
because they directly involve us,
bringing us into the inner world of
the protagonist. As I tell the students
in one of my UCLA graduate courses,
Navigating a Narrative World,
without stories not only would we
not likely have survived as a species,
we couldnt understand ourselves.
They provoke our memory and give
us the framework for much of our
understanding. They also reflect the
way the brain works. While we think
of stories as fluff, accessories to
information, something extraneous
to real work, they turn out to be the
cornerstone of consciousness.

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Ingls

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

PV2D-13-14

100

105

110

Much of what I know about


narrative and its power I learned
over the course of working in the
entertainment industry. In the early
1980s, I was chairman of PolyGram
Filmed Entertainment as well as
a producer at that studio. I was
pitched a movie to finance and
distribute based on a book then titled
The Execution of Charles Horman.
It told the true story of Ed Horman,
Charless father, a politically
conservative American who goes
to South America in search of his
missing journalist son. Ed joins
with his daughter-in-law Beth,
who, like her husband, is politically
polarized from the father, in prying
through bureaucracy and dangerous
government intrigue in search of
their son and husband. Gradually,
the father comes to realize his own
government is concealing the truth.
Although the project had
enlisted a great filmmaker Oscar
winner Costa Gavras (for the thriller
Z) I didnt find it compelling. A
Latin American revolution was
a tough sell for a commercial
American film, along with the story
of a father who had no relationship
with his son and the fact that you
already knew the ending: the son is
dead without the father ever finding
him. This story was dead on arrival
as an investment.
Out of courtesy, I met with the
father, who knew I was not a fan.
After a few polite introductions, he
nodded to some pictures of my thenteenage daughters on my bookcase.
Do you really know your children?
he asked. Really know them? He
went on to tell me a story that
the search for his son was more a
search for who he was than where
he was, because he always suspected
he was dead. But the journey was a
revelation, not least about the many
values father and son in fact shared.
It was a love story, not a death story.

115

120

125

Ingls
His telling engaged me in a
unique personal way, emotionally
transporting me into the search for
his child, and it made me wonder
whether I really knew my daughters,
their values and beliefs, their hopes
and dreams. If the writer could
focus the film as a love story/thriller
and an actor could engage those
emotions and pique those questions,
and the film could be executed to
get critical acclaim, it really might
be worth backing.

Disponvel em: <http://www.psychologytoday.


com/articles/201103/the-inside-story>.
Acesso em: 15 ago. 2011. Adaptado.

When the author of the text says: Ive come


to see (lines 12-13) he is talking about:
a. coming to Hollywood to see stories
made into films.
b. beginning to watch films and
Shakespearean plays.
c. what he now understands about stories
in films.
d. being at the film sessions in these four
decades.
e. how the film industry has developed
since its beginning.
Leia o texto para responder s questes 337
e 338.

245

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

Ingls
American genius Steve Jobs how he
changed our world

337. Mackenzie-SP
According to the text, Steve Jobs:
a. has become a respected visionary
with impeccable ideas concerning
unilateralism geared to his entire
industries.
b. has made Apples turnover skyrocket.
c. has invested in market capitalization,
generating enough profit to dedicate
to the music and movie industry in
Hollywood.
d. has always applied his business instinct
to create products that have rivaled
Microsoft and pushed him aside.
e. has surpassed ExxonMobil in the
marketing rank of the most profitable
IT company (Apple) in the world.

by Alan Deutschman

If ever there was a showman who


knew how to end on a high note leaving
his awed and adoring audience begging for
more it is the man in the trademark black
mock turtleneck. Even as an ailing Steve
Jobs announced to the world last week
that unfortunately, that day has come
for him to step down as chief executive
officer of Apple, his timing was yet
again impecable. In the 14 years since
Jobs regained control of his company in
the summer of 1997 after a long, bitter
exile, Apple shares have increased a
stunning 57-fold. Having surpassed rival
Microsoft a year ago, Apples $350 billion
in market capitalization places it behind
only ExxonMobil as the most valuable
company in the world. Apple has made
money so quickly and so prodigiously
that it holds an outrageous $76 billion
in cash and investments an awesome
sum thought to be parked in an obscure
subsidiary, Braeburn Capital, located
across the California border in Reno
because the state of Nevada doesnt have
corporate or capital-gains taxes.
In his second time around at Apple,
Jobs ultimately achieved what had eluded
him in his early years there, from 1976
to 1985, when he was acclaimed as a
visionary and a brilliant promoter but
wasnt respected as a businessman
not even by his board of directors, who
pushed him aside for a more experienced
executive. Now Jobs, 56, retires, having
closely rivaled (or some might say
eclipsed) Bill Gates as the most highly
regarded business figure of our times. He
proved himself the ultimate willful leader,
forging his singular vision through a
combination of inspiration, unilateralism,
and gut instinct. Jobs didnt just create
products that instilled lust in consumers
and enriched his company. He upended
entire industries. Personal computing. The
music business. Publishing. Hollywood.
All have been radically transformed
because of Steve Jobs.

338. Mackenzie-SP
The verb to elude in the text means:
a. to defraud, swindle or deceive someone.
b. to shade an area from exposure for a
period.
c. to reveal or disclose in violation of
confidence.
d. to withdrawn or remove from
observation.
e. to
escape
the
understanding,
perception or appreciation of.
Leia o cartum e o texto para responder s
questes 339 e 340.

PV2D-13-14

Com base na tirinha cmica Dry Bones, responda, ao que se pede em portugus:

339. Fuvest-SP
a. O que o personagem de bon considera uma boa notcia?
b. Por que a ltima fala do dilogo tem
efeito humorstico? Justifique sua resposta.

Disponvel em: <http://www.newsweek.com>.

246

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

341. UFPB

Com base no texto, responda, ao que se pede


em portugus:

PV2D-13-14

Ingls

Leia o texto e responda questo.


Adora Svitak: tiny literary giant at 12
Adora started writing when she was
four years old. She hasnt stopped since.
At six, Adora received a laptop computer
from her mother, on which she quickly
amassed a collection of hundreds of short
stories and hundreds of thousands of
words typing at 70 words per minute.
At the age of seven, Adora achieved
her dream of becoming a published
author with the release of Flying Fingers:
Master the Tools of Learning Through the
Joy of Writing. The book featured several
of Adoras short stories, along with her
writing tips, typing tips, and advice from
her mother. At age 11, Adora published a
second book, Dancing Fingers, with her
older sister, Adrianna.
Today, Adora is 12 and she has
transformed her writing success into
speaking and teaching success. She
has spoken at over 400 schools and
presented at the annual TED (Technology,
Entertainment, Design) conference. Shes
also planning a conference of her own, for
kids and by kids, called TEDx Redmond.
She has been featured on Good Morning
America and on CNN. Adora also
maintains a blog and attends an online
public school. She is in the eighth grade.

There is a great historical irony at


the heart of the current transformation of
news. The industry is being reshaped by
technology but by undermining the mass
medias business models, that technology
is in many ways returning the industry
to the more vibrant, freewheeling and
discursive ways of the preindustrial era.
Until the early 19th century there was
no technology for disseminating news to
large numbers of people in a short space
of time. It travelled as people chatted in
marketplaces and taverns or exchanged
letters with their friends.
The invention of the steam press in
the early 19th century, and the emergence
of mass-market newspapers, marked a
profound shift in news distribution. The
new technologies of mass dissemination
could reach large numbers of people with
unprecedented speed and efficiency, but
put control of the flow of information into
the hands of a select few.
In the past decade the internet has
disrupted this model and enabled the
social aspect of media to reassert itself. In
many ways news is going back to its preindustrial form, but supercharged by the
internet. Camera-phones and social media
such as blogs, Facebook and Twitter may
seem entirely new, but they echo the ways
in which people used to collect, share and
exchange information in the past.

Disponvel em: <http://juniorbiz.com/adora-svitakinterview>. Acesso em: 02 jun. 2011. Adaptado.

Considering Adoras literary production,


identify the correct statements:
I. Flying Fingers made her a published
author.
II. Dancing Fingers contained her mothers
advice.
III. Dancing Fingers was a co-production
with her sister.
IV. Flying Fingers had typing tips together
with stories.
V. Dancing Fingers was based on Adoras
conferences.

The Economist, July 9th 2011. Adaptado.

340. Fuvest-SP
a. Que mudanas ocorreram no incio do
sculo XIX na indstria de notcias?
b. Explicite a ironia histrica, provocada
pelo advento da Internet, no modo de
distribuio atual das notcias.

342. UFPB
Leia o texto e responda questo.
247

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

Ingls
Looking for freedom

According to the text, identify the correct


propositions:
I. The young man needed to walk away
from home.
II. The young man planned to spend his
time farming.
III. The young man decided to reach his
goal some day.
IV. The young man chose to leave his
luggage behind.
V. The young man wanted to have more
than money could buy.

by David Hasselhoff

One morning in june some twenty years



[ago
I was born a rich mans son
I had everything that money could buy
But freedom I had none
Ive been lookin for freedom
Ive been lookin so long
Ive been lookin for freedom
Still the search goes on
Ive been lookin for freedom
Since I left my home town
Ive been lookin for freedom
Still it cant be found

343. UFPB
Leia o texto e responda questo.
Honesty

I paid a lotta dues, had plenty to lose


Travelling across the land
Worked on a farm, got some muscle in
[my arm
But still Im not a self-made man
Ill be on the run for many years to
[ come
Ill be searching door to door
But, given some time, some day Im
[gonna find
The freedom Ive been searchin for
Disponvel em: <http://www.lyrics007.com/
David%20Hasselhoff%20Lyrics/Looking%20For%20
Freedom%20Lyrics.html>. Acesso em: 13 jul. 2011.

248

PV2D-13-14

by Lisa Mabey

I once returned a pair of shoes that


was sent to me by accident. I had paid for
one pair in the store, and a second pair was
sent to my home by accident. So I took the
second pair back into the store, and handed
them to the store clerk explaining the
situation. He held the shoebox in his hand
in disbelief and just looked at me. He then
thanked me for my honesty and commented
that hed never seen that happen before.
I was amazed that such a simple act of
honesty was met with such incredulity. Is
honesty really that uncommon?
I think there are honest acts all over
the place, but perhaps theyre quieter acts.
Being honest is much bigger than just not
lying. Its doing the right thing no matter
what. Its not rationalizing your actions
(because if youre trying to rationalize, you
already know somethings wrong, right?).
Being honest also requires a bit of
courage sometimes. I wrote previously
about the little boy who appeared on my
doorstep with his dad to tell me about
something hed done. I know that took
courage, and I appreciated it immensely. But
more than that, he learned that being honest
is the right thing to do and you can feel
happy when you are honest. Honest people
are people of character and are trustworthy.
You want to be around people you can trust
and who you know will deal with you justly.

I headed down the track, my baggage


[on my back
I left the city far behind
Walkin down the road, with my heavy

[load
Tryin to find some peace of mind
Father said youll be sorry, son,
If you leave your home this way
And when you realize the freedom
[money buys
Youll come running home some day

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

Dishonesty hurts you and others.


It hurts your spirit and your ability to
feel Gods influence when youre doing
something wrong. You have to remember
that honesty extends beyond others: being
honest with yourself and the Lord are
sometimes even more important because
your spiritual well-being is on the line.

Ingls
c. the woman is clearing up the boys
doubts about how he came to the world.
d. the woman and the boy are talking about
technological changes in their lives.

Leia a estria e responda s questes 345 e


346.

Disponvel em: <http://lds.families.com/blog/


for-the-strength-of-youth-series-honesty>
Acesso em: 5 set. 2011. Adaptado.

According to the first paragraph of the text, it


is correct to say that Lisa:
a. paid for the second pair of shoes.
b. handed a pair of shoes back by accident.
c. received a second pair of shoes at home.
d. won two pairs of shoes from the store.
e. returned both pairs of shoes to the store.
344. UEG-GO
Leia a tirinha e responda questo.

Disponvel em: <http://www.cal.org/caela/esl_resources/


Health/healthindex.html #Do>. Acesso em: 21 mar. 2011.

PV2D-13-14

345. UFG-GO
The picture story shows that the man:
a. started drinking before getting married.
b. got drunk before beating his wife.
c. beat his wife and the children.
d. apologised to his two children.
e. was confused about his behaviour.

Disponvel em: <http://www.creativityatwork.com/


images-media/Diagrams-logos/digi1image001.
png>. Acesso em: 22 ago. 2011.

346. UFG-GO
The aim of this picture story is to:
a. denounce a serious social situation.
b. make children take action.
c. convince women to get divorced.
d. persuade men to stop drinking.
e. show that alcoholic men need help.

Analisando-se a relao entre contedo verbal


e no verbal do cartum, chega-se concluso
de que:
a. the boy wants to learn how to download
some data on his computer.
b. the woman is trying to explain to the
boy how babies are given birth to.

249

Ingls

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

347. IFMG
Leia a tirinha abaixo e responda questo 347.

After enduring sloppy punctuation


on the street sign outside his home for
more than a year, Stefan Gatward could
stand it no longer.
The 62-year-old former soldier
___(1)___ to launch a one-man crusade
against dumbed down Britain, and ___
(2)___ up a paintbrush to insert a missing
apostrophe.
This ___(3)___ the incorrect St Johns
Close into the correct St Johns Close.
But he was immediately ___(4)___
of being a vandal by one neighbour, and
his amendments have been ___(5)___ off
by others who apparently prefer the wrong
version.
The 62-year-olds defence of the
apostrophe comes after Birmingham
council announced it would scrap the
punctuation from council signs for the
sake of simplicity.
Mr Gatward ___(6)___ into his flat
in Tunbridge Wells, Kent, 14 months ago.
He said today: As we are off St
Johns Road and opposite St Johns
Church, both with the apostrophe, St
Johns Close should have one too.
But when Mr Gatward decided to
correct the crime against the language by
painting in the missing punctuation mark,
he was jeered by a neighbour.
He ___(7)___ me I was wrong.
He ___(8)___ me a vandal and a graffiti
artist, Mr Gatward said.
He tried to tell me that the Post
Office would not deliver to the street if
you put in an apostrophe.

According to the comic strip:


I. Monica understood what Jimmy Five
proposed immediately.
II. Jimmy Five wanted to play chess to
show how smart he was.
III. Monica got disappointed because she
lost the match.
IV. Jimmy Five didnt imagine Monica
would have that kind of reaction.
a. all of the propositions are correct.
b. only proposition IV is correct.
c. only proposition III is correct.
d. only propositions I and IV are correct.
348. Ufes
L eia o texto e complete os espaos com as
palavras do quadro. Escreva as respostas nos
espaos numerados aps o texto.
accused called decided moved picked
saw scratched served told turned
'Punctuation hero' branded a vandal
for painting apostrophes on street signs

250

PV2D-13-14

Disponvel em: <http://www.monica.com.br/ingles/i-home.htm>.

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

Mr Gatward, who ___(9)___ for


four years in the Gordon Highlanders in
the 1960s, is not just a campaigner for the
apostrophe.
He will not join the five items or
less queue at the supermarket, in protest
that the sign should read five items or
fewer.
He also gets annoyed when peopleneglect the Royal in Royal Tunbridge
Wells, and was vexed when he ___(10)___
a major chain store advertising sales with
signs saying until stocks last rather than
while stocks last.
I fought for the preservation of
our heritage and our language but some
people seem happy to let that go. Im not,
he said.

Ingls

(1) ____________________

(2) ____________________

(3) ____________________

(4) ____________________

(5) ____________________

(6) ____________________
(7) ____________________
(8) ____________________

FERNANDEZ, Colin. 'Punctuation hero' branded a


vandal for painting apostrophes on street signs.
Disponvel em: <http://www.dailymail.co.uk/
news/article-1207301/Punctuation-herobranded-vandal-inserting-apostrophes-streetsigns.html>. Acesso em: 3 ago. 2010.

(9) ____________________
(10) ___________________

349. Uel-PR

PV2D-13-14

Leia a tirinha a seguir e responda questo.

Disponvel em: <http://www.progressiveboink.com/archive/calvinhobbes.htm>. Acesso em: 30 maio 2011

a. No terceiro quadrinho, percebe-se que Calvin est escrevendo um recado. Para quem
esse recado?
b. Calvin faz uma crtica ao sistema escolar. Que crtica essa?

251

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

a. teve um pico em relao aos registros


de 1980.
b. foi o menor desde o final da dcada de
1980.
c. ocorreu somente no perodo de julho a
outubro.
d. ficou estvel, no mesmo nvel da dcada de 1980.
e. foi levemente maior que no ano de
2011.

Leia o texto para e responda s questes de


350 a 352.
Satellite data shows slight increase in
Amazon deforestation over June last
year
Deforestation in the Brazilian
Amazon rose 17 percent in June compared
to the same period a year earlier, reports
Brazils National Institute for Space
Research (INPE). Using its rapid
deforestation detection system INPE
found 312.7 square kilometers were
cleared in June. Nearly 40 percent of
deforestation occurred in the state of Par.
The states of Mato Grosso (26 percent),
Rondonia (21 percent), and Amazonas (13
percent) also saw significant forest loss.
Entering the peak deforestation
months July through September/October
deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon in
2011 is so far outpacing last years rate,
which was the lowest since annual recordkeeping began in the late 1980s.
Most observers expected to see an
increase in deforestation this year due to
higher commodity prices and anticipation
of changes to Brazils Forest Code, which
requires private landowners to maintain
forest cover on the majority of their
holdings. Another contributing factor is
continuing dry conditions across much of
the Amazon basin, which increase the risk
of fires spreading from agricultural areas
into forest zones.

352. UEA-AM
Um dos motivos que poder contribuir para a
elevao do desmatamento em 2011 na Amaznia :
a. a queda do preo da soja e de outros
produtos para exportao.
b. a alterao de alguns itens do Cdigo
Florestal e o questionamento de outros
artigos dele.
c. o loteamento e a venda de glebas para
empresas particulares estrangeiras.
d. a queimada de pastagens em propriedades privadas para venda posterior.
e. o clima seco que cria condies para
incndios florestais a partir de reas
agrcolas.
Leia o texto e responda s questes de 353 a
356.
Life on a Desert Island
Most of us have formed an unrealistic
picture of life on a desert island. We
sometimes imagine a desert island to be
a sort of paradise where the sun always
shines. Life there is simple and good. Ripe
fruit falls from the trees and you never have
to work. There is also the other side of the
picture: life in a desert island is wretched
you either starve to death or live like
Robinson Crusoe waiting for a boat which
never comes. Perhaps there is an element
of truth in both these pictures, but few of us
have had the opportunity to find out.
Two men who recently spent five
days on a coral island wished they stayed
there longer. They were taking a badly
damaged boat from the Virgin Islands
to Miami to have it repaired. During the

Disponvel em: <http://news.mongabay.


com>. Acesso em: 3 ago. 2011. Adaptado.

350. UEA-AM
No Brasil, em relao ao ano de 2010, o desmatamento na Amaznia em junho de 2011:
a. diminuiu 40%.
b. estabilizou-se em 26%.
c. aumentou 21%.
d. aumentou 17%.
e. aumentou 13%.
351. UEA-AM
Em 2010, o desmatamento na Amaznia:

252

PV2D-13-14

Ingls

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

journey, their boat began to sink. They


quickly loaded a small rubber dinghy with
food, matches, and cans of beer and rowed
for a few miles across the Caribbean until
they arrived at a tiny coral island. There
were hardly any trees on the island and
there was no water, but this didnt prove
to a problem since the men collected rainwater in their rubber dinghy. As they had
brought a spear gun with them, they had
plenty to eat. They caught lobster and
fish every day, and, as one of them put it,
ate like kings! When a passing tanker
rescued them five days later, both men
were genuinely sorry that they had to
leave.

356. FMJ-SP
How did the men feel as they left the island?
a. hey felt hungry because they didnt
have much to eat on the island.
b. They regretted leaving the island so
soon because life was good there.
c. They were upset because they ended
up being rescued by a tanker.
d. They could only think of all the beer
they would drink when in Miami.
e. They were fed up with eating lobster
every day while on the island.
357. Unicamp-SP
Leia o texto e responda pergunta.

L.G.Alexander, Developing Skills, Longman. Adaptado.

The march on Washington

353. FMJ-SP
De acordo com o segundo pargrafo do texto,
os dois homens mencionados:
a. estavam ansiosos para serem resgatados da ilha.
b. naufragaram enquanto levavam um
barco defeituoso para ser consertado.
c. estavam a caminho de Miami em um
bote de borracha.
d. recusaram o resgate por no desejar
embarcar em um navio petroleiro.
e. faziam uma regata em barco a remo pelas ilhas do Caribe.

When the architects of our republic


wrote the magnificent words of the
Constitution and the Declaration of
Independence, they were signing a
promissory note to which every American
was to fall heir. This note was a promise
that all men, yes, black men as well as
white men, would be guaranteed the
unalienable rights of life, liberty, and the
pursuit of happiness.
It is obvious today that America has
defaulted on this promissory note insofar
as her citizens of color are concerned.
Instead of honouring this sacred
obligation, America has given the Negro
people a bad check, a check which has
come back marked insufficient funds.
But we refuse to believe that the bank of
justice is bankrupt. We refuse to believe
that there are insufficient funds in the
great depositories of opportunity of this

354. FMJ-SP

PV2D-13-14

Ingls

The men in the island didnt go thirsty because


they:
a. had plenty of ripe fruit.
b. had a spear gun.
c. were at a coral island.
d. ate like kings.
e. could drink rain-water.
355. FMJ-SP
Enquanto estavam na ilha, os dois homens
alimentaram-se:
a. de pesca diria.
b. das frutas que caam das rvores.
c. dos suprimentos encontrados na ilha.
d. com a ajuda de um navio petroleiro.
e. de pequenos animais encontrados na ilha.
253

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

nation. So we have come to our nations


capital to cash this check.
a. Na linguagem metafrica do texto, um
trecho do discurso proferido por Martin Luther King em 1963, a que se refere
a nota promissria emitida pelos Estados Unidos da Amrica?
b. Que crenas levaram os negros norte-americanos a irem a Washington sacar o cheque que a Amrica lhes deu?

returned to put its software at the heart of


a new range of Apple products.
More recently, under his guidance,
Apple went from being a company on
the brink of bankruptcy to a firm that has
reshaped entire industries and brought
rivals to their knees.
Few corporate leaders in modern
times have been as dominant or, at
times, as dictatorial as Mr Jobs. His
success was the result of his unusual
combination of technical smarts, strategic
vision, flair for design and sheer force
of character. But it was also because in
an industry dominated by engineers and
marketing people, he had a different and
much broader perspective. Mr Jobs had an
unusual knack for looking at technology
from the outside, as a user, not just from
the inside, as an engineer.

Leia o texto para responder s questes de


358 a 360.
A genius departs
The astonishing career of the worlds
most revered chief executive
On October 4th Apple staged a press
conference to launch its latest iPhone and
other gadgets. TimCook, the computing
giants new chief executive, and his
colleagues did a perfectly competent job
of presenting its latest wares. But it was
inevitable that comparisons would be
drawn between Mr Cooks understated
approach on stage and that of Steve
Jobs, his predecessor, whose sense of
showmanship had turned so many Apple
product launches into quasi-religious
experiences. The news the following day
that Mr Jobs had finally died turned the
feeling of disappointment into one of deep
sadness.
Many technologists have been hailed
as visionaries. If anyone deserves that
title it was Mr Jobs. Back in the 1970s,
the notion that computers might soon
become ubiquitous seemed fanciful.
In those days he was among the first to
appreciate the potential that lay in the idea
of selling computers to ordinary people.
Apple launched Macintosh in 1984. Mr
Jobs expected to sell zillions of his
new machines. But the Mac was not the
success that he had hoped for, and Mr
Jobs was ousted from Apple by its board
in 1985.
Mr Jobss remarkable second act
began in 1996 when Apple, having lost
its way, acquired NeXT, and Mr Jobs

Disponvel em: <http://www.economist.com/


node/21531530 >. Acesso em: 9 out. 2011. Adapatado

358. UFPE
It is true to say of Steve Jobs that he:
0. ran out of ideas.
1. has passed away.
2. never put up a show.
3. wasnt looked up to.
4. was well-off.
359. UFPE
Apples success:
0. was due to Jobs.
1. took place in spite of Jobs.
2. owes a lot to Jobs.
3. stems from Jobs vision.
4. worked against Jobs.
360. UFPE
Mr Jobs creativity was:
0. way lower than everybody elses.
1. just as good as anybody elses.
2. less brilliant than his competitors.
3. thought of as being higher than his peers.
4. more engendering than his competitors.

254

PV2D-13-14

Ingls

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

network would open up new frontiers of


creativity by enabling me to exchange
views and insights with like-minded
people. In the event, I most encountered a
deluge of banal gossip, boasting, trivia and
moronic links to skaterboarding pandas.
Yet, for all its aggravations, I cant bring
myself to quit the compulsevely addictive
site. Other internet users, however, do
appear to be kicking the habbit. Last
month, around 100,000 British users
deactivated their accounts, as did a similar
number of Russians and Norwegians. The
decline was even more marked in the US,
where no fewer than six million users
decided they had better things to do than
check their Facebook pages.
After seven years of phenomenal
growth, it seems the worlds biggest
social network may have reached its
peak, said Stephen Armstrong in The
Sunday Times. People are leaving for
various reasons. For some its a case of
digital downsizing: reacting to the clutter
of websites and smartphones by cutting
time online.
Other are concerned about privacy
issues. Alice Needham, a student in
Newcastle, left after her mother started
posting affectionate messages on the
public part of her page. The final straw
was her mothers posting: Good night, my
darling girl, I love you so very, very much.
Yes, it was really sweet, but Anyway, I
thought it was easier to Leave (Facebook)
than argue with her, says Alice.
Although the decline sounds
bad for Facebook, the network is still
growing in South America and Asia and
will likely cross the billion-user mark
in the next year. With such a ubiquitous
global preence, it wont be disappearing
any time soon.

Leia e observe os textos e imagens e responda


s questes de 361 a 364.
Text I

PV2D-13-14

Ingls

Shortly after Egyptian President


Hosni Mubarak stepped down from power
on Friday, activist Wael Ghonim spoke
with CNNs Wolf Blitzer and credited
Facebook with the success of the Egyptian
people's uprising.
Ghonim, a marketing manager for
Google, played a key role in organizing
the January 25 protest by reaching out to
Egyptian youths on Facebook. Shortly after
that first protest, Ghonim was arrested in
Cairo and imprisoned for 12 days.
Since his release, Ghonim has become
a symbol for the Egyptian movement,
although he has rejected this notion. Im
not a hero. I was writing on a keyboard
on the Internet and I wasnt exposing my
life to danger, he said in an interview
immediately after his release. The heroes
are the one who are in the street.
Disponvel em: <http:// http://www.huffingtonpost.
com/2011/02/11/egypt-facebook-revolutionwael-ghonim_n_822078.html>. Adaptado.

Glossary
stepped down from power: deixou o poder
reaching out: alcanar

Disponvel em: The Week, 25 june 2011. Adpatado.

Text II

Glossary
boasting: contar vantagem

Facebook: why is the West switching off?


Writer Tim Lott said in The
Independent on Sunday: Last Summer, I
took a momentous step into the unknown:
at the age of 54, I joined Facebook. I
thought subscribing to the online social

the last straw: a ltima gota


361. UFF-RJ
In Text I, the author referes to the following
events in Egypt:
255

Ingls

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

a.

b.

Ghonim credits Facebook with the


success of the revolution

c.

Ghonim is arrestd

d.

d. marketing for Google.


e. exposing his life to danger.

The chronological order in which these events


took place, as described in the text, is:
a. a c d b
b. c b d a
c. b c a d
d. d b c a
e. d a c b

363. UFF-RJ
The word momentous Text II, could be replaced by:
a. spontaneous.
b. temporary.
c. natural.
d. careless.
e. fundamental.

362. UFF-RJ
According to Text I, Ghonim refused his role as
a hero in the Egyptian protest by emphsasizing
that he was simply:
a. giving an interview.
b. fighting in the streets.
c. posting messages online.

364. UFF-RJ
The aggravations (paragraph 1) concerning
Facebook are exemplified in Text II by:
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Ghonim organizes a protest Mubarak step down from power

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

a. a momentous step into the unknown.


b. the opening up of frontiers of creativity.
c. views and insights with like-minded
people.
d. banal gossip, boasting and trivia.
e. the clutter of websites and smartphones.

366. UFG-GO
The potatos current reputation is bad, though
it might change after Dr Joe Vinson's research.
Which item below also has a bad reputation?
a. Water
b. Yogurt
c. Milk
d. Soft drink
e. Orange juice

Leia o texto e responda s questes 365 e 366.


Potatoes can reduce blood pressure
Just a couple of servings of potato a
day can reduce blood pressure in obese
or overweight people with high blood
pressure, calling into question the lowly
spuds current reputation as a fattening,
unhealthy food, according to new research
presented at a conference in Denver,
Colorado, USA, on Wednesday.
The potato, more than perhaps
any other vegetable, has an undeserved,
bad reputation that has led many
healthconscious people to ban them from
their diet, said Dr Joe Vinson, a professor
in the Department of Chemistry at the
University of Scranton in Pennsylvania,
who led the research that was presented at
the 242nd National Meeting & Exposition
of the American Chemical Society (ACS).
But before you go out and order
French fries, the preferred way of eating this
most consumed of all vegetables in the US,
consider this: the research was done with
purple potatoes cooked in the microwave
oven, with no oil or fat whatsoever.

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Ingls

Leia o texto e responda s questes 367 e 368.


The secret of the Great Stories
is that they have no secrets. The Great
Stories are the ones you have heard and
want to hear again. The ones you can enter
anywhere and inhabit comfortably. They
dont deceive you with thrills and trick
endings. They dont surprise you with the
unforeseen. They are as familiar as the
house you live in. Or the smell of your
lovers skin. You know how they end, yet
you listen as though you dont. In the way
that although you know that one day you
will die, you live as though you wont.
In the Great Stories you know who lives,
who dies, who finds love, who doesnt.
And yet you want to know again. That is
their mystery and magic.
Disponvel em: <http://www.goodreads.
com/author/quotes/6134. ArundhatiRoy>.
Acesso em: 13 set. 2011. Adaptado.

367. UFG-GO
What characterizes Great Stories is their:
a. simplicity.
b. timelessness.
c. originality.
d. unpredictability.
e. mystery.

Disponvel em: <http://www.medicalnewstoday.


com/articles/233690.php>. Acesso
em: 1 set. 2011. Adaptado.

365. UFF-RJ
The main aim of the report is to:
a. try to stimulate the reader to have a
more balanced and healthy diet.
b. emphasize the importance of being
aware of recent scientific findings.
c. criticize conflicting results in research in
terms of what a healthy lifestyle means.
d. point out that consumers must be more
critical of bad eating habits.
e. provide the reader with information
about recent results in health research.

368. UFG-GO
The text is metalinguistic because it:
a. focuses on aesthetic effects.
b. is a reflection on the literary text.
c. appeals to the reader's feelings.
d. expresses a character's emotions.
e. gives information about reading.

257

Given that most stars in our galaxy are


part of a binary system, this means the
opportunities for life are much broader
than if planets form only around single
stars. This milestone discovery confirms a
theory that scientists have had for decades
but could not prove until now.
The planet, known as Kepler-16b,
orbits around both stars every 229 days,
similar to Venus 225-day orbit. But
NASA said it exists beyond a zone where
liquid water could exist on the surface,
because the stars are cooler than our sun.
The research team was led by
Laurance Doyle of the SETI Institute,
(which was featured in the movie Contact
and recently revived its alien research
thanks to donations). The SETI team used
data from the Kepler space telescope,
which measures dips in brightness for
more than 15,000 stars in the hopes of
finding transiting planets.
When the smaller star partially
blocks the larger star, a primary eclipse
occurs, and a secondary eclipse occurs
when the smaller star is occulted, or
completely blocked, by the larger star,
NASA said. Astronomers further
observed that the brightness of the system
dipped even when the stars were not
eclipsing one another, hinting at a third
body.
John Knoll, the visual effects
supervisor for Industrial Light and
Magic (ILM), the company founded by
George Lucas that produced the special
effects for the Star Wars movies, was in
attendance at Thursday's announcement.
Working in film, we often are tasked with
creating something never before seen.
However, more often than not, scientific
discoveries prove to be more spectacular
than anything we dare imagine, he
said in a statement. There is no doubt
these discoveries influence and inspire
storytellers. Their very existence serves
as cause to dream bigger and open our
minds to new possibilities beyond what
we think we know.

Leia o texto e responda s questes 369 e 370.


NASA discovers new 'Tatooine' planet
with two suns
by Chloe Albanesius

First we get the Back to the Future


sneakers and now Tatooine? Its a big
week for sci-fi movie buffs, as NASA on
Thursday revealed that its Kepler mission
had uncovered evidence of a circumbinary
planet, or a planet that orbits two stars.
As Star Wars fans will know, and as
PCMag analyst Tony Hoffman pointed
out this week, the discovery is reminiscent
of Tatooine, the planet on which Luke
Skywalker grew up, which circled a
double star, or two suns that appeared
close together in the sky.
But before you pack up your things
in hopes of living the life of a Jedi, NASA
said the planet it has discovered is cold,
gaseous, and not thought to contain life.
Its about the size of Saturn and scientists
think its made up of half rock and half
gas. Of the two stars, meanwhile, one is
69 percent the mass of our sun while the
other is 20 percent.
But discovery of this system,
dubbed Kepler-16, is significant because
weve never before had actual proof of
circumbinary planets.
This discovery confirms a new
class of planetary systems that could
harbor life, Kepler principal investigator
William Borucki said in a statement.

Disponvel em: <http://www.pcmag.


com/article2/0,2817,2393115,00.
asp>. Acesso em: 16 set. 2011.

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Ingls

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

369. UFPA
O texto NASA discovers new Tatooine planet
with two suns anuncia a descoberta de um
planeta que:
a. apresenta indcios de vida.
b. orbita em torno de duas estrelas.
c. possui anis semelhantes aos de Saturno.
d. gira em torno de estrelas maiores do
que nosso sol.
e. estava sendo investigado desde o lanamento do filme Star Wars.

10

15

20

370. UFPA
O pesquisador William Borucki afirma que a
possibilidade de haver formas de vida maior
em planetas:
a. onde h gelo e gs.
b. cuja intensidade do Sol branda.
c. que se formam ao redor de duas estrelas.
d. cuja rbita em torno de sua estrela de
229 dias.
e. que tenham a mesma temperatura que
a da terra.

25

30

Leia o texto para responder s questes 371


e 372.

35

Men without women

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40

45

50

In China, young men will soon outnumber young


women by millions
1

In 1927, Ernest Hemingway


published a collection of short stories
titled Men Without Women. Today,
less than a century later, it sums up the
predicament of a rising proportion of
mankind.

55

259

Ingls
According to the United Nations,
there are far more men than women on
the planet. The gender gap is especially
pronounced in Asia, where there are a
hundred million more guys than girls.
This may come as a surprise to people
in the Western world, where women
outnumber men because other
things being equal the mortality rate
for women is lower than for men in
all age groups. Nobel Prize-winning
economist Amartya Sen calls it the
mystery of Asias missing women.
The mystery is partly explicable
in terms of economics. In many Asian
societies, girls are less well looked
after than boys because they are
economically undervalued. The kind
of domestic work they typically do is
seen as less important than paid work
done by men. And, of course, early
marriage and minimal birth control
together expose them to the risks of
multiple pregnancies.
When Sen first added up the
missing women women who
would exist today if it were not for
selective abortion, infanticide, and
economic discrimination he put
the number at hundred million. It is
surely higher now. For, even as living
standards in Asian countries have
soared, the gender gap has widened.
Thats because a cultural preference
for sons over daughters leads to
selective abortion of female fetuses, a
practice made possible by ultrasound
scanning, and engaged in despite
legal prohibitions. The American
feminist Mary Anne Warren called it
gendercide. Notoriously common
in northwestern India, its also
rampant in the worlds most populous
country: China.
That has scary implications.
Remember, most of Hemingways
stories in Men Without Women
are about violence. They feature
gangsters, bullfighters, and wounded
soldiers as well. The most famous
story is called simply The Killers.

60

65

70

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

It may be that the coming


generation of Asian men without
women will find harmless outlets for
their inevitable frustrations, like team
sports or videogames. But I doubt it.
Either this bachelor generation will
be a source of domestic instability,
whether Brazilian-style crime or Arabstyle revolution or, as happened in
Europe, they and their testosterone
will be exported. Theres already
enough shrill nationalism in Asia as it
is. Dont be surprised if, in the next
generation, it takes the form of macho
militarism and even imperialism.
Lock up your daughters.

08. uma coletnea de contos cujo ttulo


sintetiza o dilema de uma proporo
crescente do gnero humano.
16. Apresenta a violncia como tema predominante na obra.
32. Defende a causa de toureiros e soldados desertores.
Leia o texto e responda s questes de 373 a
376.
How to feed a growing planet
by Amanda Fiegl

Heres an uncomfortable math


problem: by 2045 Earths population will
likely have swelled from seven to nine
billion people. To fill all those stomachs
while accounting for shifting consumption
patterns, climate change, and a finite
amount of arable land and potable water
some experts say global food production
will have to double. How can we make the
numbers add up?
Julian Cribb, author of The Coming
Famine, says higher yielding crop varieties
and more efficient farming methods will
be crucial. So will waste reduction. Cribb
and other experts urge cities to reclaim
nutrients and water from waste streams
and preserve farmland. Poor countries,
they say, can improve crop storage and
packaging. And rich nations could cut
back on resource-intensive foods like
meat. In fact, wherever there is easy
access to cheap food, people buy more
than they consume. We could thus all start
by shopping smarter and cleaning our
plates.
As Cribb notes, food security is
increasingly a collective challenge.
Its also a chance to pull together on
something we can all agree about, share
and enjoy.

FERGUSON. Niall. Men without women. Newsweek,


New York, March 14, 2011. p. 8. Adaptado.

371. UFBA
So afirmaes verdadeiras que se depreendem do texto:
01. Ao contrrio da sia, h mais mulheres
do que homens no mundo ocidental.
02. Em todo o planeta, o nmero de homens supera o de mulheres em mais de
100 milhes.
04. Nas diferentes faixas etrias, o ndice de
mortalidade dos homens no Ocidente
maior do que o das mulheres.
08. Em muitas sociedades orientais, as meninas so discriminadas tanto profissional como economicamente.
16. A atual tendncia de casar cada vez
mais tarde expe as mulheres asiticas
a inmeros riscos de parto.
32. A preferncia cultural dos orientais por
filhos do sexo masculino leva as mulheres ao aborto seletivo de fetos do sexo
feminino.
372. UFBA

National Geographic Magazine, July 2011. Adaptado.

Sobre a publicao de Hemingway, Men


Without Women, correto afirmar:
01. um documentrio sobre antigos problemas do mundo ocidental.
02. Proporcionou a seu autor o Prmio Nobel de Literatura.
04. Possui, como seus principais personagens, homens em busca de uma companheira.

373. UEPG-PR
Com relao ao que se pode inferir do texto
como um todo, assinale o que for correto.
01. Estima-se que, em pouco mais de trinta
anos, a populao mundial aumentar
de sete para nove bilhes de habitantes.

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

02. Quando tm acesso a alimentos baratos, as pessoas tendem a comprar mais


do que consomem.
04. Ser necessrio reduzir o consumo de
gua potvel.
08. Assegurar o sustento da humanidade ,
cada vez mais, um desafio da coletividade.

Leia o texto para responder s questes de


377 a 380.
Can science fiction still predict the
future?
In the novel 2001: A Space Odyssey,
Arthur C. Clarke shows us Dr. Heywood
Floyd reading his newspad, where he
can consult any newspaper he wishes.
How many future computer engineers
read this science fiction classic or saw
the motion picture and thought: I want
one of those!? As science fiction fans
know, finding examples in earlier fiction
that resemble new technology brings a
glow of satisfaction at seeing our world
foretold. But how has rapid technological
development affected such forecasts?
Wondering how scientific advances
would shape the future is not a new
preoccupation indeed, rocket propulsion
may first have been suggested in a 1657
work by Cyrano de Bergerac, who shoots
his hero to the moon with firecrackers. But
few have been so enthralled by imaginings
of the future as John Claudius Loudon.
In the March 1828 issue of Gardeners
Magazine, Loudon ran a review of Jane
Webbs The Mummy!, a novel about
an Egyptian mummy resurrected in the
22nd century. So impressed was Loudon
by Webbs steam-powered agricultural
machines, air beds, milking machines
and smokeless fuel that he arranged an
introduction to the young writer. They
were later married.
Enthusiasm about such speculation
hasnt been universal. For example,
Jules Vernes 1863 novel Paris in the
Twentieth Century depicted a 1960s world
of skyscrapers, fax machines and even a
proto-internet. It was turned down by his
publisher as unbelievable, and only
finally published in 1994.
In the 20th century, emerging
technologies made such ideas more
believable. In 1926, the first issue of the
science fiction magazine Amazing Stories
enthused: Extravagant Fiction Today
Cold Fact Tomorrow. In 1928, the British
newspaper Daily Mail published an issue
forecasting the year 2000 with giant

374. UEPG-PR
Com relao aos motivos pelos quais, segundo
alguns especialistas, a produo de alimentos
dever ser duplicada, assinale o que for correto.
01. Os eixos magnticos da Terra se alteraram.
02. As condies climticas esto mudando.
04. A quantidade de terra cultivvel finita.
08. Os padres de consumo esto mudando.
375. UEPG-PR
Sobre as sugestes do autor Julian Cribb, assinale o que for correto.
01. preciso investir em culturas mais produtivas.
02. preciso reduzir as taxas de natalidade.
04. preciso reduzir o desperdcio de alimentos.
08. preciso investir em mtodos de cultivo mais eficientes.
376. UEPG-PR
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Ingls

Com relao ainda ao que dizem Cribb e outros especialistas, assinale o que for correto.
01. Pases pobres devem melhorar seus sistemas de armazenamento de gneros
alimentcios.
02. Pases ricos devem importar alimentos
produzidos por pases em desenvolvimento.
04. Os preos dos alimentos em geral precisam ser reduzidos.
08. Pases ricos devem reduzir o consumo
de alimentos que requerem muito investimento, como carne.

261

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

flat-screen tvs in public places , which


caused little surprise. As time goes by,
though, it becomes increasingly difficult
to distinguish between science fiction
and reality. Of course, some have argued
that projecting a plausible future is more
science than art. Robert Heinlein was one
of many authors credited with inventing
the cellphone, which appears in his 1948
novel Space Cadet. Those with an ache
to foretell the future may want to take a
page out of his book: he maintained that
his prophecies which included atomic
weapons and remote controls were not
born solely of his imagination, but rooted
in his science education and knowledge of
current research.

380. UERJ
Pode-se depreender do texto que, medida
que as tecnologias se tornam mais avanadas,
as previses do futuro causam menos impacto.
Traduza as duas frases do texto relacionadas
a publicaes do sculo XX que confirmam a
afirmativa acima.
Leia o texto e responda s questes de 381 a
384.
Information please... towards a world
science information network
by Yuri I. Litukhi
The UNESCO Courier

Scientists form an international


community whose common bond, science
itself, leads them to see beyond national
boundaries and sectarian attitudes. When
a scientist makes a discovery, he wants to
tell, not just his fellow countrymen, but
the world.
Similarly,
when
he
seeks
information, he wants to be provided
with it as quickly as possible, regardless
of whether its source is inside or outside
his own country.
Today, no scientist or engineer can
hope to keep up to date with the avalanche
of technical articles, books and abstracts
which threaten to engulf even the most
conscientious researcher.
At the beginning of the 19th century,
a solution to the increasing number of
specialized reviews was found in the form
of the abstract journal. But since then both
abstract journals and periodicals have
proliferated at an astounding rate so that
each year the scientist and technical expert
must confront some 50,000 scientific and
technical journals, publishing almost two
million articles written by some 750,000
authors in as many as 50 languages.
This information explosion is
both exciting and frustrating. On the one
hand, scientists are eager to share in the
knowledge and ideas of their colleagues.
On the other, they have neither the time
nor the resources to sift through a heap of
publications to unearth those items which
fall within their field of interest.

Andy Sawyer
Disponvel em: <http://proxcool.com>.

377. UERJ
2001: uma odisseia no espao uma conhecida obra de fico cientfica. Nela, um de seus
personagens utiliza um newspad.
Com base no texto, indique a funo de um
newspad. Justifique, tambm, por que obras
mais antigas de fico cientfica trazem satisfao a seus fs.
378. UERJ
No 2 pargrafo, o autor desenvolve uma ideia
e, para comprov-la, d exemplos de inventos
presentes em obras de fico cientfica.
Identifique essa ideia e cite dois dos inventos
mencionados.
379. UERJ
Uma obra pode ser avaliada levando-se em
conta os seguintes aspectos:
01. coerncia interna;
02. relao com a realidade.
O texto informa que o editor de Julio Verne
se recusou a publicar Paris in the Twentieth
Century (pargrafo 3) porque a obra seria
inacreditvel.
Aponte qual dos aspectos mencionados acima
explica a atitude do editor, justificando sua
resposta.

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

And when the scientist does gain


access to the material he wants, linguistic
and other barriers often prevent him
from putting it to good use. The resultant
wastage and loss are staggering: for every
thousand new ideas in science, only three
or four are ever put to practical use.
To reduce these information gaps
and frustrations, an intergovernmental
cooperative venture called UNISIST
(United Nations International Scientific
Information System) has been set up
under Unesco auspices. It is designed
to stimulate the creation of national and
international information systems in the
social, natural and exact sciences. Its
beginnings go back to a January 1967
meeting between the International Council
on Scientific Unions (ICSU) and Unesco
at which it was decided to work towards a
world scientific information system.

Ingls
a. a confiabilidade do material divulgado.
b. a distribuio em ritmo acelerado.
c. o longo tempo para a produo.
d. o excesso de fontes disponveis.

384. UFRN
A expresso information explosion, em negrito no texto, est relacionada ao fato de que:
a. a socializao das descobertas motiva a
criao de reas de pesquisa.
b. a competncia lingustica ameniza a dificuldade de acesso a publicaes.
c. a falta de tempo e de recursos impede
o acesso ao conhecimento.
d. a aplicabilidade dos resultados limitada a determinados campos de interesse.
385. UFG-GO
Leia e observe o cartum e responda questo.

Disponvel em: <http://unesdoc.unesco.


org/images/0007/000747/074786eo.
pdf#45725> Acesso em: 23 jul. 2011.

381. UFRN
De acordo com o texto, para o cientista importante:
a. implementar grupos de pesquisa.
b. questionar o uso da tecnologia na cincia.
c. divulgar amplamente suas descobertas.
d. estabelecer padres ticos de investigao.

When the man says to the other guy that he


needs to participate more in meetings, he is
being contradictory since he had:
a. attested the guy had said important
things.
b. ignored the guy had contributed his
way.
c. misunderstood the guy's role in the
meeting.
d. been aware of the guy's excellent job.
e. seen the guy had tried to participate.

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382. UFRN
Segundo o texto, ao fazer uma busca, o cientista preocupa-se com:
a. a preciso, particularmente de fontes
vindas do exterior.
b. a rapidez, independentemente do lugar
onde os dados estejam.
c. o dinamismo, principalmente em relao a informaes do seu pas.
d. o rigor, especialmente de bases de pesquisa internacionais.

Leia o texto e responda s questes de 386 a


390.
by Joy Lo Dico

Language is forever changing and


forms such as tweets and text messages
are no less valid than any textbook
version, says the linguist David Crystal,
whose latest book encourages children
to engage with the possibilities of their
lingua franca.

383. UFRN
Em relao s publicaes, cientistas ou engenheiros atualmente tm de lidar com:

263

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

A Little Book of Language is a


simple history of all language, taking in
phonetics, development, social uses, the
internet, endangered languages and a
touch of literature.
This all sounds very innocent, but
books for children can be a contentious
issue. Language, as much as history, is
part of a national identity and cannot
escape contemporary debates. And since
Crystal began his academic career in the
early 1960s, there have been dramatic
shifts in how the English language is
taught. The ethos of 50 years ago was
that there was one kind of English that
was right and everything else was wrong;
one kind of access that was right and
everything else was inferior, he says.
Then nobody touched language for two
generations. When it gradually came back
in, we didnt want to go back to what we
did in the 1950s. Theres a new kind of
ethos now.
What has replaced it is something
far more fluid descriptive rather than
prescriptive, as the terminology goes. In
schools, appropriateness has replaced
the principle of correctness. Now, one
looks at all varieties of language and asks
why they are used, says Crystal. We are
rearing a generation of kids who are more
equitable and more understanding about
the existence of language variety and why
it is there.
This doesnt sit easy with the
traditionalists, of whom there are still
many. His clearest example is the belief
that text messaging is destroying children's
ability to spell. Its all nonsense, but
people believe it.
He addressed this in his book Txtng:
the Gr8 Db8, published three years ago, in
which he found that txt speak accounted
for barely 10 per cent of the contents of
the messages exchanged, and noted that
abbreviations have always been part of
the English language. Having solved that
argument with some decent data, he tells
me that hes now moving on to Twitter.
On Twitter [which limits each
written entry to 140 characters], you dont
get the range of texting abbreviations

Were the English language ever


to need an official guardian, Professor
David Crystal certainly looks the part. But
the professor would, I suspect, quickly
shrug off such a custodial title not
out of modesty, but principle. Though
many endangered languages need their
champions, he would say, English does
not require a guardian; it is vibrant and
evolving and can fend for itself.
Crystals A Little Book of Language
is the latest work of a prolific career. He
already has more than 100 books to his
name; some are academic but many are for
the general inquisitive reader, including By
Hook or by Crook: A Journey in Search of
English and Shakespeare's Words, which
was co-authored by his son, Ben.
For the Crystals, linguistics is clearly
a family affair. In the jaunty early chapters
of A Little Book of Language, Crystal
notes how, when his four children were
young, he would study them. Were
talking the 1960s, when the study of
linguistics had hardly begun people did
not know, in a scientific way, how you
developed language, he recalls. Several
of us linguists at that time would record
our own kids, just to get some data. There
was some literature on it then, but no
day-by-day, blow-by-blow examples. I
recorded all my children over the years
in some shape or form. Its what linguists
do. You dont talk to a linguist without
having what you say taken down and used
in evidence against you at some point in
time.
Something must have rubbed off.
Though his elder two children, Steven and
Sue, eschewed academia, his daughter
Lucy took up copywriting and his son
Ben, an actor, is now following his father.
His book Shakespeare on Toast was
a runaway hit I wish I'd written it!
says Crystal, before rapidly, and selfeffacingly, adding: But I couldnt have
because it was so cool and modern and so
street in its approach to Shakespeare. He
has examples of hip-hop Shakespearians
and I would never have dared put any of
that stuff into one of my books.

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you get in text messaging. Its a more


sophisticated kind of communicative
medium. You get semantic threads running
through it. When you start counting
thousands and thousands of messages,
you suddenly realise that on the whole it's
a new art form in the making.
The breadth of the internet means
that language is morphing not just on
grocers signs and in school playgrounds,
but on a far more fundamental level.
All these different genres instant
messaging, blogging, chatrooms, virtual
worlds have evolved different sets of
communicative strategies, which means
that you can look at the language and say,
That must be an example of a chatroom,
that must be an example of a tweet, and
you can predict it.
Becoming involved in bigger
arguments seems to be an occupational
hazard for a linguist. Whether it be
education, politics or neuroscience, we all
have a vested interest in the implications
of language. Our conversation turns to
the recent news of a man who had been
lying in a vegetative state for seven years
before doctors managed to establish
basic communication by scanning his
brainwaves. We are moving fast in a
direction where you will be able to see
what people are saying, says Crystal,
optimistically. Weve got to the stage
where you can see the complexity of
language processing. We're not at the stage
yet of being able to see clearly individual
sentence patterns and words, but it's not
long off.
Surely this has huge implications,
not least for personal liberties? It is
the case that virtually every language
issue resolves into a social or political or
psychological issue, Crystal reminds me.
Language has no independent existence
apart from the people who use it. It is not
an end in itself; it is a means to an end
of understanding who you are and what
society is like. At which point, you know
that a linguist has to bow out and say,
This is bigger than me.

Ingls

386. UECE
According to the text, David Crystal has:
a. written hundreds of books for children.
b. become very weary of new trends and
new media in the latest years.
c. published books of interest to a
diversity of readers.
d. received a custodial title that makes
him very proud.
387. UECE
The author of the text mentions that Crystal is
now interested in:
a. studying the use of language on Twitter.
b. recording cell phone messages.
c. counting frequency of words in
chatrooms.
d. analyzing data from internet sources as
a whole.
388. UECE
When referring to the diverse text genres
used in internet communication, David Crystal
states that they:
a. will become a source of unpredictable
distraction.
b. can contribute to the illiteracy of kids.
c. are too confusing for young users.
d. have developed specific traits/features
of identification.
389. UECE
As to the relation between the advances
of brainwaves scanning, also called brain
imaging, and the understanding of language
processing, Crystal thinks that:
a. there is still a long way to go in this
direction.
b. these areas of study have not been
successfully linked.
c. one might soon manage to see what is
being said.
d. the complexity of language processing
is still a mystery.

Disponvel em: <http://www.independent.


co.uk>. Acesso em: 14 mar. 2010 .

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

individual cubicles with open clusters


of wheeled desks that belong to groups,
not individuals; personal belongings are
largely confined to lockers.
There are no PCs at the desks, because
employees use mobile technologies. Rick
Hutley, a Cisco vice president, chooses his
desk according to which colleagues are
present and whats on the days agenda.
Then he docks his tablet to a desktop port
that includes a phone handset. The tablet
handles voice and video calls whether its
docked or mobile, and it can be used to
share documents at meetings.
It can also be plugged into a monitor
and keyboard to be used like a full PC.
You can walk around with your entire
world with you in this device, Hutley
says. My laptop would often stay on
my desk, but the tablet never does. If he
needs to make a private voice or video
call, he can step into one of the rooms at
the edges of the cluster.
Ciscos vision is an example
of a broader effort to reshape office
technologies and environments. We
used to have boring stuff at work and
more interesting technology at home,
says Prith Banerjee, leader of HewlettPackards research arm. Now office
technology will make use of the same cool
experiences and interfaces.
Such changes could save a lot of
money. Ciscos project, for example, was
launched after an internal study found that
cubicles were vacant two-thirds of the
time while people roamed the campus or
worked remotely. Company calculations
show that the building used for the project
can accommodate 140 employees, up
from 88 in designs used in traditional
Cisco buildings, and that real-estate costs
should drop by 37 percent.
Over the long term, Cisco hopes to save
on health costs, too, because people who
move around more frequently are less likely
to suffer health problems. The company is
planning to study whether the more mature
technology of today can conquer resistance
that hobbled previous attempts to build
offices with little private space.

390. UECE
In terms of verb tense, the sentences
abbreviations have always been part of the
English language, the recent news of a
man who had been lying in a vegetative state
for seven years and the 1960s, when the
study of linguistics had hardly begunmay be
classified respectively as:
a. simple present, present perfect
continuous, present perfect.
b. present perfect continuous, past
perfect, simple past.
c. past perfect continuous, past perfect,
past perfect.
d. present
perfect,
past
perfect
continuous, past perfect.
Leia o texto e responda s questes 391 e 392.
Smashing the cubicles
By designing new spaces around tablets,
smart phones, and social technologies,
companies can operate with far fewer
desks
by Tom Simonite / Massachusetts, Technology
Review, MIT, September/October 2011

The quick expansion of social and


mobile technologies is creating a widely
distributed workforce. To better suit
employees who come into offices more
sporadically, some companies and design
firms are testing radically new and more
efficient configurations for physical
offices, betting that improved technology
will make the experiment more successful
than similar ones in the 1990s.
A project at the headquarters of
Cisco Systems in San Jose, California,
for example, overthrows decades-old
conventions about office space. Called
Connected Workplace, it replaces

Disponvel em: <http://www.technologyreview.com/


business/38407/?p1=Mag_story1>. Adaptado.

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

for the Brazilian scenario, says Paulus


Figueiredo, TAMs fuel manager. The
next step in the project is to implement a
farming unit, in reduced scale, at TAMs
Technological Center in So Carlos (SP),
exclusively to conduct studies and make
better cultivation techniques viable. The
objective is to carry out studies concerning
technical and economic viability to build
a biofuel Brazilian platform based on
nettlespurge, explains TAMs CEO,
Lbano Barroso. The experimental flight
was a joint effort between TAM, Airbus,
CFM International (joint venture between
U.S.s GE and the French Safran Group)
and Air BP. The trip was authorized by
Brazils National Civil Aviation Agency
(ANAC) and by the European Aviation
Safety Agency (EASA).

391. UCPEL-RS
O subttulo do texto indica que com as novas
tecnologias:
a. haver menos espao sobre as mesas.
b. haver mais fios e cabos sobre as mesas.
c. haver menos fios e cabos sobre as mesas.
d. haver mais espao sobre as mesas.
e. as empresas podero funcionar com
menos mesas.
392. UCPEL-RS
No terceiro pargrafo, a ideia da Cisco Systems
que:
a. no h computadores (PCs) fixos, cada
funcionrio escolhe o PC de acordo
com a mesa disponvel.
b. no h uma mesa fixa para cada funcionrio, pois cada um senta em determinado lugar de acordo com quem estiver presente na empresa e conforme os
compromissos do dia.
c. os funcionrios tm autorizao para
usar tecnologias mveis, alm dos PCs
nas mesas.
d. apenas os cargos de chefia, como o de
vice-presidente, por exemplo, so autorizados a utilizar tecnologia mvel e a
escolher o seu local de trabalho.
e. todos os funcionrios podem usar tecnologias mveis, mas cada um tem a
sua mesa.
PV2D-13-14

Ingls

TAM News, January 2011. Adaptado.

393. Unesp
De acordo com o texto:
a. a TAM pretende realizar estudos sobre
o pinho-manso em larga escala, em
uma unidade agrcola em So Carlos.
b. pretende-se realizar estudos, com patrocnio estrangeiro, sobre a versatilidade
da tecnologia do uso do pinho-manso
em biocombustveis.
c. pretende-se desenvolver uma plataforma brasileira sobre o uso do pinho-manso na produo de biocombustveis para a aviao.
d. a TAM realizar estudos sobre uma tecnologia para viabilizar carregamentos
de pinho-manso no Brasil.
e. a TAM pretende implementar o uso
de biocombustvel e reduzir estudos
sobre tcnicas agrcolas na regio de
So Carlos.

Leia o texto e responda s questes de 393 a


395.
Sustainable flight
TAM was the first airline in South
America to carry out an experimental
flight using biofuel on November 22,
2010. Produced from the oil of 100%
domestic
nettlespurge,
known
in
Portuguese as pinho-manso, it reduces
carbon emissions by between 65% and
80% compared with petroleum-derived
kerosene, according to research. Besides,
the plant does not threatens the food
chain, as it is not edible for humans nor
animals. Compared with other biofuels,
the fuel from this plant is very promising

394. Unesp
Assinale a alternativa correta.
a. O voo experimental da TAM foi realizado com patrocnio da ANAC e da EASA,
um rgo europeu.
b. O voo experimental foi realizado pela
TAM, em parceria com empresas europeias e norte-americanas.

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

c. As viagens areas com a utilizao de


biocombustvel ainda no foram autorizadas pela ANAC, no Brasil.
d. Para utilizar biocombustvel, a TAM necessita de parcerias com empresas europeias, entre as quais a Airbus e a GE.
e. Para utilizar biocombustvel, a TAM precisa de autorizao de um rgo brasileiro ou estrangeiro e da Airbus.

25

30

395. Unesp
As expresses carry out, edible, promising,
step e joint effort no texto significam, respectivamente:
a. carregar, comestvel, prominente, etapa e esforo conjunto.
b. carregar, saudvel, promissor, parada e
efeito conjunto.
c. carregar, saudvel, prominente, parada
e esforo conjunto.
d. realizar, comestvel, promissor, etapa e
esforo conjunto.
e. realizar, saudvel, prominente, passo e
efeito conjunto.

35

40

45

396. Uerj

50

Leia o texto e responda questo.


1

10

15

20

The fortune teller


Your lucks going to change,
she said, locking the door to bar my
way. Im closing now. Come back
tomorrow. Ill be here after ten.
I needed it to change. It had been
a grim couple of months: I had lost my
job and failed to lure a woman into
my life. Cant you see me now?,
I asked, wanting to bring on the
metamorphosis as soon as possible.
Ive finished for today. I have
things to do. She took my hand and
squeezed gently as we stood on the
pavement outside the rickety cabin
that served as her office. Another day
wont hurt. Come back tomorrow,
she smiled. Your lucks going to
change, and how.
I hadnt imagined that a fortune
teller could be pretty, but thinking
about it, I suppose they can be
anything that anyone else could be:

young, old, fat, thin, rich or dirt poor.


But this one was pretty and, more than
that, I thought I saw something in her
eyes, a hint of a come on, maybe. But
it had been so long since Id seen that
look that I wasnt sure I recognised it.
Be here tomorrow, she said
again. Bye, I called, cheerfully
confused.
It seemed like fate. The first time
I ever pick up one of those trashy
magazines and theres her advert,
extolling the virtues of knowing
whats around the corner. Then, when
I get to her place, I find a good looking
woman who seems interested in me.
Tomorrow cant come quick enough.
I couldnt sleep for thinking about
her. During the night, she changed
from mere pretty to beautiful. Her
smile had broadened and the handsqueeze had tightened.
Id wanted to be on her doorstep
before her arrival, but Id made myself
late by worrying about how I looked
and smelled. In due course, I was at
the cabin and after straightening my
tie, prepared to knock on the door. It
was then that I noticed the hastily
written note that was pinned just below
the knocker. It read: Closed today
due to unforeseen circumstances.
Alan Liptrot
Disponvel em: <http://www.helium.com>.

I hadnt imagined that a fortune teller could be


pretty, (l. 19-20)
Por meio dessa frase, o narrador expressa um
preconceito em relao a videntes.
Explicite esse preconceito e retire do mesmo
pargrafo, em ingls, o fragmento que desfaz
essa viso.
Leia o texto e responda s questes de 397 a
400.
How computers will soon get under
our skin
by Steve Connor, Science Editor
12 August 2011

It may soon be possible to wear your


computer or mobile phone under your
sleeve, with the invention of an ultra-thin
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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

and flexible electronic circuit that can be


stuck to the skin like a temporary tattoo.
The device, which is almost invisible, can
perform just as well as more conventional
electronic machines but without the
need for wires or bulky power supplies,
scientists said. The development could
mark a new era in consumer electronics.
The technology could be used for
applications ranging from medical
diagnosis to covert military operations.
The epidermal electronic system
relies on a highly flexible electrical circuit
composed of snake-like conducting
channels that can bend and stretch without
affecting performance. The circuit is
about the size of a postage stamp, is
thinner than a human hair and sticks to the
skin by natural electrostatic forces rather
than glue. We think this could be an
important conceptual advance in wearable
electronics, to achieve something that is
almost unnoticeable to the wearer. The
technology can connect you to the physical
world and the cyberworld in a very
natural way that feels comfortable, said
Professor Todd Coleman of the University
of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, who led
the research team.
A simple stick-on circuit can
monitor a persons heart rate and muscle
movements as well as conventional
medical monitors, but with the benefit of
being weightless and almost completely
undetectable. Scientists said it may also
be possible to build a circuit for detecting
throat movements around the larynx
in order to transmit the information
wirelessly as a way of recording a persons
speech, even if they are not making any
discernible sounds.
Tests have already shown that
such a system can be used to control
a voice-activated computer game,
and one suggestion is that a stickon voicebox circuit could be used in
covert police operations where it might
be too dangerous to speak into a radio
transmitter. The blurring of electronics
and biology is really the key point here,
said Yonggang Huang, professor of
engineering at Northwestern University in

Ingls
Evanston, Illinois. All established forms
of electronics are hard, rigid. Biology is
soft, elastic. Its two different worlds. This
is a way to truly integrate them.
Engineers have built test circuits
mounted on a thin, rubbery substrate that
adheres to the skin. The circuits have
included sensors, light-emitting diodes,
transistors, radio frequency capacitors,
wireless antennas, conductive coils and
solar cells. We threw everything in our
bag of tricks on to that platform, and
then added a few other new ideas on top
of those, to show that we could make it
work, said John Rogers, professor of
engineering at the University of Illinois
at Urbana-Champaign, a lead author
of the study, published in the journal
Science.
Disponvel em: http://www.
independent.co.uk>. Adaptado.

397. Unifesp
The epidermal electronic system:
a. has already been tested in some
hospitals to help medical diagnosis.
b. is widely used by experts in cybergames.
c. may be glued to clothes, personal
objects and even skin.
d. can be hardly noticed due to its
dimensions and characteristics.
e. should be connected to external
remote devices such as the transistor
and solar cells.
398. Unifesp
O sistema eletrnico epidrmico:
a. confortvel, devido sua flexibilidade, entre outros atributos.
b. necessita de uma cola especial, que simula a textura da pele.
c. complementa os medidores de batimentos cardacos convencionais, j que
porttil.
d. se assemelha a uma serpente, pois
pode ser enrolado no corpo todo.
e. no consegue ser detectado por servios de espionagem militar e pela polcia.

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

399. Unifesp

Leia o texto e responda s questes 402 e 403.

In order to create the epidermal electronic


system:
a. engineers produced a synthetic skin
made of rubber and human cells to
print the circuits.
b. scientists replaced the traditional hard
electronic parts for organic ones.
c. it was necessary to merge the different
conceptual frameworks of biology and
electronics.
d. the consumer market in the military
and medical fields was researched.
e. biologists first tested the organic
compatibility of the device.

2012s second sun


Earth is believed to be getting a
second sun burning in the sky near the
end of 2012, as the second biggest star in
the universe, Betelgeuse, is dying, which
will lead to multiple days of constant
daylight.
Many ancient cultures have
speculated about the appearance of a
second sun and this event appears to tie in
very closely with the December 21 2012
predictions.
Betelgeuse is the second biggest star
in the universe and the eighth brightest in
the night sky. Scientists have determined
that the star is losing mass at a rapid rate,
which indicates it will go supernova very
soon.
The light emitted from this exploding
star will be so bright that it will appear for
a few weeks at the end of 2012 as a second
sun in the sky. There may be little if no
period of darkness or night according to
senior lecturer of physics at the University
of Southern Queensland, Brad Carter.
Earth will experience brightness for
a brief period of time for a couple of weeks
and then over the coming months it begins
to fade and then eventually it will be very
hard to see at all, explained the Australian
scientist Brad Carter to news.com.au.
Scientist have known about this
dying star which is 640 light years away
from Earth, since 2005. It is believed
that as Betelgeuse goes supernova it will
not be harmful to Earth. There will be
neutrinos emitted during the supernova
process, said University of Minnesota
physics professor Priscilla Cushman, but
neutrinos, even lots and lots of them, are
only weakly interacting, so they won't
affect life on Earth, but that is only
speculation at this point.
The fact is, we as human beings
have never experienced anything like this
before so close to our home planet, and
to be honest, we just dont know for sure
what this event could bring.

400. Unifesp
In the last paragraph, an example of what a
bag of tricks contains is:
a. skin.
b. light-emitting diodes.
c. epidermal electronic system.
d. test circuits.
e. new ideas.
401. Fameca-SP
Leia e observe a tirinha e responda questo.

Disponvel em: <www.thecomicstrips.


com/store/add.php?iid=65131>.

A alternativa que complete corretamente as


lacunas da tirinha :
a. Im not finding / need
b. I wont find / needing
c. I havent found / to need
d. I had found / needs
e. I found / needed

Disponvel em: <http://www.december212012.


com>. Acesso em: 30 ago. 2011.

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

development needs. They provide a


framework for the entire international
community to work together towards
a common end making sure that
human development reaches everyone,
everywhere. If these goals are achieved,
world poverty will be cut by half, tens of
millions of lives will be saved, and billions
more people will have the opportunity to
benefit from the global economy.
Here is the complete list of the
MDGs:
1. Eradicate extreme poverty.
2. Achieve universal primary
education.
3. Promote gender equality and
empower women.
4. Reduce child mortality.
5. Improve maternal health.
6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and
other diseases.
7. Ensure environmental sustainability.
8. Develop a global partnership for
development.

402. Udesc
Mark the correct alternative.
The phrasal verb tie in, in bold in the text,
means:
a. to match
b. to go against to
c. to determine
d. to fix
e. to fasten mark the correct alternative.
403. Udesc
According to the text is correct to say that:
I. We are going to experience few weeks
with little or no light at all.
II. This event has happened before.
III. Earth might go through a time of
destruction.
IV. This dying star is ought to be shown in
our sky.
V. The sun as we know will disappear.
Mark the right alternative.
a. I, II and IV are correct.
b. I and IV are correct.
c. III and IV are correct.
d. Only I is correct.
e. All alternatives are correct.

Disponvel em: <http://www.beta.undp.org>.


Acesso Disponvel em: 28 ago. 2011. Adaptado.

404. UPE
De acordo com o texto sobre os objetivos de
desenvolvimento do milnio, analise os itens
a seguir:
I. Fornecem as referncias numricas
concretas, para que se possa atacar a
pobreza extrema nas suas mltiplas dimenses, com tempo definido.
II. Servem de base para que as naes
desenvolvidas possam implementar estratgias de ajuda, em caso de catstrofes e migraes desordenadas.
III. Se forem atingidos, permitiro comunidade internacional reduzir, pela metade, os gastos com ajuda humanitria
s naes pobres.
IV. Fornecem estrutura para que a comunidade internacional trabalhe a fim de
garantir que o desenvolvimento humano chegue a todos, em toda parte.
V. Proporcionam um plano global para
que todos os indivduos, em toda parte, tenham acesso gua e comida nos
prximos anos.

Leia o texto e responda s questes 404 e 405.

PV2D-13-14

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The millenium development goals


(MDGs)
The Millennium Development Goals
(MDGs) are the most broadly supported
comprehensive and specific development
goals the world has ever agreed upon.
These eight time-bound goals provide
concrete, numerical benchmarks for
tackling extreme poverty in its many
dimensions. They include goals and targets
on income poverty, hunger, maternal
and child mortality, disease, inadequate
shelter, gender inequality, environmental
degradation and the Global Partnership
for Development.
Adopted by world leaders in the
year 2000 and set to be achieved by 2015,
the MDGs are both global and local,
tailored by each country to suit specific
271

No, I think he deserved it. He likes to


kind of occasionally yank my chain about
being a nerd, which I love.
In one sentence, describe your
research.
We used laser light to cool down
atoms to very, very low temperatures.
Last summer you wrote a paper
called Subnanometre Single-Molecule
Localization Registration and Distance
Measurements. When asked about it,
you said, I consider it my equivalent of
vegging out in front of the TV.
The first 80 hours a week of my time
go to my full-time job at the Department
of Energy. But in the wee hours of the
morning, on airplane trips, I can go back
and forth. It doesnt take much time, and
its a good release.
You have said science has
unambiguously shown that were altering
the destiny of our planet. Do you still hold
out hope for climate-change legislation?
The case that not only is the
climate changing but that it is caused
predominantly by humans is more
compelling each succeeding year despite
attempts to muddy the waters. In the end
the truth will win out, because you cant
turn a matter of science into a political
debate. Its like, if you get enough votes,
you can repeal Newtons second law. It
doesnt work that way.
The president has called for closing
tax loopholes for the oil and gas industry.
When are we going to stop subsidizing our
dependence on oil?
Oil subsidies in the United States
started in 1917. One hundred years is a
long enough time. You dont want to go
in with the idea that youre going to be
subsidizing any industry forever.

Somente esto corretos:


a. I e III.
b. I e IV.
c. I, II e V.
d. II e V.
e. II e IV.
405. UPE
Indique a alternativa que expressa o mesmo
significado de World poverty will be cut by
half.
a. Metade do mundo j est em situao
de pobreza.
b. Mais da metade do mundo vive em extrema pobreza.
c. A pobreza do mundo ser concentrada
em sua metade.
d. No mundo, em breve, no haver mais
pobreza.
e. A pobreza mundial ser reduzida pela
metade.
Leia o texto e responda s questes 406 a 407.
Interview: Steven Chu
The energy secretary and Nobel Prizewinning physicist talks nuclear power
after Japan, and being a nerd.
by John Avlon
U.S. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu.

Why shouldnt Americans be


concerned about the safety of nuclear
power after what theyve seen in Japan?
Whenever there is an accident, its
very natural to have concern. Well take this
opportunity to look again at all our nuclear
sites. We get 20 percent of our electricity
from nuclear power, and you just dont turn
that off overnight. We think that nuclear
power should be part of the mix.
Gas prices have doubled under the
Obama administration. Why?
Its supply and demand. We dont
have to be a slave to these roller-coaster
rides in the oil price if we have other
choices for transportation energy.
Do you ever tease Obama about not
actually earning his Nobel Prize? Because
he doesnt seem to think he deserved it.

Disponvel em: <http://www.newsweek.


com/2011/04/03/interview-steven-chu.
html> Acessado em: 20 abril 2011.

406. IFET-MG
The correct verb tense expressed in the
sentences below are respectively:
I. Well take this opportunity to look
again at our nuclear sites.
II. The president has called for closing tax
loopholes for the oil and gas industry.
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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

The makers of Sesame Street say


characters Bert and Ernie will not marry
in a same-sex ceremony despite an online
petition calling for the union.
Campaigners say the best friends
should marry as a way to encourage
tolerance of gay people.
Nearly 7,000 have signed the petition,
with more than 3,000 joining a Bert and
Ernie Get Married Facebook page.
A statement from the shows makers
said: They remain puppets and do not
have a sexual orientation.
But they conceded that the pair
are male characters and possess many
human traits and characteristics.
The confirmed bachelors have lived
together for 40 years and sleep in the same
bedroom, albeit in single beds.
Bert and Ernie are best friends, the
statement from Sesame Workshop added.
They were created to teach preschoolers
that people can be good friends with those
who are very different from themselves.
The online petition states: We are
not asking that Sesame Street do anything
crude or disrespectful, adding, It can
be done in a tasteful way. Let us teach
tolerance of those that are different.
Sesame Street was created by
TV producer Joan Ganz Cooney and
psychologist Lloyd Morrisett in 1969
and gained a huge following, led by the
creations of master puppeteer Jim Henson.
Beloved characters include Elmo, the
Cookie Monster and Big Bird.

III. Oil subsidies in the United States started


in 1917.
IV. The first 80 hours a week of my time go
to my full-time job at the Department
of Energy.
a. simple present, simple past, past perfect,
future.
b. future, present perfect, simple past,
simple present.
c. simple past, present continuous,
present perfect, future.
d. future, past perfect, present perfect,
simple past
e. simple present, present perfect, simple
past, future.
407. IFET-MG
The words used in the text are in column 1.
Match them to their correspondent meaning
in column 2:
Column 1

Column 2

(1) concern

( ) investigate

(2) alter

( ) option

(3) demand ( ) modify


(4) research

( ) preoccupation

(5) choice
( ) require
a. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
b. 5, 4, 3, 2, 1.
c. 3, 5, 1, 4, 2.
d. 2, 4, 1, 5, 3.
e. 4, 5, 2, 1, 3.
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Disponvel em: <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/


entertainment-arts-14504208>. Acesso em: 18 ago. 2011.

Leia o texto e responda s questes 408 e 409.


Sesame Street pair Bert and Ernie will
not marry

408. UFSJ-MG
The text shows:
a. different opinions regarding the future
of some TV characters.
b. zan agreement on the prospective
production of a TV series.
c. a debate about the sexual orientation
of some TV show makers.
d. a criticism developed by a TV series
against homosexuals marriage.

Bert and Ernie have lived together for more


than 40 years

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

409. UFSJ-MG

410. UFSJ-MG

It is correct to say about the text that:


a. Bert and Ernie will get married in order
to teach children to respect people with
a different sexual orientation.
b. the characters Bert and Ernie were
created to show that different people
can get married and live happily together.
c. an online petition was written criticizing
the characters Bert and Ernie because of
their sexual orientation.
d. in spite of the fact that Bert and Ernie
could get married in Sesame Street,
they will keep being just good friends.

In the text, the sentence That should have


worked means that the strategy used by the
salesman:
a. will work properly, so the salesman can
use it.
b. worked as expected in spite of the
problems.
c. did not work, but it was a good strategy.
d. will not work and the salesman must
not try it.
411. UFSJ-MG
According to the text:
a. the Arabians do not do business with
the Americans because of their culture.
b. the Arabian people are illiterate and do
not know how to read and write.
c. in the Arabian culture people are not
allowed to read from right to left.
d. the salesman did not have enough
knowledge of Arabian culture.

Leia o texto e responda s questes 410 e 411.


Classic advertising mistake: Arabic
version
A disappointed salesman of Coca
Cola returns from his assignment in
Arabia.
A friend asked: Why werent you
successful with the Arabs?
The salesman explained: When I
got posted in the Middle East, I was very
confident I would make a good sales
pitch in rural areas. But, I had a problem,
I didnt know how to speak Arabic. So, I
planned to convey the message through
three posters

Leia o texto e responda s questes 412 e 413.


How to feed a growing planet
by Amanda Fiegl

Heres an uncomfortable math


problem: by 2045 Earths population will
likely have swelled from seven to nine
billion people. To fill all those stomachs
while accounting for shifting consumption
patterns, climate change, and a finite
amount of arable land and potable water
some experts say global food production
will have to double. How can we make the
numbers add up?
Julian Cribb, author of The Coming
Famine, says higher yielding crop varieties
and more efficient farming methods will
be crucial. So will waste reduction. Cribb
and other experts urge cities to reclaim
nutrients and water from waste streams
and preserve farmland. Poor countries,
they say, can improve crop storage and
packaging. And rich nations could cut
back on resource-intensive foods like
meat. In fact, wherever there is easy
access to cheap food, people buy more
than they consume. We could thus all start

First poster a man lying in the hot desert


sand... totally exhausted and fainting.
Second poster man is drinking our Coca
Cola.
Third poster our man in now totally
refreshed.
Then these posters were pasted all
over the place.
That should have worked, said the
friend.
The salesman replied I didnt realize
that in Arabic you read from right to left.
Disponvel em: <http://clipmarks.com/
clipmark/BC4C6FAC-C464-4D58-A4B5BA0E7267CF79/>. Acesso em: 30 ago. 2011.

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

by shopping smarter and cleaning our


plates.
As Cribb notes, food security is
increasingly a collective challenge.
Its also a chance to pull together on
something we can all agree about, share
and enjoy.

tourists will have to pay 500,000 to


travel on a Soyuz rocket to get to the
hotel before struggling to pay a further
100,000 for a five-day stay.
The hotel will be aimed at wealthy
individuals and people working for
private companies who want to do
research in space, said Sergei Kostenko,
chief executive of Orbital Technologies,
which will construct the orbiting guest
house. A hotel should be comfortable,
and this one will be.
The news that Russia plans to
launch a hotel into outer space is the
latest example in a series of extreme
holidaymaking projects. As the world
accumulates more and more billionaires,
entrepreneurs are seeking newer and
more demanding ways to provide them
with the ultimate in hi-tech thrills. Apart
from space hotels, which have also been
touted recently by US and European
aerospace companies, proposals to fly
thrill-seekers on rocket flights to the
edge of space are now being finalised
by Richard Bransons Virgin Galactic as
well as by US companies.
In the case of the space hotels,
hedonism will be limited. Orbital
Technologies have made it clear that
guests will be restricted to consuming iced
tea and fruit juices for their liquid intake.
Alcohol will be banned. In addition, waste
water will be recycled while air will be
filtered to remove odour and bacteria and
then returned to cabins.
Tourists, accompanied by experienced
crew, will also have to dine on food
prepared on Earth and reheated in
microwave ovens, while showers will be
carefully sealed affairs to prevent water
escaping as globules that otherwise would
float around the hotels interior.
It is scarcely five-star luxury. On
the other hand, there will be many
compensations. Views of the Earth from
the space hotels special observation
windows should be breathtaking as the
craft fastly moves round our planet every
90 minutes providing guests with 16
sunsets and 16 sunrises a day. Visitors

National Geographic Magazine, July 2011. Adaptado.

412. UEPG-MT
De acordo com o texto, ns, humanos, poderamos tomar algumas atitudes para amenizar
os problemas apontados. Com relao a essas
atitudes, assinale o que for correto.
01. Usar o bom senso ao fazer compras.
02. Nunca deixar restos de comida no prato.
04. Reduzir o nmero de refeies dirias.
08. Usar pratos menores.
413. UEPG-MT
Com relao aos segmentos verbais will likely
have swelled e will have to double, ambos presentes no primeiro pargrafo do texto, assinale o que for correto.
01. O primeiro est no futuro do presente
composto e o segundo, no futuro do
presente.
02. O primeiro se refere a um evento j
ocorrido e o segundo, a um evento ainda por ocorrer.
04. Ambos so tempos verbais equivalentes.
08. O primeiro se refere a um fato que, em
2045, j poder estar consumado e o
segundo se refere a um acontecimento
que dever ocorrer no futuro.
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Ingls

Leia o texto e responda s questes 414 e 415.


Space hotel to give rich a thrill thats
out of this world
Russian engineers have announced
the ultimate get-away-from-it-all holiday,
revealing plans to put a hotel into orbit
200 miles above Earth by 2016. The fourroom Hotel in the Heavens would house
up to seven guests who would be able
to dance happily in zero-gravity while
watching as our planet turns.
The out-of-this-world experience
will not come cheaply, however. Space

275

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

will also be able to choose to have their


beds vertically or horizontally inclined to
their line of flight. Indeed, the prospect
of weightlessness offers all sorts of zerogravity activities that, on Earth, can only
be dreamt of.
By contrast, the pleasures offered for
those who go on suborbital flights offered
by Virgin Galactic will be over far more
quickly. Launched on craft pioneered by
aviation designer Burt Rutan, these craft
will allow passengers to slip the bonds
of the gravitational field for only a few
minutes before their rocket-powered craft
descends back to Earth. On the other hand,
the companys plans are far more advanced
than those put forward by most other space
tourism entrepreneurs. Branson says Virgin
Galactics first flights should begin next
year. Tickets will cost a mere $200,000,
with celebrities such as Paris Hilton, Tom
Hanks and Stephen Hawking signing up
for early flights. A billionaires dream
venture, in other words.

415. Uem-PR
According to the information from the text,
choose the correct alternative(s).
01. Space tourism also aims at nongovernmental companies interested in
studying more about space.
02. Tourists will not be allowed to do
whatever they want to while staying at
the space hotel.
04. Because of the position of the bed in
the craft, visitors will have a restricted
view of the Earth.
08. Tourists will have to have a strict training
program to survive by themselves in
the space.
16. Although the price for the space flight
will be incredibly high, the trip will last
only some minutes.
Leia o texto e a charge e responda questo
416.
British researchers have discovered
an Amazonian tribe that understand the
concepts of time and date in a rather
unusual way. The Amowanda people of
Brazil do not even have words for time,
week, month or year, said Chris
Sinha of the University of Portsmouth. He
argues that it is the first time scientists have
been able to prove that time is not a deeply
entrenched universal human concept.
The professor reported his findings in
the Journal of Language and Cognition,
writing: For the Amondawa, time does
not exist in the same way as it does for
us. We can now say without doubt that
there is at least one language and culture
which does not have a concept of time as
something that can be measured, counted
or talked about in the abstract.
This doesnt mean that the
Amondawa are people outside time,
but they live in a world of events, rather
than seeing events as being embedded in
time. Team members, including linguist
Wany Sampaio and anthropologist Vera
da Silva Sinha, spent eight weeks with
the Amondawa researching how their
language conveys concepts like next
week or last year.

Disponvel em: <http://wwwguardian.co.uk/


science/2011>. Acesso em: 31 ago. 2011. Adaptado.

414. Uem-PR
Choose the correct alternative(s), according to
the text.
01. Tourist companies want to offer more
holiday possibilities for rich tourists.
02. There are three options of trips into
space: a house to live for a month, a hotel
to spend some days, and a rocket to fly
around the Earth for some minutes.
04. The space hotel project has been
designed as a way to provide tourists
with extreme adventure holidays.
08. The space hotel will not have exactly
the same benefits as those on Earth,
but other advantages will be offered.
16. Famous people such as Paris Hilton and
Tom Hanks think the flights to space
cost too much.

276

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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

There were no words for such


concepts, only divisions of day and night
and rainy and dry seasons.
They also found nobody in the
community had an age. Instead, they
change their names to reflect their life
stage and position within their society. For
example, a little child will give up their
name to a newborn sibling and take on a
new one.

tablet computers threatens to erode the


PCs dominance.
PCs are not about to disappear.
Forecasters expect 350m-360m of them
to be sold this year and the market is likely
to keep growing, if slowly. With their
keyboards, big screens and connectivity
to the web,
PCs are still ideal for many tasks.
Even so, the Wintel era dominated by
PCs using Microsofts Windows operating
system and Intels microchips is
drawing to a close. The recent news that
HP, the worlds largest computer-maker, is
thinking of spinning off its PC business to
focus on faster-growing areas is just a sign
of just how much has changed.
A new tech landscape is taking shape
that offers consumers access to computing
almost anywhere and on many different
kinds of device. Smart phones are at the
forefront of this change. The Yankee
Group, a research firm, thinks that sales
of these phones will overtake those of
ordinary feature phones in many more
countries in the next few years. But other
kinds of machine which allows gamers
to contact friends while they play, and
also web-enabled television sets, are also
helping people stay connected.
In part, this emerging array of
devices reflects changes in society. As
people come to rely more heavily on the
web for everything from shopping to
social networking, they need access to
computing power in many more places.
And as the line between their personal and
their work lives has blurred, so demand
has grown for devices that can be used
seamlessly in both.

DOHERTY, R. Brit researchers discover Amazonian


tribe with no concept of dates or time. May 21, 2011
Disponvel em: <http://travel.aol.co.uk/2011/05/21/
brit-researchers-discoveramazonian-tribe-with-noconcept-of-date-or-time/>. Acesso em: 22 maio 2011.

Disponvel em: <http://www.cartoonstock.


com/cartoonview .asp?catref=mfl0316>.
Acesso em: 22 maio 2011.

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416. Uel-PR
a. Descreva a descoberta feita por pesquisadores britnicos e cite dois exemplos
que a ilustrem.
b. Compare a noo de tempo ilustrada
na charge com a da tribo Amondawa.
Leia o texto e assinale V (verdadeiro) ou F (falso) de acordo com as proposies de 417 a
420.

Disponvel em: <http://www.economist.com/


node/21531109>. Acesso em: 9 out. 2011. Adaptado.

417. UFPE

The revolution is mobile


For around 30 years PCs in various
forms have been peoples main computing
devices. Indeed, they were the first
machines truly to democratize computing
power, boosting personal productivity and
giving people access, via the internet, to
a host of services from their homes and
offices. Now the rise of smart phones and

Personal Computers (PCs) :


0. are to keep the helm by bravely
withstanding the threat of other
computing gadgets.
1. have been the most important means of
computing power for decades.

277

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

2. brought services within the reach of


users from their own home through the
internet.
3. can be said to have had a meager impact
on how people use computers.
4. have already lost their leading position
for smart phones and tablet computers.

418. UFPE
Despite the slower pace of growth in sales,
PCs:
0. should go on as the flagship item
produced by HP.
1. and the Wintel era should be dominant
for a long time yet.
2. are still more convenient for certain task
purposes.
3. are still expected to sell into the hundreds
of millions.
4. market is not to plunge any time soon.

10

15

20

419. UFPE
Computing experience:
0. has now reached the world of TV sets.
1. is less and less pervasive.
2. and smart phones have made a perfect
match.
3. is far from being expanded to mobile
devices.
4. can now be lived through a number of
devices.

25

30

420. UFPE

Scientists identify cause of baldness


American scientists say that
theyve discovered why some men go
bald. They blame faulty cells which
seem to produce hair that is so thin that
it is invisible to the naked eye. They
expect to find a cure for baldness.
For some men, bald is beautiful.
The iconic look may work for a few
especially celebrities like the rugged
Die Hard star Bruce Willis and Star
Treks Patrick Stewart. For many,
though, hair loss is no laughing matter.
But now researchers in America say
theyve uncovered a cure.
An academic medical centre
has found that hair follicles actually
shrink, but dont disappear. Dr George
Cotsarelis, dermatology professor at
Pennsylvania University, found the
discovery exciting. What we found
surprised us. The stem cells were
present but they were not doing their
job.
The discovery of invisible hair
sounds too good to be true. But what
does it mean? It really gives us hope
that because the stem cells are present
it lowers the bar for developing
treatments that could activate the stem
cells and get them to form a new hair
follicle, said Dr Cotsarelis.
Treating these faulty stem
cells means that, rather than just
maintaining hair, we could soon
regenerate hair.

The evolution of computing experience has


0. caused unperceivable changes in society
and how things are done.
1. turned the internet into a must for a
whole lot of people.
2. called for multipurpose gadgets which
can be used indistinctly.
3. made personal and professional lives
become hard to distinguish.
4. kept interaction between people from
taking place virtually.

35

Leia o texto e responda s questes de 421 a


424.

( ) doesnt stand a chance of being cured.

LOBEL, Mark , BBC News.


Disponvel em: <www.bbc.co.uk/
worldservice/learningenglish/language/
wordsinthenews/2010/12/110107_witn_baldness_
page.shtml>. Acesso em: 12 out. 2011.

421. Unicentro-PR
Fill in the parentheses with T (True) or F (False).
According to scientists from the Pennsylvania
University, baldness:
( ) could be caused by imperfect cells.
( ) seems to result from dead hair follicles.
( ) wouldnt be very difficult to be treated.
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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

The pilot project, which seeks to offer


up to 20 online undergraduate courses by
next January, is one of the systems most
ambitious efforts to reshape itself during a
historic decline in state support. Leaders
hope to eventually expand enrollment
and make money by offering fully online
undergraduate degrees.
To reduce concerns about the
projects expense, university officials
have said it would be supported entirely by
external sources, and the project received
a $750,000 grant from the Bill & Melinda
Gates Foundation last week.
But Daniel Greenstein, a vice provost
and the projects co-founder, said on
Friday that finding enough outside support
had been a challenge. The university has
secured the option to borrow $7-million
to help pay for the project and may spend
$4-million to $7-million of that money
over the next several years, he said.

According to the text, the correct sequence,


from top to bottom, is:
a. T, F, F, T
b. T, F, T, F
c. F, T, T, F
d. F, T, F, T
e. T, T, T, T
422. Unicentro-PR
The text says that some men, such as Bruce
Willis and Patrick Stewart:
a. hate being bald.
b. would like to wear a wig.
c. do not mind being bald.
d. would rather have a little hair.
e. would like to have shoulder-length hair.
423. Unicentro-PR
For many, though, hair loss is no laughing
matter. (l.11-12) This sentence means that for
many men hair loss is:
a. a joke.
b. serious.
c. irrelevant.
d. easily accepted.
e. a genetic trait.

Disponvel em: <http://chronicle.com/blogs/


wiredcampus/reversing-course-u-of-californiato-borrow-millions-for-online-classes/30853>.
Acesso em: 11 abr. 2011. Adaptado.

425. UFSJ-MG
The project to be developed at the University
of California is intended to:
a. make the budget crisis worse by
reshaping the controversial projects.
b. raise more money by developing more
expensive online courses.
c. help overcome the budget crisis caused
by the decline of state support.
d. substitute the regular classes by online
undergraduate degrees.

424. Unicentro-PR

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Ingls

The only alternative in which there is not a pair


of opposites is:
a. thin (l. 4) thick.
b. beautiful (l. 7) ugly.
c. good (l. 25) bad.
d. new (l. 30) old.
e. soon (l. 34) quickly.

426. UFSJ-MG

Leia o texto e responda s questes 425 e 426.

Its correct to say, according to the text, that:


a. the online undergraduate courses
started last January.
b. Daniel Greenstein takes part in the
university project.
c. finding outside support for the project
will not be a challenge.
d. the project will rely only on external
grants and donations.

Reversing course, U. of California to


borrow millions for online classes
by Josh Keller

In the midst of a budget crisis, the


University of California plans to borrow at
least $2-million to pay for a controversial
project to build online courses rather
than relying entirely on outside grants
or donations, as university leaders had
previously said.
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Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

Ingls
427. UFSJ-MG
Observe o cartum e responda questo.

Im spending too much money


too. Every time I go to the mall, I see
something I want to buy. Thats another
reason I miss you! I would see some great
jacket, but you wouldn't let me buy it. You
would always tell me I didnt need it and
drag me away!
Also, I have a noisy new roommate,
Cindy. All she ever does is gab on her cell!
Remember the way we would sit around
talking? You always used to make me
laugh. I bet thats a big reason I never used
to feel stressed like I do now!
Anyway, exams will be over on
Friday, so Im sure Ill feel better then.
Write soon!
Annie

We understand from the comic strip that:


a. natural disasters will certainly happen
while the students are working in their
labs or in the university offices.
b. students who work very hard in labs
and offices can sometimes become
disconnected from the outside world.
c. the outside world is always an
important part from academic life
which is present in every university
office and labs.
d. students lives are hard because they
have to study in labs with no windows
and no protection against natural
disasters.
Leia o texto e responda s questes 428 e 429.

428. UFT-TO

Hi Adriana,
How are things back in Rome? Are
you glad to be home again? Sorry I havent
written lately. Ive been a bit depressed.
My grades arent as good as they used to
be. Classes didnt use to be so difficult!
I have to say, I miss you. You used
to be such a good influence on me! These
days, I oversleep. I often miss my classes!
That never used to happen because I
knew I had to meet you at the caf in the
morning. I remember how you would
complain about the coffee here in Canada.
You used to call it brown water!

Judge the sentences according to the text:


I. The word oversleep in the sentence
These days, I oversleep, means sleep
for longer than intended.
II. Annie used to complain about the
coffee because of its brown water
appearance.
III. We can state that the word miss in
the sentence I have to say, I miss you
has the same meaning as in the phrase
I often miss my classes!

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Disponvel em: <http://www.phdcomics.com/comics.phd>. Acesso em: 11 apr.2011

Conhecimentos bsicos da lngua inglesa

makes a surprising prediction in his latest


book: the days of English as the worlds
lingua-franca may be numbered.
[]
English is expanding as a linguafranca but not as a mother tongue. More
than 1 billion people speak English
worldwide but only about 330m of them
as a first language, and this population
is not spreading. The future of English is
in the hands of countries outside the core
Anglophone group. Will they always learn
English?
Mr Ostler suggests that two new
factors modern nationalism and
technology will check the spread of
English. [] English will fade as a linguafranca, Mr Ostler argues, but not because
some other language will take its place.
No pretender is pan-regional enough, and
only Africas linguistic situation may be
sufficiently fluid to have its future choices
influenced by outsiders. Rather, English
will have no successor because none
will be needed. Technology, Mr Ostler
believes, will fill the need.
This argument relies on huge
advances in computer translation and
speech recognition. [] Mr Ostler is
surely right about the nationalist limits to
the spread of English as a mother-tongue.
If he is right about the technology too,
future generations will come to see English
as something like calligraphy or Latin:
prestigious and traditional, but increasingly
dispensable.

IV. Annie is a bit depressed but she thinks


she will be better as soon as she finishes
her exams.
V. The verb to gab in the sentence
All she ever does is gab on her cell!
means to talk continuously, especially
about things which are not important.
Mark the correct answer:
a. I, II and III are correct.
b. III and IV are correct.
c. I, IV and V are correct.
d. II, III and V are correct.
e. Only V is correct.
429. UFT-TO

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Ingls

According to the text it is correct to state that:


a. The expression used to in You used
to be such a good influence on me!
can be replaced by the word would without changes in the meaning.
b. Considering the sentence Classes
didnt use to be so difficult, we can
infer that Annies classes now are easier
than they used to be in the past.
c. In the sentence I remember how you
would complain about the coffee here
in Canada, the word would indicates
a hypothetical situation that has never
happened.
d. The word would in Remember the
way we would sit around talking? can
be replaced by the expression used to
without changing the main idea of the
sentence.
e. In the sentences I would see some great
jacket, but you wouldnt let me buy it,
the words would and wouldnt are
used to express repeated events in
Cindys life.

Disponvel em: Richards, J. C.; Sandy, C. Passages.


Cambridge: CUP, 2008. p.74. Adaptado.

430. UEPB
It would be correct to say that the text:
a. presents a comparison and contrast
between English and other langugaes.
b. offers an argument in defense of
English.
c. makes a prediction about the future of
English.
d. analyses the pros and cons in favor of
the survival of English.
e. summarizes the future glories of the
English language.

Leia o texto e responda s questes de 430 a


432.
English is the most successful
language in the history of the world. It is
spoken on every continent, is learnt as a
second language by schoolchildren and
is the vehicle of science, global business
and popular culture. Many think it will
spread without end. But Nicholas Ostler,
a scholar of the rise and fall of languages,
281

droughts, more intense flooding, and more


ferocious storms. The details of these
forecasts are immensely complicated, but
the underlying science is pretty simple.
Warm air can hold more moisture. This
means that there is greater evaporation. It
also means that there is more water, and
hence more energy, available to the system.
3 What we are seeing now is these
predictions being borne out. If no
particular flood or drought or storm can
be directly attributed to climate change
theres always the possibility that any
single event was just a random occurrence
the overall trend toward more extreme
weather follows from the heating of
the earth. As the cover of Newsweek
declared last week, weather panic is
the new normal. The larger problem is
that this new normal wont last. Each
additional ton of carbon dioxide thats
spewed into the atmosphere contributes
to further warming, thus increasing the
risk of violent weather. The day after
the President visited Joplin, Fatih Birol,
the chief economist for the International
Energy Agency, in Paris, announced that,
despite the economic slowdown, global
CO2 emissions last year rose by a record
amount, to almost thirty-one billion metric
tons. I am very worried, Birol said.
This is the worst news on emissions.
4 When Obama took office, he appointed
some of the countrys most knowledgeable
climate scientists to his Administration,
and it seemed for a time as if he might
take his responsibility to lead on this issue
seriously. That hope has faded.

431. UEPB
Which alternative expresses the central idea
of the text?
a. The position of English as the worlds
second language is secure forever.
b. The days of English as the worlds
second language may (slowly) be
ending.
c. English has never occupied a powerful
position among the worlds languages.
d. English must be replaced immediately
as it is not fulfilling its role as linguafranca.
e. English
as
lingua-granca
faces
disapproval all over the world.
432. UEPB
According to Nicolas Ostler, English will fade as
lingua-franca because:
a. it is expanding only as a mother tongue.
b. some other language will take its place.
c. there
are
many
pan-reagional
pretenders.
d. no successor will be needed for English.
e. it is only in the hands of the Anglophone
group.
Leia o texto e responda s questes de 433 a
440.
Storms brewing
by Elizabeth Kolbert

1 Last week, the Chinese government


estimated that more than four million
people were having trouble finding
drinking water, owing to a drought along
the Yangtze River. The French agricultural
minister warned that an exceptionally hot,
dry spring would reduce that countrys
wheat harvest. And in Colombia more
than two million acres of land have
been submerged after almost a year of
nearly continuous rain. Over the past
ten months, we have registered five or
six times more rainfall than usual, the
director of Colombias meteorological
agency, Ricardo Lozano, said.
2
For decades, climate scientists have
predicted that, as global temperatures
rose, the side effects would include deeper

Disponvel em: The New Yorker June 13 & 20, 2011.

433. FGV-SP
According to the information in the article:
a. approximately four million people in
China take their drinking water directly
from the Yangtze River.<