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R. Ebrahimi a, , M. Reihanian b , M. Kanaani a , M.M. Moshksar a

a

b

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Chamran University, Ahwaz, Iran

a r t i c l e

i n f o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:

In this paper a new upper-bound approach is used to analyze the tube extrusion process.

A kinematically admissible velocity eld is developed to evaluate the internal power and

the power dissipated on frictional and velocity discontinuity surfaces. The total power is

17 July 2007

optimized with respect to the die angle. The optimum die angle and the critical die angle at

which a dead zone is formed are determined. The effect of constant friction factor and reduction in area on the optimum die angle is predicted. In addition, the role of die angle on the

relative extrusion pressure is investigated. Comparison of the experimental and theoretical

Keywords:

Upper-bound theory

Tube extrusion

Optimum die angle

Friction

1.

Introduction

Extrusion is a bulk metal forming process in which the crosssectional area of a billet is reduced and changed to a desired

shape by forcing it through a die. One of the main applications

of the extrusion process is the manufacturing of seamless

tubes in a wide range of reductions and materials, known as

tube extrusion. Tube extrusion is extensively used for producing hollow complex shaped products (Moshksar and Ebrahimi,

1998, 1999; Bae and Yang, 1993a,b). It is also suitable for manufacturing of composite tubes (Chitkara and Aleem, 2001a).

Several attempts have been made to analyze the tube extrusion process, using nite elements method (FEM) (Reddy et

al., 1996), slip line method (Chitkara and Butt, 1999), slab

method (Chitkara and Aleem, 2001b) and upper-bound theory (Mehta et al., 1970; Chang and Choi, 1972; Hartley, 1973;

Altan, 1994). The upper-bound theory is the most important

analytical method that may be lead to individual equations in

metal forming analysis. Mehta et al. (1970) obtained a velocity

Corresponding author.

E-mail address: ebrahimy@shirazu.ac.ir (R. Ebrahimi).

0924-0136/$ see front matter 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2007.07.034

eld for tube extrusion and compared it to the experimental velocity elds using the viso-plasticity method. Chang and

Choi (1972) used the upper-bound solution for tube extrusion

through curved dies and studied the effect of die geometry and

friction. They also treated the tube extrusion process through

conical dies of small angle as an illustration. Hartley (1973)

proposed a kinematically admissible velocity eld for tube

extrusion which reduces to a kinematically admissible velocity eld for solid rods extrusion in the limit as the mandrel

diameter goes to zero. Altan (1994) assumed the straight ow

lines and proposed a deformation model for tube extrusion

through a at die.

In this paper a new upper-bound analysis is used for tube

extrusion process. A kinematically admissible velocity eld

is developed and the effect of process variables on the relative extrusion pressure is investigated. Based on this model,

the equation for optimum die angle, dead zone cone angle

and relative extrusion pressure are derived. For comparing

the theoretical results to that of experimental results, a tube

j o u r n a l o f m a t e r i a l s p r o c e s s i n g t e c h n o l o g y 1 9 9 ( 2 0 0 8 ) 214220

Nomenclature

k

Lf

L0

m

Pext

r, ,

rf

contact length of die at exit channel

contact length of billet at entrance channel

constant friction factor

extrusion pressure

spherical coordinates

spherical radius of exit velocity discontinuity

surface

spherical radius of entrance velocity discontir0

nuity surface

Ri

radius of mandrel (internal radius of tube)

Rf

radius of exit channel (external radius of tube)

radius of container

R0

S

area of frictional or velocity discontinuity surface

v

amount of velocity discontinuity

Vf

exit velocity

V0

entrance velocity

, U

velocity components in spherical coordinates

r, U

U

i

w

power dissipated in the deformation zone

S

w

power dissipated on the frictional or discontinuity surface

Greek symbols

crt

critical angle at which a dead metal zone is

formed

opt

optimum die angle

optimum dead zone formation angle

1

ij

strain rate tensor

0

mean ow stress of the material

II is the deformation zone in which the material undergoes

plastic deformation and region IV is a dead metal zone.

Regions I, II and III are separated by the velocity discontinuity surfaces S1 and S2 . In addition to these surfaces, there are

some frictional surfaces between mandrel surface, die walls

and material (S4 S7 ).

Region IV appears as a dead metal zone, when the semicone angle, , becomes larger than a critical value, crt . In this

case surface S3 acts as a velocity discontinuity surface. For the

semi-cone die angle smaller than a critical value, crt , surface,

S3 , appears as a frictional die surface.

Using spherical coordinates (r, , ), it is assumed that the

material in the deformation zone only has a radial compo r , and the other two components of the

nent of velocity eld, U

= 0).

= U

velocity eld are zero (U

In order to determine the radial component of velocity eld,

r , a differential element moving in the radial direction is conU

sidered (Fig. 1). From volume constancy, the ow rate through

a differential area at any arbitrary radius r from the center O

must be equal to the ow rate through a differential area on

the surface S1 . That is

r ) = 2(Ri + rf sin )rf d(Vf cos )

2(Ri + r sin )r d(U

2.

r = Vf

U

J=2k

V

1

dV+

2 ij ij

k v dS+

Sv

mk v dS

Sf

St

Ti vi dS (1)

rate tensor, m the constant friction factor, V the volume of

plastic deformation zone, Sv and Sf the area of velocity discontinuity and frictional surfaces respectively, St the area where

the tractions may occur, v the amount of velocity discontinuity on the frictional and discontinuity surfaces and vi and

Ti are the velocity and tractions applied on St , respectively.

Fig. 1 shows the deformation model considered for this

analysis. As shown, the volume considered for analysis is

divided into four regions. In regions I and III the material

(3)

rf2

r2

cos

(4)

strain rate tensor in the spherical coordinates is determined

as

rr =

rf (Ri + rf sin )

cos

r(Ri + r sin )

Analysis of deformation

Based on the upper-bound theory, for a rigid-plastic VonMisses material and amongst all the kinematically admissible

velocity elds, the actual one that minimizes the power

required for material deformation is expressed as

(2)

face. Then U

r

U

= Vf

extrusion die with an orthogonal semi-die angle and a mandrel connected to the ram is designed and used for the

experimental works.

215

r

2r2

U

= Vf 3f cos

r

r

= =

r =

1

2

r

r2

U

= Vf f3 cos

r

r

r

1 U

r

2

Vf rf

sin

=

2 r3

(5)

(6)

(7)

given by

2

i = 0

w

3

V

1

dV

2 ij ij

(8)

differential volume in the deformation zone:

dV = 2(Ri + r sin )r dr d

(9)

216

j o u r n a l o f m a t e r i a l s p r o c e s s i n g t e c h n o l o g y 1 9 9 ( 2 0 0 8 ) 214220

the differential volume, from Eq. (9), into Eq. (8), the internal

power becomes

4

i = 0

w

3

r0

rf

r4

3Vf2 f6

r

cos2

+

Vf2 rf4

4 r6

S =

w

sin2

S1 and S2 is given by

k v dS

(16)

(10)

v1 = Vf sin

(17)

(18)

r0 =

rf =

Vf =

R0 Ri

sin

(11)

Rf Ri

sin

(12)

R02 Ri2

Rf2 Ri2

V0

(13)

power in the deformation zone is determined as

i = 40 V0

w

(R0 Rf )(R0 + Ri )

Ri

(Rf + Ri )

+20 V0

(Rf + Ri )

ln

R R

0

i

Rf Ri

v2 = V0 sin

(19)

(20)

power dissipated on the velocity discontinuity surfaces S1 and

S2 are determined as

0

S1 = 2

w

3

f ()

(14)

R02 Ri2

Rf + Ri

V0

2 sin2

Ri +

cos sin

Rf

2 sin2

Ri +

cos sin

R0

2 sin2

(21)

where

1

f () =

sin2

1 cos

1+

11/12 cos +

0

S2 = 2 (R0 Ri )V0

w

3

11

1

ln

sin2 +

12

11 12

11/12

1 (11/12) sin2

2 sin2

(22)

(15)

(10), the approximation of 11/12 1 is assumed.

the semi-cone angle, , is larger or smaller than the critical

semi-cone angle, crt . When is smaller than crt , surface

S3 acts as a frictional surface and the power dissipated on it

217

j o u r n a l o f m a t e r i a l s p r o c e s s i n g t e c h n o l o g y 1 9 9 ( 2 0 0 8 ) 214220

becomes

S =

w

mk v dS

(23)

v6 = Vf V0

(33)

S3 :

r |= = Vf

v3 = |U

rf (Ri + rf sin )

cos

r(Ri + r sin )

m0

S3 = 2 Vf cos (Ri + rf sin )rf

w

3

r0

rf

dr

r

m0

S3 = 2 V0 0

w

(cot ) ln

(Rf + Ri )

3

Rf Ri

S3

w

S7 = 2 L0

(26)

Then by replacing Eqs. (29)(36) into Eq. (23) and using Eqs.

(11)(13), the power dissipated on the frictional surfaces S4 S7

can be determined as

(27)

rf

V V0

r f

dS4 = 2Ri dr

(28)

(29)

(30)

v5 = Vf

(35)

R0 Rf

tan

S4

w

m0

= 2 V0 Ri

3

S5

w

m0

= 2 V0

3

m0

S6 = 2 V0

w

3

(31)

R0

(36)

R02 Ri2

(Rf + Ri ) sin

R02 Ri2

Rf2 Ri2

R02 Rf2

Rf + Ri

obtained by Eq. (23). Because the mandrel moves with a velocity of V0 , the velocity discontinuity on surface S4 and its area

becomes

r |=0 V0 =

v4 = |U

(25)

acts as a discontinuity surface and Eq. (27) is replaced by

R R

(R2 Ri2 )Rf

0

0

i

= 2 V0 0

(cot ) ln

Rf Ri

(Rf + Ri )

3

(34)

sin

v7 = V0

By integrating Eq. (26) and using Eqs. (11)(13), the power dissipated on the frictional surface S3 is obtained as

R R

0

i

R R

f

i

(24)

Thus:

ln

R R

0

i

Rf Ri

R0 Rf

sin

(37)

Rf Lf

(38)

1

m0

R0 Rf

S7 = 2 V0 L0

w

tan

3

Ri

(39)

R0

(40)

Based on the model, the total power needed for tube extrusion

process can be obtained by summing the internal power and

the power dissipated on all frictional and velocity discontinuity surfaces. Then

total = w

i+w

S1 + w

S2 + w

S3 + w

S4 + w

S5 + w

S6 + w

S7

w

(41)

angle . The optimum semi-cone angle, opt , that minimizes

the total power, can be determined by differentiating the total

power with respect to and set the derivative equal to zero:

total

w

=0

(42)

which yields:

(mRf + mRi )((R02 Ri2 )/(Rf + Ri )) ln((R0 Ri )/(Rf Ri )) mRi (R0 Rf )

opt =

((R02 Ri2 )/(Rf + Ri ))((Ri /6) + (Rf /3)) + (R0 Ri )((Ri /6) + (Rf /3)) + (m/2)Ri ((R02 Ri2 )/(Rf + Ri )) ln((R0 Ri )/(Rf

(43)

Ri )) (m/2)Ri (R0 Rf )

In the case that a dead zone is formed, the dead zone cone

angle, 1 , is determined by

(Rf + mRi )((R02 Ri2 )/(Rf + Ri )) ln((R0 Ri )/(Rf Ri )) mRi (R0 Rf )

1 =

((R02 Ri2 )/(Rf + Ri ))((Ri /6) + (Rf /3)) + (R0 Ri )((Ri /6) + (Rf /3)) + (m/2)Ri ((R02 Ri2 )/(Rf + Ri )) ln((R0 Ri )/(Rf

(44)

Ri )) (m/2)Ri (R0 Rf )

S5 = 2Rf Lf

(32)

cos 1 2 /2 and cot 1 2 /3.The external power

218

j o u r n a l o f m a t e r i a l s p r o c e s s i n g t e c h n o l o g y 1 9 9 ( 2 0 0 8 ) 214220

given by

J = (R02 Ri2 )V0 Pext

(45)

to the total power derived in Eq. (41), the relative extrusion

pressure is determined as

Pext

4(R0 Rf )Ri

2(Rf Ri )

=

+

ln

0

(R0 Ri )(Rf + Ri )

(Rf + Ri )

cos sin

Rf

2 sin2

2

+

3(R0 + Ri )

+

2m

+

3 sin

2 sin2

f ()

Ri

Fig. 2 Effect of constant friction factor on the optimum

semi-cone angle, .

cos sin

R0

2 sin2

Rf Ri

2

+

3(Rf + Ri )

+

R R

0

i

2 sin2

Ri

2mRf

(cot ) ln

+

3(Rf Ri )

Ri

ln

Rf + Ri

R R

0

i

Rf Ri

R R

0

i

Rf Ri

Ri (R0 Rf )

2

R02 Ri2

2mRi R02 Rf

2mRf

Lf +

Lf

+

3(Rf2 Ri2 )

3(Rf2 Ri2 )(R02 Ri2 )

2m

+

3

3.

L0

R0 Rf

sin

R0

R02

Ri2

(46)

Experimental procedures

evaluate the theoretical results. To obtain the experimental

loaddisplacement curve, an extrusion die with a die angle

of 90 and a mandrel connecting to the ram was designed.

Sample material used in this work was commercially pure

Al, with inside and outside diameter of 6 and 20 mm, respectively, and length of 40 mm. The samples were machined from

a rod and annealed at 420 C for 3 h. Shaving foam was used

for lubrication. The constant friction factor, m, appropriate for

forming process was estimated by the Barrel Compression

Test (Ebrahimi and Najazadeh, 2004). Tests were carried out

at the same temperatures and using the same lubricants as for

tube extrusion process. A constant friction factor of about 0.1

was estimated. To determine the mean ow stress, the compression tests incorporating the Cook and Larke technique

were used and a work hardening equation of the form below

was obtained:

(MPa) = 1950.316

4.

analytical solutions, the problem was also solved numerically

without any approximation by using the Simpson method.

The effect of constant friction factor, m, on the optimum

semi-cone angle, opt , obtained from both analytical and

numerical solutions is shown in Fig. 2. Good agreement is

observed between the two solutions. The agreement between

the numerical solution and the analytical solution indicates

that the approximations used in the analytical method are

quite reasonable. As shown in Fig. 2, with increasing the constant friction factor, m, the optimum die angle, opt , increases

signicantly. This arises from the fact that with increasing the

constant friction factor, the area of some frictional surfaces

decreases to minimize the power. This occurs by increasing

the optimum semi-cone angle.

The effect of constant friction factor on the dead zone cone

angle, 1 , obtained from analytical and numerical solutions,

is shown in Fig. 3. Both solutions predict that the constant

friction factor has no signicant effect on the dead zone cone

angle; so that with increasing the constant friction factor, dead

zone cone angle increases only about 4%. It is a reasonable

(47)

for the material used.

cone angle, 1 .

j o u r n a l o f m a t e r i a l s p r o c e s s i n g t e c h n o l o g y 1 9 9 ( 2 0 0 8 ) 214220

219

angle, opt .

of frictional surfaces is decreased and the effect of constant

friction factor is reduced.

Fig. 4 shows the effect of reduction in area on the optimum

semi-cone angle for different values of m. With increasing the

reduction in area, the optimum semi-cone angle increases. It

should be noted that the effect of reduction in area is only

signicant at high values of m, because at low values of m,

the area of frictional surfaces has no signicant effect on the

extrusion power.

The effect of die angle on the relative extrusion pressure is

shown in Fig. 5 for different values of m. As it is expected, for a

given value of m, there is an optimum die angle, at which the

power is minimized. Also as discussed above, the optimum die

angle increases with increasing the constant friction factor.

The critical die angle, crt , at which a dead metal zone is

formed, can be easily determined by considering Fig. 6. This

gure shows the effect of die angle on the relative extrusion pressure for the case of m = 0.1, R0 = 10 mm, Ri = 3 mm and

Rf = 5 mm. Based on Eq. (44), the dead zone cone angle, 1 , for

this condition is 67.83 . If the total extrusion power is determined at this angle and superimposed on Fig. 6 (horizontal

line), it will intersect with the curved line at an angle of 85.7 ,

which is the critical die angle for the dead zone formation.

In Fig. 7, the theoretical loaddisplacement curves obtained

from the analytical and numerical solutions of the upperbound approach are compared with the experimental results.

The results show very good agreement between the theory and

experiment. From these results, it can be concluded that the

approximations used in the analytical solutions are construc-

formation.

loaddisplacement curves.

because of decreasing the frictional surface area in the container as the punch is advanced. The theoretically predicted

load is about 10% higher than the experimental results, which

is due to the nature of the upper-bound theory.

5.

Conclusions

A new upper-bound model is used to analysis the tube extrusion process and the following results are obtained:

obtained by the numerical and analytical solutions

conrms the validity of the analytical solutions.

Also, the results of the theoretical and experimental

loaddisplacement curves show very good agreement

between the theory and experiment.

(2) For a given value of constant friction factor, there is an

optimum die angle, opt , in which the power is minimized.

The optimum die angle is derived as an individual equation.

220

j o u r n a l o f m a t e r i a l s p r o c e s s i n g t e c h n o l o g y 1 9 9 ( 2 0 0 8 ) 214220

(3) With increasing the constant friction factor, the optimum cone angle increases. However, the constant friction

factor has no signicant effect on the dead zone cone

angle.

(4) With increasing the reduction in area, the optimum semicone angle increases. The effect of the reduction in area is

much more signicant at high values of constant friction

factor.

(5) For die angles larger than a critical value, crt , a dead metal

zone with a cone angle of 1 is formed on the corner of the

die.

Acknowledgment

Financial support by the ofce of Research Council of Shiraz

University through grant number 84-EN-1768-C306 is appreciated.

references

Mater. Process. Technol. 40, 305313.

Avitzur, B., 1968. Metal Forming: Processes and Analysis, rst ed.

McGraw-Hill, New York.

Bae, W.B., Yang, D.Y., 1993a. An upper-bound analysis of the

backward extrusion of tubes of complicated internal shapes

from round billets. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 36, 175185.

Bae, W.B., Yang, D.Y., 1993b. An analysis of backward extrusion of

internally circular-shaped tubes from arbitrarily shaped

36, 157173.

Chang, K.T., Choi, J.C., 1972. Upper-bound solutions to tube

extrusion problems through curved dies. ASME J. Eng. Ind. 94,

11081112.

Chitkara, N.R., Aleem, A., 2001a. Extrusion of axisymmetric

bi-metallic tubes: some experiments using hollow billets and

application of a generalized slab method of analysis. Int. J.

Mech. Sci. 43, 28572882.

Chitkara, N.R., Aleem, A., 2001b. Extrusion of axisymmetric tubes

from hollow solid circular billets: a generalized slab method of

analysis and some experiments. Int. J. Mech. Sci. 43,

16611684.

Chitkara, N.R., Butt, M.A., 1999. Axisymmetric tube extrusion

through a smooth conical or cosine die and over a conical or

ogival mandrel: numerical construction of axisymmetric slip

line elds and associated velocity elds. Int. J. Mech. Sci. 41,

11911215.

Ebrahimi, R., Najazadeh, A., 2004. A new method for evaluation

of friction in bulk metal forming. J. Mater. Process. Technol.

152, 136143.

Hartley, C.S., 1973. Upper-bound analysis of extrusion of

axisymmetric, piecewise, homogeneous tubes. Int. J. Mech.

Sci. 15, 651663.

Mehta, H.S., Shabaik, A.H., Kobayashi, S., 1970. Analysis of tube

extrusion. ASME J. Eng. Ind. 92, 403411.

Moshksar, M.M., Ebrahimi, R., 1998. An analytical approach for

backward-extrusion forging of regular polygonal hollow

components. Int. J. Mech. Sci. 40, 12471263.

Moshksar, M.M., Ebrahimi, R., 1999. A new upper bound analysis

for prediction of load and ow pattern in backward extrusion

forging. Iran. J. Sci. Technol. Trans. B 23, 251266.

Reddy, N.K., Dixit, P.M., Lal, G.K., 1996. Analysis of axisymmetric

tube extrusion. Int. J. Mach. Tool. Manuf. 36, 12531267.

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