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Structure and Function

of Tissues
27 January 2016
Abby R. Whittington, PhD
awhit@mse.vt.edu

Objectives

Cells

Tissues

Organs

1. Understand the basic structure of tissues


2. Under how the structure of the tissue is adapted to perform
specific functions

What is a Tissue
Organizational intermediate between cells and
organs
An organ may be composed of multiple types of
tissues
Tissues are composed of: Extracellular Matrix

Cells

Extracellular Matrix

Collage , Elasti , . Mechanical strength


Laminin, fibronectin, . Cell adhesion
Gly osa i ogly a , . Growth factor binding

Cell Interactions with the ECM

Dynamic reciprocity- bidirectional interaction among cells and their


surrounding microenvironment
Figure II.1.5.4 in the book

The Body as a

achi e

Types of Tissues
1. Epithelial Tissue
- Densely packed cells, little intercellular space
- Protect tissues and regulate the exchange of
chemicals
2. Connective Tissue
- Fibrous tissues, gives shapes to organs,
connection of body tissues
3. Muscle Tissue
- Active contractile tissue of the body
4. Nervous Tissue
- Sensory input, integration, control of muscles
and glands

Epithelial Tissue
Blood Vessels

Esophagus

Kidney Tubules

Sweat Glands

Digestive Tract

Gland Ducts

Lines the surfaces of and regulates


transport across the ducts, cavities, glands
of the body

Simple
- Single Layer
- Secretion, Absorption
Stratified
- Multiple Layers
- Protection

Respiratory

Epithelial Examples

Human Skin
-Stratified Squamous Epithelial

Small Intestine
- Simple Columnar Epithelium

Connective Tissue

Supports, connects or separates different types of tissues


and organs in the body

Loose Fibrous
Areolar
- Binds epithelia to other tissues
- very abundant
- lose, elastic

Adipose
- Stores energy
- protection
Reticular
- Support lymphoid organs
- Porous, support free blood cells

Dense Fibrous

- Highly organized collagen and elastin fibers


- Strong in tension
- Primary around joints (ligaments and tendons)

Supportive
Cartilage
- Deformable in compression
- Shock absorber
- High water content
- hydrogel like ature

Bone
- Rigid
- Provides support and protection
- Highly mineralized
- Structurally similar to reinforced
concrete
- Contains bone marrow

Fluid - Blood

Why is blood a connective tissue?

Muscle Tissue

Smooth Muscle

Skeletal Muscle

Contractile tissues
- Skeletal muscle is voluntary
- Smooth and cardiac muscle is involuntary
- Striations present in skeletal and cardiac muscle -> short intense bursts

- Smooth muscle -> long, slow bursts, may be permanent

Cardiac Muscle

Nervous Tissue

- Motor Neurons
- Axon and Dendrite
- Long, up to a meter

- Neuroglia

- The glue of the rai


- Small and starshaped

Histology

Sample Preparation
Fixation

Formalin
Paraformaldehyde

Embedding

Paraffin Wax
Glycol

Sectioning

Microtome or Cryostat
Section Orientation

Staining
Hematoxylin & Eosin (H&E)

Nucleus (blue/purple) hematoxylin (basic compounds)


Counterstain (pink/red) Eosin (acidic compounds)

Safranin-O for glycosaminoglycans (red)

Counterstain Fast Green -> collagen (green)

Masso s trichrome

Used for connective tissue


nuclei -> blue; cytoplasm and muscle -> red; and collagen ->
green

Sudan Black and osmium

lipid-containing structures (i.e. myelin) ->Black/brown

Giesmsa

Nuclei -> violet, cytoplasm -> pale blue, erythrocytes -> pink

M
B

B=
BM =
M=

BM

Red =
Green =

______ of bone

___________________________ of
articular cartilage
__________________________
of myelinated nerve bundle

___________________of
Bladder muscle
C

C=
M=

Black =
Brown =

_______ = pink
_______ = purple

____________ staining of blood


smear

Immunohistology

Summary
Cells and extracellular matrix compose tissues
Four main tissue types exist in the body

Epithelium
Connective
Muscular
Nervous

Histological techniques are used to visualize tissue


structure