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# PHYSICS

PHYSICS

ASPECTS OF MECHANICS
4 CREDITS (90940)

D-T GRAPHS

p2

V-T GRAPHS

p6

## The gradient of the slope gives the velocity

rise d
=
,
run t
d
this is shown by the formula v =
t
The unit for velocity is meters per second
m
(ms-1 or )
s

## T he gradient of the slope gives the

acceleration
rise v
=
,
run t
v
this is shown by the formula a =
t
Units for acceleration are meters per
second squared (ms-2)

FORCES p 10

## F orce is calculated by the

formula F = ma
If there is constant speed, then the overall
force is zero (forces are balanced)
Any acceleration means there is an overall
force (Fnet). Units for force are Newtons

M
ass is the amount of matter that exists in
a body (measured in kg)
Weight is a force of how hard gravity is
pulling a mass downwards (measured in N)
Weight can be calculated by Fgravity = mg
Gravity can be taken as 10 Nkg-1

ENERGY p 18

## WORK & POWER p 22

Types of energy:
Gravitational Potential Energy E p = mgh
Kinetic Energy Ek =

1 2
mv
2

## Elastic Potential Energy

Energy losses: heat, sound, vibration
Energy cannot be created or destroyed,
it can only be changed from one form to
another
The units for energy is Joules (J)

W
ork is a force carried out over a distance:
W = Fd
If no distance has been travelled, there is
no work
Units for work are Joules (J)
Power is how fast something does work:

P=

W
t

## Units for power are Watts (W)

PRESSURE p 26

F
P
ressure is the measure of the force over a certain area, P =
A
Pressure can be increased by either:
Increasing the force AND/OR
Decreasing the area
The units for pressure are Newtons per metre squared(Nm-2)

## Note: Problems may rely on knowledge from earlier physics sections

PAGE 1

DISTANCE-TIME GRAPHS

SUMMARY
The gradient of the slope gives the velocity
rise d
=
, this is
run t
d
shown by the formula v =
t
The unit for distance is meters (m) and time is
seconds (s) and velocity is meters per second
m
( ms 1 or )
s
For a complete tutorial on this topic visit www.learncoach.co.nz

## falls through a distance of 2400 m during the first

60 seconds. Calculate the average speed of the
parachutist during this time.

## 2. A child plays with a remote control car on concrete.

a. The car starts from rest and travels a distance of
b.

## 6 m in 3 seconds. Calculate the average speed of

the car in the 3 seconds.
The car then travels a further 28 m at a constant
speed of 4 m s1 for 7 seconds.
Using the information given in (a) and above,
draw in the appropriate shaped lines on the
distance-time graph to the right to represent the
journey of the car during the first 10 seconds.

PRACTICE QUESTIONS

## 3. John was skating to the dairy. The graph below shows

his journey.
a. What distance had John travelled at seven
seconds?
b. In which part of his journey, A, B, or C, is John
going the fastest?
d. Calculate Johns average speed over the whole
10 second journey.

PAGE 2

PHYSICS
4. Stephanie is watching a kitten playing. The kitten

## starts from rest and travels a distance of 6 m in 3

seconds. The kitten then travels a further 28 m at a
constant speed of 4 ms-1 for 7 seconds. Using the
given information, draw in the appropriate shaped
lines on the distance-time graph below to represent
the journey of the kitten during the first 10 seconds.

## 8. Leah was paying with a toy car. She rolled it down a

slope and it took ten seconds to reach the bottom.
What was the average speed of the car? Show all
working.

## 9. Philip enters a downhill snowboard race. The

distance-time graph below shows his progress.

## point Jenny is pushing a couch across a room. The

room is 18 meters across and it takes her 6 seconds
to push the couch across the room. Calculate the
average speed of the couch. Show all working. Units
are required.

## 6. Ben climbs a ladder 20 m high. He then slides down

a pole in 8 s. Calculate his average speed. Show all

## 7. Philip was watching a toddler chase a ball. The

distance-time graph is shown below.

40 seconds?

race.

## c. Describe the motion of Philip and his snowboard

during section C.

## d. Using the graph above, show that Philips speed

during section B is 15.7 ms-1.

## starts sitting on the floor then hits the roof, 2.5 m

up, after 2 seconds. Calculate the average speed of
the helicopter.

15 seconds.

15 s to 25 s?

## c. Calculate the average speed of the toddler for

the time 25 s to 40 s.

PAGE 3

4.

NCEA

d 2400
=
t
60
-1
Average Speed = 40 ms
(Achieved)
2.

1. v =

a. v =

d 6
= = 2 ms 1
t 3

(Achieved)

b.
NB: The curved section of the graph represents
the kittens acceleration. If the kitten travelled at a
constant speed for the first three seconds this would
be a straight line.
(Excellence)

## (Both lines correct shape - Achieved)

PRACTICE
3.

a. 30 m
b. Part B
c. Because the slope of the graph (which shows

## the amount of distance travelled over a certain

amount of time) is steepest during B, with a
gradient of 10ms-1 OR During part A he travels
20m in 6 seconds; during part B he travels 20m
in 2 seconds; and during part C he is stationary.

d
d. v =
t

Total distance = 40 m
Total time = 10 s

average speed =

40
= 4 ms 1
10

(Achieved - two of a, b, c or d)
(Merit - three of a, b, c or d)
(Excellence - all of a, b, c and d)

5. v=

d 18
=
= 3 ms-1
t
6

(Achieved)

6. v=

d 20
=
= 2.5 ms-1
t
8

(Achieved)

7.
a. The toddler is travelling at constant speed.
b. The toddlers speed was zero.
d 20
=
= 1.33 ms-1 (3 sf)
c. v =
t 15

8. v =

d 15
=
= 1.5 ms 1
t 10

(Achieved)

9. a. 0.8 km = 800 m
d 3300
= 15 ms 1
b. v = =
t
220
c. The (parabolic) shape indicates constant
deceleration.

## d 3000 800 2200

=
=
= 15.71 ms 1
t
180 40
140

d. v =

10. v =

PAGE 4

(Merit - two of a, b or c)

(Achieved - two of a, b, c or d)
(Merit - three of a, b, c or d)

d 2.5
=
= 1.25 ms 1
t
2

(Achieved)

PHYSICS

Study Tip:

## Quality over Quantity

Great news!
It is the quality of study that makes more of an impact than the
quantity.
Interesting fact: the amount of time students spend on
homework has risen over the last 3 decades but the level
of educational attainment has not risen with the increased

PAGE 5

VELOCITY-TIME GRAPHS
SUMMARY
T he gradient (slope) gives the
acceleration
rise v
=
, and is
run t
v
shown by the formula a =
t
Units for acceleration are meters per
second squared (ms-2)
For a complete tutorial on this topic visit www.learncoach.co.nz

## OLD NCEA QUESTIONS

1. A boy is running at 2 ms-1. He then accelerates at a

## constant rate of 0.2 ms-2 for 5 seconds. Calculate the

speed of the boy after the 5 seconds.

## The speed-time graph below shows part of their

journey on one day.

Show all your working for the calculations
Clearly label the y-axis of the distance-time
graph with the distance travelled
Draw an appropriate shape for each section
of the students bike journey

## During section X, he runs with a constant speed of 2

ms-1 for 15 seconds.
During section Y, he runs with a constant acceleration
of 0.2 ms-2 reaching 3ms-1 by the end.

b.

## section A of the graph alongside. Give an

Calculate the distance travelled in EACH section
of the speed-time graph, and use the calculations
to draw a distance-time graph for the students
bike journey.

## Use this to complete the speed-time graph above. On

Label the speed values on the vertical axis
Draw a line on the graph to show the speeds for
section X and section Y

PAGE 6

PHYSICS

PRACTICE QUESTIONS

## a. What is the maximum speed Jo reaches?

b. Fully describe the motion of Jo between 2.5 s

## Billy and his tandem skydiving instructor from when

they jump out of the plane until they are nearly
down.

5.

## during the first 15 seconds.

b. Calculate how far Billy and the instructor fell
during the first 50 seconds.
Jonny entered a trolley race down a hill. To start he
needed friends to help push him off.
The table below shows how the trollys speed
changed with time.
Time (s)
Speed (ms )
-1

10 12 14

10 11 12

## a. Draw a speed-time graph of the motion.

b. Using information or otherwise, calculate the
6.

## distance the trolley moved in the first 6 seconds.

The graph below shows the last 7 seconds of
Philippas snowboard race. At the moment marked
A on the graph she turns her snowboard sideways
to slow down. What is Philippas acceleration as she
slows down?

## speed-time graph below shows the motion of Jo as

she runs in to throw the javelin.

and 4.5 s.

## c. Calculate Jos acceleration between 0 s and 2.5 s.

d. Using the speed-time graph, calculate the total

the javelin.

## a path. The car accelerates constantly from rest to a

top speed of 7 ms-1 in 0.5 s.
a. Calculate the toy cars acceleration. Show all
b. From its top speed, the toy car slows steadily
and takes 3 s to stop. Sketch a graph of the toy
cars motion from its release until it stops.

10. Tom and Lisa enter their boats in a drag race. Each
boats speed is measured and recorded for the
first 6 seconds. The table below shows the data.
Time (s)

Tom

Speed (ms )

12

20

25

28

31

33

Lisa

Speed (ms-1)

19

23

25

26

-1

## The timing device missed Lisas speed at 2 seconds.

a. Draw a speed-time graph of the data above.
b. What was Lisas speed at time t = 2 s?
c. How long after the start was Toms boat travelling
at 30 ms-1?

## start. It takes 4 seconds at a constant acceleration

to reach a speed of 9 ms-1. The riders then jump
onto it. The cart continues at 9ms-1 for 10 more
seconds. It then goes down a steeper part of the hill
and accelerates at a constant rate for a further 30
seconds until it reaches a top speed of 30 ms-1. The
breaks are then applied and the cart comes to a stop
in 6 seconds.
a. On the grid to the right, sketch a speed-time
graph of the total motion.
b. What is the distance covered between the times
4 s and 14 s from the start?
c. Calculate the acceleration for the interval
between 14 s and 44 s. Show your working and
state the unit.
d. The total distance covered by the cart is 783 m.
What is its average speed?

## sped up to 25 ms-1 with uniform acceleration. This

happened in 5 seconds. Calculate the acceleration of
the car.

PAGE 7

NCEA

PRACTICE

1. a = v
t
v
0.2 =
5
v = 1 ms 1

## 4. a. Their speed increases at a constant rate resulting

in constant acceleration.

## b. Distance travelled = area under the graph:

(65 0) 15
d=
+ 65 ( 50 15 )
2
= 487.5 + 2275 = 2762.5 m

## Initial speed = 2 ms-1 therefore final speed = 3 ms-1

(Achieved)

(Achieved - a or b)
(Merit - a and b)

2. a. a = v = 12 = 0.2 ms 2 (Achieved)
t 60

5. a.

(Achieved)
b. Distance travelled = area under graph:

1
b. d A = 60 12 = 360 m
2
d B = 60 12 = 760 m
1
d c = 30 12 = 180 m
2

69
= 27 m (Merit)
2
v 0 8
=
= 1.6 ms 2 (Achieved)
6. a =
t 7 2
d=

7. a.

(Excellence)

3.

b. d = vt
= 9 10
= 90 m
v 30 9
=
= 0.7 ms 2
c. a =
t 44 14
d 783
d. v = =
= 15.66 ms 1
t
50

## (Achieved - Shape of graph correct)

(Merit - correct shape and 1 correct data point)
(Excellence - correct shape and values)

PAGE 8

(Achieved - two of a, b, c or d)
(Merit - three of a, b, c or d)
(Excellence - all of a, b, c and d)

PHYSICS
8. a. S peed = 8ms-1
b. Uniform speed of 8ms-1, zero acceleration
v
8
=
= 3.2 ms 2
c. a =
t 2.5
d. Distance travelled = area under graph:
d = 0.5 ( 8 2.5 ) + 2 8 + 0.5 ( 0.5 8 )
= 10 + 16 + 2
= 28 m

(Achieved - two of a, b, c or d)
(Merit - three of a, b, c or d)
(Excellence - all of a, b, c and d)

9. a. a = v = 7 = 14 ms 2 (Achieved)
t 0.5
b.

10.

a.

b. 1 4ms-1
c. Between 4.5 and 5 seconds

11. a =

(Achieved - b or c)
(Merit - a, or b and c)
(Excellence - a, b and c)

v 25 10
= 3 ms 2 (Achieved)
=
5
t

(Achieved)

Study Tip:

## The Beginning and

the End
Fact: most information that sticks in our brains is learnt either at
the beginning or end of a study session.
(Beginning and End are about 15 - 20 mins each.)
Solution: Cut out the middle part!
So each hour:
Study 35 mins Break 5 mins Revise 10 mins Rest 10 mins

PAGE 9

FORCE DIAGRAMS
AND CALCULATIONS

SUMMARY
Force is calculated by the
formula F = ma
If there is constant speed, then
the overall force is zero (forces are
balanced)
If there is any acceleration there is
an overall force (Fnet)
The unit of force is, N, Newtons
For a complete tutorial on this topic visit www.learncoach.co.nz

## height of 4000 m above sea level.

a. Explain the vertical motion of the parachutist
just after she jumps out of the plane (before the
Draw and label the
vertical
force(s)
acting
on
the
parachutist
and
show relative sizes
on the image to the
right.
Describe the net
vertical force and
state whether the
force(s) are balanced
or unbalanced
Describe the vertical
motion
of
the
parachutist
Explain how the net
vertical force affects
the vertical motion
b. After the 60 seconds, the parachutist pulls the
cord and opens her parachute. Explain how the
parachute reduces the speed of the parachutist
consider:
How the motion of the parachutist changes
when the parachute is opened
The effect of the size of the parachute on
the motion
The effect of the parachute on the net
vertical force

PAGE 10

3.

## Explain whether the forces in section B of the graph

are balanced or unbalanced and how this results in
should:
Name the forces involved and describe their
relative sizes (you may draw a labelled diagram
Link the net force to the type of motion in
section B

PHYSICS

PRACTICE QUESTIONS

## it travels straight up.

a. TWO vertical forces act on the ball as it is
travelling up. Using arrows, draw and name
these two forces.
b. When its at its highest point explain whether
the forces are balanced or unbalanced.

## kg) jump out of a plane.

a. One force acting on Billy and his instructor is
gravity. Name the other force acting on them
and state the direction in which it acts.
b. During the first 15 seconds the net force acting
on Billy and his instructor is 920 N.
Calculate the net acceleration of Billy and his
instructor. Use an appropriate unit.
c. After 50 seconds the instructor pulls the cord
and releases the parachute.
Discuss how the parachute reduces the speed of
Billy and his instructor.

## falls to the ground in 0.8 s, hitting the ground with a

speed of 9 ms-1. Calculate the net force acting on the
pinecone as it falls.

## moving along at a constant speed. The child rides off

the concrete onto some sand, and his speed rapidly
decreases.
Discuss why the child and skateboards speed rapidly
decreases as it drives into the sand. Consider:
The push force and the friction force acting on
the child and skateboard
Which force(s) have changed and why
The net force

## A crash occurs ahead and so he slows down and

comes to a stop. Discuss how the forces of friction
you should:
Draw a diagram to show the relative sizes of
friction and push on the cyclist as he slows down
Describe the net force acting on the cyclist as he
slows down AND when he has stopped
State whether the net forces are balanced or
unbalanced when the cyclist slows down AND
has stopped
Explain why the net forces cause the cyclist to
slow and stop

## 11. The speed-time graph following represents part of

the journey of a car.

## a. On the picture above draw and label the four

forces acting on the bike as it accelerates.

## kg. Calculate the force needed to accelerate

Lee-Ann and her bike at 2.5 ms-2. Include an
appropriate unit.

## point Jenny is pushing a couch across a room. On the

diagram below, draw arrows to show the direction
of the FOUR forces acting on the couch. Label the
arrows you draw.

## The motion of the car varies between section A and

section B.
a. If the mass of the car is 1500 kg, use information
from the graph to calculate the net force acting
on the car in section A and in section B.
b. Discuss the forces that act on the car in sections
A and B and explain how they affect the motion
State whether the forces are balanced or
unbalanced in each section, and describe
the resulting motion of the car in each
section
Explain why the net force results in the
different type of motion described in each
section

PAGE 11

NCEA

PRACTICE

4.

## to accelerate at 10 ms and her speed will

increase. As her speed increases the retarding
force created by air friction will decrease her
acceleration until she reaches terminal velocity,
where the two forces weight and friction
become equal and opposite. As this point her
acceleration is zero.

-2

(Excellence)

## of the air and creates an upward force greater

than the 750 N weight force. Consequently the
parachutist slows down with this deceleration.
The frictional force depends on speed and as the
speed reduces so does the force until at a slow
enough speed (safe enough to land) the frictional
force and weight force become equal and
opposite and the parachutist falls at a constant
speed. The bigger the size of the canopy of the
parachute the greater the frictional force will be.

(Excellence)

a.

## b. Unbalanced. The only force acting now is gravity.

(Achieved - a or b)
(Merit - a and b)
5.
a. Force: Friction/Air Resistance, Direction: Up
b. F = ma
F
a=
m
920
=
160
= 5.75 ms 2
c. When the parachute is opened it creates a large

## surface area. This is much larger than just that

of Billy and his instructor. Due to this the friction
force is greatly increased. This force acts against
gravity and causes the slowing down of the
parachutists.
(Achieved - a, b or c)

(Merit - two of a, b or c)

(Excellence - a, b and c)

6.

a.

2. F = ma
= 60 0.2

= 12 N (Achieved)
3. Naming of forces:
Weight / gravity downwards
Support / reaction upwards
Weight and support are equal and opposite forces.
Thrust forward
Friction pushes against motion.
Thrust and friction are equal and opposite forces.
Explanation of motion:
Forces are balanced therefore the net force is zero. As
the bike is already moving in Section B, it will continue
moving at a constant speed as an unbalanced force is
required to change its speed.
(Excellence)

PAGE 12

b.

## support force = gravity force

(i.e. same arrow length)
resultant force > friction

(i.e. longer arrow length)

F = ma

= 100 2.5

(Achieved
- a or b)
= 250 N
(Merit - a and b)

PHYSICS
7.

(Achieved)

v
t
9
=
0.8
= 11.25 ms 2
F = ma
= 0.15 11.25
= 1.6875 = 1.7 N (2sf)
(Merit)

## 11. a. Section A force calculation:

v
a =
t
25
=
20
= 1.25 ms 2
F = ma
= 1500 1.25
= 1875 = 1900 N (2sf)

8. a =

9. When the child and board are going along the concrete

## the push and drag/friction forces are balanced. This

is shown as constant speed. When the skateboard
rides onto the sand the friction force becomes much
greater due to the high friction of sand, compared
to concrete. Because the push force doesnt change,
the forces become unbalanced and result in a net
force against the direction the skateboarder is going
which causes them to decelerate quickly.

(Excellence)

b.

## so the net force for section A is 1875 N.

Section B force calculation:
In section B the car is travelling at a constant
speed, hence it is not accelerating, therefore the
net force on it is zero (0 N).

(Excellence)
In section A the horizontal forces are that of
the engine and the friction of the vehicle. For
the first 20 seconds the forces are unbalanced,
the driving force is larger than the friction force
causing the car to accelerate at as constant
rate. This can also be seen in the gradient of the
graph. In section B the driving force and friction
forces are equal resulting in a net force of zero
and no change in speed. Vertically the weight
and reaction force remain the same size and
opposite throughout irrespective of the other
forces.
(Excellence)

10.

## When the cyclist is slowing down the friction force is

much greater than the push force (if there is any).
This can be seen in the diagram. The net force acting
on him is not balanced and is directed toward the left
causing him to slow down. Once he has stopped the
net force acting on him must be zero. It is balanced
as the velocity is constant. The net force to the left is
a decelerating force, since F = ma , causing him to
slow down and stop.
(Excellence)

PAGE 13

Study Tip:

Repetition
To burn information into your brain:
Dont study the same topic for a long period
of time
Do learn the information then go over it again:
Within 24 hours (retention goes from 20% to 80%)
Again after a week (retention goes up to 90%)
Again after a month (long term retention)

PAGE 14

PHYSICS

## MASS AND WEIGHT

SUMMARY

M
ass is the amount of matter that exists in a body (measured in kg)
Weight is a force of how hard gravity is pulling a mass downwards (measured in N)
Weight can be calculated by Fgravity = mg
Gravity can be taken as 10 m.s-2
For a complete tutorial on this topic visit www.learncoach.co.nz

## OLD NCEA QUESTIONS

1. A car hangs motionless on the end of a cranes cable. The force applied by the crane is 13 000 N.

Use the value of the cranes force to determine the mass of the car. Give an appropriate unit
mass and weight.

PRACTICE QUESTIONS

weight?

## 4. Sharon and her car have a combined mass of 1580

kg. What is the weight of Sharon and her car?

5.

## want to ride a chairlift up the mountain. An empty

chair has a mass of 100 kg. The girls (masses 55 kg,
60 kg, 50 kg, and 45 kg) ride the chair up. Calculate
the total weight of the loaded chairlift. Show your
working.

## Billy has always wanted to go for a skydive. Billy and

his tandem skydiving instructor have a combined
mass of 160 kg. Using Fgravity = mg find the
combined weight of Billy and his instructor.

PAGE 15

NCEA

1. FW = mg
F
m= W
g
13000
=
10
= 1300 kg
The car is motionless; therefore the vertical forces
are balanced. The weight force on the car must equal
the force applied by crane to the car.
Mass is the amount of material (matter) in the object
(not the amount atoms / particles).
Weight is the gravitational force on the object (not
the amount of gravity).
(Excellence)

3. weight = mg
= (100 + 55 + 60 + 45 + 50) 10
(Achieved)
= 3100 N

4. weight = mg

= 1580 10

= 15800 N (Achieved)
5. weight = mg

= 160 10

= 1600 N

(Achieved)

PRACTICE
2. weight = mg

= 35 10
= 350 N
(Achieved)

Study Tip:

Retrieving Information
Dont just put information into your brain.
Do practice getting the information out of your brain.
of questions is more effective than reading or taking notes and
makes us stronger in exams.

PAGE 16

PHYSICS

Study Tip:

Time Management
This is the key to successful study.
You need to:
Decide how to best use the hours you have each day, week,
and term
Schedule study times and free time!
After each study session, write down the next session time and
what you plan to study

PAGE 17

ENERGY
SUMMARY

Types of energy:
Gravitational Potential Energy E p = mgh
Kinetic Energy Ek =

1 2
mv
2

## Elastic Potential Energy

E nergy losses: heat, sound, vibration
Energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can only be changed from one form to another
The units for energy is Joules (J)
For a complete tutorial on this topic visit www.learncoach.co.nz

## climbs a vertical rope. Calculate the maximum height

it would be possible for the girl to reach.

## shown in the diagram below. At the bottom of the

slope, her speed is 8 ms-1. The combined mass of
Rosemary and her skis is 80 kg.

b.

## skiing down the slope, and it took her 36.7 s to

travel 110 m. Calculate her average speed down
the slope.
Calculate the kinetic energy of Rosemary and her
skis as she reaches the bottom of the slope when
she is moving at 8 ms-1. Give an appropriate unit

## reached the bottom of the slope does not equal

the energy she had when she was stationary at
the top of the slope.
Explain using the principles of physics why her
energy at the top of the slope and her energy at
the bottom of the slope are not equal.
Name the type of energy Rosemary has at
the top of the slope
Calculate the difference between her kinetic
energy at the bottom of the slope and her
energy at the top of the slope
Justify the difference between her kinetic
energy at the bottom of the slope and her
energy at the top of the slope

Study Tip:

Challenge Yourself
Dont: practice questions that are too easy your brain
discounts the information as not important.
Do: Challenge yourself the information is more likely to stick
(and you learn how to solve difficult problems!)

PAGE 18

PHYSICS

PRACTICE QUESTIONS

## a path. The car accelerates constantly from rest to

a top speed of 7 ms-1 in 0.5 s. It then slows down
steadily taking 5 seconds to stop completely.
a. Describe one energy change that occurs during
the matchbox cars journey.
b. What could Lisa do to make the matchbox car
accelerate faster?
A. Let it go on sand.
B. Wind the spring more tightly.
C. Wind the spring faster.
D. Weigh the car down with some weight.

his journey.

## point Jenny is pushing a couch across a room. The

couch was pushed at 5 ms-1 and it has a mass of 60
kg, calculate its kinetic energy.

## 7. A truck drives up a four meter high rise. The truck

had a mass of 7000 kg. Calculate the gravitational
potential energy of the truck at the top of the rise.

## 8. A matchbox car is travelling at 3 ms-1 along the

ground. If it has a mass of 500 g find the kinetic
energy of the car at this speed.

## 9. A pinecone (m = 0.18 kg) in a tree is 3 m above the

ground. Calculate the gravitational potential energy
of the pinecone. Give an appropriate unit.

## John has a mass of 60 kg. Calculate the kinetic energy

in part A of Johns journey.

## it travels straight up..

a. The tennis ball left the racquet with an initial
speed of 25 ms-1. The mass of the ball is 120 g.
Use the formula

Ek =

1 2
mv
2

## throughout the upward flight of the ball,

calculate the maximum height reached by the
ball.

## a. Complete the table to show the main form of

energy at each point.
Position

Top of Jump
Middle of Jump
Bottom of Jump

Explain why.

PAGE 19

NCEA
1.

2.

E p = mgh

5100 = 60 10 h
5100 = 600h
h = 8.5 m
d

t
110
=
36.7
= 3 ms-1
1
b. Ek = mv 2

2
1
= 80 82
2
= 2560 J

d 20
=
= 3.33 ms 1
t
6

1 2
Ek = mv
2
= 1 / 2 60 3.332
= 333.333
= 333 J (3sf)

(Excellence)

4.

(Merit)

a. v =

(Achieved)

m = 60kg

1
5. a.

Ek = mv 2
2
1
= 0.12 252
2
= 37.5 J
(Achieved)

E p = mgh

37.5 = 0.12 10 h
37.5 = 1.2h
(Merit)
h = 31.25 m
1 2
6. Ek = mv

2
1
= 60 52
2
(Achieved)
= 750 J
b.

(Merit)

## of gravitational potential energy and no kinetic

energy.
When she reaches the bottom of the slope her
gravitational potential energy has changed to
kinetic energy.

E p = mgh
= 80 10 4.8
= 3840 J

## Difference between Ep & Ek = 3840 2560

= 1280 J
Some of the kinetic energy is converted into heat
due to friction between the skis and the snow
and also air resistance between the skier and the
air.
(Excellence)

7. E p = mgh

= 7000 10 4
= 280000 J

(Achieved)

1 2
mv

2
1
= 0.5 32
2
= 2.25 J

(Achieved)

9. E p = mgh

= 0.18 10 3
= 5.4 J

(Achieved)

8. Ek =

PRACTICE
3.

v=

## Kinetic to elastic potential winding of the

spring
Elastic potential to kinetic acceleration of
the car
Kinetic/Elastic potential to sound
movement of the car
Kinetic to heat wheels moving on the
(Achieved)
b. B. Wind the spring more tightly.
(Achieved)

10. a.
Position

## Main form(s) of energy

Top of Jump

Gravitational Potential

Middle of Jump

## Kinetic/ Gravitational Potential

Bottom of Jump

Elastic Potential

## converted to elastic potential energy. Energy is

lost between the top and bottom through air
resistance, sound and heat.
(Merit - a or b)

(Excellence - a and b)

PAGE 20

PHYSICS

Study Tip:

Sing Songs
Its corny but it really works!
Take facts or ideas you need to learn. Transform them into a
goofy poem, song or rap.
Its:
Easier to learn
Easier to recall
Not so boring
Best for learning facts

PAGE 21

## WORK AND POWER

SUMMARY

W
ork is a force carried out over a distance, W = Fd . If no distance has been travelled, there is
no work
Work is a type of energy, so sometimes E = W. Therefore, units for work are Joules (J)

P
ower is how fast something does work, P =
t
Units for power are Watts (W)
For a complete tutorial on this topic visit www.learncoach.co.nz

## OLD NCEA QUESTIONS

1. A boy runs 12.5 m in 5 seconds. During this time he

## has a net force of 12 N acting on him. Calculate the

power required by the boy to produce the constant
acceleration of 0.2 ms-2 in over 5 seconds. Give an

## climbs a vertical rope in PE. In theory she should be

able to reach the top which is 8.5 m. In reality, the girl
reaches a height of only 8 m. Explain why the energy
used by the girl during the climb does not equal the
work she does to reach the vertical height of 8 m. In
Name the type of energy the girl has when she
is 8 m off the ground
Calculate the work done to reach a height of 8
m above the ground
Calculate the difference between the work
done and the energy used by the girl
Explain where the missing energy has gone,
and why this occurs

PRACTICE QUESTIONS

b.

## up the slope, and give the appropriate unit.

The energy gained by the car (m = 1300 kg) at the
top of the slope does not equal the work done.
Discuss why these two values are not equal. In
Name the type of energy the car has, when
stopped at the top of the slope
Calculate the difference between the work
done and the energy at the top of the slope
Explain where the missing energy has
gone and why this occurs

PAGE 22

## 3. The diagram to the side shows a crane lifting a car

from the bottom of a cliff. The cable of the crane
pulls the car with a force of 14 000 N for 25 seconds
but is not able to move it.
a. Explain why no work has
been done on the car
even though the cable
pulls with a force of 14
000 N for 25 s.
A force of 16 000 N is then
used to pull the car upwards.
The car is lifted 24 m over a
period of 80 s.
b. Calculate the power
output of the crane to
pull the car up 24 m. Give
an appropriate unit for

## 5. When starting a race, a car accelerates at 3ms-2 over

a distance of 100 m as shown in the diagram below
(not to scale).

## a. If the driver and the car have a combined mass

of 1700 kg find the net force acting on the car.

## 100m, calculate the power output of the car

during this time.

## makes a pass over the landing strip. She accelerates

at 2 ms-2 and covers a distance of 100 m.
a. Calculate the net force acting on the plane.
b. Calculate the work done accelerating the
aeroplane.

PHYSICS

PRACTICE QUESTIONS

## 7. Sarah and her three friends are on a skiing trip. They

decide to ride a chair lift up the mountain. It takes
them 300 m up the mountain. The total downward
force from them and the chair they are sitting on
is 3100 N. Calculate the work done against gravity
(increase in potential energy) in getting the loaded
chair from the bottom to the top. Show your working
and give the appropriate unit.

## 10. Ben climbs a ladder 20 m high. If he has a mass of 60

kg calculate how much work he does against gravity
in climbing. Show all workings.

## favourite track he has to ride up a hill 200 m high.

The road is 2.5 km long. Mitchell and his bike have a
combined mass of 85 kg (850 N).

## 11. A car accelerated for four seconds with a net force of

Calculate how much work Mitchell does riding up the

## 9. A truck uses a force of 8000 N to travel 25 m up a

rise. Find the work done.

## 6500 N. The car covered a distance of 35 m. Calculate

the power generated by the engine during the four
seconds of acceleration.

## 12. Explain why trains take a long time to come to a stop

even if their breaks are in good working order.

Study Tip:

Quizzing
Being quizzed by a person is easier and more fun than learning
from a textbook.
But remember, if you are doing it with a friend, stay on task!

PAGE 23

NCEA
1.

W = Fd
= 12 12.5
= 150 J
W 150
P=
=
= 30 W (Excellence)
5
t

## climbs the rope. To gain a height of 8 m requires 4 800

J of energy so 300 J of energy have been transferred
to other forms, mainly into heat. For example friction
between the rope and her hands and feet which
will generate heat, also she will get warmer as she
climbs. Hence the missing 300 J has been transferred
into heat.
(Excellence)

3.

## to move in the direction of the force. Here the

force is not causing the car to move, so no work
is being done. It has gained no gravitational
potential energy.
(Merit)

b. W = Fd
= 16000 24
= 384000 J
W 384000
=
= 4800 W
P=
t
80

(Excellence)

PRACTICE
4. a.

W = Fd
= 3500 20
= 70000 J
(Achieved)
b. The car has gained gravitational potential energy
when driven up and parked at the top of the hill.

E p = mgh
= 1300 10 5
= 65000 J

## Hence 70000 65000 = 5000J have been

transferred somewhere else.
Possibly this energy has been transformed into
heat in overcoming the various frictional forces
between the tyres and road, air resistance and
the breaks if the car braked to stop.

(Excellence)

5.

a. F = ma

= 1700 3
= 5100 N

PAGE 24

(Achieved)

b. W = Fd
= 5100 100
= 510000 J
W 510000
=
= 51000 W
P=
t
10

(Excellence)

6. a. F = ma
= 5 2
= 10 N

(Achieved)

b. W = Fd

= 10 100
= 1000 J

(Achieved)

7. W = mgh = Fd
= 3100 300
= 930000 J
= 930 kJ

(Excellence)

8. W = Fd

= 850 200
= 170000 J
= 170 kJ

(Achieved)

9. W = Fd

= 8000 25
= 200000 J
= 200 kJ

(Achieved)

10. W = mgh

= 60 10 20
= 12000 J
= 12 kJ

(Achieved)

11. W = Fd

= 6500 35
= 227500 J
W 227500
=
P=
t
4
= 56875 W
(Excellence)
12. Trains have a very large mass and therefore possess

## a large amount of kinetic energy when moving. In

order to stop the train the brakes need to be able to
convert all of this kinetic energy into heat and sound
(Work = Force x Distance). The breaks can only apply
a certain amount of force at a time and in this case
need a large distance to do the required amount of
work and come to a stop. (Excellence)

PHYSICS

Study Tip:

Difficult Areas
If you are struggling:
Dont spend hours trying to understand
Do:
Write the problem down as precisely as possible so
someone can help
Ask a teacher they will be pleased to help, its their job!
Or ask a parent, sibling or friend

PAGE 25

PRESSURE
SUMMARY

F
P
ressure is the measure of the force over a certain area, P =
A
Pressure can be increased by:
Increasing the force
AND/OR
Decreasing the area
The units for pressure are Newtons per metre squared (Nm-2) or Pascals (P)

1.

## 2. The diagram below shows two skis each with a length

of 1.60 m and an average width of 0.10 m.

## A student of mass 40 kg uses the football boots

shown above.
ONE boot without studs has a surface area of 165
cm2 (0.0165 m2) in contact with the ground.
ONE boot with six studs has a surface area of only 6
cm2 (0.0006 m2) in contact with the ground.
a. Calculate the pressure exerted if the student
stands on ONE foot on a hard surface, for:
i. The boot without studs
ii. The boot with studs
b. Discuss the advantage gained by the student
when running on a soft grass football field while
wearing the boots with studs compared to
wearing boots of the same size without studs. In
Compare the pressure exerted on the
ground by the boot with the studs AND the
boot without studs
Explain the relationship between surface
area and pressure exerted
Explain how the difference in pressures
would help the student run on a softer
surface like grass

PAGE 26

## Rosemary stands upright on the skis in the snow.

The combined mass of Rosemary and the skis is 80
kg.
a. Calculate the pressure that Rosemary exerts on
the snow when she stands upright on the skis.
b. Jacob, her brother, stands on the snow wearing
tramping boots with a length of 0.27 m and
an average width of 0.12 m, as shown in the
diagram below.

## The combined mass of Jacob and his boots is 77

kg.
State whether Rosemary OR Jacob will sink
deeper into the snow and explain the physics
principles for this.
In you answer, you should consider:
The contact area of the skis and tramping
boots
The relationship between pressure and
surface area
The mathematical relationship between
pressure, force, and area

PHYSICS

PRACTICE QUESTIONS

## and sees a performer

lying on a bed of nails.
When she asks for a turn,
Lucy initially stands on
the bed but this hurts so
tries lying down, which is
much less painful.
Lucy has a mass of 38 kg.
When she is standing, she is in contact with 20 nails
and when she is lying she is in contact with 100.
a. The area of each nail head is 1 mm2 (0.000001
m2)
i. What is the pressure exerted by each nail
when she is standing?
ii. What is the pressure exerted by each nail
when she is lying down?
b. Explain why it is possible for a person to stand or
lie on a bed of nails without getting hurt, where
if you stand on a single nail there is a high chance
of injury. In you answer, you should consider:
The pressures from the two situations in (a)
The relationship between pressure, surface
area, and force
The ability of our skin to withstand pressure

## ocean floor. He wants as large a window as possible

to see all of the wonderful sights. However, there are
several factors limiting the size of the window.

b.

## 75,000 N without a risk of leaking. When Kahu is

at the bottom of the ocean, there is a constant
pressure of 300,000 Nm-2 against the window.
What is the maximum area window he can have,
without a risk of leaking?
Explain whether it would be better to have
several smaller windows or one big window
consider:
The relative forces acting on the windows
The relationship between force, area, and
pressure
Safety of the occupants

Study Tip:

Think logically to increase your achievement level:
Learn the steps to achieving every type of question

PAGE 27

NCEA

## E ven though Rosemary is heavier than

Jacob, her weight is applied over a larger
area. Jacobs lighter weight is applied over
a smaller area. So Jacob puts more pressure
on the ground and so sinks more. This can
be shown by the calculation for the pressure
Jacob applies.

1. a.
F
i. P =
A
40 10
=
0.0165
= 24242.42 Nm 2

FW = 77 10 = 770 N
A = (0.12 0.27) 2 = 0.0648 m 2
770
P=
= 11883 Nm 2
0.0648

## Pressure exerted by ONE foot for the boots

without studs = 24,000 Nm-2 (2sf)

F
A
40 10
=
0.0006
= 666666.67 Nm 2

ii. P =

## Pressure exerted by ONE foot for the boots

with studs = 670,000 Nm-2 (2sf)
(Merit - i or ii)

(Excellence - i and ii)

PRACTICE
3. a.
i.

## 2. a. Force is given by Rosemarys weight

FW = mg = 80 10 = 800 N
Area of skis

F
A
800
=
0.32
= 2500 Nm 2

P=

(Excellence)

## T he skis have a much larger area than the

boots.

F
P =
so if A is bigger then the pressure
A
must be smaller or vice versa.

PAGE 28

F
A

38 10
0.000001 20
= 19, 000, 000 Nm 2

## greater than without studs. Consequently the

studs will penetrate and dig into the soft grass
and give the player much more grip allowing
him to be able to change direction more quickly.
Pressure is inversely proportional to area for the
same force, so the player has the same weight
when he wears the boots. Consequently the
player exerts much more pressure in the boots
with studs which therefore gives him much more
penetration and grip.
(Excellence)

P=

(Excellence)

ii. P =

F
A

38 10
0.000001100
= 3, 800, 000 Nm 2 (Merit - i or ii)

=

b.

(Excellence - i and ii)
It is possible for a person to stand or sit on a bed
of nails due to the lower pressure. As can be
seen from part a, the more nails there are the
less the pressure that is applied.
An increase in nails means an increase in surface
area and since the force being applied (Lucys
mass) is constant the pressure will decrease.
Our skin can withstand a certain pressure before
it is punctured and standing or lying on a bed of
nails doesnt exceed that threshold. Standing on
a single nail means there is a very high pressure
on a single point which is much more likely to
cause injury.
(Excellence)

F
F
4. =
A
a. P =
A
P
75000
=
A = 0.25 m 2 (Merit)
300000
b. Due to the constraint of the window surrounds,

## it would be better to have several smaller

windows. There is a constant pressure of 75000
Nm-2 on the windows and increasing their size
means the force on the window surrounds
would also increase. By having several smaller
windows each with a maximum size of 0.25 m2
will give a larger overall viewing area without
compromising the safety of the occupants.

(Excellence)