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PHYSICS

ASPECTS OF MECHANICS

4 CREDITS (90940)

D-T GRAPHS

p2

V-T GRAPHS

p6

rise d

=

Average speed = gradient =

,

run t

d

this is shown by the formula v =

t

The unit for velocity is meters per second

m

(ms-1 or )

s

acceleration

rise v

=

Acceleration = gradient =

,

run t

v

this is shown by the formula a =

t

Units for acceleration are meters per

second squared (ms-2)

FORCES p 10

formula F = ma

If there is constant speed, then the overall

force is zero (forces are balanced)

Any acceleration means there is an overall

force (Fnet). Units for force are Newtons

M

ass is the amount of matter that exists in

a body (measured in kg)

Weight is a force of how hard gravity is

pulling a mass downwards (measured in N)

Weight can be calculated by Fgravity = mg

Gravity can be taken as 10 Nkg-1

ENERGY p 18

Types of energy:

Gravitational Potential Energy E p = mgh

Kinetic Energy Ek =

1 2

mv

2

Energy losses: heat, sound, vibration

Energy cannot be created or destroyed,

it can only be changed from one form to

another

The units for energy is Joules (J)

W

ork is a force carried out over a distance:

W = Fd

If no distance has been travelled, there is

no work

Units for work are Joules (J)

Power is how fast something does work:

P=

W

t

PRESSURE p 26

F

P

ressure is the measure of the force over a certain area, P =

A

Pressure can be increased by either:

Increasing the force AND/OR

Decreasing the area

The units for pressure are Newtons per metre squared(Nm-2)

PAGE 1

DISTANCE-TIME GRAPHS

SUMMARY

The gradient of the slope gives the velocity

rise d

=

Average speed = gradient =

, this is

run t

d

shown by the formula v =

t

The unit for distance is meters (m) and time is

seconds (s) and velocity is meters per second

m

( ms 1 or )

s

For a complete tutorial on this topic visit www.learncoach.co.nz

60 seconds. Calculate the average speed of the

parachutist during this time.

a. The car starts from rest and travels a distance of

b.

the car in the 3 seconds.

The car then travels a further 28 m at a constant

speed of 4 m s1 for 7 seconds.

Using the information given in (a) and above,

draw in the appropriate shaped lines on the

distance-time graph to the right to represent the

journey of the car during the first 10 seconds.

PRACTICE QUESTIONS

his journey.

a. What distance had John travelled at seven

seconds?

b. In which part of his journey, A, B, or C, is John

going the fastest?

c. Give ONE reason for your answer to (b) above.

d. Calculate Johns average speed over the whole

10 second journey.

PAGE 2

PHYSICS

4. Stephanie is watching a kitten playing. The kitten

seconds. The kitten then travels a further 28 m at a

constant speed of 4 ms-1 for 7 seconds. Using the

given information, draw in the appropriate shaped

lines on the distance-time graph below to represent

the journey of the kitten during the first 10 seconds.

slope and it took ten seconds to reach the bottom.

What was the average speed of the car? Show all

working.

distance-time graph below shows his progress.

room is 18 meters across and it takes her 6 seconds

to push the couch across the room. Calculate the

average speed of the couch. Show all working. Units

are required.

a pole in 8 s. Calculate his average speed. Show all

workings in your calculation.

distance-time graph is shown below.

40 seconds?

race.

during section C.

during section B is 15.7 ms-1.

up, after 2 seconds. Calculate the average speed of

the helicopter.

15 seconds.

15 s to 25 s?

the time 25 s to 40 s.

PAGE 3

ANSWERS

4.

NCEA

d 2400

=

t

60

-1

Average Speed = 40 ms

(Achieved)

2.

1. v =

a. v =

d 6

= = 2 ms 1

t 3

(Achieved)

b.

NB: The curved section of the graph represents

the kittens acceleration. If the kitten travelled at a

constant speed for the first three seconds this would

be a straight line.

(Excellence)

PRACTICE

3.

a. 30 m

b. Part B

c. Because the slope of the graph (which shows

amount of time) is steepest during B, with a

gradient of 10ms-1 OR During part A he travels

20m in 6 seconds; during part B he travels 20m

in 2 seconds; and during part C he is stationary.

d

d. v =

t

Total distance = 40 m

Total time = 10 s

average speed =

40

= 4 ms 1

10

(Achieved - two of a, b, c or d)

(Merit - three of a, b, c or d)

(Excellence - all of a, b, c and d)

5. v=

d 18

=

= 3 ms-1

t

6

(Achieved)

6. v=

d 20

=

= 2.5 ms-1

t

8

(Achieved)

7.

a. The toddler is travelling at constant speed.

b. The toddlers speed was zero.

d 20

=

= 1.33 ms-1 (3 sf)

c. v =

t 15

8. v =

d 15

=

= 1.5 ms 1

t 10

(Achieved)

9. a. 0.8 km = 800 m

d 3300

= 15 ms 1

b. v = =

t

220

c. The (parabolic) shape indicates constant

deceleration.

=

=

= 15.71 ms 1

t

180 40

140

d. v =

10. v =

PAGE 4

(Merit - two of a, b or c)

(Achieved - two of a, b, c or d)

(Merit - three of a, b, c or d)

d 2.5

=

= 1.25 ms 1

t

2

(Achieved)

PHYSICS

Study Tip:

Great news!

It is the quality of study that makes more of an impact than the

quantity.

Interesting fact: the amount of time students spend on

homework has risen over the last 3 decades but the level

of educational attainment has not risen with the increased

workload. Work Smarter, not harder.

PAGE 5

VELOCITY-TIME GRAPHS

SUMMARY

T he gradient (slope) gives the

acceleration

rise v

=

Acceleration = gradient =

, and is

run t

v

shown by the formula a =

t

Units for acceleration are meters per

second squared (ms-2)

For a complete tutorial on this topic visit www.learncoach.co.nz

1. A boy is running at 2 ms-1. He then accelerates at a

speed of the boy after the 5 seconds.

journey on one day.

Show all your working for the calculations

Clearly label the y-axis of the distance-time

graph with the distance travelled

Draw an appropriate shape for each section

of the students bike journey

ms-1 for 15 seconds.

During section Y, he runs with a constant acceleration

of 0.2 ms-2 reaching 3ms-1 by the end.

b.

appropriate unit for your answer.

Calculate the distance travelled in EACH section

of the speed-time graph, and use the calculations

to draw a distance-time graph for the students

bike journey.

your graph you should:

Label the speed values on the vertical axis

Draw a line on the graph to show the speeds for

section X and section Y

PAGE 6

PHYSICS

PRACTICE QUESTIONS

b. Fully describe the motion of Jo between 2.5 s

they jump out of the plane until they are nearly

down.

5.

b. Calculate how far Billy and the instructor fell

during the first 50 seconds.

Jonny entered a trolley race down a hill. To start he

needed friends to help push him off.

The table below shows how the trollys speed

changed with time.

Time (s)

Speed (ms )

-1

10 12 14

10 11 12

b. Using information or otherwise, calculate the

6.

Show your working.

The graph below shows the last 7 seconds of

Philippas snowboard race. At the moment marked

A on the graph she turns her snowboard sideways

to slow down. What is Philippas acceleration as she

slows down?

she runs in to throw the javelin.

and 4.5 s.

d. Using the speed-time graph, calculate the total

the javelin.

top speed of 7 ms-1 in 0.5 s.

a. Calculate the toy cars acceleration. Show all

working in your calculation.

b. From its top speed, the toy car slows steadily

and takes 3 s to stop. Sketch a graph of the toy

cars motion from its release until it stops.

10. Tom and Lisa enter their boats in a drag race. Each

boats speed is measured and recorded for the

first 6 seconds. The table below shows the data.

Time (s)

Tom

Speed (ms )

12

20

25

28

31

33

Lisa

Speed (ms-1)

19

23

25

26

-1

a. Draw a speed-time graph of the data above.

b. What was Lisas speed at time t = 2 s?

c. How long after the start was Toms boat travelling

at 30 ms-1?

to reach a speed of 9 ms-1. The riders then jump

onto it. The cart continues at 9ms-1 for 10 more

seconds. It then goes down a steeper part of the hill

and accelerates at a constant rate for a further 30

seconds until it reaches a top speed of 30 ms-1. The

breaks are then applied and the cart comes to a stop

in 6 seconds.

a. On the grid to the right, sketch a speed-time

graph of the total motion.

b. What is the distance covered between the times

4 s and 14 s from the start?

c. Calculate the acceleration for the interval

between 14 s and 44 s. Show your working and

state the unit.

d. The total distance covered by the cart is 783 m.

What is its average speed?

happened in 5 seconds. Calculate the acceleration of

the car.

PAGE 7

ANSWERS

NCEA

PRACTICE

1. a = v

t

v

0.2 =

5

v = 1 ms 1

in constant acceleration.

(65 0) 15

d=

+ 65 ( 50 15 )

2

= 487.5 + 2275 = 2762.5 m

(Achieved)

(Achieved - a or b)

(Merit - a and b)

2. a. a = v = 12 = 0.2 ms 2 (Achieved)

t 60

5. a.

(Achieved)

b. Distance travelled = area under graph:

1

b. d A = 60 12 = 360 m

2

d B = 60 12 = 760 m

1

d c = 30 12 = 180 m

2

69

= 27 m (Merit)

2

v 0 8

=

= 1.6 ms 2 (Achieved)

6. a =

t 7 2

d=

7. a.

(Excellence)

3.

b. d = vt

= 9 10

= 90 m

v 30 9

=

= 0.7 ms 2

c. a =

t 44 14

d 783

d. v = =

= 15.66 ms 1

t

50

(Merit - correct shape and 1 correct data point)

(Excellence - correct shape and values)

PAGE 8

(Achieved - two of a, b, c or d)

(Merit - three of a, b, c or d)

(Excellence - all of a, b, c and d)

PHYSICS

8. a. S peed = 8ms-1

b. Uniform speed of 8ms-1, zero acceleration

v

8

=

= 3.2 ms 2

c. a =

t 2.5

d. Distance travelled = area under graph:

d = 0.5 ( 8 2.5 ) + 2 8 + 0.5 ( 0.5 8 )

= 10 + 16 + 2

= 28 m

(Achieved - two of a, b, c or d)

(Merit - three of a, b, c or d)

(Excellence - all of a, b, c and d)

9. a. a = v = 7 = 14 ms 2 (Achieved)

t 0.5

b.

10.

a.

b. 1 4ms-1

c. Between 4.5 and 5 seconds

11. a =

(Achieved - b or c)

(Merit - a, or b and c)

(Excellence - a, b and c)

v 25 10

= 3 ms 2 (Achieved)

=

5

t

(Achieved)

Study Tip:

the End

Fact: most information that sticks in our brains is learnt either at

the beginning or end of a study session.

(Beginning and End are about 15 - 20 mins each.)

Solution: Cut out the middle part!

So each hour:

Study 35 mins Break 5 mins Revise 10 mins Rest 10 mins

PAGE 9

FORCE DIAGRAMS

AND CALCULATIONS

SUMMARY

Force is calculated by the

formula F = ma

If there is constant speed, then

the overall force is zero (forces are

balanced)

If there is any acceleration there is

an overall force (Fnet)

The unit of force is, N, Newtons

For a complete tutorial on this topic visit www.learncoach.co.nz

a. Explain the vertical motion of the parachutist

just after she jumps out of the plane (before the

parachute opens). In your answer, you should:

Draw and label the

vertical

force(s)

acting

on

the

parachutist

and

show relative sizes

on the image to the

right.

Describe the net

vertical force and

state whether the

force(s) are balanced

or unbalanced

Describe the vertical

motion

of

the

parachutist

Explain how the net

vertical force affects

the vertical motion

b. After the 60 seconds, the parachutist pulls the

cord and opens her parachute. Explain how the

parachute reduces the speed of the parachutist

when it is opened. In your answer you should

consider:

How the motion of the parachutist changes

when the parachute is opened

The effect of the size of the parachute on

the motion

The effect of the parachute on the net

vertical force

PAGE 10

kg). Give an appropriate unit with your answer.

3.

are balanced or unbalanced and how this results in

the type of motion produced In your answer, you

should:

Name the forces involved and describe their

relative sizes (you may draw a labelled diagram

in the box below to support your answer)

Link the net force to the type of motion in

section B

PHYSICS

PRACTICE QUESTIONS

a. TWO vertical forces act on the ball as it is

travelling up. Using arrows, draw and name

these two forces.

b. When its at its highest point explain whether

the forces are balanced or unbalanced.

a. One force acting on Billy and his instructor is

gravity. Name the other force acting on them

and state the direction in which it acts.

b. During the first 15 seconds the net force acting

on Billy and his instructor is 920 N.

Calculate the net acceleration of Billy and his

instructor. Use an appropriate unit.

c. After 50 seconds the instructor pulls the cord

and releases the parachute.

Discuss how the parachute reduces the speed of

Billy and his instructor.

speed of 9 ms-1. Calculate the net force acting on the

pinecone as it falls.

the concrete onto some sand, and his speed rapidly

decreases.

Discuss why the child and skateboards speed rapidly

decreases as it drives into the sand. Consider:

The push force and the friction force acting on

the child and skateboard

Which force(s) have changed and why

The net force

comes to a stop. Discuss how the forces of friction

and push change the cyclists speed. In your answer

you should:

Draw a diagram to show the relative sizes of

friction and push on the cyclist as he slows down

Describe the net force acting on the cyclist as he

slows down AND when he has stopped

State whether the net forces are balanced or

unbalanced when the cyclist slows down AND

has stopped

Explain why the net forces cause the cyclist to

slow and stop

the journey of a car.

forces acting on the bike as it accelerates.

Lee-Ann and her bike at 2.5 ms-2. Include an

appropriate unit.

diagram below, draw arrows to show the direction

of the FOUR forces acting on the couch. Label the

arrows you draw.

section B.

a. If the mass of the car is 1500 kg, use information

from the graph to calculate the net force acting

on the car in section A and in section B.

b. Discuss the forces that act on the car in sections

A and B and explain how they affect the motion

produced. In your answer you should:

State whether the forces are balanced or

unbalanced in each section, and describe

the resulting motion of the car in each

section

Explain why the net force results in the

different type of motion described in each

section

PAGE 11

ANSWERS

NCEA

PRACTICE

4.

increase. As her speed increases the retarding

force created by air friction will decrease her

acceleration until she reaches terminal velocity,

where the two forces weight and friction

become equal and opposite. As this point her

acceleration is zero.

-2

(Excellence)

than the 750 N weight force. Consequently the

parachutist slows down with this deceleration.

The frictional force depends on speed and as the

speed reduces so does the force until at a slow

enough speed (safe enough to land) the frictional

force and weight force become equal and

opposite and the parachutist falls at a constant

speed. The bigger the size of the canopy of the

parachute the greater the frictional force will be.

(Excellence)

a.

(Achieved - a or b)

(Merit - a and b)

5.

a. Force: Friction/Air Resistance, Direction: Up

b. F = ma

F

a=

m

920

=

160

= 5.75 ms 2

c. When the parachute is opened it creates a large

of Billy and his instructor. Due to this the friction

force is greatly increased. This force acts against

gravity and causes the slowing down of the

parachutists.

(Achieved - a, b or c)

(Merit - two of a, b or c)

(Excellence - a, b and c)

6.

a.

2. F = ma

= 60 0.2

= 12 N (Achieved)

3. Naming of forces:

Weight / gravity downwards

Support / reaction upwards

Weight and support are equal and opposite forces.

Thrust forward

Friction pushes against motion.

Thrust and friction are equal and opposite forces.

Explanation of motion:

Forces are balanced therefore the net force is zero. As

the bike is already moving in Section B, it will continue

moving at a constant speed as an unbalanced force is

required to change its speed.

(Excellence)

PAGE 12

b.

(i.e. same arrow length)

resultant force > friction

(i.e. longer arrow length)

F = ma

= 100 2.5

(Achieved

- a or b)

= 250 N

(Merit - a and b)

PHYSICS

7.

(Achieved)

v

t

9

=

0.8

= 11.25 ms 2

F = ma

= 0.15 11.25

= 1.6875 = 1.7 N (2sf)

(Merit)

v

a =

t

25

=

20

= 1.25 ms 2

F = ma

= 1500 1.25

= 1875 = 1900 N (2sf)

8. a =

9. When the child and board are going along the concrete

is shown as constant speed. When the skateboard

rides onto the sand the friction force becomes much

greater due to the high friction of sand, compared

to concrete. Because the push force doesnt change,

the forces become unbalanced and result in a net

force against the direction the skateboarder is going

which causes them to decelerate quickly.

(Excellence)

b.

Section B force calculation:

In section B the car is travelling at a constant

speed, hence it is not accelerating, therefore the

net force on it is zero (0 N).

(Excellence)

In section A the horizontal forces are that of

the engine and the friction of the vehicle. For

the first 20 seconds the forces are unbalanced,

the driving force is larger than the friction force

causing the car to accelerate at as constant

rate. This can also be seen in the gradient of the

graph. In section B the driving force and friction

forces are equal resulting in a net force of zero

and no change in speed. Vertically the weight

and reaction force remain the same size and

opposite throughout irrespective of the other

forces.

(Excellence)

10.

much greater than the push force (if there is any).

This can be seen in the diagram. The net force acting

on him is not balanced and is directed toward the left

causing him to slow down. Once he has stopped the

net force acting on him must be zero. It is balanced

as the velocity is constant. The net force to the left is

a decelerating force, since F = ma , causing him to

slow down and stop.

(Excellence)

PAGE 13

Study Tip:

Repetition

To burn information into your brain:

Dont study the same topic for a long period

of time

Do learn the information then go over it again:

Within 24 hours (retention goes from 20% to 80%)

Again after a week (retention goes up to 90%)

Again after a month (long term retention)

PAGE 14

PHYSICS

SUMMARY

M

ass is the amount of matter that exists in a body (measured in kg)

Weight is a force of how hard gravity is pulling a mass downwards (measured in N)

Weight can be calculated by Fgravity = mg

Gravity can be taken as 10 m.s-2

For a complete tutorial on this topic visit www.learncoach.co.nz

1. A car hangs motionless on the end of a cranes cable. The force applied by the crane is 13 000 N.

Use the value of the cranes force to determine the mass of the car. Give an appropriate unit

for you answer. In your answer, you should include an explanation of the difference between

mass and weight.

PRACTICE QUESTIONS

weight?

kg. What is the weight of Sharon and her car?

5.

chair has a mass of 100 kg. The girls (masses 55 kg,

60 kg, 50 kg, and 45 kg) ride the chair up. Calculate

the total weight of the loaded chairlift. Show your

working.

his tandem skydiving instructor have a combined

mass of 160 kg. Using Fgravity = mg find the

combined weight of Billy and his instructor.

PAGE 15

ANSWERS

NCEA

1. FW = mg

F

m= W

g

13000

=

10

= 1300 kg

The car is motionless; therefore the vertical forces

are balanced. The weight force on the car must equal

the force applied by crane to the car.

Mass is the amount of material (matter) in the object

(not the amount atoms / particles).

Weight is the gravitational force on the object (not

the amount of gravity).

(Excellence)

3. weight = mg

= (100 + 55 + 60 + 45 + 50) 10

(Achieved)

= 3100 N

4. weight = mg

= 1580 10

= 15800 N (Achieved)

5. weight = mg

= 160 10

= 1600 N

(Achieved)

PRACTICE

2. weight = mg

= 35 10

= 350 N

(Achieved)

Study Tip:

Retrieving Information

Dont just put information into your brain.

Do practice getting the information out of your brain.

Retrieving the stored information in your brain by answering lots

of questions is more effective than reading or taking notes and

makes us stronger in exams.

PAGE 16

PHYSICS

Study Tip:

Time Management

This is the key to successful study.

You need to:

Decide how to best use the hours you have each day, week,

and term

Schedule study times and free time!

Stick to your schedule

After each study session, write down the next session time and

what you plan to study

PAGE 17

ENERGY

SUMMARY

Types of energy:

Gravitational Potential Energy E p = mgh

Kinetic Energy Ek =

1 2

mv

2

E nergy losses: heat, sound, vibration

Energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can only be changed from one form to another

The units for energy is Joules (J)

For a complete tutorial on this topic visit www.learncoach.co.nz

it would be possible for the girl to reach.

slope, her speed is 8 ms-1. The combined mass of

Rosemary and her skis is 80 kg.

b.

travel 110 m. Calculate her average speed down

the slope.

Calculate the kinetic energy of Rosemary and her

skis as she reaches the bottom of the slope when

she is moving at 8 ms-1. Give an appropriate unit

for your answer.

the energy she had when she was stationary at

the top of the slope.

Explain using the principles of physics why her

energy at the top of the slope and her energy at

the bottom of the slope are not equal.

In your answer, you should:

Name the type of energy Rosemary has at

the top of the slope

Calculate the difference between her kinetic

energy at the bottom of the slope and her

energy at the top of the slope

Justify the difference between her kinetic

energy at the bottom of the slope and her

energy at the top of the slope

Study Tip:

Challenge Yourself

Dont: practice questions that are too easy your brain

discounts the information as not important.

Do: Challenge yourself the information is more likely to stick

(and you learn how to solve difficult problems!)

PAGE 18

PHYSICS

PRACTICE QUESTIONS

a top speed of 7 ms-1 in 0.5 s. It then slows down

steadily taking 5 seconds to stop completely.

a. Describe one energy change that occurs during

the matchbox cars journey.

b. What could Lisa do to make the matchbox car

accelerate faster?

A. Let it go on sand.

B. Wind the spring more tightly.

C. Wind the spring faster.

D. Weigh the car down with some weight.

his journey.

couch was pushed at 5 ms-1 and it has a mass of 60

kg, calculate its kinetic energy.

had a mass of 7000 kg. Calculate the gravitational

potential energy of the truck at the top of the rise.

ground. If it has a mass of 500 g find the kinetic

energy of the car at this speed.

ground. Calculate the gravitational potential energy

of the pinecone. Give an appropriate unit.

in part A of Johns journey.

a. The tennis ball left the racquet with an initial

speed of 25 ms-1. The mass of the ball is 120 g.

Use the formula

Ek =

1 2

mv

2

calculate the maximum height reached by the

ball.

energy at each point.

Position

Top of Jump

Middle of Jump

Bottom of Jump

Explain why.

PAGE 19

ANSWERS

NCEA

1.

2.

E p = mgh

5100 = 60 10 h

5100 = 600h

h = 8.5 m

d

t

110

=

36.7

= 3 ms-1

1

b. Ek = mv 2

2

1

= 80 82

2

= 2560 J

d 20

=

= 3.33 ms 1

t

6

1 2

Ek = mv

2

= 1 / 2 60 3.332

= 333.333

= 333 J (3sf)

(Excellence)

4.

(Merit)

a. v =

(Achieved)

m = 60kg

1

5. a.

Ek = mv 2

2

1

= 0.12 252

2

= 37.5 J

(Achieved)

E p = mgh

37.5 = 0.12 10 h

37.5 = 1.2h

(Merit)

h = 31.25 m

1 2

6. Ek = mv

2

1

= 60 52

2

(Achieved)

= 750 J

b.

(Merit)

energy.

When she reaches the bottom of the slope her

gravitational potential energy has changed to

kinetic energy.

E p = mgh

= 80 10 4.8

= 3840 J

= 1280 J

Some of the kinetic energy is converted into heat

due to friction between the skis and the snow

and also air resistance between the skier and the

air.

(Excellence)

7. E p = mgh

= 7000 10 4

= 280000 J

(Achieved)

1 2

mv

2

1

= 0.5 32

2

= 2.25 J

(Achieved)

9. E p = mgh

= 0.18 10 3

= 5.4 J

(Achieved)

8. Ek =

PRACTICE

3.

v=

spring

Elastic potential to kinetic acceleration of

the car

Kinetic/Elastic potential to sound

movement of the car

Kinetic to heat wheels moving on the

road

(Achieved)

b. B. Wind the spring more tightly.

(Achieved)

10. a.

Position

Top of Jump

Gravitational Potential

Middle of Jump

Bottom of Jump

Elastic Potential

lost between the top and bottom through air

resistance, sound and heat.

(Merit - a or b)

(Excellence - a and b)

PAGE 20

PHYSICS

Study Tip:

Sing Songs

Its corny but it really works!

Take facts or ideas you need to learn. Transform them into a

goofy poem, song or rap.

Its:

Easier to learn

Easier to recall

Not so boring

Best for learning facts

PAGE 21

SUMMARY

W

ork is a force carried out over a distance, W = Fd . If no distance has been travelled, there is

no work

Work is a type of energy, so sometimes E = W. Therefore, units for work are Joules (J)

P

ower is how fast something does work, P =

t

Units for power are Watts (W)

For a complete tutorial on this topic visit www.learncoach.co.nz

1. A boy runs 12.5 m in 5 seconds. During this time he

power required by the boy to produce the constant

acceleration of 0.2 ms-2 in over 5 seconds. Give an

appropriate unit with your answer.

able to reach the top which is 8.5 m. In reality, the girl

reaches a height of only 8 m. Explain why the energy

used by the girl during the climb does not equal the

work she does to reach the vertical height of 8 m. In

your answer you should:

Name the type of energy the girl has when she

is 8 m off the ground

Calculate the work done to reach a height of 8

m above the ground

Calculate the difference between the work

done and the energy used by the girl

Explain where the missing energy has gone,

and why this occurs

PRACTICE QUESTIONS

b.

The energy gained by the car (m = 1300 kg) at the

top of the slope does not equal the work done.

Discuss why these two values are not equal. In

your answer you should:

Name the type of energy the car has, when

stopped at the top of the slope

Calculate the difference between the work

done and the energy at the top of the slope

Explain where the missing energy has

gone and why this occurs

PAGE 22

from the bottom of a cliff. The cable of the crane

pulls the car with a force of 14 000 N for 25 seconds

but is not able to move it.

a. Explain why no work has

been done on the car

even though the cable

pulls with a force of 14

000 N for 25 s.

A force of 16 000 N is then

used to pull the car upwards.

The car is lifted 24 m over a

period of 80 s.

b. Calculate the power

output of the crane to

pull the car up 24 m. Give

an appropriate unit for

your answer.

a distance of 100 m as shown in the diagram below

(not to scale).

of 1700 kg find the net force acting on the car.

during this time.

at 2 ms-2 and covers a distance of 100 m.

a. Calculate the net force acting on the plane.

b. Calculate the work done accelerating the

aeroplane.

PHYSICS

PRACTICE QUESTIONS

decide to ride a chair lift up the mountain. It takes

them 300 m up the mountain. The total downward

force from them and the chair they are sitting on

is 3100 N. Calculate the work done against gravity

(increase in potential energy) in getting the loaded

chair from the bottom to the top. Show your working

and give the appropriate unit.

kg calculate how much work he does against gravity

in climbing. Show all workings.

The road is 2.5 km long. Mitchell and his bike have a

combined mass of 85 kg (850 N).

Calculate how much work Mitchell does riding up the

hill. Show your working.

rise. Find the work done.

the power generated by the engine during the four

seconds of acceleration.

even if their breaks are in good working order.

Study Tip:

Quizzing

Being quizzed by a person is easier and more fun than learning

from a textbook.

But remember, if you are doing it with a friend, stay on task!

PAGE 23

ANSWERS

NCEA

1.

W = Fd

= 12 12.5

= 150 J

W 150

P=

=

= 30 W (Excellence)

5

t

J of energy so 300 J of energy have been transferred

to other forms, mainly into heat. For example friction

between the rope and her hands and feet which

will generate heat, also she will get warmer as she

climbs. Hence the missing 300 J has been transferred

into heat.

(Excellence)

3.

force is not causing the car to move, so no work

is being done. It has gained no gravitational

potential energy.

(Merit)

b. W = Fd

= 16000 24

= 384000 J

W 384000

=

= 4800 W

P=

t

80

(Excellence)

PRACTICE

4. a.

W = Fd

= 3500 20

= 70000 J

(Achieved)

b. The car has gained gravitational potential energy

when driven up and parked at the top of the hill.

E p = mgh

= 1300 10 5

= 65000 J

transferred somewhere else.

Possibly this energy has been transformed into

heat in overcoming the various frictional forces

between the tyres and road, air resistance and

the breaks if the car braked to stop.

(Excellence)

5.

a. F = ma

= 1700 3

= 5100 N

PAGE 24

(Achieved)

b. W = Fd

= 5100 100

= 510000 J

W 510000

=

= 51000 W

P=

t

10

(Excellence)

6. a. F = ma

= 5 2

= 10 N

(Achieved)

b. W = Fd

= 10 100

= 1000 J

(Achieved)

7. W = mgh = Fd

= 3100 300

= 930000 J

= 930 kJ

(Excellence)

8. W = Fd

= 850 200

= 170000 J

= 170 kJ

(Achieved)

9. W = Fd

= 8000 25

= 200000 J

= 200 kJ

(Achieved)

10. W = mgh

= 60 10 20

= 12000 J

= 12 kJ

(Achieved)

11. W = Fd

= 6500 35

= 227500 J

W 227500

=

P=

t

4

= 56875 W

(Excellence)

12. Trains have a very large mass and therefore possess

order to stop the train the brakes need to be able to

convert all of this kinetic energy into heat and sound

(Work = Force x Distance). The breaks can only apply

a certain amount of force at a time and in this case

need a large distance to do the required amount of

work and come to a stop. (Excellence)

PHYSICS

Study Tip:

Difficult Areas

If you are struggling:

Dont spend hours trying to understand

Do:

Write the problem down as precisely as possible so

someone can help

Ask a teacher they will be pleased to help, its their job!

Or ask a parent, sibling or friend

Dont be afraid to ask!

PAGE 25

PRESSURE

SUMMARY

F

P

ressure is the measure of the force over a certain area, P =

A

Pressure can be increased by:

Increasing the force

AND/OR

Decreasing the area

The units for pressure are Newtons per metre squared (Nm-2) or Pascals (P)

1.

of 1.60 m and an average width of 0.10 m.

shown above.

ONE boot without studs has a surface area of 165

cm2 (0.0165 m2) in contact with the ground.

ONE boot with six studs has a surface area of only 6

cm2 (0.0006 m2) in contact with the ground.

a. Calculate the pressure exerted if the student

stands on ONE foot on a hard surface, for:

i. The boot without studs

ii. The boot with studs

Give an approximate unit with your answers.

b. Discuss the advantage gained by the student

when running on a soft grass football field while

wearing the boots with studs compared to

wearing boots of the same size without studs. In

your answer you should:

Compare the pressure exerted on the

ground by the boot with the studs AND the

boot without studs

Explain the relationship between surface

area and pressure exerted

Explain how the difference in pressures

would help the student run on a softer

surface like grass

PAGE 26

The combined mass of Rosemary and the skis is 80

kg.

a. Calculate the pressure that Rosemary exerts on

the snow when she stands upright on the skis.

Give an appropriate unit for your answer.

b. Jacob, her brother, stands on the snow wearing

tramping boots with a length of 0.27 m and

an average width of 0.12 m, as shown in the

diagram below.

kg.

State whether Rosemary OR Jacob will sink

deeper into the snow and explain the physics

principles for this.

In you answer, you should consider:

The contact area of the skis and tramping

boots

The relationship between pressure and

surface area

The mathematical relationship between

pressure, force, and area

PHYSICS

PRACTICE QUESTIONS

lying on a bed of nails.

When she asks for a turn,

Lucy initially stands on

the bed but this hurts so

tries lying down, which is

much less painful.

Lucy has a mass of 38 kg.

When she is standing, she is in contact with 20 nails

and when she is lying she is in contact with 100.

a. The area of each nail head is 1 mm2 (0.000001

m2)

i. What is the pressure exerted by each nail

when she is standing?

ii. What is the pressure exerted by each nail

when she is lying down?

b. Explain why it is possible for a person to stand or

lie on a bed of nails without getting hurt, where

if you stand on a single nail there is a high chance

of injury. In you answer, you should consider:

The pressures from the two situations in (a)

The relationship between pressure, surface

area, and force

The ability of our skin to withstand pressure

to see all of the wonderful sights. However, there are

several factors limiting the size of the window.

b.

at the bottom of the ocean, there is a constant

pressure of 300,000 Nm-2 against the window.

What is the maximum area window he can have,

without a risk of leaking?

Explain whether it would be better to have

several smaller windows or one big window

in the submarine. In your answer, you should

consider:

The relative forces acting on the windows

The relationship between force, area, and

pressure

Safety of the occupants

Study Tip:

Think logically to increase your achievement level:

Learn the steps to achieving every type of question

Follow the steps EVERY time!

PAGE 27

ANSWERS

NCEA

Jacob, her weight is applied over a larger

area. Jacobs lighter weight is applied over

a smaller area. So Jacob puts more pressure

on the ground and so sinks more. This can

be shown by the calculation for the pressure

Jacob applies.

1. a.

F

i. P =

A

40 10

=

0.0165

= 24242.42 Nm 2

FW = 77 10 = 770 N

A = (0.12 0.27) 2 = 0.0648 m 2

770

P=

= 11883 Nm 2

0.0648

without studs = 24,000 Nm-2 (2sf)

F

A

40 10

=

0.0006

= 666666.67 Nm 2

ii. P =

with studs = 670,000 Nm-2 (2sf)

(Merit - i or ii)

(Excellence - i and ii)

PRACTICE

3. a.

i.

FW = mg = 80 10 = 800 N

Area of skis

F

A

800

=

0.32

= 2500 Nm 2

P=

(Excellence)

boots.

F

P =

so if A is bigger then the pressure

A

must be smaller or vice versa.

PAGE 28

F

A

38 10

0.000001 20

= 19, 000, 000 Nm 2

studs will penetrate and dig into the soft grass

and give the player much more grip allowing

him to be able to change direction more quickly.

Pressure is inversely proportional to area for the

same force, so the player has the same weight

when he wears the boots. Consequently the

player exerts much more pressure in the boots

with studs which therefore gives him much more

penetration and grip.

(Excellence)

P=

(Excellence)

ii. P =

F

A

38 10

0.000001100

= 3, 800, 000 Nm 2 (Merit - i or ii)

=

b.

(Excellence - i and ii)

It is possible for a person to stand or sit on a bed

of nails due to the lower pressure. As can be

seen from part a, the more nails there are the

less the pressure that is applied.

An increase in nails means an increase in surface

area and since the force being applied (Lucys

mass) is constant the pressure will decrease.

Our skin can withstand a certain pressure before

it is punctured and standing or lying on a bed of

nails doesnt exceed that threshold. Standing on

a single nail means there is a very high pressure

on a single point which is much more likely to

cause injury.

(Excellence)

F

F

4. =

A

a. P =

A

P

75000

=

A = 0.25 m 2 (Merit)

300000

b. Due to the constraint of the window surrounds,

windows. There is a constant pressure of 75000

Nm-2 on the windows and increasing their size

means the force on the window surrounds

would also increase. By having several smaller

windows each with a maximum size of 0.25 m2

will give a larger overall viewing area without

compromising the safety of the occupants.

(Excellence)

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