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O VIHUELISTIMA I NARVAEZU

Vihuelisti su djelovali u SIGLO DE ORO, zlatno doba spanjolske, doba procvata kulture i
umjetnosti. Zbog toga sto je CHARLES V, spanjolski emperador, car, jako cijenio Flamansku
muziku, ona se izvodila u spanjolskoj 16 st, predstavljala je ideal glazbe. zato su vihuelisti
intabulirali vok gl Josquina de Preza, Gomberta... i drugih flamanskih majstora. MILLE
REGREZ-CANCION DEL EMPERADOR mozda najpoznatija medju NArvaezovim skl, opet
zahvaljujuci Segovijinoj transkripciji, i kasnije Julianu Breamu i njegovim nadahnuti
snimkama.
Vihuela music from
Los seys libros del Delphn
transcribed for guitar and edited by Stefan Nesyba
An ambitious edition with the highest editorial standard. Highly recommended not only for enthusiasts of Vihuela music. Concertino

While the Renaissance lute was played in most parts of Europe, it was the vihuela
de mano that the 16th-century Spanish aristocracy preferred, the small guitarra
being consigned to the hands of people of lower rank. Supported by powerful and
wealthy patrons of music, professional vihuela players developed their art to a
hitherto unknown level of excellence, combining polyphonic writing in the style of
vocal music with a highly idiomatic use of the instrument. Seven books of
tablature for the vihuela were published during the four decades between 1536
and 1576, a corpus of more than 700 pieces representing a veritable siglo de oro
of Spanish musical culture.

Luys de Narvez, born in Granada around 1500, was employed at an early age
by Francisco de los Cobos y Molina, who became secretary of state to Charles V
and comendador of several provinces of Spain. Narvez accompanied the Regent
Felipe (the later Philip II) on voyages to Italy, Germany, France and the
Netherlands, coming into contact with some of the most famous musicians of the
time. At home, Nicolas Gombert and Antonio de Cabezn were among his
colleagues at the Spanish court. In the latter part of his life Narvez was
choirmaster of the royal chapel. He died probably around 1550.

Narvez's Seys libros del Delphn, published in Valladolid in 1538 and the first
major collection of vihuela music after Luis de Miln's El Maestro (1536), contains
the earliest purely instrumental sets of variations - diferencias - in the history of

music. The best known are the variations on the popular theme "Gurdame las
vacas", which every guitarist has in his or her repertoire. The Seys libros also
include 14 fantasas, several adaptations of Josquin des Prez's Mass settings,
French chansons by Josquin, Gombert, Courtois and Richafort, and other sets of
variations on both sacred and popular themes. The fifth book is for voice and
vihuela, but some of these romances and villancicos can also be played
convincingly as solo pieces.

In this critical edition, all of Narvez's solo works are transcribed into staff
notation for the guitar, the majority of the pieces appearing here for the first
time. The easy-to-read score, which is entirely faithful to the original tablature,
will open up this magnificent early repertoire to a new generation of performers
and teachers.
In tablature transcription, voice-leading always involves some degree of
interpretation, and Nesyba has solved this problem convincingly. Click here to
read the full review (in German) Concertino
A few of the pieces are already well known and feature regularly in classical
guitar recitals. However much of the music will be unfamiliar to all but specialists
in the field of early plucked stringed instruments. This edition should encourage
classical guitarists to explore the wider repertoire, which is different in many
respects from the pieces which have been made popular by eminent guitarists
such as Segovia. It may also be of use to those who are interested in Spanish
instrumental music of the period more generally, who require a version in staff
notation because they cannot read tablature. It is also much more affordable than
other available editions of this repertoire. Click here to read the full review The
Consort

O GLV

This is fairly complex to explain, so here goes:

The most important thing to realize is that "Guardame Las Vacas" (shortened to
GLV from here) is not a defined specific melody, it is a chordal sequence (or
"ground"): C/G/Am/E, C/G/Am-E/Am. Four beats per bar, the penultimate bar has
two beats on each chord. The chorus of "Greensleeves" (better known as "What
Child Is This" in December!) is based on this very same chordal pattern, but in 6/8
pulse. Several Spanish composers of the era wrote their own sets of variations on
GLV, all are different except the chordal sequencing.

Narvaez wrote four variations on GLV, in C-major or A-minor (depending on how


you want to look at it). He ALSO wrote three more variations, "Tres Otras
Diferencias" (TOD from here), on the pattern Am/G/Am/E, Am/G/Am-E/Am. The
verses of "Greensleeves" match this chord sequence. However, Narvaez chose to
use a different key from what he'd used with GLV, he did this second batch a
fourth higher: Dm/C/Dm/A, Dm/C/Dm-A/Dm. The second batch follows
immediately after the first batch in Book Six of his publication.

It'd be easy enough to consider these as two unrelated compositions. BUT!! The
title-page of Narvaez's book clearly says it contains SEVEN variations on GLV. So
the only thing which makes sense is that he intended the two sets to be
considered as one piece.

This creates a problem, as the two sets are in different tonalities. Segovia opted
to play the first two sections of GLV, then transposed the first section of TOD to Aminor, and then went back to the last two sections and coda of GLV. This
ostensibly was to create the "expected" minor-key variation in the set, e.g. as
found in Sor Op. 9 or Giuliani Op. 107. He also introduced playing repeats of each
section, not found in Narvaez's score. Of course, Segovia was being terribly
anachronistic here, in applying early 19th century compositional standards to
early 16th century music, but "hey that's how he did things" and the topic of
Segovia's musicological fidelity, or lack thereof, been discussed/trashed/praised
100 times over by now elsewhere.

OK, so who else has recorded Guardame Las Vacas, and what did THEY do?

The earliest recording I know of is by Julio Martinez Oyanguren, around 1948 (and
published in an early issue of "Guitar Review"). He only plays the major-key parts,
and honestly makes a hash of them. He was a great player, how on earth THIS
mess got past the LP producers is beyond my reckoning.

Narciso Yepes opted to transpose the GLV part to F-major (pretty easy if done on
10-string) and then follow it with TOD played in D-minor.

Alirio Diaz followed Segovia, but also transposed the 2nd part of TOD into Aminor. This creates a perhaps more balanced C-C-Am-Am-C-C flow to the overall
shape. He did not use repeats.

Oscar Ghiglia played exactly what Segovia did, but I think does a more
stylistically correct job of it.

Celedonio Romero only played GLV, without repeats, and without the TOD part.

Pepe and Angel Romero each played GLV and then TOD in order, with the key
change. This is a very nice literalist approach, but doesn't make a lot of
compositional sense. But played as fast as Pepe and Angel do, it just becomes a
technical display.

Julian Bream and Konrad Raggosnig played it this way, too, as-written, but on
lute. Each section is done very well of course, but it doesn't hang together for me
any better than what the Romero sons did.

John Williams and Chris Parkening didn't record this piece. Either piece.

Hopkinson Smith plays it on vihuela in reverse order, TOD followed by GLV. That
works pretty well.

Jose Miguel Moreno has a very nice but odd version of GLV: He plays it like
chorus-and-verse, in the order 1-2-1-3-1-4-1-coda. He does some nice
ornamentation. He also plays TOD, but not sequentially connected on the disc to
GLV.

Rodrigo de Zayas went the farthest afield: he played as-written, on vihuela, but
used two different vihuelas at two different pitches. He had what he called a
"chest of vihuelas", seven of them, with each one pitched differently. Lowest was
1=C, highest was 1=B. They were proportionally different sizes as well. He insists
that this is what Narvaez intended, and being in the service of the King, he'd
have had easy access to seven vihuelas plus the necessary servants to cart them
around for him. Can't say I buy into that one...

Hope this helps.

It just adds that bit more dimension to a piece if one has a background on
it,instead of just playing it over and over again.
---Several months ago i started researching about the old dances and their basses. I
eventually stopped and never actually did what i wanted to do, but i'll leave here
a few annotations i made about the ground basses.

Rojo (passacaglia, passacaille, passacalle)


Elaborate form exploring the principle of variations on a harmonic bass.

Harmonic pattern
1. Ternary meter
||: i | [VII] | iv | [ i ] | V | [ i ] :||

2. Binary meter (departure from french and italian models)


|| I | I IV | bVII I | IV | V | V I | IV V | I ||
|| I | IV | I | IV | I [or V] | IV [or I] | V | I ||

Folia

Harmonic pattern
i ||: V | i | VII | VII | VII | i | V | V || V | i | VII | VII | i | V | i | i :|| (early)

||: i | V | i | VII | III | VII | i | V || i | V | i | VII | III | VII | i V | i :||

"Folias italianas" (later pattern)


||: i | V | i | i | VII | VII | VII | VII || III | VII | i | V | V | i | i V | i :||

Magana

Ternary metter

Harmonic pattern
||: i | VII | III | V :||

||: i | VII | III | iv VI | V | V :||

Chacoina (ciaccona)

Four note bass (very common bass line, desceding tetrachord)

Ternary meter

||: I | I V | vi | IV V :||

Capona/Mariona[arpeggiation motive] (based on the basic ciaccona pattern I [IV


or vi] V I)

Lively dance, strong rhytmic drive. Dactyl rhythmic figuration.

Harmonic pattern
||: I | V6 | vi IV | IV V :||

Romanesca (Guardame las vacas)

Descending melodic line over a harmonic bass


||: III | VII | i | V || III | VII | i V | i :||

i ||: III | VII | i | V || III | VII | i V | i V | iv V | i :||


Pick-up measure and two measures functioning as a ritornello

Pavana
Aristocratic dance
||: i | V | V | i | i | VII | VII | VII | III VII | i | i | V i | IV V | i | IV V | i :||

Sanz: IV in first half of the piece, iv in second half

Sarao
Serious tone

||: i | VII | III | V | V || i | iv | V | i | i :|| (similar to magana)

Mantuana

||: i | III | VI | III | VII | i | iv V | i :||: i | v | II | v | III | VI | VI VII | III | III | VII | VII | i | i |
III | VI | III | VII | i | V | i :||

Gagliarda (gallarda, galharda)


Courtly dance
I ||: I V | VI [II] | V | V I | IV V | I :||

Terantela (tarantella)

i ||: [i or III] VII | III | iv V | i :||

Ballo del Gran Duca (Aria di Fiorenza, Granduque, Danza de hacha)

|| I V | vi I6 | IV ii6 V | I || IV I | ii IV | v6 IV I | IV ||
|| I | I vi | bVII v VI | II || ii vii6 | I IV | V | I ||
|| bVII v | vi ii6 | V | I ||

Bergamasca
Melodic-harmonic pattern

Harmonic pattern
|| I IV V I | I IV V I :||

Espanholetas
Melodic-harmonic progression

Harmonic pattern
||: i | VII | III | VI | VII | III | VII | III | VI | IV | i | V | i :|| V | i | VII | IV | i | ii | V | i | V | i
| V | i | IV | V | i ||

Romanesca u 3/4
Romanesca was a melodic-harmonic formula popular from the mid 16th to early
17th centuries, used as an aria formula for singing poetry and as a subject for
instrumental variation. It was most popular with Italian composers of the early
Baroque period. It was also used by vihuelistas including Luis de Narvez, Alonso
Mudarra, Enrquez de Valderrbano, and Diego Pisador.[1]

Originating in Spain as O gurdame las vacas ("O let us put the cows to pasture"
or, "look after the cows for me",[1] occasionally known as Seculorum del primer
tono in reference to the similarity between the a g f e d melody line and that of
the chief termination, "Seculorum, Amen," of the first psalm tone),[2] a
romanesca is composed of a sequence of four chords with a simple, repeating
bass, which provide the groundwork for variations and improvisation. A famous
example is the refrain of "Greensleeves" (whose verses follow the progression of
the passamezzo antico, of which the romanesca is an alteration) Play (helpinfo).
The romanesca is usually in triple meter and its soprano formula (melody)

resembles that of the passamezzo antico but a third higher.[2] The harmonic bass
pattern of the romanesca is:
IIIVIIiVIIIVIIi-Vi

Romanesca is also the name of two early music ensembles: one, La Romanesca,
founded in 1978 in Australia by John Griffiths; and the other, Romanesca, founded
in 1988 in England by Nigel North. Both specialize in the performance of early
plucked string instruments.

Passamezzo antico u4/4

The passamezzo antico is a ground bass or chord progression that was


popular during the Italian Renaissance and known throughout Europe in the 16th
century.[2] The progression is a variant of the double tonic: its major mode
variant is known as the passamezzo moderno.
The sequence consists of two phrases as follows: (For an explanation of this
notation see Chord progression)i
VII
i
V
III

VII

iV

Though usually in the key of G minor,[1] in the key of A minor this gives:Am G
Am
E
C

AmE

Am

The romanesca is a variant of the passamezzo antico, where the first


chord is the III (e.g., a C major chord in A minor). A famous example is
"Greensleeves".
The passamezzo antico chord changes are found, knowingly or not, in modern
popular music culture: Carrie Underwood's debut album Some Hearts has two
examples, "Before He Cheats" (a big U.S. hit in 2006) and "Starts with Goodbye".
"Stairway to Heaven" by Led Zeppelin is essentially a variant of the progression.
TEMA S VAR
Although the first isolated example emerged in the 14th century, works in themeand-variation form first emerge in the early sixteenth century.[7] Possibly the
earliest published example is the diferencias for vihuela by Luis de Narvez
(1538).
Variation forms include ground bass, passacaglia, chaconne, and theme and
variations.Ground bass, passacaglia and chaconne are typically based on brief
ostinato motifs providing a repetitive harmonic basis and are also typically

continuous evolving structures. 'Theme and variation' forms are however based
specifically on melodic variation, in which the fundamental musical idea, or
theme, is repeated in altered form or accompanied in a different manner. 'Theme
and variation' structure generally begins with a theme (which is itself sometimes
preceded by an introduction), typically between eight and thirty-two bars in
length; each variation, particularly in music of the eighteenth century and earlier,
will be of the same length and structure as the theme. This form may in part have
derived from the practical inventiveness of musicians; "Court dances were long;
the tunes which accompanied them were short. Their repetition became
intolerably wearisome, and inevitably led the player to indulge in extempore
variation and ornament";however, the format of the dance required these
variations to maintain the same duration and shape of the tune.
Variation forms can be written as 'free-standing' pieces for solo instruments or
ensembles, or can constitute a movement of a larger piece. Most jazz music is
structured on a basic pattern of theme and variations.
diminucija najcesci alat u renes.varijacijama-kada se postojece notne vrijednosti
usitne

GLV
u guit transkripcijama ima legata u diminuciji da se omeksa tijek muzike-to je
opravdano, buduci da je priroda figuete bas to, da sve note nemaju jednaku
tezinu, kakvu bi imale kod izmjenicnog trzanja
to je segovia tako svirao, sa legatima, i sa nekim sitnim intervencijama-i to je
opravdano, ako uzmemo promatrati kako je biti muzicar tada sasvim sigurno
znacilo biti svestrana muzicka licnost, kompletna, gdje je skladatelj ujedno i
izvodjac svoje glazbe i taj koji ju stvara u svom kreativnom procesu, drugo,
opravdano jest improvizirati svirajuci guardame las vacas buduci da je sama ta
forma, romanesca, sada znamo, ostinato ili ground bass, koji je takav bas zato da
se s njime igra.
segovia se tu poigrao sa redoslijedom varijacija, neke je izbacio, ali u svjetlu
ovoga, i to je u redu ako je u skladu sa osobnim preferencama Segovijinim, a
sigurna sam da je bilo.
Ponekad u nastojanju da sve ucinimo autenticnim ode se korak predaleko, na
nacin da nesto mora biti bas kao izvornik, bas na tom instrumentu, bas u notu
tocno, no ako pritom se izgubi nesto od zivosti muzike, od radosti muziciranja, od
toga da i drugi slusajuci tu autenticnu izvedbu to osjete, mislim da ne radimo
dobar posao.
u cemu je razlika izmedju jazza i romanesce? isti su u nacelu. vrte se neke harme,
do u beskraj. zasto ne bismo se okusali i smislili koji svoj diferencias de
guardame las vacas? ja sam smislila svoj-zato se -----

moze guardame las vacas svirati kao duet


Gurdame las vacas, carillejo
y besart' he
sino, bsame t a mi
que yo te las guardar.

Ako mi priuvas krave, ljubavi,dat cu ti poljubac,ili, daj mi poljubac, pa cu je tebi


tvoje krave pricuvati.
znaci ono, win-win situacija bit ce puse u svakom slucaju, znaci neka opustena
atmosfera, bez drame, ne poput forlorn hope fancy j.dowlanda, gdje je covjek
doslovce umro u notama.

ALTERNACIJE RITMICKE 3/2 na6/4, ili 3/4 na 6/8 u ritornelo


otra parte je jedno djelo sa prve 4 varijacije
valadolid 15