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[OldNCERTWorldHistoryCh7]IndustrialRevolution,Capitalism,Their
EffectonSociety,RiseofTradeUnions&Socialism
1. Prologue
2. IntroductiontoChapter
3. Capitalism
4. CapitalismandColonization
5. IndustrialRevolution
6. FactorySystem
7. WhyIndustrialRevolutionstartedinEngland?
1. TextileIndustry:Therevolution
2. Powerloom
3. CottonGin
4. SteamEngine
5. BlastFurnace
6. TRANSPORTRevolution
7. PostalRevolution
8. AgricultureRevolution
8. IndustrialRevolutioninOtherCountries
9. Tariffbarriers
10. Race4rawmaterial
11. FromVillagetoCity
12. IndustrialCapitalism
1. Industrialcapitalism:Consequencesof
2. LabourLaws
3. TradeUnions
13. Laissezfaire
14. Socialism
15. EXERCISES

Prologue
UntilnowweveseenOldNCERTs,Class10,Ch.9to13.(=Storyofcivilization
VolumeIIbyArjunDev.)Inthosechapterswegotanoverview/foundationof
followingtopics(fromUPSCsyllabuspointofview):
1. colonization,decolonization
2. Twoworldwars
3. (Politicalphilosophieslike)Communismanditseffectonthesociety
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NowmovingtoOldNCERTClass9,chapter7.Inthischapter,wellsee
Industrialrevolution,politicalphilosophieslikeCapitalismandtheireffecton
thesociety.

IntroductiontoChapter
TOWARDStheendofthemiddleAges,feudalismasaneconomicsystem
hadstarteddeclining.ThisprocesswasfurtheredbytheRenaissanceand
otherdevelopments.Theriseoftownsandcitiesandthegrowthintrade
stimulatedtheproductionofmanufacturedgoods.
Therewasanincreaseinthedemandforgoodswhichpreviouslyhadbeen
consideredluxurygoods.Lifeinthenewtownsandcitieshadcreateda
desireformanynewgoodsalso.Allthesefactorsprovidedagreat
stimulustotheproductionofmanufacturedgoods.
Foralongtime,however,thetechniquesandorganizationofproducing
goodsdidnotundergoanysignificantimprovement.Thetraditional
methodswereinadequatetomeetthegrowingdemandforgoods.
Duringthelaterhalfofthe18thcenturytherebeganaseriesofchanges
whichrevolutionizedthetechniquesandorganizationofproduction.
Thesedevelopmentsresultedintheriseofanewtypeofeconomyan
industrialeconomy.
ThetermIndustrialRevolutionisusedtodescribethesedevelopments
becausethechangescamerapidlyandtheyhadfarreachingeffectsonthe
historyoftheworld.

Capitalism
ThenewsystemofsocietywhichhadbeenemerginginEuropefromthe15th
centuryiscalledcapitalism.Undercapitalism
1. Theinstrumentsandthemeansbywhichgoodsareproducedareownedby
privateindividualsandtheproductioniscarriedoutformakingprofit.
2. Theworkersunderthissystemdonotownanythingbutworkforawage.
3. Theownersofwealthundercapitalismwhoarecalledcapitalistsdonot
keeptheirwealthorconsumeitoruseitforpurposesofdisplaybutinvest
ittomakeprofit.
4. Goodsareproducedforsaleinthemarketwithaviewtomakingprofit.
5. Thissystemisinmarkedcontrastwiththefeudalsysteminwhichgoods
wereproducedforlocaluseandtheinvestmentofwealthformakingprofit
didnottakeplace.

Feudalism

Capitalism

Economiclifeunderfeudalismwasstaticas Economylifeundercapitalism
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goodswereproducedforlocalconsumption
andtherewasnoincentivetoproducemore
byemployingbettermeansofproducing
goodsforabiggermarket.

wasfastmovingwiththeaimof
producingmoreandmoregoods
forbiggermarketssothatmore
profitscouldbemade.

CapitalismandColonization
Thediscoveryofnewlandsandtheestablishmentofcolonieshadresulted
inunprecedentedexpansionoftradeandaccumulationofwealthby
merchants.
Thetradeincludedalsothetradeinhumanbeings,thatis,slavetrade.
(Mrunal:Wealreadysawtheslavetradeandtriangulartradeunderthe
[Worldhistory]ColonizationofAfrica.)
Thecolonizationwasaccompaniedbytheplunderofthewealthofthe
peoplewhowerecolonized.Forexample,thetreasuresoftheIncaandthe
AzteccivilizationswereplunderedbytheSpaniards.
MinesinthenewlyconqueredareasintheAmericaswerealsoexploited
forpreciousmetalslikegoldandsilver.Largenumbersofnativepeople
wereworkedtodeathinthesemines.
Youhavealsoreadabouttheuseofslavelabourintheplantationsinthe
Americas.ColonizationofAsiacausedsimilarhavocanddevastation.
DuringafewdecadesofDutchrule,thepopulationofaprovinceofJava
inIndonesiawasreducedtolessthanonefourthofitsformersize.
ThedefeatoftheNawabofBengalbytheEnglishin1757wasfollowed
byyearsofnakedplunderofthewealthofBengal.Accordingtoestimates
oftheEnglishgovernmentatthattime,theEnglishCompanyandits
officialsreceived6,000,000poundsasgiftsduringtheperiodof1757
1766.
TheplunderbytheEnglishcontributedtoafaminein176970inwhich
aboutaquarterofthepopulationofBengalperished.Thusalotofwealth
wasaccumulatedinEuropeforinvestmenttomakemoreprofit.
InthewordsofKarlMarx,
ThetreasurescapturedoutsideEuropebyundisguisedlooting,enslavement,
andmurder,floatedbacktothemothercountryandwerethereturnedinto
capital.

IndustrialRevolution
Thedesiretoproducemoregoodsatlowcosttomakehigherprofitsledtothe
IndustrialRevolutionandfurthergrowlhofcapitalism.TheIndustrial
RevolutionbeganinEnglandinabout1750.Itwasthenthatmachinesbeganto
takeoversomeoftheworkofmenandanimalsintheproductionofgoodsand
commodities.ThatiswhyweoftensaythattheIndustrialRevolutionwasthe

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beginningofamachineage.
Ofcourse,thereweremanymachinesinusebefore1750.Theplough,airpump,
printingpressandspinningwheelareonlyafewofthemanyexamplesthat
couldbelisted.Forhundredsofyearseachcivilizationhadbeentryingto
perfectoldtechnicalskillsanddevelopnewones.Butafter1750,new
inventionscamefaster,andtheywereofakindthatbroughtmornrapidchanges
inmorepeopleslives.TheIndustrialRevolutionchangedmenswaysofliving
andthinkingallovertheworld.
Theguildsystemhadgivenwaytothedomesticorthe`puttingoutsystem.In
the18thcentury,thedomesticsystemhadbecomeobsolete.Itstartedgiving
waytoanewsystemcalledthefactorysystem.Inplaceofsimpletoolsand
theuseofanimalandmanualpower,newmachinesandsteampowercametobe
increasinglyused.Manynewcitiessprangupandartisansanddispossessed
peasantswenttheretowork.

FactorySystem
Productionwasnowcarriedoutinafactory(inplaceofworkshopsin
homes),withthehelpofmachines(inplaceofsimpletools).Facilitiesfor
productionwereownedandmanagedbycapitalists,thepeoplewith
moneytoinvestinfurtherproduction.
Everythingrequiredforproductionwasprovidedbythecapitalistsforthe
workerswhowerebroughttogetherunderoneroof.
Everythingbelongedtotheownerofthefactory,includingthefinished
product,andworkersworkedforwages.
Thissystem,knownasthefactorysystem,broughtontheIndustrial
RevolutionTheearlyformofcapitalismaboutwhichyouhavereadbefore
wasnowtransformedtoindustrialcapitalism.

WhyIndustrialRevolutionstartedinEngland?
Englandinthe18thcenturywasinthemostfavorablepositionforanindustrial
revolution,Becauseoffollowingreasons
1. Throughheroverseastrade,includingtradeinslaves,shehad
accumulatedvastprofitswhichcouldprovidethenecessarycapital.Inthe
traderivalriesofEuropeancountries,shehademergedasanunrivalled
power.Shehadacquiredcolonieswhichensuredaregularsupplyofraw
materials.
2. Afterthedisappearanceofserfdom,peoplewerenolongertiedtotheland
andwerefreetodotoanyjobtheycouldfind.Theenclosuremovement
hadbeguninthe18thcentury.Biglandownerswantedconsolidatetheir
largelandholdings.Inisprocess,smallpeasantswhohadallholdingsin

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landwereoustedandlargearmyoflandlessunemployedpeoplewas
created.Thustherewasnoshortagelabourforcetoworkinthefactories.
3. Asresultoftherevolutionoffthe17thcentury,astablesystemof
governmenthadbeenestablished,whichwasnolongerunderthe
dominationofthefeudalclasses.Commercialclasseshadacquiredmore
politicalpowerandtherewasnodangerofgovernmentinterference.
4. Englandhadplentyofnaturalresources,suchasironandcoal,essential
forindustries.Thesourcesofironandcoalexistedsidebysideandthis
savedEnglandfrommanydifficultiesthatothercountriesfaced.
5. Englanddevelopedalargeshippingindustryandhadnoproblemof
transportation.
Noothercountryenjoyedalltheseadvantagesatthisperiod.Somesuffered
fromalackofcapitalornaturalresourcesandsomefromanunfavorable
politicalsystem.ThesefactorsmadeEnglandanaturalplacefortheIndustrial
Revolutiontobegin.AlmostallotherEuropeancountrieshadagrarian
economiesandlivedunderbackwardpoliticalsystems.Manyofthem,suchas
ItalyandGermany,werenotevenunitedandsufferedfrommanyeconomic
restrictions.

TextileIndustry:Therevolution
Inthe1700stheEnglishEastIndiaCompanywassendingcottonclothfrom
IndiatoEngland.Soon,calicoclothmadeinCalicutandDaccamuslinand
KashmirshawlswereingreatdemandinEngland.ShrewdEnglishbusinessmen
thenbegantoimportcottonandmakeitintoclothinEngland.Whenthe
workersusingoldfashionedspinningwheelsandhandloomscouldnotkeepup
withtheincreasingdemand,aseriesofinventionscamealongtomakefaster
spinningandweavingpossible.

Powerloom
Hargreavesinventedamachinewhichspeededupspinning.Arkwrightadapted
thismachineforrunningwithwater.Crompton,sometimelater,combinedthe
advantagesofthemachinesinventedbyHargreavesandArkwright.Thesethree
inventionsalonemadeitpossibleforEnglandtoproducethreadthatwasfiner
andcheaperthananythatcouldbeproducedbyothersorwitholdertechniques.
Thenin1785.Cartwrightinventedapowerloom.Thismachinecouldherunby
horsesorbullocksandlater,whenfactoriesweresetupalongriversandcanals,
waterpowerwasusedtooperateit.

CottonGin
Butenoughrawcottonforfeedingthesemachineswasstillnotavailable
becausetheprocessofseparatingthefibresfromtheseedswasveryslow.A

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workercouldcleanonlyfiveorsixpoundsofcottonaclaybyhand.In1793,Eli
Whitney,anAmerican,unventedacottonginThismachinemadeitpossible
toseparatetheseedsfromcottonthreehundredtimesfasterthanbyhand.

SteamEngine
Year
1760
1815
1840

CottonImportbyEngland(kg.)
1million
50million
250million

Suchatremendousincreaseinrawcottonimportswouldnothavetakenplace
butfortheinventionthesteamenginebyJamesWattin1769.Itwasthis
machinethatmadeitpossibletoproducegoodsonareallybigsealMachines
runbythemusclesofmenanimals,orbywaterpower,couldnotcompetewith
thosedrivenbythesteamengine.Thisinventionrevolutionizedproduction.

BlastFurnace
Withsteampoweravailable,thereademandformoremachinery.Englandhad
plentyofironandcoaltomakesteelandmanufacturemachinery,butnewand
cheaperwaysofprocessingironhadtobefound.Thedevelopmentoftheblast
furnaceand,later,themethodofturninglowgradeironintosteel,enabledthe
Englishindustriestoproducesteelcheaply.Thustheycouldhavemoreand
bettermachines.

TRANSPORTRevolution

Railways

Roads

In1814,GeorgeStephensondevelopedsteamengine
tohaulcoalfromminestoportsbyrailways.
In1830,thefirstrailwaytrainbegantocarry
passengersandfreightfromLiverpooltoManchester.
Theseeventswerefollowedbyagreatwaveof
railroadconstructioninEnglandandtheUnitedStates.
Asearlyas1853inLordDalhousiestime,thefirst
railroadwaslaidinIndia.
Theneedtotransportrawmaterialsandmanufactured
productsledtotheimprovementofroadsandthe
diggingofcanalsinEnglandandothercountries.
McAdamdevisedthemethodofmakingpakkaor
macadamizedroads.

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Canals

Toexpandfacilitiesfortransportbywatermuch
cheaperthanoverlandEnglandbeganconnecting
riversandlakeswithcanals.
CanalbuildingspreadtoEuropeandAmericaandwas
abighelpinprovidingcheapertransportation,
especiallyaftersteamboatscameintouse.

PostalRevolution
Improvedtransportationhelpedincarryingmessagesaswellaspeopleand
goods.RawlandHillsideaofthepennypostfastandcheapcommunication
byletterbegantooperateinEnglandintheearly19thcentury.Soonitwas
adoptedinothercountries,includingIndia.Peoplecouldthussendletterstoand
fromallpartsofthecountryatthesamelowrateregardlessofthedistance.
Businessconcernstookadvantageofthepennypostintheirbuyingandselling
transactionsfarandnear.

AgricultureRevolution
FarmMechanization
Therewasarevolutioninagriculturealso.Therevolutioninagricultureinfact
hadstartedbeforetheIndustrialRevolution.Naturally,therewerechangesin
farmingmethodstoproducemorefood,andmoreimportantly,toproducecash
cropsforthemarketandrawmaterialsforindustries.Newfarmmachinery
includedthesteelploughandharrowforbreakingtheground,themechanical
drillforseedingandthehorsedrawncultivatortoreplacethehoe.Therewere
alsomachinesforreapingandthreshing.

CropRotation
Farmersadoptedintensivemanuringandthepracticeofcroprotationto
maintainsoilfertility.Thelatteristhepracticeofchangingthecroponapiece
oflandeachyear,forexample,wheat,barley,clover,andsooninsteadof
lettingthelandliefalloweverythirdyearaswasdoneintheMiddleAges.Crop
rotationiseffectivebecausedifferentcropstakedifferentelementsfromthe
soil.Moreover,plantingacroplikeclovercanactuallybebetterforthesoilthan
lettingitliefallow,becausecloverisoneoftheplantsthataddfertilitytothe
soil.

LandConsolidation
LandownersinEnglandalsobegantoenlargetheirfarms.Theyhad
alreadyconsolidatedtheirholdingsthroughtheenclosuremovement,as

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youhavereadbefore.Thestripsoflandthatlayscatteredaboutthevillage
weresoconsolidatedthattheycouldholdalltheirlandinonepiece.In
doingso,thebiglandownerquiteunfairlygotpossessionofthepeasants
smallholdingalongwithhisown.
Sometimesbiglandholderstookoverthecommonmeadowinavillage
alsoleavingthesmalllandownersandtenantswithnopasture.Butthebig
landownerscontrolledParliamentinthosedaysandgotlawspassedthat
enabledthemtodothesethings.
Theresultwasthatthepeasantswereforcedofftheland.Withnoother
meansoflivelihood,theymovedtothenewindustrialtownsandcities
wheretheygotjobsatwhateverwagethefactoryownerwouldpay.
Industriesthusbenefited,butatthesmallfarmersexpense.

PeakofIndustrialrevolutioninEngland

ClicktoEnlarge
Inalittlemorethanfiftyyearsaftertheuseofmachinesbegan,Englandhad
becometheworldsleadingindustrialnation.Between1813and1855,for
example,hertextileexportstoIndiajumpedfrom50,000kilogramstowellover
2.5million.Duringthesameperiod,theamountofcoalminedrosefrom15to
64milliontonnesandbecameanimportantexport.Meanwhile,Englands
productionofpigironincreasedfrom690,000tonnestoover3million
enoughtosupplyallthemachineryandhardwaresheneededathome,besides
sendingvastquantitiestoothercountries.

IndustrialRevolutioninOtherCountries
InthecontinentofEurope,theIndustrialRevolutionbegantomake

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someheadwayafter1815,afterthedefeatofNapoleonandtheendof23years
ofwar.ThenmachineswereintroducedinFrance,Belgium,Switzerlandand
Germany.However,unstablegovernmentsandunrestamongthepeopleinsome
ofthesecountriesslowedthegrowthofindustriesforsometime.
1. France,by1850,wasdevelopingtheironindustrythoughshehadto
importbothironoreandcoal.
2. Germanyhad,by1865,occupiedsecondplaceasaproducerofsteel,but
withEnglandfaraheadinthelead.Afteralatestart,Germanysindustrial
developmenttookanamazingleapafter1870whentheGermanstates
werefinallyweldedintoonenation.SoonGermanywastobecome
Englandsrival.
3. RussiawasthelastofthebigEuropeanpowerstohaveanindustrial
revolution.Shewasrichinmineralresourcesbutlackedcapitalandfree
labour.Aftershefreedtheserfsin1861,sheobtainedcapitalfromforeign
countriesandRussianindustrymovedahead.However,itwasonlyafter
Russias1917Revolutionthatrapidindustrialdevelopmentstarted.
4. TheUnitedStateshadintroducedmachinesandstartedfactoriesbefore
1800aftergainingindependencefromEngland.By1860shehadwell
establishedtextile,steel,andshoeindustries.TheAmericanindustries
grewveryrapidlyafter1870.
5. JapanwasthefirstcountryinAsiatoindustrialize.Traditionally,Japan
producedmainlysucharticlesassilk,porcelainandtoys.Bytheendofthe
19thcentury,Japaneseproductionincludedsteel,machinery,metalgoods
andchemicalsandinquantitieslargeenoughforexport.

Tariffbarriers
AsEnglandwasthefirstcountrywhereindustriesdeveloped,shegainedalmost
completecontroloverworldmarkets.Evenwhenpeopleinothercountries
begantousemachinestheyfoundtheycouldnotcompetewithEnglandslow
prices.Tohelpkeeptheselowpricedproductsfromcomingintotheirmarkets
manycountriesintroducedprotectivetariffs,thatisgovernmentspassedlaws
thatrequiredthepaymentofsuchaHightaxonimportedBritishmanufactures
thatsimilarproductsmadelocallysoldmoreastheywerecheaper.Thelevyof
tariffstoprotectnewindustriesbecameawidespreadpractice.

Race4rawmaterial
Thesearchtormarketsandsourcesofrawmaterialsresultedin
internationalrivalries.FirstEnglandlater,otherWesterncountriesbegan
tolookfornewsourcesofrawmaterialsandmarketsfortheir
manufactures.
Towardstheendofthe19thcenturyJapanwasindustrializedandjoined
therace.Inthisrace,almosttheentirenonindustrializedworldwas
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carvedupintocoloniesspheresofinfluenceorterritoriesfor
economicandpoliticaldominationbyindustrializedcountries.
Thusaroseimperialism,underwhichstrongnationssubordinatedthe
economiesofthecountriesundertheirdominationtotheirowninterests.
Theyforcedthemtobuyandsellontheirownterms.
Theraceforcoloniescausedmanyaninternationalconflict.Thecountries
whichhadbeenindustrializedlateandhadnocolonies,wantedtowrest
themfromthosethathad.Countrieswhichhadcolonieswantedstillmore.

FromVillagetoCity
BeforetheIndustrialRevolution,mostofthepopulationoftheworldlived
invillagesandwasdependentonagricultural.Almostalleconomicneeds
ofmanweremetwithinthevillageitself.Almosttheentirepopulationwas,
inonewayortheother,connectedwithland.
ThetownsandCitiesthathadarisensincethebeginningofcivilization
were,asyouhaveseen,centresofcraftandofpoliticalandadministrative
control.Tradewascarriedonbetweentownsandcitiesofthesame
countryandofothercountriesandaffectedonlyaverysmallpercentage
ofthepopulation.
Withthegrowthofindustrializationthepicturewascompletely
transformed.Thecentreofeconomiclifeshiftedtothecities.Thenew
citiesandtownsthatgrewwereimportantmoreascentresofindustrythan
aspoliticalandadministrativecentres.
Alargepartofthepopulationnowstartedlivingincitieswherethousands
ofpeopleworkedinindustrialestablishments.Thispopulationwasnot
connectedwithland.Nowinsomeindustrializedcountries,lessthan20
percentofthepopulationisconnectedwithland.
Inourcountry,thoughstillanoverwhelmingmajoritylivesinvillagethere
isagradualincreaseinthepopulationdependentonindustry.
Inhighlyindustrializedcountries,theshareofindustrialproductioninthe
totalnationalincomeisfarlargerthanthatofagriculture.Urbanandrural
economieshavebecomemutuallydependentandcomplementary.
Thecrowdingofpeopleintocitieshasalwaysproducedproblemsofhousing,
health,andsanitation.ThequickeningpaceofindustrializationinEngland
createddeplorablelivingconditions,concentrationinsmokyindustrialtowns,
andcityslumsgrewworse.
Eventhoughthemovementofpeoplefromvillagetocitieshasbeengoingon
sincecivilizationbegan,ithasalwaysarousedsadness.Lifeforavillagerinthe
cityresultedinmanysocialstrains.Manysocialbondsweredissolved.Many
moralrestraintswhichlifeinavillagecommunityimposedbrokedown.
Ontheotherhand,menbecamefreertodeveloptheircapabilities.

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TheIndustrialRevolutionbroughtcountriesandpeoplestogether.Therelations
betweencountriesandpeoples,however,werenotbasedonequalityasthe
industriallydevelopedcountriesbegantocontroltheeconomyofcountries
whichwerenotindustriallydeveloped.Inspiteofthis,theIndustrialRevolution
createdaninternationalconsciousnessamongpeoplesbecausethe
developmentsinoneplacebegantoinfluencethedevelopmentsinotherplaces.

IndustrialCapitalism
Thesystemofsocietywhichcameintobeingasaresultoftheindustrial
revolutionmaybetermedindustrialcapitalism.Themainclassesinthissociety
were
1. Capitalist

theownersofthemeansofproduction.

2. Workers

workerswhoworkedforawage

Industrialcapitalism:Consequencesof
1. Itresultedintheconcentrationofeconomicpowerinafewhands.
2. Theindependentcraftsmanbecamerare.
3. Asmallnumberofcapitalistscametocontrolthelivesofnotonlyalarge
numberofworkerswhomtheyemployedbutalso,directlyorindirectly,
theeconomiclifeoftheentiresociety.
4. Theconcentrationofeconomicpowerinafewhandsresultedinshocking
socialinequalitiesandcreatedawidegulfbetweencapitalistsandtherest
ofthepopulation.
5. TheseinequalitiesweresoobviousandsogreatthatDisraeli,aBritish
PrimeMinisterofthe19thcentury,spokeoftheexistenceoftwonations
inEnglandtherichandthepoor.
6. TheIndustrialRevolutionproducedavastnumberoflandless,toolless
workers,whowerewhollydependentonanemployer.
7. Theyhadtoacceptwhateverwagetheemployeroffered,fortherewere
usuallymoreworkersthanjobs.
8. Womenandchildrenwereemployedeveninminesbecausetheycouldbe
hiredforlessmoney.
9. Oftentheyhadtoworkfrom15to18hoursadaywithnorestperiods.If
perchancetheyfellasleeponduty,theymightbebeatenbyaheartless
overseer.
10. Workingsurroundingswereunsafeanddirty.

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housing
Thehousesprovidedforworkerswerenobetter.Wholeareasoftheindustrial
citieswhereworkerslivedwerecrowdedslums.Accidents,diseaseand
epidemicswerecommon.AreportontheslumsofManchesterin1837
mentions,amongotherthings,thatalmostallinhabitantsofmanystreets
perishedincholera.

NoSocialsecurity
Ifanemployerwasdispleasedwithaworkerforanyreason,hecoulddismiss
theworkeratwill.Aworkerhadlittlechoicebuttoacceptanemployersterms,
orbejobless.Ifhewasillandunabletowork,hegotnopay,andhemightbe
discharged.Ifhesufferedanaccidentonthejob,hegotnohelpfromthe
employer.Whenbusinesswasslack,afactoryownerregularlydismissedas
manyemployeesaspossibleleavingthemwithnomeansoflivelihood.Itwas
theindustrialworkersinEnglandwhofirstenduredconditionssuchasthose
justdescribedbuttheworkersinothercountriesfarednobetter.

ChildLaborers
Thehorribleconditionofchildlabourersisstatedintheevidencecollectedbya
committeeofBritishParliamentin1816.Thefollowinginformationwas
collectedfromaonetimemasterofapprenticesinacottonmill.Hewasasked
questionsbythecommitteeontheconditionofchildlabourersinhisfactory.
Atwhatageweretheytaken?.
ThosethatcamefromLondonwerefromabouteightortentofifteen.

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Uptowhatperiodweretheyapprenticed?
Oneandtwenty.
Whatwerethehoursofwork?
Fromfiveoclockinthemorningtilleightatnight.
Werefifteenhoursinthedaytheregularhoursofwork?
Yes.
Whentheworkswerestoppedfortherepairofthemill,orforanywantof
cotton,didthechildrenafterwardsmakeupforthelossofthattime?
Yes.
Didthechildrensitorstandtowork?Stand.
Thewholeoftheirtime?
Yes.
Werethereanyseatsinthemill?None.Ihavefoundthemfrequentlyuponthe
millfloors,afterthetimetheyshouldhavebeeninbed.
Wereanychildreninjuredbythemachinery?
Veryfrequently.

LabourLaws
Afewhumanitarianreformersandsomelandownerswhowerejealousof
bigbusinessmencombinedwithEnglishworkerstogetthefirstlawsto
improveconditionsofwork.
In1802,EnglandpasseditsfirstFactoryAct,limitingthehoursofwork
forchildrentotwelveaday.
In1819,lawforbadetheemploymentofchildrenundernine.
Laterlawsregulatedtheemploymentofwomenandchildreninmines.

TradeUnions
Manyofthelawstoprotectworkershavebeenduetothepressurefrom
workerstradeunions.WhentheEnglishworkersfirstformedtradeunions,
employerscalledthem`unlawfulcombinationsandlawswerepassedtocurb
such`evils.

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Butby1824theworkerssucceededingettinglawsagainstunions
repealedandtherewasaremarkablegrowthinunionsforallthetrades.
Itmaybehardtobelievetoday,butitistrue,thattheEnglishindustrial
workersdidnothavetherighttovoteinthosedays.Inthebeginningin
fact,thepopulationofnewindustrialcitieshadnorepresentationin
Parliamentatall.
Inthethirtiesandfortiesofthe19thcentury,amovementknownasthe
ChartistMovement,waslaunchedtogettherightofvoteforworkers.
Thoughthemovementdeclinedbythefiftiesofthe19thcentury,leftits
influenceandthroughtheActsof1867,1882,1918and1929alladult
citizenswereenfranchised.
TheEnglishworkersalsowontherightnotonlytoorganizetradeunions
butalsotherighttostriketoforceemployerstoconcedetheirdemands.

TradeUnionsinothercountries
Theideathattheworkerscasemustbeheardinanydisputemetwith
oppositioneverywhere.
Germanygottherighttoformlabourunionsinthelate19thcentury.
IntheUnitedStates,whereunionswerefrowneduponforalmostacentury,
workersdidnot,gainfulllegalrightsuntiltheearly20thcentury.Thentheright
toformunions,tostrike,andtobargainwithemployersontheconditionsof
workwaslegalizedandthiswasfollowedbyotherlawsthatbroughtmore
benefitstoemployees.
Themanybenefitsthatworkersandallsalariedpeopleenjoyinmost
industrializedcountriestodayareduedirectlyorindirectlytotheeffortsto
correcttheterribleconditionsthattheIndustrialRevolutionbroughtabout.

Laissezfaire
Protectionforindustrialworkerscouldnothavetakenplacewithouta
changeintheideasoftheresponsibilitiesofgovernments.
WhentheIndustrialRevolutionwasgainingstrengthinEnglandandthe
samewasgenerallytrueinothercountriesthegrowingbeliefwasthat
governmentsshouldnotinterferewithbusinessandindustry.
Thetheoryknownaslaissezfaireorletusalone,wasthenakindof
religionamongcapitalists.

laissezfaireandCapitalism
Accordingtothelaissezfaireidea,thebusinessmanshouldbefreetolookafter
hisowninterests.Onlytheunwrittenlawofsupplyanddemandshould

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determinethesizeofhisprofits.Thesameunwrittenlawwoulddeterminethe
fateoftheworker,whetherhehadajob,whatwouldbehisworkingconditions
andsalary.ThefamouseconomistAdamSmithvoicedthisideain1776ina
bookcalledTheWealthofNations,andithadmanysupporters,too.
Thelaissezfairedoctrinewasopposedbymanypeople.Gradually,almostall
thecountriescametoaccepttheideathatthestatehasalegitimaterightand
dutytoregulatetheeconomy.TheFactoryActsinEnglandandmanylaws
dealingwiththeeconomyinallcountrieswereaconsequenceofthis.
Todayonerarelyhearsavoiceindefenceoflaissezfaire.Gradually,thestates
roleineconomicdevelopmenthasalsocometoberecognized.Thisistrue
particularlyofthedevelopingcountriesthatcannotmodernizetheireconomies
withoutacomprehensiveandlargescaleeffortonthepartofthestate.Infact,
inthesecountries,itisthestate,ratherthantheprivatecapitalist,thatisthe
mainagencyforeconomicdevelopment.

Socialism
Thegreatestchallengetolaissezfaire,andtocapitalismitself,hascomefrom
theideaofsocialism,whichgrewinthebeginningasareactionagainsttheevils
ofcapitalism.Theideaappealedparticularlytoworkers.Throughtheir
struggles,theywereabletoachievemuchimprovementintheirliving
conditions.However,theycametobelievethat,forbasicimprovementintheir
life,socialismoracompletereorderingofsocietywasessential.Youwillread
aboutideasofsocialismandmovementsbasedonthoseideaslater.
TheIndustrialRevolutionthatbeganinEnglandinabout1750wasarevolution
inmanswaysofproducinggoodsandservices.Abolitionofmedieval,
antiquatedsocial,economicandpoliticalsystems,aridindustrializationtolead
toaneraofsharedplentybecamethedeclaredaimsofonesocietyafteranother
whoemergedasnations.
Eversince1750,manhasincreasinglyusedmachinesandmechanicalpowerto
dotheworkthatheformerlydidwithhisownmusclesandthehelpofanimals.
Meantime,themachinesinventedbymanhavebecomemoreandmorecomplex
andprovidedhimwithgoodsandservicesthatcouldnototherwisebeproduced
atall.Also,machineshaveincreasedtheamountofgoodsmancanturnoutina
giventime,andenabledpeopletoraisetheirlevelofliving.
Industrializationandcapitalismbroughtbenefitsaswellashardshipsandevils
tomanunemployment,smoky,crowdedcities,unhealthylivingandworking
conditions,rivalryandconflictbetweennations.Asworkingmengottheright
tovoteandelecttheirrepresentativesingovernment,theyforcedthepassageof
lawsthateliminatedmanyoftheearlyevilsthatindustrializationhadbrought

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about.Ideasofsocialismalsoarosewhich,whilerecognizingtheimportanceof
Machinesandmakingthemevenbetter,aimedatsolvingtheproblemscreated
bycapitalism,bybuildinganewsocialorder.Butmanyproblemremain.The
unsolvedproblemsareachallengetoallnations.

EXERCISES
1. Explainthemeaningofthefollowingterms:IndustrialRevolution,
capital,capitalism,socialism,protectivetariff,laissezfaire.
2. Whatconditionsaremostfavourableoressentialforindustrialization?
3. GiveexamplestoshowthattheIndustrialRevolutionwithitsdemandfor
rawmaterialsandmarketsmadenationsmoredependentononeanother.
4. Describetheconditionswhichprevailedinindustrialcitiesandfactories
astheIndustrialRevolutionspread.Howtheseconditionswereslowly
improved?
5. MakeaTimeLineshowingthemostimportantinventionsfrom1750to
1870.
6. Makeabulletinboarddisplayofpicturesofmachinesthatrevolutionized
manufacturing,farming,transportationandcommunicationduringthefirst
hundredyearsaftertheIndustrialRevolutionbegan.
7. Writeapaperof250400wordsonthesubject:TheIndustrialRevolution
wasamixedblessing.
8. Whatarethemainfeatureswhichdistinguishcapitalismfromfeudalism?
9. Howdidthegrowthoftradeunionshelptoputonendtotheideaof
laissezfaire?
10. Whydoesindustrializationaffectfarming,transportation,communication,
tradeandhowdoesitresultintheneedformoreeducation?
11. Howdoesindustrializationhelpinraisingthelevelorthestandardof
living?
12. Studytheweaknessesanddisadvantagesofproducinggoodsandservices
underthecapitalistsystemofproduction.Whataretheadvantagesthata
socialistsystemcanhaveoverasocietybasedoncapitalism?
13. Wouldyousaythatindustrializationwasanaturalstepinmans
progress?Whyorwhynot?
FormoreonWorldHistory,visitMrunal.org/history

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industrialrevolutioncapitalismtheireffectonsocietyriseoftradeunions
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[OldNCERTWorldHistoryCh8]AmericanRevolution:Causes,BostonTea
Party,DeclarationofIndependence(Part1of4)
1. IntroductionoftheChapter
2. FeudalismtoNationStates
3. MiddleClass
4. TheRenaissance
5. WhatisaRevolution?
6. THEAMERICANREVOLUTION
1. TheEnglishColoniesinAmerica
2. CausesoftheWarofAmericanIndependence
3. Notaxationwithoutrepresentation
4. BostonTeaParty
5. DeclarationofIndependence
6. TheWarofIndependence
7. TheAmericanConstitution
8. SignificanceoftheAmericanRevolution
9. TheGrowthofaNation
The8thChapterofoldNCERTClass9(Storyofcivilization),dealswith
followingtopics
1. Americanrevolution
2. FrenchRevolution
3. UnificationofGermany,ItalyRevolutionselsewhereinEurope
4. TheriseofSocialism
Inthisfirstpart,wellseetheAmericanrevolution,andremainingtopicsin
separateparts.

IntroductionoftheChapter
Inthepreviouschapter,youlearnedabouttheriseofaneweconomicsystemin
theworld.Inthischapteryouwillreadofthedevelopmentsthattransformedthe
politicalsystemsofmanycountriesofEuropeandoftheAmericasinthe18th
and19thcenturies.Thebasicfeaturesofthesedevelopmentswerethegrowthof
democraticpoliticalsystems,nationalismandsocialism.Togetherwiththe
industrialRevolution,theybroughtaboutgreatchangesandhelpedtodetermine
peoplesthoughtandconditionsoflifeforalongtimetocome.These

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developmentsbeganfirstincertainpartsofEurope.Sincethen,particularly
fromthe19thcentury,theestablishmentofdemocraticpoliticalsystemsandof
independentstatesbasedonnationalismhavebeenamongtheprimaryaimsof
peoplestheworldover.Simultaneouslywiththeseinsomecountriesandlaterin
othercountriesideasofsocialismhaveinspiredmovementsofsocialequality.

FeudalismtoNationStates
Underfeudalism,societiesweredividedintoclassessomeofwhichwere
privilegedwhiletheotherswereexploited.Amansentirelifewas
determinedatthetimeofhisbirth,dependingontheclassintowhichhe
wasborn.Youhavereadthatthetwomainclassesinthefeudalsociety
werefeudallordsandserfs.
Thepoliticalsystemsofthetimewerealsodeterminedbytheprevailing
socialandeconomicsystem.Mostofthepopulationwasexcludedfrom
havinganyshareinthegovernanceofthecountry.
Manykingsclaimeddivinerights,thatis,thattheirpowerwasderived
fromGodandnotfromanycapabilitytorule.Theirwordwaslaw.A
Frenchkingdeclared,IamtheState.
Theboundariesofstatesalsowereirrational.Ifyouseeoldmapsyouwill
beabletorecognizeveryfewstatesofmodernEurope.Therewereall
kindsofstatesempires,feudalestates,citystates.
Theterritorieswithinastatewerenotnecessarilycontiguous.Thepeople
inhabitingthesestateswerenothomogeneous.Empires,forexample,
includedterritoriesfarapartfromeachotherandinhabitedbypeopleof
differentnationalities.
Similarly,theterritoriesinhabitedbyahomogeneouspeopleweredivided
intoanumberofstates,someunderalocalruler,someundertheChurch
andsomeaspartsofanempire.Asaresultofmanyfactorsnationstates
hadbeguntobeformed.However,thisprocesswaslimitedtoafewareas.
MostoftheEuropeanstatesforalongtimetocomehadnorationalbasis.

MiddleClass
Youhavereadoftheriseofnewsocialgroupsandclassesduringthelater
MiddleAgesandabouttheroleplayedbythemiddleclassinbringing
abouttheRenaissanceinEurope.Ineconomiclife,thisclassgradually
becameveryimportant.However,itwasobstructedinitsgrowthbythe
outdatedpoliticalsystemsbasedonprivilege.
Itcouldgrowonlyifitalsoheldthepoliticalpower.WiththeIndustrial
Revolution,thestrengthofthisclassincreasedfurtherandtheremovalof
theoutdatedpoliticalsystemsacquiredurgency.Thespreadofthe
IndustrialRevolutioninmanycountrieswasslowbecauseofthebackward
politicalsystemthatprevailedthere.Anotherimportantnewclassthat

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arose,particularlyaftertheIndustrialRevolution,wastheworkingclass,
ortheindustrialworkers.Thisclassalsowasopposedtotheautocratic
politicalsystems.
Serfdomhaddeclinedinsomecountriesbutinmostothercountriesof
Europe,itwasstillthedominantfeatureofthesocialsystem.Therewere
manyrevoltsoftheserfsbuttheyweresuppressed.However,duringthe
periodfromthe17thtothe19thcenturies,therearosemovementsin
differentpartsofEuropetooverthrowtheexistingpoliticalsystems.The
firstsuccessfulrevolutionwhichoverthrewtheautocraticmonarchytook
placeinEnglandinthe17thcentury.
Simultaneously,therewasalsotheriseandgrowthofnational
consciousnessandmovementstounitethedifferentterritoriesinhabited
bythepeopleofanationiftheyweredividedintodifferentstates,andto
overthrowforeignimperialruleiftheterritoriesofanationwerepartofa
largerempireruledbyanalienemperor.

TheRenaissance
TheRenaissancehadinauguratedaneraofquestioningtheestablished
beliefs.Gradually,thisquestioningcoveredeveryaspectofthoughtand
belief.Theperiodafterthe16thcentury,witnessedanintellectual
revolutionwhenalltheexistingbeliefsbasedonfaithcameunderheavy
attack.
Greatprogresswasmadeinvarioussciences,whichalsounderminedthe
existingbeliefs.Thenewideaswerecharacterizedbyrationalismandwere
increasinglyconcernedwithsecularaffairs.Becauseofthegrowing
emphasisonreason,theperiodofthe18thcenturyinEuropeanhistoryis
calledtheAgeofreasonortheAgeofEnlightenment.
Graduallythebeliefsthatpermittedpeopletobedividedintohigheror
lowergroupsonthebasisofbirth,andintoprivilegedgroupsandothers,
andtheholdoftheChurchinthesphereofideas,wereundermined.
Thenewideaswereideasofliberty,equalityandfraternity.Thusarose
ideasoffreedom,democracyandequality,whichbecametherallying
slogansofpeopleseverywhere.
Simultaneously,therealsoaroseideasofnationalismwhichbroughta
senseofunityandonenesstothepeopleforminganationandthedesireto
organizethemselvesintoindependentstateswiththeirdistinctivenational
identities.
MovementsaroseinmanypartsofEuropeandinNorthAmericato
overthrowtheexistingautocraticpoliticalsystemsandreplacethemby
democraticpoliticalsystemandtoabolishprivilegesandestablishthe
equalityofpoliticalrights.Thesemovementswhichbeganearlierbecame
powerfulforcesinthe19thcenturyEurope.
Inthischapteryouwillreadaboutsomerevolutionsthatledtothe

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overthrowofautocraticgovernmentsandtheirreplacementbydemocratic
formsofgovernment.Youwillalsoreadaboutsomesuccessful
movementsofnationalindependenceandnationalunification.Inthelast
section,youwillreadabouttheemergenceofideasofsocialismandabout
themovementsbasedonthoseideaswhichtookshape.

WhatisaRevolution?
Changesinpoliticalandsocialsystemshaveoftenbeenbroughtaboutby
revolutions.Arevolution,asyouknowfromyourstudyoftheIndustrial
Revolution,meansadrasticorradicalchange.
Arevolutioncanbethesuddenoverthrowofanestablishedgovernmentor
systembyforceandbloodsheditcanalsobeagreatchangethatcomes
slowlyandpeacefully.Thedevelopmentsdescribedinthischapterwere,
insomeaspects,rapidandaccompaniedbyviolencebutmanyofthe
lastingchangestheybroughtabouthavetakenplacegraduallyand
withoutbloodshed.
However,youshouldrememberthateverychangeofgovernmentisnota
revolution.Arevolutioninvolvesafundamentalchangeintheentire
politicalsystemofacountry,achangeinthenatureofgovernment,inthe
classorclassesthatholdpoliticalpower,andalsointheaimsofthe
government.
Peopledonotusuallyrevoltagainstagovernmentoracertainsystem
unlesstheybelievethatitisnolongerpossibletoliveintheoldway.
Revolutionsoccurwhenanexistingsystembecomesunbearabletoavast
majorityofthepeople.This,initself,makesconditionsripeforsetting
upanewsystem.
Revolutionsarecontagious.Revolutionaryideasoriginatinginone
placemayspreadtootherplacesveryfastandinfluencethethinkingand
actionsofpeoplessufferingunderoppressivegovernmentsinotherlands.
Revolutionshaveplayedanessentialroleinthedevelopmentofhuman
societies.Withoutthem,onekindofsystem,howeverunsuitableforthe
timesitmightbe,wouldcontinueforeverandtherewouldbenoprogress.

THEAMERICANREVOLUTION
WhilesomeEnglishmenwerebattlingathomeforimprovementsin
Parliamentandreformsinreligion,otherswereadventuringacrossthe
AtlantictoestablishcoloniesandtradeintheAmericas.
Inthe16thcentury,Europeancountriesbegantomakesettlementsthere.
InNorthAmerica,colonieswereestablishedbyFrance,HollandandSpain
aswellasbyEngland.
Inthe18thcentury,EnglanddroveFranceoutoftheeasternpartofthe
continentandCanada.ShehadearliertakenNewNetherlandsfromthe

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Dutch,changingitsnametoNewYork.

TheEnglishColoniesinAmerica
Bythemiddleofthe18thcenturytherewere13EnglishcoloniesinNorth
AmericaalongtheAtlanticCoast.Landlesspeasants,peopleseeking
religiousfreedom,traders,andprofiteershadsettledthere.Thebulkofthe
populationconsistedofindependentfarmers.Infantindustrieshad
developedinsuchproductsaswool,flax,andleather.
Inthenorththerewerefishingandshipbuilding.Inthesouth,large
plantationslikefeudalmanorshadgrownupwheretobaccoandcotton
weregrownwithslavelabourbroughtfromAfrica.
Eachcolonyhadalocalassemblyelectedbyqualifiedvoters.These
assembliesenactedlawsconcerninglocalmatters,andleviedtaxes.
However,theywereundertheruleofthemothercountry.
Bythe18thcentury,thecolonistsfoundthelawswhichtheEnglish
governmentimposeduponthemmoreandmoreobjectionable.Theideaof
beinganindependentnationgrewanddevelopedintotheRevolutionary
Warinwhichthecolonistsgainedtheirindependence.

CausesoftheWarofAmericanIndependence
Economic
ThecolonialpolicyofEnglandineconomicmatterswastheprimarycause
ofresentmentintheAmericancolonies.Englandspoliciesdidnot
encouragetheAmericancoloniestodevelopaneconomyoftheirown.
TheEnglishParliamenthadforbiddenthemtousenonBritishshipsin
theirtrade.
Certainproducts,suchastobacco,cottonandsugar,couldbeexported
onlytoEngland.
Heavydutieswereimposedontheimportofgoodsinthecoloniesfrom
otherplaces.
Thecolonieswerealsoforbiddentostartcertainindustries,forexample,
ironworksandtextiles.
TheywereforcedtoimportthesegoodsfromEngland.
Thus,ineverypossibleway,thegrowthofindustryandtradeinthe
colonieswasimpeded.

Rent
TheEnglishalsoangeredthecolonistsbyissuingaproclamationtoprevent
themfrommovingwestintonewlands.Englisharistocratshadboughtlandsin
Americaandgotrentsfromthefarmers.Theywantedtokeepthecolonistsas
renters.

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Taxestofinancewars
AsaresultofcontinuouswarsinEurope,theEnglishgovernmentwas
burdenedwithdebt.Itneededmoney.
In1765,theEnglishParliamentpassedtheStampActwhichimposed
stamptaxesonallbusinesstransactionsintheAmericancolonies.
Revenuestampsupto20shillingsweretobeaffixedtolegaldocuments
andotherpapers.
ThisActarousedviolentresentmentamongallsectionsofthecolonists
andledthemtoboycottEnglishgoods.Therewereuprisingsinmany
townsandtaxcollectorswerekilled.
Thecolonistsclaimedthat,sinceEnglishParliamenthadno
representativesfromthecolonies,ithadnorighttolevytaxesonthem.
Therevenuefromthesetaxeswasusednotintheinterestsofthecolonies
butofEnglish.

Philosophers
TheAmericanrevolutionarieswereinspiredbytheideasoftheEnglish
philosophersofthe17thcentury.Thesephilosophers
Locke,Harrington,Miltonbelievedthatmenhadcertainfundamental
rightswhichnogovernmenthadtherighttoinfringe.
Americanthinkers,especiallyThomasJefferson,werealsoinspiredby
whatFrenchphilosophersweresayingandwritingatthattime.Jefferson
assertedthecolonistsrighttorebellion,andencouragedtheirincreasing
desireforindependence.
SupportforindependencewasforcefullyexpressedbyThomasPaine,
whodetestedtheinequalitiesofEnglishsociety,andhadcometoAmerica.
InapamphletentitledCommonSense,hewrote,Itwasrepugnantto
reasontosupposethatthiscontinentcanlongremainsubjecttoany
externalpowerthereissomethingabsurdinsupposingaContinenttobe
perpetuallygovernedbyanisland.

Notaxationwithoutrepresentation
TheleadersintheMassachusettscolonycalledtogetherrepresentatives
fromothercoloniestoconsidertheircommonproblems.
InthisMassachusettsassembly,theyagreedanddeclaredthattheEnglish
Parliamenthadnorighttolevytaxesonthem.Notaxationwithout
representationwastheslogantheyadopted.
AndtheythreatenedtostoptheimportofBritishgoods.Thethreatled
EnglishtorepealtheStampAct,butParliamentstillinsistedthatithadthe
righttolevytaxes.ThenParliamentimposedataxonconsumergoods
comingintothecolonies,suchaspaper,glass,teaandpaint.
Againthecoloniesobjectedsayingthatonlytheirownassemblieshadthe
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righttoraisemoneythroughtaxes.Inprotestthecoloniescutdownthe
Englishimportsbyonehalf.TheEnglishwithdrewtheplanleavingonly
thetaxonteatoasserttheirrighttolevytaxes.

BostonTeaParty
Thetaxontealedtotrouble.In1773,severalcoloniesrefusedtounload
theteacominginEnglishships.
InBoston,whenthegovernororderedashiptobeunloaded,agroupof
citizens,dressedasAmericanIndians,boardedtheshipanddumpedthe
cratesofteaintothewater.
ThisincidentisknownastheBostonTeaParty.
TheEnglishgovernmentthenclosedtheportofBostontoalltradeand
precipitatedtheuprisingofthecolonies.

DeclarationofIndependence
Therepresentativesofthe13Americancoloniesmetasagroupinwhatis
calledtheFirstContinentalCongressatPhiladelphiain1774.This
CongressappealedtotheEnglishKingtoremoverestrictionsonindustries
andtradeandnottoimposeanytaxeswithouttheirconsent.
TheKingdeclaredtheiractionamutinyandorderedtroopstobesentto
suppressit.Thecoloniesthenplannedformilitarydefencewithlocal
troopsormilitia.
In1775,thefirstbattleoftherevolutionwasfoughtwhenathousand
soldiersmetthecolonialmilitiainIndependence.
TheDeclarationOn4July1776,theSecondContinentalCongressasserted
thatallmenarecreatedequal,CongressadoptedtheDeclarationofthat
theyareendowedbytheirCreatorwithcertaininalienablerights,that
amongtheserightsarelife,libertyandthepursuitofhappiness.
TheDeclarationadvancedtheprinciplethatthepeoplearethesourceof
authorityandaffirmedthepeoplesrighttosetuptheirowngovernment.
TheDeclarationalsostatedthattheAmericancolonieshadbeenoppressed
bytheEnglishgovernmentandthattheseUnitedColoniesare,andof
rightoughttobe,freeandindependentstates.
Uptothistimethecolonistshadbeenfightingfortheirrightsas
Englishmen.AftertheDeclarationin1776,theyfoughtfortheirrighttobe
anindependentnation.

TheWarofIndependence
GeorgeWashingtonwasputincommandoftheAmericanforces.Thefirst
battlestookplaceinandaroundBoston.ThenEnglishsentaforceto
CanadawiththeplantomarchitsouthtomeetanotherEnglishforce,and

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socuttheAmericancoloniesinhalf.
ButanEnglishgeneralspoiledtheplan.AstheEnglishmarchedsouth,the
Americansmetanddefeatedthem.
ThisvictoryoftheroughAmericanmilitiamenagainstatrainedBritish
forcegavetheAmericansconfidence.
TheFrenchgovernmentnowdecidedtohelpthecolonieswithtroops,
suppliesandfundstoembarrasstheEnglish,Francesoldenemy.Other
enemiesofEnglishSpainandHollandweresoonfightingtheEnglish
elsewhere
Meanwhile,troublewasbrewingforBritainathome.Therewasathreatof
rebellioninIrelandsomeleadersin
Parliamentwereopposingthewarwiththecolonists.
Thewarendedin1781whentheEnglishcommander,Cornwallis,laterto
becomegovernorgeneralinIndia,surrendered.

Twoyearslater,in1783,theTreatyofPariswassignedandtheEnglish
recognizedtheindependenceofits13formercolonies.

TheAmericanConstitution
Whenthewarofindependencestarted,eachofthe13colonieswasa
separatestatewithitsownarmy,boundaries,customsdutiesandfinances.
Buttheycooperatedagainstacommonenemy.
In1781,asstatesoftheUnitedStates,theyunitedthroughaplanfora
nationalgovernment.Aconstitutionalconventionwascalledin
Philadelphiatoframeanewconstitution,whichcameintoeffectin1789.
TheAmericanconstitutionestablishedarepublicanformofgovernmentat

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atimewhenstatesinotherpartsoftheworldweregovernedby
monarchies.
TheAmericanConstitutionsetupafederalsystemunderwhichpowers
weredividedbetweenacentralorfederalgovernmentandthestate
governments.
Jefferson,theauthoroftheDeclarationofIndependence,andhisfollowers
campaignedfortheadditionofaBillofRightstothefederalconstitution.
Thiswasdonethroughtenamendmentswhichguaranteedmanyrightsto
theAmericanpeople.Themostnotedofthesearefreedomofspeech,press
andreligion,andjusticeunderlaw.
TheconstitutionmarkedtheemergenceoftheUnitedStatesofAmericaas
anationinworldhistory.Itwasthefirstwrittenrepublicanconstitution
everframedinhistory,whichisstillinoperation.

SignificanceoftheAmericanRevolution
ThewordsoftheDeclarationofIndependenceregardingtheequalityofall
menandtheinalienablerightsofmanelectrifiedtheatmospherein
Americaandoutside.Lafayette,theFrenchgeneralwhofoughtontheside
ofAmericanrevolutionaries,wassoontobecomeaherooftheFrench
Revolution.ThomasPainealsoparticipatedintheFrenchRevolution.
Byitsexample,theAmericanRevolutioninspiredmanyrevolutionariesin
Europelaterinthe19thcentury.ItencouragedSpanishandPortuguese
coloniesinCentralandSouthAmericatorebelandgaintheir
independence.
ThemainachievementoftheAmericanRevolutionwastheestablishment
ofarepublic.Thisrepublicwas,however,nottrulydemocratic.Theright
tovotewaslimited.NegroesmostofthemstillslavesAmerican
Indians,andwomenhadnovote.
Electionlawsinallstatesfavoredmenofpropertyformanyyears.But
progresstowardsdemocracyhadbegun.Insomestates,statereligionwas
abolished,alongwithreligiousqualificationsforholdingpublicoffices.

TheGrowthofaNation
Earlyinthe19thcentury,manynewareaswereaddedtotheUnitedStates.
Thevastterritoryinthemiddleofthecontinent,knownasLouisiana,was
purchasedfromFrance.FloridawasacquiredfromSpain.
Bythe1850s,afterawarwithMexico,theUnitedStateshadextendedits
boundariestothePacificOcean.Peoplehadcontinuedtomovewest.The
westwardexpansionoftheUnitedStateswasattheexpenseofthe
AmericanIndianswhoweredrivenoutoftheirterritoriesandinthecourse
ofafewdecadestheirpopulationwasreducedtoaninsignificantnumber.
Increasingsettlementsinthewestbroughtaboutincreasingconflicts

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betweenthesouthernstatesthatwantedtoextendslaverytothewestern
territoriesandthenorthernstatesthatobjectedtoaslaveeconomy.
AchangeofrevolutionarysignificancecamewiththeCivilWarwhen
slaveowningstatesofthesouthsecededfromtheUnionandsetupa
separategovernment.TheCivilWarragedfrom1861to1865andendedin
thedefeatofthesouthernstates.
Itwasavictoryforthecapitalisticindustrialstatesofthenorthoverthe
slaveowningstatesofthesouth.Thefederalgovernmentabolished
slavery.Theabolitionofslavery,however,didnotenddiscrimination
againsttheBlackpeopleandtheirstruggletomakeequalrightsareality
continued.
IntheNextthreeparts,wellsee
FrenchRevolution
UnificationofGermanyandItalyRevolutionarymovementsinotherparts
ofEurope
RiseofSocialism
ForarchiveofallWorldhistoryrelatedarticlesvisitMrunal.org/history

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[OldNCERTWorldHistoryCh8]FrenchRevolution:Causes,Consequences,
Rise&FallofNapoleon(Part2of4)
1. SocialConditionsinthe18thcenturyFrance
2. FirstandSecondEstate
3. ThirdEstate
4. TheMonarchy
5. TheIntellectualMovement
1. Rationalism:theAgeofReason
2. AttackontheClergy
3. PhysiocratesandLaissezFaire
4. Democracy:JeanJacquesRousseau
6. OutbreakoftheRevolution
7. AfterFallofBastille
8. WarandEndofMonarchy
9. NapoleonicWars
10. ConsequencesoftheRevolution
11. ImpactofFrenchRevolutionontheWorld
12. RevolutionsinCentralandSouthAmerica
TheFrenchRevolutionwasbrewingwhiletheWarofAmericanIndependence
wasbeingfought.ConditionsinFrancewerevastlydifferentfromthoseinthe
NewWorld,butmanyofthesamerevolutionaryideaswereatwork.TheFrench
Revolution,however,wasmoreworldshakingthantheAmerican.Itbecamea
widespreadupheavaloverwhichnoonecouldremainneutral.

SocialConditionsinthe18thcenturyFrance
TounderstandhowandwhytheFrenchRevolutionoccurred,wehaveto
understandFrenchsocietyofthattime.Wehavetorealizealsothat
conditionsinFrancewerenoworsethantheconditionsthatexistedin
otherpartsofEurope.
Autocratic,extravagantrulers,privilegednoblesandclergy,landless
peasants,joblessworkers,unequaltaxationthelistofhardshipsendured
bythecommonpeopleisaverylongone.
Francewasastrongandpowerfulstateinthe18thcentury.Shehadseized
vastterritoriesinNorthAmerica,islandsintheWestIndies.However,
despiteitsoutwardstrength,theFrenchmonarchywasfacingacrisis
whichwastoleadtoitsdestruction.
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FirstandSecondEstate
Frenchsocietywasdividedintoclasses,orestates.Thereweretwoprivileged
classes
Privilegedclass Alsoknownas Population
Clergy
Firstestate
1.3lakhclerics
Nobility
Secondestate 80thousandfamilies
Peopleinthesetwoclasseswereexemptedfromalmostalltaxes!
Theycontrolledmostoftheadministrativepostsandallthehighranking
postsinthearmy.
Inapopulationof25,000,000people,thesetwoclassestogetherowned
about40percentofthetotallandofFrance.Theirincomescameprimarily
fromtheir,largelandholdings.
Aminorityofthesealsodependedonpensionsandgiftsfromtheking.
Theyconsidereditbeneaththeirdignitytotradeortobeengagedin
manufactureortodoanywork.
Thelifeofthenobilitywaseverywherecharacterizedbyextravaganceand
luxury.Therewere,ofcourse,poorersectionsinthesetwotopestates.
Theywerediscontentedandblamedtherichermembersoftheirclassfor
theirmisery.

ThirdEstate
TherestofthepeopleofFrancewerecalledtheThirdEstate.Theywerethe
commonpeopleandnumberedabout95percentofthetotalpopulation.People
oftheThirdEstateweretheunprivilegedpeople.However,thereweremany
differencesintheirwealthandstyleofliving.

ThePeasants
ThelargestsectionoftheThirdEstateconsistedofthepeasants,almost
80percentofthetotalpopulationofFrance.Thelivesofthisvastclass
werewretched.Mostofthepeasantswerefree,unliketheserfsinthe
MiddleAges,andunliketheserfsineasternEuropeinthe18thcentury.
Manyownedtheirownlands.ButagreatmajorityoftheFrenchpeasants
werelandlessorhadverysmallholdings.
Theycouldearnhardlyenoughforsubsistence.Theplightofthetenants
andsharecropperswasworse.Afterrents,thepeasantssharewas
reducedtoonethirdoronefourthofwhatheproduced.Thepeoplewho
workedonlandforwageslivedonevenless.
Certainchangesinagricultureinthe18thcenturyFrancefurtherworsened
theconditionofthepeasant.Hecouldnolongertakewoodfromthe
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forestsorgrazehisflocksonuncultivatedland.Theburdenoftaxation
wasintolerable.Besidestaxes,therewasalsoforcedlabourwhichhad
beenafeudalprivilegeofthelordandwhichwasmoreandmoreresorted
toforpublicworks.Thereweretaxesforlocalroadsandbridges,the
church,andotherneedsofthecommunity.Abadharvestunderthese
conditionsinevitablyledtostarvationandunrest.

TheMiddleClasses
NotallthepeoplebelongingtotheThirdEstateworkedontheland.There
weretheartisans,workersandpoorpeoplelivingintownsandcities.Then
therewasthemiddleclassorthebourgeoisie.
Thisclassconsistedoftheeducatedpeoplewriters,doctors,judges,
lawyers,teachers,civilservantsandthericherpeoplewhowere
merchants,bankers,andmanufacturers.
Economically,thisclasswasthemostimportantone.Itwastheforerunner
ofthebuildersoftheindustrieswhichweretotransformeconomicand
sociallifeinthe19thcentury.
Themerchantbusinessgroups,thoughnewinhistory,hadgrownvery
importantandrich,helpedbythetradewithFrenchcoloniesinAmerica.
Sincethesepeoplehadmoney,thestate,theclergyandthenobilitywere
indebtedtothem.However,themiddleclasshadnopoliticalrights.Ithad
nosocialstatus,anditsmembershadtosuffermanyhumiliations.

TheArtisansandCityWorkers
Theconditionofthecitypoorworkersandartisanswasinhumaninthe
18thcenturyFrance.Theywerelookeduponasinferiorcreatureswithout
anyrights.
Noworkercouldleavehisjobforanotherwithouttheemployersconsent
andacertificateofgoodconduct.
Workersnothavingacertificatecouldbearrested.Theyhadtotoilfor
longhoursfromearlymorningtilllateatnight.
They,too,paidheavytaxes.Theoppressedworkersformedmanysecret
societiesandoftenresortedtostrikesandrebellion.
ThisgroupwastobecomethemainstayoftheFrenchRevolution,andthe
cityofPariswithapopulationofmorethan500,000wastoplayan
importantpartinit.Inthisnumberwasanarmyofrebels,waitingforan
opportunitytostrikeattheoldorder.

TheMonarchy
AttheheadoftheFrenchstatestoodtheking,anabsolutemonarch.Louis
XVIwasthekingofFrancewhentherevolutionbrokeout.
Hewasamanofmediocreintelligence,obstinateandindifferenttothe

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workofthegovernment.Brainwork,itissaid,depressedhim.
Hisbeautifulbutemptyheadedwife,MarieAntoinette,squandered
moneyonfestivitiesandinterferedinstateappointmentsinorderto
promoteherfavorites.Louis,too,showeredfavoursandpensionsuponhis
friends.
Thestatewasalwaysfacedbyfinancialtroublesasonewouldexpect.
Keepinghugearmiesandwagingwarsmademattersworse.Finally,it
broughtthestatetobankruptcy.

TheIntellectualMovement
Discontentorevenwretchednessisnotenoughtomakeasuccessfulrevolution.
Someonemusthelpthediscontentedtofocusonanenemyandprovideideals
tofightfor.Inotherwords,revolutionarythinkingandideasmustprecede
revolutionaryaction.Franceinthe18thcenturyhadmanyrevolutionary
thinkers.Withouttheideasspreadbythesephilosophers,theFrenchRevolution
wouldsimplyhavebeenanoutbreakofviolence.

Rationalism:theAgeofReason
BecauseoftheideasexpressedbytheFrenchintellectuals,the18th
centuryhasbeencalledtheAgeofReason.Christianityhadtaughtthat
manwasborntosuffer.
TheFrenchrevolutionaryphilosophersassertedthatmanwasborntobe
happy.Theybelievedthatmancanattainhappinessifreasonisallowedto
destroyprejudiceandreformmansinstitutions.
TheyeitherdeniedtheexistenceofGodorignoredHim.InplaceofGod
theyassertedthedoctrineofNatureandtheneedtounderstanditslaws.
Theyurgedfaithinreason.Thepowerofreasonalone,theysaid,was
sufficienttobuildaperfectsociety.

AttackontheClergy
TheclergywerethefirsttofeelthebruntoftheFrenchphilosophers.A
longseriesofscientificadvancesdatingfromtheRenaissancehelpedin
theircampaignagainsttheclergy.
Voltaire,oneofthemostfamousFrenchwritersofthetime,thoughnotan
atheist,believedallreligionsabsurdandcontrarytoreason.
AfterVoltaire,otherphilosophers,atheistsandmaterialists,gained
popularity.Theybelievedthatmansdestinylayinthisworldratherthan
inheaven.
WritingsattackingreligionfedthefiresofrevolutionbecausetheChurch
gavesupporttoautocraticmonarchyandtheoldorder.

PhysiocratesandLaissezFaire

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TheFrencheconomistsofthetimewerecalledphysiocrats.They
believedinLaissezfaireaboutwhichyouvealreadyreadinchapter7
(clickme)

Accordingtothistheory,apersonmustbeleftfreetomanageanddispose
ofhispropertyinthewayhethinksbest.LiketheEnglishandAmerican
revolutionariesbeforethem,thephysiocratssaidthattaxesshouldbe
imposedonlywiththeconsentofthoseonwhomtheywerelevied.These
ideaswereadirectdenialoftheprivilegesandfeudalrightsthatprotected
theupperclasses.

Democracy:JeanJacquesRousseau
Thephilosopherwriter,Montesquieu,thoughtaboutthekindof
governmentthatisbestsuitedtomanandoutlinedtheprinciplesof
constitutionalmonarchy.
However,itwasJeanJacquesRousseauwhoassertedthedoctrineof
popularsovereigntyanddemocracy.Hesaid,Manisbornfree,yet
everywhereheisinchains.Hetalkedofthestateofnaturewhenman
wasfree,andsaidthatfreedomwaslostfollowingtheemergenceof
property.
Herecognizedpropertyinmodernsocietiesasanecessaryevil.
Whatwasneeded,saidRousseau,wasanewsocialcontracttoguarantee
thefreedom,equalityandhappinesswhichmanhadenjoyedinthestateof
nature.
Rousseaustheoriesalsocontainedaprinciplethathadbeenwritteninto
theAmericanDeclarationofIndependence:nopoliticalsystemcan
maintainitselfwithouttheconsentofthegoverned.

OutbreakoftheRevolution
In1789,LouisXVIsneedformoneycompelledhimtoagreetoameeting
oftheStatesGeneraltheoldfeudalassembly.Louiswantedtoobtainits
consentfornewloansandtaxes.AllthreeEstateswererepresentedinit
buteachoneheldaseparatemeeting.
On17June1789,membersoftheThirdEstate,claimingtorepresent96
percentofthenationspopulation,declaredthemselvestheNational
Assembly.
On20June,theyfoundtheirmeetinghalloccupiedbyroyalguardsbut,
determinedtomeet,theymovedtothenearbyroyaltenniscourttowork
outaconstitution.
LouisthenmadepreparationstobreakuptheAssembly.Troopswere
called:rumoursspreadthatleadingmembersoftheAssemblywouldsoon
bearrested.Thisenragedthepeople,whobegantogatherintheir
thousands.
Theyweresoonjoinedbytheguards.TheysurroundedtheBastille,astate
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prison,
On14July.Afterafourhoursiege,theybrokeopenthedoors,freeingall
theprisoners.ThefalloftheBastillesymbolizedthefallofautocracy.
July14iscelebratedeveryyearasanationalholidayinFrance.

AfterFallofBastille
After14July1789,LouisXVIwaskingonlyinname.TheNational
Assemblybegantoenactlaws.
FollowingthefalloftheBastille,therevoltspreadtoothertownsand
citiesandfinallyintothecountryside.TheNationalAssemblyadoptedthe
famousDeclarationoftheRightsofManandCitizen.Itspecifiedthe
equalityofallmenbeforethelaw,eligibilityofallcitizensforallpubic
offices,freedomfromarrestorpunishmentwithoutprovencause,freedom
ofspeechandfreedomofthepress.
Mostimportantofall,tothemiddleclass,itrequiredequitabledistribution
oftheburdensoftaxationandrightsofprivateproperty.
TherevolutionaryimportanceofthisdeclarationforEuropecannotbe
overestimated.EverygovernmentinEuropewasbasedonprivilege.If
theseideaswereapplied,theentireoldorderofEuropewouldbe
destroyed.

WarandEndofMonarchy
ThepeopleofFranceweresooninvolvedinawartodefendthe
Revolutionandthenation.Manynoblesandclericsfledthecountryand
encouragedforeigngovernmentstointerveneinFranceagainstthe
Revolution.ThekingandqueentriedtoescapefromFranceindisguise
buttheywererecognizedandbroughtbackascaptivesandtraitors.
TheoldNationalAssemblywasreplacedbyaLegislativeAssembly.This
Assemblytookoverthepropertyofthosepeoplewhohadfled.Itsent
wordtotheAustrianemperor,whowasmobilizingsupportagainstFrance
torenounceeverytreatydirectedagainsttheFrenchnation.Whenthe
emperorrefused,theLegislativeAssemblydeclaredwar.
SoonFrancewasfightingAustria,Prussia,andSavoyinItaly.Thethree
weresupportedbyanarmyoftheFrenchexiles.
Francehaddestroyedfeudalismandmonarchyandfoundednew
institutionsbasedonlibertyandequality,whereasinthesecountriesthe
oldwayofliferemained.ThecommanderinchiefoftheAustroPrussian
forcesstatedthattheaimwastosuppressanarchyinFranceandtorestore
thekingsauthority.TheFrenchrevolutionariesrepliedbyoffering
fraternityandassistancetoallpeoplewishingtodestroytheoldorderin
theircountries.
Thekingandqueenweretriedandexecutedin1793.Thiswasfollowedby

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adeclarationofwaragainstBritain,Holland,SpainandHungary.
Then,aradicalgroup,theJacobins,believingindirectdemocracy,tameto
power.FearingthattheRevolutionwasindanger,thisgrouptooktostrong
measurestocrushforcesinimicaltotheRevolution.In14months,some
17,000people,includingthosewhowereinnocent,weretriedand
executed.SomepeoplehavecalledittheReignofTerror.Later,anew
constitutionwasdrawnup.Butthearmybecameincreasinglypowerful
andthisledtotheriseofNapoleon,whowassoontodeclarehimself
EmperoroftheFrenchRepublic.

NapoleonicWars
From1792to1815,Francewasengagedinwaralmostcontinuously.It
wasawarbetweenFranceandotherstates.Somehistorianshavetermedit
asaninternationalcivilwarbecauseitwasfoughtbetweenrevolutionary
Franceandcountriesupholdingtheoldorder.Inthiswar,Francewas
alone.
However,untilNapoleonbecameemperor,almosteveryenlightened
personintheworldsympathizedwiththeFrenchRevolution.
Between1793and1796Frencharmiesconqueredalmostallofwestern
Europe.WhenNapoleonpressedontoMalta,EgyptandSyria(179799),
theFrenchwereoustedfromItaly.
AfterNapoleonseizedpower,Francerecoveredtheterritoriesshehadlost
anddefeatedAustriain1805,Prussiain1806,andRussiain1807.Onthe
seatheFrenchcouldnotscoreagainstthestrongerBritishnavy.
Finally,anallianceofalmostallEuropedefeatedFranceatLeipzigin
1813.ThesealliedforceslateroccupiedParis,andNapoleonwasdefeated.
HisattemptatrecoverywasfoiledatthebattleofWaterlooinJune1815.
Thepeacesettlement,whichinvolvedallEurope,tookplaceatthe
CongressofVienna.
AfterthedefeatofNapoleon,theoldrulingdynastyofFrancewasrestored
topower.
However,withinafewyears,in1830,therewasanotheroutbreakof
revolution.
In1848,themonarchywasagainoverthrownthoughitsoonreappeared.
Finally,in1871,theRepublicwasagainproclaimed.

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MindmapofFrenchRevolution(ClicktoEnlarge)

ConsequencesoftheRevolution
1. AmajorresultoftheRevolutionwasthedestructionoffeudalismin
France.Allthelawsoftheoldfeudalregimewereannulled.Churchlands
andlandsheldincommonbythecommunitywereboughtbythemiddle
classes.Thelandsofnobleswereconfiscated.Privilegedclasseswere
abolished.
2. AfterNapoleonseizedpower.TheNapoleonicCodewasintroduced.
ManyelementsofthisCoderemainedinforceforalongtimesomeof
themexisteventothisday.
3. AnotherlastingresultoftheRevolutioninFrancewasthebuildingupofa
neweconomicsysteminplaceofthefeudalsystemwhichhadbeen
overthrown.Thissystemwascapitalismaboutwhichyouhavereadin
Chapter7 .Eventherestoredmonarchycouldnotbringbackthefeudal
systemordestroytheneweconomicinstitutionsthathadcomeintobeing.
4. TheFrenchRevolutiongavethetermnationitsmodernmeaning.A
nationisnottheterritorythatthepeoplebelongingtoitinhabitbutthe
peoplethemselves.FrancewasnotmerelytheterritoriesknownasFrance
buttheFrenchpeople.
5. Fromthisfollowedtheideaofsovereignty,thatanationrecognizesno
laworauthorityaboveitsown.Andifanationissovereign,thatmeansthe
peopleconstitutingthenationarethesourceofallpowerandauthority.
Therecannotbeanyrulersabovethepeople,onlyarepublicinwhichthe
governmentderivesitsauthorityfromthepeopleandisanswerabletothe
people.ItisinterestingtorememberthatwhenNapoleonbecameemperor
hecalledhimselftheEmperoroftheFrenchRepublic.Suchwasthe
strengthoftheideaofpeoplessovereignty.
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6. ItwasthisideaofthepeoplebeingthesovereignthatgaveFranceher
militarystrength.Theentirenationwasunitedbehindthearmywhich
consistedofrevolutionarycitizens.InawarinwhichalmostallofEurope
wasrangedagainstFrance,shewouldhavehadnochancewithjusta
mercenaryarmy.
7. UndertheJacobinconstitution,allpeopleweregiventherighttovote
andtherightofinsurrection.Theconstitutionstatedthatthegovernment
mustprovidethepeoplewithworkorlivelihood.Thehappinessofallwas
proclaimedastheaimofgovernment.Thoughitwasneverreallyputinto
effect,itwasthefirstgenuinelydemocraticconstitutioninhistory.
8. ThegovernmentabolishedslaveryintheFrenchcolonies.
9. Napoleonsrisetopowerwasastepbackward.However,thoughhe
destroyedtheRepublicandestablishedanempire,theideaoftherepublic
couldnotbedestroyed.
10. TheRevolutionhadcomeaboutwiththesupportandbloodofcommon
peoplethecitypoorandthepeasants.In1792,forthefirsttimein
history,workers,peasantsandothernonpropertiedclassesweregiven
equalpoliticalrights.
11. Althoughtherighttovoteandelectrepresentativesdidnotsolvethe
problemsofthecommonpeople.Thepeasantsgottheirlands.Buttothe
workersandartisansthepeoplewhowerethebackboneofthe
revolutionarymovementtheRevolutiondidnotbringrealequality.To
them,realequalitycouldcomeonlywitheconomicequality.
12. Francesoonbecameoneofthefirstcountrieswheretheideasofsocial
equality,ofsocialism,gaverisetoanewkindofpoliticalmovement.

ImpactofFrenchRevolutionontheWorld
TheFrenchRevolutionhadbeenaworldshakingevent.Foryearstocome
itsdirectinfluencewasfeltinmanypartsoftheworld.Itinspired
revolutionarymovementsinalmosteverycountryofEuropeandinSouth
andCentralAmerica.
ForalongtimetheFrenchRevolutionbecametheclassicexampleofa
revolutionwhichpeopleofmanynationstriedtoemulate.
TheimpactoftheFrenchRevolutioncanbesummedup,inthewordsofT.
Kolokotrones,oneoftherevolutionaryfightersintheGreekwarof
independence:Accordingtomyjudgment,theFrenchRevolutionandthe
doingsofNapoleonopenedtheeyesoftheworld.Thenationsknew
nothingbefore,andthepeoplethoughtthatkingsweregodsuponthe
earthandthattheywereboundtosaythatwhatevertheydidwaswell
done.Throughthispresentchangeitismoredifficulttorulethepeople.
EventhoughtheoldrulingdynastyofFrancehadbeenrestoredtopower
in1815,andtheautocraticgovernmentsofEuropefoundthemselvessafe
forthetimebeing,therulersfounditincreasinglydifficulttorulethe

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people.
SomeofthechangesthattookplaceinmanypartsofEuropeandthe
Americasintheearly19thcenturyweretheimmediate,direct
consequencesoftheRevolutionandtheNapoleonicwars.
ThewarsinwhichFrancewasengagedwithotherEuropeanpowershad
resultedintheFrenchoccupationofvastareasofEuropeforsometime.
TheFrenchsoldiers,wherevertheywent,carriedwiththemideasofliberty
andequalityshakingtheoldfeudalorder.Theydestroyedserfdominareas
whichcameundertheiroccupationandmodernizedthesystemsof
administration.
UnderNapoleon,theFrenchhadbecomeconquerorsinsteadofliberators.
ThecountrieswhichorganizedpopularresistanceagainsttheFrench
occupationcarriedoutreformsintheirsocialandpoliticalsystem.The
leadingpowersofEuropedidnotsucceedinrestoringtheoldordereither
inFranceorinthecountriesthattheRevolutionhadreached.
Thepoliticalandsocialsystemsofthe18thcenturyhadreceivedaheavy
blow.TheyweresoontodieinmostofEuropeundertheimpactofthe
revolutionarymovementsthatsprangupeverywhereinEurope.

RevolutionsinCentralandSouthAmerica
TheimpactoftheRevolutionwasfeltonthefarawayAmericancontinent.
RevolutionaryFrancehadabolishedslaveryinhercolonies.Theformer
FrenchcolonyofHaitibecamearepublic.Thiswasthefirstrepublic
establishedbytheblackpeople,formerlyslaves,intheAmericas.
Inspiredbythisexample,revolutionarymovementsaroseintheAmericas
tooverthrowforeignrule,toabolishslaveryandtoestablishindependent
republics.
ThechiefEuropeanimperialistpowersinCentralandSouthAmericawere
SpainandPortugal.SpainhadbeenoccupiedbyFrance,andPortugalwas
involvedinaconflictwithFrance.
Duringtheearly19thcentury,thesetwoimperialistcountrieswerecutoff
fromtheircolonies,withtheresultthatmostofthePortugueseandSpanish
coloniesinCentralandSouthAmericabecameindependent.
Themovementsforindependenceinthesecountrieshadearlierbeen
inspiredbythesuccessfulWarofAmericanIndependence.TheFrench
Revolutionensuredtheirsuccess.
Bythethirddecadeofthe19thcentury,almostentireCentralandSouth
AmericahadbeenliberatedfromtheSpanishandthePortugueseruleand
anumberofindependentrepublicswereestablished.Intheserepublics
slaverywasabolished.
It,however,persistedintheUnitedStatesforafewmoredecadeswhereit
wasfinallyabolishedfollowingtheCivilWaraboutwhichyouhaveread
beforeinthischapter.SimonBolivar,BernardoOHigginsandSanMartin

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werethegreatleadersinSouthAmericaatthistime.
IntheNextparts,wellsee
UnificationofGermanyandItalyRevolutionarymovementsinotherparts
ofEurope
RiseofSocialism
ForarchiveofallWorldhistoryrelatedarticlesvisitMrunal.org/history

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[OldNCERTWorldHistoryCh8]UnificationofGermany,UnificationofItaly,
Bismarck,Blood&Iron(Part3of4)
1. RevolutionaryMovementsinEurope
1. HolyAlliance
2. Revolutionsof1848
3. GrowthofDemocracyinEngland
2. UnificationofGermany
1. Prussia
2. ProblemsofdividedGermany
3. Bismarck:Policyofblood&iron
4. FallofLouisBonaparte
3. UnificationofItaly
1. YoungItalymovement
2. Italyaftertherevolutionof1848.
3. UprisinginSicilies
4. RomebecometheCapital
4. Aftertherevoltsandunifications

RevolutionaryMovementsinEurope
Theperiodafter1815sawtheemergenceofrevolutionaryactivityin
everycountryinEurope.Insomecountries,theaimoftherevolutionaries
wastheoverthrowofautocraticrulersandtheabolitionofserfdomin
someitwastheoverthrowofforeignruleandinsomeothersitwassocial,
politicalandeconomicreforms.
Nationalismemergedasamajorforceinthisperiod.However,itis
interestingtoseethatthisnationalismwasneitherexclusivenor
chauvinistic.
Revolutionariesfightingforindependencedidnotfightfortheir
independencealoneoragainstthedespotismoftheirrulersonly.Theydid
notwanttheirnationtodominateothernations.
Theywereinfactinspiredbytheaimoffightingagainstdespotism
everywhere.Theywereunitedintoakindofinternationalbrotherhoodof
peoplesagainstalldespots.
TheSouthAmericanrevolutionariesOHiggins,SimonBolivarandSan
MartinfoughtfortheindependenceofmanycountriesinSouthAmerica.
Mazzini,oneoftheforemostleadersofthestruggleforItalianunification

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andindependence,formedanumberoforganizationssuchasYoung
Poland,YoungGermanyandYoungItalyfortheliberationofthese
countries.
Garibaldi,anothergreatleaderoftheItalianrevolutionaries,foughtfor
thefreedomofthepeoplesofSouthAmerica.
ThegreatEnglishpoetLordByronwasalsooneoftheserevolutionaries.
HefoughtforthefreedomofGreeceanddiedthere.Hedeclaredthathe
wouldwarwitheverydespotismineverynation.ThesewordsofByron
bestsumuptheattitudeofalargenumberofrevolutionariesofthetime.
However,astherevolutionarieswereunitedintheircommonaimof
overthrowingdespotismeverywhere,theautocraticgovernmentsalsowere
unitedtosuppresseveryrevoltandmovementagainstanydespotism.

HolyAlliance
In1815,therulersofAustria,Britain,RussiaandPrussiaformedan
alliance.Oneofthemajordeclaredaimsofthisalliancewastosuppress
anyattemptbythepeopletooverthrowarulerwhomthesecountries
consideredthelegitimaterulerofthecountry.
ThenewrulerofFrancealsosoonjoinedthisalliance.Austria,Russiaand
PrussiahadformedanotheralliancewhichtheycalledtheHolyAlliance.
Thisalliancewhichmanyotherrulersalsojoinedwasevenmoreopenly
opposedtodemocraticideasandmovementsthanthefirst.After1815the
rulersofEuropetriedtosuppressallmovementsforfreedomand
democracyintheirownaswellasinothercountries.
In1821,forexample,AustriasentherarmiesintoNaplesandPiedmontin
Italytosuppresstheuprisingsthathadtakenplacethere.Inmany
countriesofEurope,thefreedomofthepresswasabolishedandalarge
numberofspieswererecruitedtokeepwatchontheactivitiesofthe
revolutionaries.
Theoppressivemeasuresintroducedbytherulersfailedtocurbthe
revolutionarymovementsinEurope.In1830revolutionsbrokeoutina
numberofcountries.TheFrenchmonarchfledawaytoEnglandandwas
succeededbyLouisPhilippewhopromisedtoruleaccordingtothewishes
ofthepeople.
TherewasarevoltinBelgiumforfreedomfromHolland.Insurrections
brokeoutinvariousstatesofItalyandGermanyandinPoland.Although
mostoftheserevoltsweresuppressed,theindependenceoftwonew
nationswasrecognizedofGreecein1830andofBelgiumin1839.

Revolutionsof1848
Withinafewyearsaftertherevoltsof1830hadbeensuppressed,the
revolutionarymovementsinEuropeagaingainedmomentum.
In1848,revolutionsbrokeoutinalmosteverycountryofEurope,which

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dealtamortalblowtothecountriesoftheHolyAlliance.
Earlyin1848,therewasarevoltinItaly.
InFebruary,revolutionbrokeoutinFranceandLouisPhilippewhohad
beeninstalledaskingafterthe1830revolutionfledaway.
Franceagainbecamearepublicforsometimebutpowerwasusurpedby
LouisNapoleonBonaparte,popularlyknownasNapoleonIII,anephewof
Napoleon,in1852.
Francefinallybecamearepublicin1871whentheempireofLouis
Bonapartecollapsed.
TherevolutioninFrancewassoonfollowedbyuprisingsinmanytownsof
Germany.TherulersofmanyGermanstates,includingPrussiawhichwas
amemberoftheHolyAlliance,agreedtointroducemanyreforms.
Simultaneously,therewereuprisingsinVienna,thecapital,andinother
townsoftheAustrianempire,anothermemberoftheHolyAlliance.
Metternich,theChancelloroftheempire,whowasthemosthatedmanin
Europe,hadtoflee.
TheAustrianempireinthosedayswasalargeempirerulingovermany
nationsofEurope.ItruledoverAustria,Hungary,Czechoslovakia,
Rumania,Poland,Yugoslaviaandmanyotherareas.
Revoltshadbrokenoutinallthesubjectnationsoftheempireaswellasin
Austria.Eventhoughtheserevoltsdidnotsucceed,theempirewasbadly
shaken.
Therevolutionsof1848failedtooverthrowtheestablishedoppressive
regimesofEuropethoughtheyconsiderablyweakenedthem.Themost
significantaspectofthe1848revolutionswastheemergenceofanew
politicalforceinEurope.
YouhavereadinChapter7abouttheriseofanewsocialclassinEurope
followingtheIndustrialRevolutiontheworkingclass.Theworkerswere
amajorforceintherevolutionsof1848.Theiraimwasnotmerelythe
overthrowofautocraciesbutalsothedestructionoftheeconomicsystem
thathadgrownwiththeIndustrialRevolutioncapitalism.Other
participantsintherevolutionsthecapitalists,themerchantsandother
peoplebelongingtothemiddleclasswantedconstitutionalreforms.
Theylookeduponthedemandsoftheworkersforsocialrevolutionwith
horror.Whentherevolutionarymovementswereattheirpeak,they
decidedtocompromisewiththerulers.

GrowthofDemocracyinEngland
Thefirstsuccessfulrevolutionthatoverthrewtheautocraticmonarchy
tookplaceinEnglandintheseventeenthcentury.Thishadresultedinthe
establishmentofthesupremacyofParliamentinEngland.However,
Parliamentatthattimewasnotatrulydemocraticinstitution.
Therighttovotewaslimitedtoaverysmallpercentageofthepopulation.
Throughouttheeighteenthandnineteenthcenturies,thedemandfor
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makingParliamentademocraticinstitutiongrew.Campaignstoextend
therighttovotetoeverycitizenwerewaged.Thesecampaignswereledby
radicalleaderswhorepresentedtheinterestsofworkers,andthecitypoor,
andbythoserepresentingtheindustrialists.
Until1832,representationinParliamentwasbasednotonpopulationbut
onelectiondistrictscountiesandboroughs.Manyofthesewereno
longerpopulatedexceptedforafewhouses,whilenewtownsandcities
withlargepopulationshadnorepresentation.
UndertheActof1832,theoldunpopulatedareasorrottenboroughs,as
theywerecalled,wereabolishedandtheirseatsweregiventonewtowns
andcities.
Atthistimealso,therighttovotewasextendedtothosewhoownedor
rentedahouseofacertainvalueinthetownsorinvillages.Thisformed
onlyabout10percentofthepopulation.
Inch.7,YouhavereadoftheChartistMovementwhichwaslaunchedtoget
therighttovoteforworkers.Thoughthemovementdeclinedinthe1850s,
itleftitsinfluenceandthroughtheActsof1867.1882,1918and1929,all
adultcitizenswereenfranchised.
Thusitwasover200yearsafterParliamentbecamesupremethatitbecame
alsoatrulyrepresentativebodyoftheBritishpeople.

UnificationofGermany
Oneofthemajorfeaturesofthe19thcenturyhistoryofEuropewasthe
strugglesfornationalunificationandindependence.Theachievementof
independencebyGreeceandBelgiumhasbeenmentionedbefore.
GermanyandItalyweretheothertwoimportantnationswhichemergedas
united,independentstatesinthe19thcentury.
Inthe18thcentury,Germanywasdividedintoanumberofstates.Someof
thesestateswereverysmallanddidnotextendbeyondthelimitsofacity.
DuringtheNapoleonicwars,manyofthesestatesceasedtoexist.Atthe
endofthewarstherewerestillthirtyeightindependentstatesin
Germany.AmongthemPrussia,Wurttemberg,Bavaria,andSaxonywere
fairlylarge.

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Prussia
wasthemostpowerfulinMilitarilyandinextent.Itwasalsothemost
reactionary.ThebiglandlordsofPrussiaknownasJunkersformedthe
dominantsectioninPrussiansociety.Prussiawasalsooneoftheleadersof
theHolyAlliance.

ProblemsofdividedGermany
ThedivisionofGermanyintoanumberofstateshadhamperedthe
economicdevelopmentofGermany.Thesocialandpoliticalsystemin
thesestateswasalsoverybackward.
Withthegrowthofnationalconsciousness,particularlyaftertheFrench
Revolution,thepeopleofthesestateshadstarteddemandingthenational
unificationofGermany,establishmentofdemocraticgovernmentand
socialandeconomicreforms.
In1815,theGermanstatesalongwithAustriawereorganisedintoa
GermanicConfederation.However,eachstatetriedtopreserveits
independenceanditsoppressivepoliticalandsocialsystem.
In1848revoltsoccurredineveryGermanstateandtherulerswereforced
tograntdemocraticconstitutions.TouniteGermanyandtoframea
constitutionfortheunitedGermany,aconstituentassemblymetin
Frankfurt.
TheinitialsuccessoftherevoltshadmadetheGermandemocratsand

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nationaliststhinkthatvictoryhadbeenachieved.
Whiletheydebatedtheclausesoftheconstitution,therulersprepared
themselvestosuppressthemovement.
TheFrankfurtAssemblyproposedtheunificationofGermanyasa
constitutionalmonarchyundertheKingofPrussiawhowouldbecome
emperorofGermany.
However,theKingofPrussiadeclinedtheoffer.Hedidnotwishtoaccept
thecrownfromtheelectedrepresentativesofthepeople.Repressionsoon
followedandeventherightsthatpeoplehadwonintheinitialstagesof
therevolutionweretakenaway.ThousandsofGermanrevolutionarieshad
tofleethecountryandliveinexile.

Bismarck:Policyofblood&iron
Withthefailureoftherevolutionof1848tounifyGermany,onephasein
thestruggleforunificationcametoanend.NowGermanywastobe
unifiednotintoademocraticcountrybytheeffortsofrevolutionariesbut
bytherulersintoamilitaristicempire.
TheleaderofthispolicywasBismarckwhobelongedtoaPrussian
aristocraticfamily.Hewantedtopreservethepredominanceofthelanded
aristocratsandthearmyintheunitedGermanstateandtoachievethe
unificationofGermanyundertheleadershipofthePrussianmonarchy.
Hedescribedhispolicyofunificationasoneofbloodandiron.
Thepolicyofbloodandironmeantapolicyofwar.Thefirstaimhe
pursuedwastheeliminationofAustriafromtheGermanicConfederation.
HealignedwithAustriainawaragainstDenmarkoverthepossessionof
SchleswigandHolstein.
AfterDenmarksdefeat,heenteredintoanalliancewithItalyagainst
Austria,defeatedAustriaanddissolvedtheGermanicConfederation.
ThusAustriawasseparatedfromotherGermanstates.
InplaceoftheoldConfederation,heunited22statesofGermanyinto
NorthGermanConfederationin1866.Theconstitutionofthis
ConfederationmadethekingofPrussiathehereditaryheadofthe
Confederation.
TheunificationofGermanywascompletedasaresultofawarbetween
PrussiaandFrance.

FallofLouisBonaparte
In1870,LouisBonaparte,whosepowerhadbeguntocollapse,declared
waronPrussiainthehopeofmaintaininghisempirethroughamilitary
victory.ThewarwaspartlyprovokedbyBismarck.Itproveddisastrous
fortheempireofLouisBonaparte.
TheFrencharmiesweredefeatedandtheFrenchemperorwascaptured.
Afterherdefeat,Francefinallybecamearepublic.Germanysunification

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wascompletedasaresultofthewarwhichenabledBismarcktoabsorbthe
remainingGermanstatesintoaunitedGermany.
TheformalceremonyatwhichKingWilliamIofPrussiatookthetitleof
GermanEmperorwasnotheldonGermansoil.IttookplaceatVersailles
inFrance,inthepalaceoftheFrenchkings.
Afterherunification,GermanyemergedasaverystrongpowerinEurope.
Itunderwentheavyindustrializationinaveryshortperiodandsoonjoined
thescrambleforcolonies.However,themilitarismwhichmadeGermany
intoagreatpowerwastoprovedisastroustothepeopleofGermanyinthe
yearstocome.(Formoreonthat,refertoChapter12)

UnificationofItaly
LikeGermany,Italywasalsodividedintoanumberofstates.
Themajorstatesintheearly19thcenturyItalywereSardinia,Lombardy,
Venetia,KingdomoftheTwoSicilies(SicilyandNaples),PapalStates,
Tuscany,ParmaandModena.
OfthesethemostpowerfulwasthekingdomofSardinia.
VenetiaandLombardywereunderAustrianoccupation.
ThustheItalianpeoplewerefacedwiththetaskofexpellingtheAustrians
andforcingtherulersofindependentstatestounite.

YoungItalymovement
ThestruggleforItalianindependenceandunificationwasorganizedby
thetwofamousrevolutionariesofItalywhosenameshavebeenmentioned
intheearlierpartofthischapterGiuseppeMazziniandGiuseppe
Garibaldi.
ThemovementledbythemisknownastheYoungItalymovement.It
aimedattheindependenceandunificationofItalyandtheestablishment

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ofarepublicthere.
In1848,asinotherpartsofEurope,revolutionaryuprisingshadbroken
outinItalyandtherulerswereforcedtograntcertaindemocraticreforms
tothepeople.
However,thegoalofindependenceandunificationwasstilldistant.

Italyaftertherevolutionof1848.
ThekingofSardiniahadintroducedmanyreformsinthepoliticalsystem
ofhiskingdomaftertherevolutionof1848.After1848,hisprime
minister,CountCavour,tooktheinitiativeofunitingItalyunderthe
leadershipofSardinia.
CavourspolicyinsomewayswassimilartothatfollowedbyBismarckin
Germany.HopingtogainthesupportofBritainandFrance,heenteredthe
Crimeanwarin185356againstRussiaeventhoughSardiniahadno
disputewithRussia.However,nothingcameoutofthiswar.
In1859,CavourenteredintoanalliancewithLouisBonaparteandwentto
warwithAustria.AlthoughFrancesoonwithdrewfromthewar,Austria
wasoustedfromLombardy,whichwastakenoverbySardinia.
Tuscany,Modena,ParmaandthePapalStatesofthenorthalsojoined
Sardinia.
Venetia,however,wasstillunderAustrianoccupation.Theotherstates
thatremainedtobeunitedwithSardiniaweretheKingdomoftheTwo
SiciliesandRomewhichwasundertheruleofthePope.

UprisinginSicilies
MeanwhileanuprisinghadbrokenoutintheKingdomoftheTwoSicilies.
GaribaldimarchedintotheislandofSicilywithhisrevolutionaryfighters
andliberateditfromtheruleofthekingwithinthreemonths.Thenhe
marchedtoNaplesinsupportoftherevoltthathadalreadybrokenout
there.
BytheendOfNovember1860theentireKingdomoftheTwoSicilieshad
beenliberated.TheItalianrevolutionarieswerenotperhapsstrongenough
topushthevictoryofthepeopleintheSiciliesfurtherwithaviewto
establishingaunitedrepublicofItaly.
TheysurrenderedtheformerkingdomtotheKingofSardinia,Victor
EmmanuelII,whothentookthetitleofKingofItalyin1861.
Garibaldi,therevolutionarywhohadplayedsuchavitalroleinthe
liberationandunificationofItaly,nowretiredtoleadalifeofobscurity.

RomebecometheCapital
RomewasstilloutsidethekingdomofItaly.ItwasruledoverbythePope
withthehelpoftheFrenchsoldiersprovidedtohimbyLouisBonaparte.

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WhenthewarbetweenFranceandPrussiabrokeoutin1870,Bonaparte
wasforcedtowithdrawhistroopsfromRome.
ItaliansoldiersoccupiedthecityofRomein1870,andinJuly1871,Rome
becamethecapitalofunitedItaly.
Inspiteoftheimportantroleplayedbydemocraticandrevolutionary
leaderssuchasMazziniandGaribaldiinthestruggleforItalysliberation
andunification,Italyalso,likeGermany,becameamonarchy.

Aftertherevoltsandunifications
TheunificationofGermanyandItaly,inspiteofthefactthatdemocracy
wasnotcompletelyvictoriousthere,markedagreatadvanceinthehistory
ofthetwocountries.
Therevolutionsandmovementsdescribedabove,alongwiththeIndustrial
Revolution,deeplyinfluencedthecourseofthehistoryofmankind.The
forcesthatgeneratedtheserevolutionsandmovementswerealsoatwork
inothercountries.Theirsuccessinoneplacefedthefiresofrevoltand
encouragedchangeintherestoftheworld.Theyarestillbeingfelttoday,
transformingsocial,politicalandeconomiclifeeverywhere.
Oneoftheaspectsofthemovementsdescribedsofaristhegradualgrowth
ofpoliticaldemocracy,thatis,theeverincreasingparticipationof
increasingnumberofpeopleinthepoliticallifeofacountry.
Thishappenedincountrieswheretheformofgovernmentbecame
republicanaswellasinthosewhichremainedmonarchiessuchas
England,GermanyandItaly.
Theperiodofautocraciesandprivilegedaristocracieswasgradually
comingtoanend.Alongside,therewerealsothemovementsfornational
unityandnationalindependence.
ThesemovementswerevictoriousinItaly,Germany,andsomeother
countriesofEuropeandinthe,Americas.Inafewmoredecadestheywere
tosucceedintherestaEuropeandintherecentperiodinmostofthe
world.
Itisnecessarytorememberherethatthenewpoliticalandeconomic
systemthatwasemerginginEuropeinthe19thcenturywasalsocreating
imperialism.
TheperiodofthetriumphofdemocracyandinEuropewasalsotheperiod
oftheconquestofAsiaandAfricabytheimperialistpowersofEurope.
The19thcenturysawthebeginningoftherevoltsagainstimperialismin
AsiaandAfrica.Thereweretwomightyrevolts
1. 1857inIndia
2. TaipingrebellioninChina.
Later,nationalistmovementsinthemodemsensebegantobeorganizedinall
countriesofAsiaandAfrica.Wealreadysawseenabouttheminchapter13.
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IntheNextpart(4of4)ofCh8,wellseeTheRiseofSocialism.
ForarchiveofallWorldhistoryrelatedarticlesvisitMrunal.org/history

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unificationofgermanyunificationofitalybismarckbloodironpart3of
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Mrunal [Old NCERT World History ch9] Imperialism, Colonization of Asia, Africa, Americas Print

[OldNCERTWorldHistorych9]Imperialism,ColonizationofAsia,Africa,
Americas
1. Prologue
2. IntroductionoftheChapter
3. CONDITIONSTHATHELPEDTHEGROWTHOFIMPERIALISM
1. DemandsCreatedbytheIndustrialRevolution
2. ImprovementinTransportationandCommunication
3. ExtremeNationalism:PrideandPower
4. TheCivilizingMission:MenandIdeas
5. Explorersandadventurers
6. ConditionsthatFavouredImperialisminAsiaandAfrica
4. THECONQUESTOFASIA:TheBritishinIndia
1. ImperialisminChina
2. OpenDoorPolicy
3. ImperialisminSouthandSouthEastAsia
4. IndoChina
5. Burma
6. Philippines
7. ImperialisminCentralandWesternAsia
8. JapanasanImperialistPower
5. IMPERIALISMINAFRICA
1. SlaveTrade
2. ScrambleforAfrica
3. Explores,tradersandmissionaries
4. WestandCentralAfrica
5. FrenchCongo
6. SouthAfrica
7. Rhodesia
8. EastAfrica
9. ItalyEthiopia
10. NorthAfrica
11. Morocco
12. Egypt
6. THEAMERICASANDTHEPACIFIC
1. MonroeDoctrine
2. Mexico
3. BigStickPolicy/Dollardiplomacy

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4. PanamaCanal
5. Hawaii
7. EFEECTSOFIMPERIALISM
1. EconomicBackwardness
2. Racism
3. StruggleAgainstImperialism
8. EXERCISES

Prologue
UPSChasincludedWorldHistoryinGeneralstudies(Mains)syllabus
from2013.HenceOldNCERT,particularlyChapter9to13fromClass
10=becomesnecessaryasthefoundation/basematerialforthetopicsof
WorldHistory.
Problem=hardtothatbookfindinmarket,evenifyourewillingtospend
money.
ThatOldNCERTsbooksLowqualityPDFscanavailable=verystressful
oneyes=Hardtoreadcontinuously.(stillifyouwantthePDF,clickmeto
download )
IveconvertedthatPDFtotexttomakeitbiteasierontheeyes.Uploading
chaptershereonebyone.
DuetolowqualityoftheoriginalPDF,allwords/spellingarenot
convertedproperlyforexample,atsomeplacesIndiamaybedisplayas
Iricliaandsoon.Manysentenceswonthaveproperfullstops,commas
andpunctuation.Sameway,mostofthemaps/imagesarenotconverted
properly.ButyoucancopypastethesearticlesinMSwordandfixiton
yourown,asperyourrequirements.
btw,Illcontinuewriting[WorldHistory]articlesatmypace,justbecause
thesechaptersareuploaded,doesntmeanImstoppingmyJackSparrow
series.

IntroductionoftheChapter
(Note:UptoAfricawasalreadycoveredinprevious[WorldHistory]
Articles,youmaystartfromAmericasdirectly.)
THEterm`imperialismmeansthepracticeofextendingthepower,controlor
rulebyacountryoverthepoliticalandeconomiclifeofareasoutsideitsown
borders.Thismaybedonethroughmilitaryorothermeans,andparticularly
throughcolonialismorthepracticeofacquiringcoloniesbyconquestorother
meansandmakingthemdependentItmayberememberedthatoccupationofor
directruleoveracountryorpeoplebyanothercountryisnotalwaysan
essentialfeatureofimperialismTheessentialfeatureoftherelationsbetweenan
imperialistcountryandthecountryoverwhichithasestablisheditscontrolor
thecolonywhichithasacquired,isexploitation,withorwithoutdirectpolitical

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control.Thismeansthattheimperialistcountry,ormetropolis(literalmeaning
mothercountry),asitissometimescalled,subordinatesthecolonyorthe
countrywhichthemetropolisindirectlycontrolstoserveitsowneconomicand
politicalinterests.
MostcountriesofAsia,includingIndia,andAfrica,andmanyotherpartsofthe
worldwereuntilrecentyearsunderthecontrolofoneimperialistcountryor
another.Theseincludedcountrieswhichwerenotdirectly/ruledbythe
imperialistcountriesbutwereexploitedbythemmoreorlessinthesamewayas
countriesoverwhichdirectimperialistrulehadbeenestablishedInthepresent
dayWorld,whenalmostallcountriesoftheworldarepoliticallyindependent,
imperialistcontroloverothercountrieshasnotcometoanendThepracticeof
exploitation,particularlyeconomicexploitationanddominationofindependent
buteconomicallylessdevelopedcountries,isoftencalledneocolonialism.
ThefirstphaseoftheimperialistcontrolandcolonizationofAsia,Africaand
theAmericasbeganinthesixteenthcentury.Duringtheperiodfromthe
sixteenthtotheeighteenthcentury,asyouhavereadinChapter6(Vol.1),the
voyagesofdiscoverywerefollowedbythefoundingofvastcolonialempiresby
Portugal,Spain,Holland,EnglandandFranceIntheAmericas,Spainoccupied
mostofSouthAmerica(excludingBrazilwhichwasoccupiedbyPortugal),
CentralAmerica,Mexico,WestIndiesandpartsofwhatisnowtheUnitedStates
ofAmerica.EnglandandFranceoccupiedpartsofNorthAmericaManypeople
fromthesecountriesofEuropewenttosettleinthesecoloniespermanently
Duringthisperiod,theEuropeancontrolinAfricaextendedonlytoaboutone
fifthofthecontinent,mainlyinthecoastalareas.Thiswastheperiodofslave
tradeTheEuropeanslavetradersenslavedandtransportedabout5000Africans
totheAmericaseverymonthduringtheseventeenthcenturyInAsia,the
EuropeanscamemainlywiththepurposeoftradeThetradersfromPortugal,
Holland,England,Franceandothercountries,withthebackingoftheir
respectivegovernments,setuptheirtradingpostsandtriedtoestablishtheir
monopolyoftradewiththecountriesofAsia,andeachtriedtoexcludethe
othersthroughwarandbyextendingtheirpoliticalinfluenceandcontrol.The
PortuguesewhocontrolledthetradewithAsiawereoustedfromthatpositionby
theDutchandtheEnglishwhoextendedtheircontroloverIndonesiaandIndia,
respectively.Generallyspeaking,thefirstphaseofimperialismandcolonization
cametoanendbythecloseoftheeighteenthcentury.TheBritishconquestof
Indiawhichhadstartedinthemiddleoftheeighteenthcentury,wascompleted
byaboutthemiddleofthenineteenthcentury.Inthemeantime,theimperialist
penetrationofChinahadbegun.
Theperiodbetweenthesixteenthtotheeighteenthcenturywasaperiodof
nakedplunderbyEuropeancolonialpowersInChapter7(Vol.1),youhave
alreadyreadabouttherolewhichthisplunderplayedinthegrowthofthe
capitalistsystemandintheIndustrialRevolution

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DuringtheinitialperiodoftheIndustrialRevolution,thepursuitforcolonies
hadsloweddownThepursuitforcoloniesandcolonialrivalriesreemergedin
thelastquarterofthenineteenthcenturyThisnewphaseofimperialism,which
beganinabout1875andcontinuedtill1914,isoftendescribedasNew
ImperialismItwastheresultoftheeconomicsystemthathaddevelopedasa
resultoftheIndustrialRevolutionDuringthisphase,afewindustrialized
capitalistcountriesestablishedtheirpoliticalandeconomiccontroland
dominationoveralmosttherestoftheworldTheformsofcontroland
dominationincludingdirectcolonialrule,spheresofinfluenceandvarious
typesofeconomicandcommercialagreementsThepowerofsomeofthe
imperialistcountriessuchasSpainandPortugaldeclinedduringthisperiod,and
newcountriesemergedwhichplayedanincreasinglyimportantroleduringthis
phaseofimperialistexpansionandrivalries.Besidestheoldimperialist
countriesBritainandFrancewhichcontinuedtobepowerfulandexpand,
thenewimperialistcountrieswhichemergedduringthisperiodwereGermany,
Italy,13e1glum,USAand,later,Japan.

CONDITIONSTHATHELPEDTHEGROWTHOF
IMPERIALISM
Ifyoustudytheconditionsthatexistedintheworldinthenineteenthcentury,
youwillfindthattheseconditionsfavouredthegrowthofimperialismThe
imperialistcountriestookfulladvantageoftheseconditionsandeasilyjustified
anyandeveryconquestthatservedtheirinterests.Infact,themorepowerful
nationsmadeimperialismseemnecessaryandnatural

DemandsCreatedbytheIndustrialRevolution
Asyouhaveread,theIndustrialRevolutionresultedinaverygreatincreasein
theproductionofgoodsItalsocreatedthecapitalistsystemofproduction.
Undercapitalism,maximumprofitforthecapitalistwastheprimarypurposeof
productionCapitalistsfollowedtwocoursestomakebigprofitsmoreand
moreproductionandminimumwagestoworkersTheproductionofgoodswas
farinexcessofthedemandathome.Lowwagesmeantlowpurchasingpowerof
themajorityofthepopulationandthisalsorestrictedtheirdemandathome.So
capitalistcountrieshadtofindnewmarketsandbuyersforthegoodstheir
industrieswereproducing.
Thepossibilitiesofoneindustrializedcountrysellingitsmanufacturesto
anotherindustrializedcountrywerealsolimited.Withthespreadofthe
IndustrialRevolutiontoallthecountriesofEurope,eachcountrytriedtoprotect
andstimulateitsnewindustriesTodothis,asyoulearnedinChapter7,allthe
Europeannationsbegantofollowaprotectionistpolicy.Thatis,eachcountry
putaheavytariffortaxongoodsimportedfromothercountries.

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EuropeancountriescouldfindmarketsfortheirsurplusgoodsinAsiaand
AfricawheretheIndustrialRevolutionhadnottakenplace.Sellingwasmade
easierthroughpoliticaldominationoftheseareas.Theneachcountrycould
protectitsmarketfromotherEuropeanrivalsandalsoeliminateanycompetition
fromgoodsproducedlocally.
Inadditiontomarkets,Europeancountriesneedednewsourcesofrawmaterials.
Asindustriesgrew,moreandmorerawmaterialswereneededtofeethose
industries.Andallthatwasneededcouldnotbehadinternally,atanyratenot
enoughofit.IndiaandEgyptweregoodsourcesofcotton,CongoandtheEast
Indies,ofrubberOtherproductsneededwerefoodgrains,tea,coffee,indigo,
tobaccoandsugar.Toobtainthese,itwasnecessarytochangethepatternof
productioninthecountrieswheretheycouldbegrown.Sometimes,goods
producedinonecountryweresoldinanothercountrytopayforthegoodsfrom
thatcountryForexample,theEnglishpromotedthecultivationofopiumin
India,theysmuggledtheopiumfromIndiaintoChinaandinthiswaypaidfor
thegoodsthattheyboughtinChina.Insomecountries,theimperialistsforced
thecultivationofonlyoneortwocropswhichtheyneededasrawmaterialsfor
theirindustriesCoal,iron,tin,gold,copperand,later,oilwereotherresources
ofAsiaandAfricathatEuropeancountrieswantedtocontrol.
Towardstheendofthenineteenthcentury,imperialistcountriesbeganlooking
uponAsia,AfricaandSouthAfricaasgoodplacestoinvesttheircapitalThe
abundanceofrawmaterialsinAsiaandAfrica,andthenumberofpeoplewho
couldbemadetoworkforlowerwagesmadethetwocontinentsveryattractive
toinvestors.CapitalinvestedinEuropewouldfetchonly3or4percentprofit,
inAsiaorAfrica,itwasashighas20percentFromabouttheendofthe
nineteenthcentury,exportofcapitalforinvestmentinothercountriesbeganto
becomemoreimportantthantheexportofgoods.Thishappenedasaresultof
thegrowinginfluenceandpowerofthefinancialinstitutionssuchasbanks.
TheyexercisedcontroloverindustriesbygivingthemcreditTheinvestmentof
capitalinthecolonieswasnotmadewithaviewtoindustrializingthecolonies,
itwastopromoteindustrieswhichwouldproducegoodsmainlyforexport,such
asinmining,orwhichwouldfurtherstrengthentheimperialistcountryscontrol
overthecolonyseconomy,suchastherailwaysBut,asinthecaseofmarkets
andrawmaterials,politicaldominationwasoftennecessaryInvestmentsmight
notbesafewithoutpoliticaldomination,Europeansreasoned.Anuprising
thataweakgovernmentcouldnotcontrol,orachangeingovernment,could
meanalossofprofitsorevenofthewholeinvestment,theyarguedThiswas
howMoroccoinNorthAfrica,forexample,becameFrenchMorocco,after
Frenchinvestorsappealedtotheirgovernmenttoannexit.

ImprovementinTransportationandCommunication
ChangesintransportandcommunicationthatcamewiththeIndustrial

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Revolutionmadethespreadofimperialismeasier.Steamshipscouldcarrygoods
betweenhomecountriesinEuropeandtheacquiredterritoriesinAsiaand
AfricamuchfasterthanoldsailingvesselsWithcheaplabour,imperialist
countriesbuiltrailroadsandinlandwaterwaysinconqueredarea.Onthesethey
couldgetrawmaterialsoutoftheinteriorofthecontinentsandsendtheir
manufacturedproductsintonewmarkets.Thuseveryareaoftheworldwas
broughtwithineasyreachoftheindustrializedcountries

ExtremeNationalism:PrideandPower
Thelaterpartofthenineteenthcenturywasaperiodofintensenationalism.
GermanyandItalyhadjustsucceededinbecomingunifiednations.Nationalism
inthelatenineteenthcenturycametobeassociatedwithchauvinismMany
nationsdevelopedmythsoftheirsuperiorityoverotherpeoplesEachonefelt
thatit,too,musthavecoloniestoaddtoitsprestigeandpower.Imperialism
becamethefashionoftheage.WritersandspeakersinEngland,Franceand
Germanyopenedinstitutionstopromotetheideaofimperialism,andtookgreat
prideincallingtheirterritoriesempires.Imperialistcountriestookoversome
placesinAsiaandAfricabecauseoftheirmilitaryorstrategicimportance.For
example,EnglandneededPortSaid,Aden,HongKong,SingaporeandCyprus
nottoprotectEnglandbuttoprotectherconqueredlandsandtraderouteto
Indiafromrivalnations.Attheseplacessheestablishednavalbasesandcoaling
stationstostrengthenheroverseaspowerRivalnationsgotsimilarbases
elsewhere,asyouwillsee.AcquiringacolonyalsohadachainreactionIfa
countyacquiredacolony,itneededanothertoprotectitandsoon
Overseaspossessionswerealsousefulbecausetheyaddedtoanimperialist
countrysmanpowerSomeofthepeopleofthecolonizedcountriesweretaken
intothearmy,oftenbyforce,foruseinwarsofconquest,otherswerecontracted
toworkonplantationsandminesinsomeothercolonialpossessionfora
specifiednumberofyears.Themanpowerofthecolonieswasalsousedinthe
administrationofthecoloniesatlowerlevels.

TheCivilizingMission:MenandIdeas
InthemindsofmanyEuropeans,imperialistexpansionwasverynoble.They
considereditawayofbringingcivilizationtothebackwardpeoplesofthe
worldThefamousEnglishwriter,RudyardKipling,askedhiscountrymento
shoulderwhathecalledthewhitemansburdenJulesFerry,inFrance,said,
Superiorraceshavethedutyofcivilizingtheinferiorraces.
Christianmissionaries,dedicatedtospreadingChristianity,alsoplayedtheir
partinpromotingtheideaofimperialism.Usuallytheywentaloneinto
unknownareasinaspiritofduty.Veryoftentheywerefollowedbyprofiteering
tradersandsoldiers.Warsoftentookplacetoprotectthemissionaries.Allthis

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seemedquitenaturaltomostWesternpeoplewhoconsideredittheirnations
destinytocivilizeandChristianizethepeoplesofAsiaandAfricaPresident
McKinleyoftheUnitedStatessummedupthereasonsforannexingthe
PhilippinesinthesewordsTherewasnothinglefttodobuttotakethemall,
andtoeducatetheFilipinosandupliftandcivilizeandChristianizethemasour
fellowmenforwhomChristalsodied.

Explorersandadventurers
Theyalsohelpedinspreadingimperialism.Theywentintounknownorlittle
knownterritoriesandbroughtbackreportsthatoftenindicatedopportunitiesfor
tradeanddevelopment.Onthebasisofsuchreports,atradingpostwouldfirst
besetupnext,graduallytheexplorershomegovernmentwouldarrangeto
takeoverprotectionoftheentireareaaroundthetradingpostThenthis
governmentwouldproceedtoclaimtheentireterritoryTheworkofexplorers
andadventurerswasparticularlyimportantinEuropestakingoverofAfrica.

ConditionsthatFavouredImperialisminAsiaandAfrica
ThemostimportantconditionfavouringtheimperialistconquestofAsiaand
AfricawasthattheIndustrialRevolutionhadnotcometothispartoftheworld.
ThecraftsmenproducedgoodsoffinequalitythatWesternersadmiredand
desired.Buttheyreliedentirelyonhandtoolswhichmeantproductionona
smallscaleIncomparisonwiththeproductionofWesterncountriesinthe
nineteenthcentury,AsianandAfricanmethodswerebackward.Also,becauseof
thelackofknowledgethattheIndustrialRevolutionhadbroughttotheWest,
thetwocontinentsweremilitarilyunabletostanduptothearmedmightand
powerofEurope.
ThegovernmentsofthecountriesofAsiaandAfricawereveryweakinthe
nineteenthcentury,thoughinancientandmedievaltimespowerfulempireshad
existedthere.Inthenineteenthcentury,theoldwaysofgoverningwerestill
followed,eventhoughtheyhadoutlivedtheirusefulness.Strongnationstatesin
themodernsensehadnotdeveloped.Thepeoplesloyaltieswerestilltolocal
princesasinfeudaltimes,ortotribalchieftains.Theserulerscaredlittleforthe
welfareofthepeople.Theseconditionshelptoexplainhowsmallbandsof
Westernerssucceededingainingpowerand,finally,withthebackingoftheir
governments,inconqueringentirecountries.

THECONQUESTOFASIA:TheBritishinIndia
ThedeclineoftheMughalempireinIndiagavetheBritishandtheFrench,who
hadcometotrade,anopportunitytoconquerIndia.TheEnglishEastIndia
Company,formedin1600,wasvictoriousinitsconflictwithFrance,which
endedin1763.BeginningwithBengal,almosttheentirecountrycameunderthe

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ruleoftheEnglishEastIndiaCompany.AftertheRevoltof1857,theBritish
governmenttookoverdirectcontrolofIndia.Manyprincelystatessurvivedbut
theywerefreemoreinnamethaninfact.BritainsconquestofIndiawas
complete.
TheconflictbetweentheEnglishEastIndiaCompanyandtheFrenchwasover
establishingamonopolyoftrade.AftertheEnglishcompanygainedcontrol,the
countrysvastresourcesfellintoitshands.Therewasnolongeranyneedto
bringmoneyfromEnglandtobuyIndiangoods.Thesewerepurchasedwiththe
moneymadefromBritishconquestsinIndiaandsoldinEnglandandEurope
FortunesweremadebytheofficersoftheCompanyIndiawasknownasthe
brightestjeweloftheBritishempire.WiththecomingoftheIndustrial
RevolutioninEngland,Britishgoodspouredintothiscountry.Thisruined
Indianhandicraftindustries.MillionsofpoundsweredrainedoutofIndiato
EnglandintheformofprofitsandaspaymenttotheBritishgovernmentas
directtributeandHomeCharges.Indiasinterestsweresubordinatedmoreand
moretoBritishinterests.In1877,theBritishqueentookthetitleEmpressof
India,liketheoneusedearlierbytheMughals.
TheBritishconquestledtomanychangesintheIndiansocialandeconomiclife.
ToextendIndianmarketsforBritishgoodsandtomakeuseofIndiasnatural
resourcesrailwayconstructionwasstartedonalargescaleBritishrulersgave
specialprivilegestotheirownplanters,andwithinashorttimeanumberoftea,
coffeeandindigoplantationsgrewupIn1883,allimportandexportdutieswere
waivedIndianresources,bothhumanandmaterial,wereusedtopromotethe
interestsofBritishimperialisminChina,CentralAsiaandAfrica.Toprevent
oppositionfromtheIndianpeople,theBritishimposedlawstostiflethe
expressionofpublicopinionTheyexcludedIndiansfromresponsiblepositions
ingovernment,anddiscriminatedagainsttheminotherinstitutionsandinsocial
life.

ImperialisminChina
ImperialistdominationofChinabeganwithwhatareknownastheOpiumWars
Beforethesewars,onlytwoportswereopentoforeigntradersBritishmerchants
boughtChinesetea,silkandothergoods,buttherewasnomarketforBritish
goodsinChina.ThenBritishmerchantsstartedsmugglingopiumintoChinaon
alargescale.TheillegalopiumtradewasprofitabletotheBritishtradersbutdid
immensephysicalandmoraldamagetotheChinese.In1839,whenaChinese
governmentofficialseizedanopiumcargoanddestroyedit,Britaindeclared
warandeasilydefeatedtheChinese.TheChinesewerethenforcedtopayheavy
damagestotheBritishandtoopenfiveportcitiestoBritishtradersTheChinese
governmentalsoagreedthatinfuture,Britishsubjectsintheseportswouldbe
triedforanycrimesinEnglishratherthaninChinesecourtsThisprovision,
whichotherWesterncountriescopied,cametobeknownasextraterritorial

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rights.TheChinesegovernmentwasnolongerfreetoimposetariffonforeign
goodsTheislandofHongKongwasturnedovertoBritain.SoonFranceentered
intosimilarunequaltreatieswithChina.OnthepretextthataFrenchmissionary
hadbeenmurdered,EnglandandFrancefoughtanotherwarwithChina.China
wasdefeatedandwasforcedtograntmoreprivilegestoherconquerors.The
nextimportantstageinthegrowthofimperialistcontroloverChinacameafter
thewaiwithJapanThiscameaboutwhenJapantriedtoincreaseherinfluence
overKoreawhichwasunderChineseoverlordship.Chinaresentedthisrindthe
twocountrieswenttowar,whichendedinvictoryforJapanChinagaveKorea
herindependenceandcededFormosaandotherislandstoJapan.Shewasalso
forcedtopayJapanheavywardamagesamountingtoabout150milliondollars.
France,Russia,BritainandGermanygaveloanstoChinatohelphertomeetthis
payment.Butnotfornothing1ThesewesterncountriesthendividedChinainto
spheresofinfluence,whichmeantthateachcountryhadcertainregionsof
ChinareservedexclusivelyforitspurposesFoiexample,initssphereof
influence,acountrymighthavetherighttobuildrailwaysorworkmines.
GermanygotKiaochowBayandexclusiverightsinShantungandinthe
HwangHovalley.RussiatookLiaotungPeninsula,alongwiththerighttobuild
railroadsinManchuria,FrancereceivedKwangchowBayandextensiverights
inthreesouthernprovincesofChinaBritaingotWeihiWeiinadditiontoher
sphereofinfluenceintheYangtzevalley

OpenDoorPolicy
TheUnitedStatesfearedthatChinawouldbecompletelyparcelledoutin
exclusivespheresofinfluenceandthatitstradewithChinawouldbeshutoff.
TheUnitedStates,therefore,suggestedthepolicyknownastheOpenDoor.
ThispolicyisalsodescribedasMetoopolicyAccordingtothispolicy,all
countrieswouldhaveequalrightstotradeanywhereinChinaBritainsupported
theUnitedStatesthinkingthatthispolicywoulddiscouragetheannexationof
ChinabyJapanandRussia,thetwocountriesthatcouldmasteasilysendtheir
armiestothemainland
ThescrambleforprivilegesstoppedinChinaafteranuprisingagainstthe
foreignpowersknownastheBoxerRebellion.Buttheforeignpowerswere
victoriousandleviedheavydamagesonChinaaspunishmentImperialism
continued,withthecooperationofChinesewarlords.Thesemilitary
commandersweresupportedbytheloanswhichtheygotfromforeignpowersin
exchangeformoreprivileges.ThoughChinawasnotconqueredandoccupied
byanyimperialistcountry,theeffectsofthesedevelopmentsonChinawerethe
sameasinareaswhichhadbeencolonizedInaperiodofafewdecades,China
hadbeeneducedtothestatusofaninternationalcolony.ThedivisionofChina
intospheresofinfluencehasoftenbeendescribedasthecuttingoftheChinese
melon

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ImperialisminSouthandSouthEastAsia
SouthandSouthEastAsiaincludesNepal,Burma,SriLanka,Malaya,Indonesia,
IndoChina,ThailandandthePhilippinesEvenbeforetheriseofthenew
imperialism,manyofthesecountrieswerealreadydominatedbytheEuropeans
SriLankawasoccupiedbythePortuguese,thenbytheDutch,andlaterbythe
BritishEnglandintroducedteaandrubberplantations,whichcametoform7/8th
ofSriLankasexports.TheDutchlostMalayatotheBritish,including
Singapore,lyingatthetipoftheMalayapeninsula.TheconquestofMalayaand
SingaporemeantcontrolofallthetradeoftheFarEastthatpassedthroughthe
StraitsofMalacca.IndonesiaandthesurroundingislandswereunderDutch
controlAfter1875,Hollandextendedhercontroloveragroupofislandsknown
astheMoluccas.

IndoChina
TheareainSouthEastAsiaoncecalledIndoChinaconsistsofLaos,Cambodia
andVietnam.WhenEnglandwasfightingChinaovertheopiumtrade,France
wastryingtoextendhercommerceinIndoChina.Inaseriesofplannedsteps
whichincludedthreatsofwar,FrancebecamethemasterofIndoChinaandthe
separatestatesweregroupedtogetherundera
Frenchgovernorgeneral.FrequentrevoltsagainstFrenchrulefollowed,but
theyweresuppressedor,astheFrenchsaid,pacified.

Burma
In1880,thekingofBurmagaveFrancetherighttobuildarailwayfromTonkin
toMandalayTheFrenchweretryingtodominateallofSouthEastAsia.The
Britishgovernment,fearingFrenchexpansion,startedawarwithBurma.The
BurmesekingwascapturedandsenttoIndiaBurmawasannexedandbecamea
partofBritainsempireinIndiain1886.
Thailand,orSiam,remainedanindependentstate,thoughsandwichedbetween
theFrenchconquestsinIndoChinaandoftheBritishinBurmaButFranceand
Englandexercisedmuchpowerandauthorityoveritsaffairs

Philippines
TheUnitedStatesjoinedintheraceofimperialistexpansioninSouthEastAsia
inthelatenineteenthcenturyArevoltoftheCubansintheCaribbeanagainst
SpanishruleledtheUnitedStatestoawarwithSpain.Therewasarevoltofthe
FilipinosagainstSpanishruleandtheUnitedStatesoccupiedCubaandthe
PhilippinesTheFilipinosrevoltedagainsttheAmericanoccupationbutwere
suppressedandthePhilippinesbecameanAmericanpossessionTheUnited

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Statespaid20milliondollarstoSpainforthePhilippines.

ImperialisminCentralandWesternAsia
EnglandandRussiawererivalsinthestruggletocontrolCentralAsia,Iran
(Persia),AfghanistanandTibetTheRussianempiresucceededinannexing
almostallofCentralAsiainthesecondhalfofthenineteenthcenturyThe
conflictbetweenEnglandandRussiacametoaheadoverIranandAfghanistan
Besidessomeminoreconomicinterestsinthesecountries,Britainwasmainly
concernedaboutdefendingherconquestsinIndiaagainsttheexpansionof
RussiainCentralAsia.RussiaandEnglandsetupbanksinIrantoobtain
economiccontrolIn1907,EnglandandRussiareachedanagreementaccording
towhichsouthernIranbecameBritainssphereofinfluenceandnorthernIran
theRussiansphereofinfluence.ThecentralpartofIranwasneutralandopento
bothMeanwhile,thestrugglewasonbetweenBritainandRussiaformastery
overAfghanistanandTibetFinallyin1907,BritainandRussiareachedan
agreementoverthesetwocountriesandIranBothpowersagreednottointerfere
inTibetRussiaagreedtorecognizeAfghanistanasbeingoutsideherinfluence
andBritainagreednottoannexAfghanistanaslongasherrulerremainedloyal
toherThedivisionofIranintothreezoneshasalreadybeenmentionedThis
meanttheestablishmentofjointAngloRussiansupremacyoverIran.Afterthe
RussianRevolutionbrokeoutin1917,thenewSovietgovernmentdenounced
theoldAngloRussianagreementandgaveupherrightsinIranHowever,Iran
wasoccupiedbyBritishtroopsMeanwhile,oilhadbeenfoundinIranand
BritishandAmericanoilinterestsbecamepowerfulIranremainednominally
independentbutwasincreasinglyunderthedominationofforeignoil
companiestheStandardOilCompanyoftheUnitedStatesandthe
AngloPersianOilCompanyofEngland.Aftertheoverthrowofthemonarchyin
Chinain1911,TibetincreasinglypassedunderBritishinfluence.
Germany,duringtheseyears,wasextendingherinfluenceoverTurkeyandthe
AsianpossessionsoftheTurkishempire.AGermancompanyobtaineda
concessiontobuildarailwayfromConstantinopletoBaghdadandthepersian
Gulf.Throughthisrailway,Germanyhopedtopromotehereconomicinterests
inthisregion,andontoIranandIndiaFrance,EnglandandRussiaopposedthis,
butanagreementtodividetheregionwasreachedbetweenGermany,France
andEngland.TheFirstWorldWar,however,changedthesituation.Germany
andTurkey,alliesinthewar,weredefeatedSyria,Palestine,Mesopotamia(Iraq)
andArabiaweretakenawayfromTurkeyandtheypassedunderthecontrolof
EnglandandFranceThus,Germanyasanimperialistnationwascompletely
eliminatedfromAsiaandotherpartsoftheworld.Soon,oilandtheconcessions
tocontroloilresourcesbecamethemajorobjectivesoftheimperialistcountries
inWesternAsiaAmericanoilcompanies,inpartnershipwithEnglandand
France,gotoilconcessionsinArabia

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JapanasanImperialistPower
Japanstartedonherprogramofimperialistexpansioninthelastdecadeofthe
nineteenthcenturyWesterncountrieshadtriedtoestablishtheirfootholdthere
In1853AmericanwarshipsunderCommodorePerryhad,afterashowofforce,
compelledtheJapanesetoopentheircountrytoAmericanshippingandtrade
ThiswasfollowedbysimilaragreementsbyJapanwithBritain,Holland,France
andRussia.However,JapanescapedtheexperienceandfateofotherAsian
countries.In1867,afterachangeingovernment,knownasMeijiRestoration,
JapanbegantomodernizehereconomyWithinafewdecades,shebecameone
ofthemostindustrializedcountriesoftheworldButtheforcesthatmademany
oftheWesterncountriesimperialistwerealsoactiveinthecaseofJapan.Japan
hadfewrawmaterialstosupportherindustries.Soshelookedforlandsthathad
themandformarketstosellhermanufacturedgoods
ChinaprovidedampleopportunitiesforJapansimperialistdesigns.Youhave
alreadyreadofthewarbetweenChinaandJapanoverKorea,in1894Afterthis,
JapansinfluenceinChinaincreasedTheAngloJapaneseTreatyof1902
recognizedherasapowerofequalstandingwiththegreatEuropeanpowers.In
19045shedefeatedRussia.Asaresultofthiswar,thesouthernhalfofSakhalin
wascededtoJapan.Japanalsogainedcontrolofthesouthernpartofthe
LiaotungPeninsulawithPortArthurwhichwasleasedtoherIn1910,Korea
becameacolonyofJapan.WhentheFirstWorldWarbeganin1914,Japan
couldlookbackwithsomeprideatherrecordofthelastfiftyyears.Shehad
becomeagreatpowerandcouldexpandfurtheratthecostofChinaifthe
Westernpowerswouldonlyallowhertodoso
However,herownrecordwas,ifanything,worsethanthatofWestern
imperialists.Infact,Japansriseasanimperialistpowerhelpedtoshowthat
imperialismwasnotlimitedtoanyonepeopleorregionRather,itwastheresult
ofgreedforeconomicandpoliticalpowerwhichcoulddistortthepolicyofany
countryregardlessofitsraceorculturalclaims.
Tosumup,almostallofAsiahadbeenswallowedupbytheimperialist
countriesbytheearlyyearsofthetwentiethcentury.

IMPERIALISMINAFRICA
YouhavealreadyreadinChapter4(Vol.1)abouttheemergenceofcivilization
andtheformationofstates,kingdomsandempiresindifferentpartsofAfrica
YouhavealsoreadaboutthecontactswhichAfricanculturesandcivilizations
hadwiththerestoftheworldsinceancienttimesFromthetimeofEuropean
explorationsinthelaterpartofthefifteenthcentury,anewphasebeganinthe
historyofsomepartsofAfrica

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BesidestheestablishmentofcommercialrelationswithsomepartsofAfrica,
thisphasewascharacterizedbyslavetradeAsmentionedearlier,tillaboutthe
lastquarterofthenineteenthcentury,EuropeancontroloverAfricaextended
overaboutonefifthoftheterritoryofthecontinent.However,withinafew
yearsalmosttheentirecontinentwaspartitionedamongvariousEuropean
imperialistcountriesthoughittookthemmuchlongertoestablishtheiractual
effectiveoccupation

SlaveTrade
TheEuropeanpenetrationofAfricafromthelatefifteenthcenturyonwardswas
confinedforalongtimemainlytocertaincoastalareasHowever,eventhese
limitedcontactsledtothemosttragicanddisastrousconsequencesforthe
peopleofAfrica,Oneofthefirstresultsofthesecontactswasthepurchaseand
saleofpeopletheslavetrade.TheSpanishruleintheAmericashadresulted
inthelargescaleexterminationoftheoriginalinhabitantsoftheAmericasThe
PortuguesehadestablishedaslavemarketinLisbonandtheSpaniardsbought
slavesfromthereandtookthemtotheircoloniesintheAmericastoworkthere.
Africanvillageswereraidedbyslavetradersandpeoplewerecapturedand
handedovertotheEuropeantradersEarlier,theArabshaddominatedtheslave
trade,Subsequently,someAfricanchiefsalsotookpartintheslavetradeby
tradingslavesinexchangeforfirearmswhichtheEuropeantraderssoldtothem
.TheEuropeansthemselvesalsoraidedthevillagesandenslavedthepeople,
whowerethentransported.WhenthedemandforslavesinAmericaincreased,
theyweresentdirectlyfromAfricabythetraders.
ThetradeinAfricanslaveswasstartedbythePortuguese.SoontheEnglishtook
over.In1562,SirJohnHawkins,arichEnglishmerchant,whowasknowntobe
veryreligious,wentonhisfirstvoyagetoAfricatobringslavesinashipcalled
JesusThereigningEnglishmonarch,ElizabethI,receivedashareoftheprofits
thatHawkinsmadeinsellingtheslavesthathehadbroughtIntheseventeenth
century,aregularcompanyreceivedacharterfromtheKingofEnglandfor
purposesoftradeinslavesLater,Spaingavethemonopolyofslavetradewith
herpossessionsinAmericatoEnglandTheshareofthekingintheprofitsfrom
slavetradewasfixedat25percent
Uptoaboutthemiddleofthenineteenthcenturythistradecontinued.Millions
ofAfricanswereuprootedfromtheirhomesManywerekilledwhileresisting
theraidsontheirvillagesbythetraders.Theyweretakeninshipsasinanimate
objectsandinsuchunhygienicconditionsthatthesailorsontheshipsoften
revoltedLakhsofthemdiedduringthelongjourney.Itisestimatedthatnot
evenhalfoftheslavescapturedreachedAmericaalive.Theinhumanconditions
underwhichtheywereforcedtoworkontheplantationscannotevenbe
imaginedtodayExtremebrutalitieswereinflictedonthosewhotriedtoescape.
Thepersonwhokilledarunawayslavewasgivenarewardbythegovernment.

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Slaveryhadbecomeanintegralpartofthecolonialsystemestablishedby
Europeancountriesduringthisperiod.
Byearlynineteenthcentury,tradeinslaveslostitsimportanceinthesystemof
colonialexploitationSlaverywasalsoahindranceiftheinteriorofAfricawas
tobeopenedtocolonialexploitationInfact,somecolonialpowersusedthe
pretextofabolishingslavetradetogotowaragainstAfricanchiefsandkingsto
expandtheirterritorialpossessions.Inthemeantime,explorationoftheinterior
ofAfricahadbegunandpreparationsmadebytheEuropeanpowerstoimpose
anotherkindofslaveryonthecontinentofAfricaforthedirectconquestof
almostentireAfrica.

ScrambleforAfrica
TheinteriorofAfricawasalmostunknowntotheEuropeansuptoaboutthe
middleofthenineteenthcentury,Thecoastalregionswerelargelyinthehands
oftheoldtradingnationsthePortuguese,theDutch,theEnglishandthe
FrenchTheyhadsetuptheirfortsthereTherewereonlytwoplaceswherethe
Europeanruleextendeddeepintotheinterior.InthenorththeFrenchhad
conqueredAlgeria.InthesouththeEnglishhadoccupiedCapeColonyto
safeguardtheircommercewithIndia.IthadearlierbeenaDutchcolony
whereanumberofEuropeans,mainlytheDutch,hadsettled.Thesesettlers,
knownasBoers,hadtakentofarming.ThiswastheonlypartofAfricawherea
largenumberofEuropeansweresettledWithinafewyears,however,ascramble
forcoloniesbegatandalmosttheentirecontinenthadbeencutupanddivided
amongEuropeanpowers

Explores,tradersandmissionaries
TheyplayedtheirrespectiverolesintheconquestofAfrica,Theexplorers
arousedtheEuropeansinterestinAfrica.Themissionariessawthecontinentas
aplaceforspreadingthemessageofChristianity.Theinterestscreatedby
explorersandmissionariesweresoonusedbythetraders.Westerngovernments
supportedalltheseinterestsbysendingtroops,andthestagewassetfor
conquest.EventhoughtheEuropeanpowersmetwithstiffresistancefromthe
Africansandittookthemalongtimetoestablisheffectiveoccupationoftheir
colonies,thespeedwithwhichtheEuropeanpowersconqueredAfricais
withoutaparallel.Itisnecessarytounderstandthereasonsforthis.Theexternal
factorshavebeenbroadlymentionedinanearliersectionofthischapter.The
economicmightoftheimperialistpowerswasmuchgreaterthantheeconomic
resourcesoftheAfricanstatesThelatterdidnothavetheresourcestofighta
longwarIntermsofmilitarystrength,theimperialistcountrieswerefarmore
powerfulthantheAfricanstatesTheAfricanshadoutdatedfirearmswhichhad
beensoldtothembytheEuropeansTheywerenomatchforthenewriflesand
gunswhichtheEuropeansusedThecoupletofanEnglishpoetisoftenquoted

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tobringoutthissuperiority.
Whateverhappenswehavegot,
Themaximgunandtheyhavenot.
TheMaximgunwasafastfiringnewgunwhichwasusedagainsttheAfricans
whooftenfoughtwithaxesandknivesPolitically,likeIndianstatesinthe
eighteenthcentury,theAfricanstateswerenotunitedTherewereconflicts
betweenstatesandwithinstatesandtherulersandchiefsoftensoughtthe
supportoftheEuropeansagainsttheirrivals.Asaresultoftheseconflicts,the
boundariesoftheAfricanstateswereoftenchanging.Asagainstthis,the
imperialistcountriesparticipatinginthescrambleforAfricawereunitedThe
scramblehadcreatedseriousrivalriesamongthem.Infact,thescrambletograb
themaximumofAfricanterritoryintheshortestpossibletimewastheresultof
theserivalries.Manyatimeduringthescramblewarsbetweenthesecountries
wereimminent.Butineverycase,warwasavoidedandagreementsreached
betweenthemastowhowillgetwhichpartofAfrica.Forexample,theAnglo
GermanrivalriesinEastAfricawereresolvedin1890whenGermanyagreedto
concedeUgandatoBritaininexchangeforBritaingivingawayHeligolandto
GermanyIn188485,therewasaCongressinBerlinwhereagroupofEuropean
statesmetanddiscussedhowtoshareoutAfricaamongthemselvesNoAfrican
statewasrepresentedatthisCongress.TreatiesweresignedbetweenEuropean
powerstosettledisputesoverclaimstoAfricanterritoriesbetweenthemselves.
TreatieswerealsosignedbetweenAfricanrulersandchiefs,andthe
representativesofEuropeangovernmentsorEuropeancompaniesand
individualswhichwerelatersanctionedbytheirrespectivegovernments.These
treatieswereoftenfraudulentandbogusInthecaseswheretheseweregenuine,
theyweremisrepresentedinnegotiationswithotherEuropeancountriesandthe
wronginterpretationsputonthemwererecognizedbyotherEuropeanpowers.
Forexample,ifanAfricanrulersignedatreatywithaEuropeancountrytoseek
thelatterssupportagainstarival,thatEuropeancountryinseekingapprovalof
otherEuropeancountriesinterpretedittomeanthattheAfricanrulerhadagreed
tomakehisstateaprotectorateofthatEuropeancountry.Thisinterpretation
wasthenacceptedbyotherEuropeanpowersandtheprocessofoccupation
beganwithoutanyhindrancefromthemInthisway,thepartitionofAfricawas
nearlycompletedbytheendofthenineteenthcentury.Thispositionisgenerally
referredtoaspaperpartitionas,theactualpartitiontookmuchlongerand
wasaccomplishedbytheuseofthesuperiormilitarymightoftheEuropean
powerstosuppresstheresistancebytheAfricansAlookatthemapofAfrica
afterpartitionwillshowhowthecontinentofAfricawaspartitionedonpaperin
conferenceroomsinEuropeAboutthirtypercentofallboundariesinAfricaare
instraightlines.ItwillbeeasiertounderstandtheconquestofAfricaby
Europeanpowersifwestudyitregionbyregion.Wemustremember,however,
thatoccupationdidnottakeplaceintheorderdescribedhere

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WestandCentralAfrica
In1878,withthefinancialassistanceofKingLeopoldIIofBelgium,HM.
StanleyfoundedtheInternationalCongoAssociationwhichmadeover400
treatieswithAfricanchiefsTheydidnotunderstandthatbyplacingtheir
marksonbitsofpapertheyweretransferringtheirlandtotheCongo
AssociationinexchangeforclothorotherarticlesofnogreatvalueStanley
acquiredlargetractsoflandbythesemethods.In1885some2.3millionsquare
kilometres,nchinrubberandivory,becametheCongoFreeStatewith
Leopoldasitsking.
StanleycalledtheoccupationofCongo(thepresentZaire)aunique
humanitarianandpoliticalenterprise,butitbeganwithbrutalexploitationof
theCongopeopleTheywereforcedtocollectrubberandivoryLeopoldaloneis
saidtohavemadeaprofitofover20milliondollarsThetreatmentofthe
CongolesepeoplewassobadthatevenothercolonialpowerswereshockedTo
giveanexampleofthebrutality,soldiersoftheCongoFreeStatechoppedoff
thehandsofthedefiantvillagersandbroughtthemassouvenirs.In1908,
LeopoldwascompelledtohandovertheCongoFreeStatetotheBelgian
government,anditbecameknownasBelgianCongoGradually,Congosgold,
diamond,uranium,timberandcopperbecamemoreimportantthanherrubber
andivory.Manyofthecountries,includingEnglandandtheUnitedStates,
joinedBelgiuminexploitingtheseresourcesThecompanywhichcontrolledthe
copperresourcesofKatangaprovince(presentShaba)wasoneofthebiggest
coppercompaniesintheworld.Thiscompany,jointlyownedbyEnglishand
Belgianinterests,playedaverybigroleinCongospoliticalaffairs.
LocatetheNigerriver,thesecondgreatriverofwesternAfrica,onthemapThe
controlovertheNigermeantthecontroloverthelandwithrichresourcesThe
BritishhadoccupiedapartofthislegioncalledNigeria,togetslavesforexport
totheirplantationsinAmericaTheBritishcompanytooktheinitiativeinthe
conquestofNigeria.ForatimetherewasasharprivalrywithaFrenchcompany,
butintheendtheBritishcompanywasabletobuyouttheFrenchandbecame
therulerofNigeriaAfterafewyearstheBritishgovernmentdeclaredNigeriaa
protectorateofBritainInWestAfrica,BritainalsooccupiedGambia,Ashanti,
GoldCoastandSierraLeone.

FrenchCongo
WhenStanleywascarvingouttheempireforKingLeopoldinCongo,a
Frenchman,deBrazza,wasactivenorthoftheCongoriverFollowingthe
methodsofStanley,deBrazzawontheareaforFrance,thisareabecamewhat
wasuntilrecentlycalledtheFrenchCongowithitscapitaltownnamed
Brazzaville,afterdeBrazza.OnAfricaswestcoast,Senegalandbeenoccupied
byFranceearlierNowFrancesetouttoextendherempireinWestAfrica.Soon

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sheobtainedDahomey(piesentBenin),theIvoryCoastandFrenchGuineaBy
theyear1900,theFrenchempiieextendedfurtherintotheinterior.More
territorieswereaddedtotheWestAfricanconquestsafter1900andFrench
WestAfricacametoincludepresentSenegal,FrenchGuinea,theIvoryCoast,
Dahomey,Mauritania,FrenchSudan,UpperVoltaandNigerTerritory.The
Frenchconquestresultedinbrutalexploitationofthepeopleeverywherein
Africa.Forexample,inaperiodofonly20years,thepopulationoftheFrench
Congowasreducedtoonethirdofitsformersize.
After1880,GermanyalsogotveryinterestedinpossessionsinAfricaFirstshe
occupiedanareacalledTogolandonthewestcoastsoonafter,theCameroons,
alittlefarthersouth.Stillfarthersouth,theGermansestablishedthemselvesin
SouthwestAfricawhere,tosuppresslocalrebels,morethanhalfofthe
populationwasexterminated.ButtheseconquestsdidnotsatisfyGermanyshe
wantedthePortuguesecoloniesofAngolaandMozambiqueandCongofor
herselfBeforetheFirstWorldWarstarted,EnglandandGermanyagreedto
partitionAngolaandMozambiquebetweenthemselves,butthewarshattered
Germanysdreams.Afterthewar,whentheGermancoloniesweregiventothe
victoriouspowers,TogolandandtheCameroonsweredividedbetweenEngland
andFrance,andGermanSouthwestAfricawasgiventoSouthAfrica.
SpainhadonlytwocoloniesonthewesterncoastofAfricaRiodeOro
(SpanishSahara)andSpanishGuinea.Portugalpossessedvaluableregionsof
AngolaandPortugueseGuinea.Thus,withtheexceptionofLiberia,thewhole
ofWestAfricawasdividedupamongtheEuropeansLiberiawassettledby
slaveswhohadbeenfreedinAmerica.Thoughsheremainedindependent,she
cameincreasinglyundertheinfluenceoftheUnitedStates,particularlythe
Americaninvestorsinrubberplantations.

SouthAfrica
InSouthAfrica,theDutchhadestablishedtheCapeColony,whichtheBritish
tookoverintheearlynineteenthcentury.TheDutchsettlers,knownasBoers,
thenwentnorthandsetuptwostates,theOrangeFreeStateandtheTransvaal.
By1850boththesestateswereruledbytheBoers.

Rhodesia
TheEnglishadventurer,CecilRhodes,cametosouthAfricain1870,madea
fortuneinminingdiamondandgoldofthisregionandgavehisnametoan
AfricancolonyRhodesia.(NorthernRhodesiaisnowindependentandiscalled
Zambia.SouthernRhodesiawhichbecameanindependentnationinApril1980
isZimbabwe.)Rhodesbecamefamousasagreatphilanthropistwhofoundedthe
Rhodesscholarships,butliewasfirstofallaprofiteerandempirebuilder.
Purephilanthropy,hesaid,isverywellinitsway,butphilanthropyplusfive

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percentisagooddealbetter.RhodesdreamwastoextendtheBritishrule
throughouttheworld,andhecertainlysucceededinextendingtheBritish
empireinAfrica.TheBritishoccupiedBechuanaland,Rhodesia,Swazilandand
Basutoland.TheyplottedtheoverthrowoftheBoergovernmentofTransvaal
whichwasrichingoldThisledtotheBoerWar(18991902)inwhichtheBoers
weredefeatedthoughtheycontinuedtoremainthere.
Soonafterthis,theUnionofSouthAfricawasformedconsistingoftheCape,
Natal,TransvaalandOrangeRiverColony.ThisUnionwasruledbythewhite
minorityBoers,Englishmen,andafewsettlersfromotherEuropeancountries
TheSouthAfricangovernmentlaterdeclareditselfarepublic.

EastAfrica
ExceptforthePortuguesepossessionofapartofMozambique,EastAfricahad
notbeenoccupiedbyanyEuropeanpowerbefore1884.InthatyearaGerman
adventurer,namedKarlPeters,cametothecoastalregion.Usingbriberyand
threats,hepersuadedsomerulerstosignagreementsplacingthemselvesunder
GermanprotectionSinceFranceandBritainalsohadplansinthisarea,an
agreementwassignedbywhichFrancegotMadagascar,andEastAfricawas
dividedbetweenGermanyandEngland.TherulerofZanzibarwhoclaimedEast
Africaashispropertygotastripofcoastland,1600kilometreslongand16
kilometresdeepTheNorthernhalfofthisstripwasreorganizedasaBritish
sphereofinfluence,andthesouthernpart.Tanganyika,aGermansphereof
influence.ThesewerelateroccupiedbyEnglandandGermanyButtheAfricans
roseinrevoltagainandagainbecausetheGermanshadtakenlandfromthem
withoutmakinganypayment.Duringarebellionin1905,120,000Africanswere
killedinthisGermancolonyIn1890,therewasanagreementbetweenGermany
andEnglandaccordingtowhichUgandawasreservedforEngland.In
exchangeGermanywasgivenHeligolandIn1896,Ugandawasdeclareda
BritishprotectorateGermanyalsogaveupherclaimstoZanzibarandPemba
island,WituandNyasaland(presentMalawi),butmademoreconquestsinthe
interior.ThePortuguesecolonyofMozambiquewasfobesharedoutbetween
GermanyandEngland,buttheFirstWorldWarstoppedtheplanandGermany
lostallhercolonies.GermanEastAfricawasgiventoEnglandafterthewarand
wasrenamedTanganyika.(TanganyikaandZanzibarnowformtherepublicof
Tanzania)BritishEastAfricawasrenamedKenya.TheGermanpossessionof
RuandaUrundiwasgiventoBelgium.

ItalyEthiopia
LikeGermany,Italyenteredthecolonialracelate.TheItaliansoccupiedtwo
desertareasinwhatiscalledthehornofAfricaSomalilandandEritrea.The
countryofAbyssinia,nowknownasEthiopia,wasanindependentstate.Italy
wantedtodeclareAbyssiniaitsprotectorateandinvadedher.Thekingof

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AbyssiniarejectedItalysclaimandin1896defeatedtheItalianinvadingarmy
UnlikeotherAfricanstates,AbyssiniahadbeenabletogetarmsfromFrance.
ThishistoricbattleinwhichanAfricanstatehaddefeatedaEuropeanstates
armyisknownastheBattleofAdowa.SotheItalianshadtowithdrawItaly
madeanotherattempttoconquerAbyssiniain1935,beforetheSecondWorld
WarExceptforabriefperiodduringthoseyears,Ethiopia,exceptEritrea,was
abletomaintainherindependence.

NorthAfrica
Algeria,onthenorthcoastofAfrica,wasconqueredbyFrancein1830,butit
tookherabout40yearstosuppresstheAlgerianresistance.Itwasthemost
profitableofFrancescolonialpossessions,providingheravastmarketfor
FrenchgoodsTotheeastofAlgeriaisTunisiawhichwascovetedbyFrance,
EnglandandItalyAccordingtoanagreementin1878,EnglandgaveFrancea
freehandinTunisiainreturnforBritishoccupationoftheislandofCyprus,and
afewyearslaterTunisiabecameaFrenchpossession.

Morocco
MoroccoissituatedonthenorthcoastofAfrica,justsouthofGibraltar.Thusit
isveryimportanttothewesternentranceoftheMediterraneanBothFranceand
ItalywantedtoclaimitastheirterritoryThetwocountriesagreed,in1900,to
theFrenchoccupationofMoroccoandtotheItalianoccupationofTripoliand
Cyrenaica,totheeastofTunisiaIn1904,FranceandEnglandsignedan
agreementwhichgaveMoroccotoFrance,andEgypttoEngland.Afterthese
agreementshadbeensigned,Franceproceededwithherplansofconquestof
Morocco.GermanyhadbeenignoredwhenEngland,FranceandItalywere
signingagreementstopartitionNorthAfricaShethreatenedtoopposethe
FrenchoccupationSpainhadbeenpromisedTangierinreturnforFrench
occupationofMorocco.SoitbecamenecessarytoappeaseGermanambitionin
NorthAfricaThereweremanyinternationalcrisesanditappearedasifwar
wouldbreakout.TheGermanForeignMinistersaid,Youhaveboughtyour
libertyinMoroccofromSpain,England,andevenfromItaly,andyouhaveleft
usout.ButwhoshouldoccupyMoroccowasdecided,asinothercases,in
Europe.ThepeopleofMoroccowereneverconsulted.Ultimately,Franceagreed
togiveGermany250,000squarekilometresofFrenchCongo.Spainwasfurther
appeasedbygivingherasmallpartofMoroccoIn1912Franceestablishedher
protectorateoverMoroccoHowever,ittooktheFrenchmanyyearsafterthe
FirstWorldWartosuppresstherebellionsthere.
Asyouhaveseenearlier,ItalyhadassuredherselfthesupportofEuropean
nationsinherclaimsoverTripoliandCyrenaica,whichwerethepossessionsof
theTurkishempire.ItalythendeclaredwaragainstTurkeyandoccupiedthetwo
provinces,whichweregiventheoldRomannameofLibya.

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Egypt
EgyptwasaprovinceoftheTurkishempirewhenthescrambleforcolonies
beganinthenineteenthcentury.Itvasruledbyarepresentativeofthe
TurkishSultan,calledPashaSincethetimeofNapoleon,Francehadbeen
interestedinEgyptAFrenchcompanyhadgainedaconcessionfromIsmail
Pasha,theGovernorofEgypt,todigacanalacrosstheisthmusofSuez.The
canalwascompletedin1869andarousedBritishinterestintheareaDisraeli,
theBritishPrimeMinister,boughtalargenumberofsharesofthecanalfromthe
PashatomakesureofkeepingtheroutetoIndiasafeThecanalwasdescribed
byDisraeliasahighwaytoourIndianempire.
ThefinancialtroublesofthePashaledtoincreasedjointAngloFrenchcontrol
overEgyptWhenthePashatriedtoresist,hewasforcedtoabdicateandanew
governorwasappointedIn1882,therewasarevoltagainsttheAngloFrench
controland,insuppressingtherevolt,theBritisharmiesconqueredEgypt
RestorationoflawandorderandprotectionoftheSuezCanalwerethereasons
givenforthemilitaryinterventioninEgypt.Englandannouncedthatshewould
withdrawhertroopsassoonasorderwasrestoredAftertherevoltwas
suppressed,EgyptcameunderBritishcontrol.In1914,whentheFirstWorld
Warstarted,EnglandannouncedthatEgyptwasnolongeraTurkishprovince
butaBritishprotectorate.TheEgyptiansneverreconciledthemselvestothe
Britishconquest.Afterthewarwasover,leadersofEgyptstartedfortheParis
PeaceConferencetopleadthecaseofEgypt,buttheywerearrested.In1922,
thoughshestillretainedherrightsovertheSuezandmanyotherconcessions,
BritainwasforcedtorecognizeEgyptasanindependentsovereignstate
Sudan,orwhatwasearlierknownasEgyptianSudan,wasjointlyexploitedby
EgyptandBritain.ASudaneseleaderwhohadproclaimedhimselftheMandi
hadsucceededinoverthrowingEgyptianandBritishcontroloverSudan.His
armyhaddefeatedEgyptianandBritishtroopsIn1898,BritishandEgyptian
troopssucceededinrecapturingSudanafteralongandbloodywarinwhich
20,000Sudanesetroops,includingthesuccessoroftheMandi,werekilled.
SudancameunderBritishrule.TheFrenchatthistimetriedtooccupy
southernpartsofSudanbutwereforcedtowithdrawbytheBritishFrance,
however,wasgivenafreehandtoextendhercontroloverwhatwasknownas
westernSudanandtheSaharaFranceoccupiedtheseareasafteralongwarof
conquest.Withthesegains,Francewasabletoconnectherequatorialconquests
withherwestandnorthAfricanconquests.

THEAMERICASANDTHEPACIFIC
YouhavealreadyreadaboutthecolonizationoftheAmericasbySpain,
Portugal,Britain,FranceandotherEuropeancountries,andtheemergenceof
theUnitedStatesofAmericaasanindependentnation.Thefreedommovements

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insomeofthecountriesofSouthAmericaandtheCaribbeanhavealsobeen
brieflymentioned.By1820s,almostallcountriesoftheAmericashadgained
theirindependencefromSpainandPortugal.Onlyafewcoloniesruledby
Europeancountrieswereleftinthispartoftheworld.AmongthesewereCuba
andPuertoRicowhichwerestillunderSpanishruleandafewothersunder
British,French,DutchandDanishrule.
TheUnitedstatesinthenineteenthcenturyemergedasthebiggestpowerinthe
Americas.ShehadextendedherterritoriesthroughwarwithMexicoand
purchaseofLouisianaFloridaandAlaskafromFrance,SpainandRussia,
respectively.WithinashortperiodaftertheCivilWar(186165)whichendedin
theabolitionofslavery,theUnitedStatesemergedasamajorindustrialand
militarypowerintheworld.By1900,hernavalstrengthwasthirdintheworld
TheforcesthathadledtotheemergenceofimperialisminEuropeandlaterin
JapanalsoledtotheemergenceoftheUnitedStatesasamajorimperialist
powerbythelaterhalfofthenineteenthcentury.Youhavealreadyreadabout
thetreatywhichtheUnitedStatessignedwithChinain1844onthelineswhich
someEuropeancountrieshadforcedonChinaaftertheOpiumWar.Commodore
PerrysshowofforceinJapanin1853hasalsobeenmentioned.AftertheUS.
SpanishWar,thePhilippineshadbecomeaU.S.colony.USAhadalsotaken
PuertoRicoandGuam(inthePacific)fromSpain,andCuba,though
independentinname,hadinfactbecomeanappendageofUSA.
Whenthescrambleforcoloniesbegan,theleadersofUSAdeclaredthatshe
mustnotfalloutofthelineofmarch.Theyalsoclaimed,liketheEuropean
imperialistcountries,therighttocivilizethebackwardcountriesoftheworld
and,ofcourse,tointerfereintheaffairsofothercountriestoprotecttheir
marketsandinvestments.

MonroeDoctrine
Duringtheperiodfromthe1890stotheearlyyearsofthetwentiethcentury,the
UnitedStatesspreaditscontrol,directandindirect,overSouthAmericaandthe
PacificIn1823,thePresidentoftheUnitedStateshadproclaimedtheMonroe
DoctrinewhichwarnedtheEuropeanpowersagainstanyattempttoextendtheir
powerintheWestern/HemisphereIn1895,theMonroeDoctrinewasgivena
newmeaning.TherewasaterritorialdisputebetweenBritishGuiana(now
Guyana)andNicaragua,andtheBritishthreatenedtosendtroopsagainst
Nicaragua.TheUSgovernmentforcedBritainnottosendhertroopsand
declaredthatTodaytheUnitedStatesispracticallysovereignonthis
Continent.AnewcorollarywasaddedtotheMonroeDoctrinein1904bythe
thenU.S.President,TheodoreRooseveltBritainandGermanyhadimposeda
navalblockadeofVenezuelaasshehadfailedtorepaytheloanwhichshehad
takenfromthem.TheodoreRooseveltforcedBritainandGermanytoliftthe
blockadeanddeclaredthattheUnitedStatesalonehadtherighttointervenein

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theaffairsofherneighbouringcountriesiftheywereunabletomaintainorder
ontheirown.TheUnitedStatestookcontrolofthefinancesoftheDominican
Republicwhichsheretainedforthreedecadesandoccupiedthatcountryin
1916foreightyears.In1906,AmericantroopsweresenttoCubaandremained
thereforthreeyearstoprotectCubafromdisorder.In1909,Americantroops
weresenttoNicaraguainsupportofarevoltwhichhadbeeninspiredbyan
Americanminingcompany.TheUnitedStatessecuredfromthegovernment
whichhadbeeninstalledtheretheughttointerveneinthatcountrytoprotect
AmericaninterestsIn1915,AmericantroopsWeresenttoHaitiandremained
theretill1934.

Mexico
InMexico,wheretheUnitedStateshadhugeinvestments,FransiscoMadero,a
popularleaderwasdeposedwiththesupportoftheUnitedStatesThe
interventionbytheUnitedStatesinMexicocontinuedformanyyears.

BigStickPolicy/Dollardiplomacy
ThepolicyoftheUnitedStateswasdescribedastheBigStickpolicyandone
ofaninternationalpoliceman.TheextensionoftheUSinfluencethrough
economicinvestmentsintheregionisknownastheDollardiplomacy.The
economicandpoliticaldominationofSouthAmericawasfacilitatedbythe
absenceofstronggovernmentsinthecountriesofSouthAmerica.Manyof
thesecountrieswereruledbycaudillos,orcrudeandcorruptmilitaryleaders
witharmedgangs.Theyfloatedloansforreadycashandsoldconcessionsto
foreigncompaniestoexploitthenaturalresourcesoftheircountries.They
servedasmarketsformanufactures,andsourcesofrawmaterialsfor
industrializedcountries,particularlytheUnitedStates,aswellasavenuesfor
investmentofcapitalfromthesecountries.MostofthecountriesofSouth
America,thoughpoliticalindependent,cameundertheeconomicandpolitical
controloftheUnitedStates.

PanamaCanal

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OneofthemajoracquisitionsbytheUnitedStatesinthisperiodwasthePanama
Canal.AFrenchcompanyhadstartedtheconstructionofthecanalinthe
IsthmusofPanamainColombia(CentralAmerica).Thecanalwhichwouldlink
theAtlanticandthePacificOceanswasofgreateconomicinterestIn1901,the
UnitedStatesdecidedtoundertakethecanalprojectalone.
Shepaid$40milliontotheFrenchcompanyandenteredintoanagreementwith
thegovernmentofColombia.Accordingtotheagreement,Colombiawastogive
theUnitedStatesperpetualrightstoasixmilewidecanalzoneacrossher
territoryinexchangefortenmilliondollarsplus$250,000asannualrent.The
agreementwascompletelyagainsttheinterestsofColombiaandColombias
Parliamentrefusedtoratifyit.In1903,theUnitedStatesfinancedandorganized
arevoltinPanamaandlandedhertroopsthere.Soonafter,theUnitedStates
recognizedPanamaasanindependentstateThegovernmentofPanamasigneda
newagreementwiththeUnitedStatesaccordingtowhichtheamountof
compensationremainedthesamebutinsteadofthesixmilewidecanalzone,ten
milecanalzonewasgrantedtotheUnitedStates.Thecanalwasopenedin1914
andthecanalzonehasremainedundertheoccupationoftheUnitedStatessince
then.

Hawaii
TheUnitedStatesalsoextendedhercontrolinthePacificduringthisperiodThe
islandsofHawaiihadbeenimportantforAmericanshippingandfortradewith
ChinaTheUnitedStateseconomicandcommercialinfluencegradually
increasedintheseislandsandwiththesettlingofAmericansthere,particularly
assugarplanters,theseislandsbecamecloselytiedtotheeconomyofthe
UnitedStatesTheUnitedStateshadsecuredtheexclusiveuseofPearlHarboras
anavalstation.In1893,theAmericanresidentsintheHawaiiislandsrevolted

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againstthequeenofHawaiiand,askedfortheannexationoftheislandsbythe
UnitedStates.By1898,HawaiihadbeenannexedbytheUnitedStates.Later,it
becameoneofthestatesoftheUnitedStates.
TheUnitedStatesalsoextendedcontroloverotherislandsinPacific.Therewas
rivalryamongtheUSBritainandGermanyovertheselands.In1899,Germany
andStatesdividedtheseislandsbetsselvesandascompensationgivenislands
elsewhereinthePacific.

EFEECTSOFIMPERIALISM
By1914,almostallpartsofthenonindustrializedworldhadcomeunderor
indirectcontrolofafewindustrializedcountries.MostcountriesofAfricahad
Losttheirpoliticalfreedomandwereruledbyoneorothercountry.The
economiesofallcountriesaswellasofthosewhichwerepolitically
independentwerecontrolimperialistcountriestoserverests.Allpartsofthe
worldwerebroughttogetherunderaworldeconomiccontrolwhichwasbased
ontheexploitcolonies.Since1946,mostAsiacancolonieshavebecomefree
andindependent.Youwillreadaboutitlater.Buttheeffectsofimperialismin
thelifeofthepeopleinthesecountryarestillevident.

EconomicBackwardness
Themostimportantandlastingconsequenceofimperialismandcolonization
wastheeconomicbackwardnessofthecoloniesaswellasofthosecountries
indirectlycontrolledbythecountriesImperialismledtodestructionoflocal
industries.Forexample,Indiaforcenturiesanexporteroftextiles.During
imperialistrule,Indiasindigenoustextileindustrywasdestroyedandshe
becameanimporterofBritishcloth.Thenaturalresourcesofthecoloniescame
underthecontroloftheimperialistcountriesandwereexploitedfortheirown
benefit.Theindustrializationofthesecountrieswasprevented.Whereindustries
werestarted,theseweresubordinatedtotheinterestsoftheindustriesofthe
imperialistcountriesorformakingprofitsforthecompaniesoftheimperialist
countries.Themodernindustriesinthecolonieshadlittleimpactonthelifeof
thepeoplethere.Thepatternsofagricultureinthecolonieswerealsochanged
tomeettherequirementsoftheindustriesoftheimperialistcountries.Insome
countries,theentireagriculturewasreducedtothegrowingofoneortwocrops
Forexample,Cubawasreducedtothepositionofasugarproducingcountryand
littleelse.Therewasalsonakedplunderofnaturalresources,andexploitation
throughhighdemandsofrevenuesandtaxes.Someofthebestlandsinthe
coloniesweretakenoverbytheEuropeanplantersImperialismfurther
aggravatedtheeconomicbackwardnessofthenonindustrializedcountriesof
theworld.Thesubordinationoftheeconomicsoftheseareastothoseofthe
imperialistcountrieswassocompletethatevenafterpoliticalindependence,
mostofthesecountriesfounditdifficulttodeveloptheireconomicstosuittheir

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owninterests.Theimpoverishmentofthepeopleofthecoloniesandofother
nonindustrializedcountriesisacontinuingconsequenceofimperialism.

Racism
Imperialismalsobredracialarroganceanddiscrimination.Theideaofthe
superiorityofthewhiteracewhomGodhadcreatedtogoverntheworld,was
popularizedintheimperialistcountries.Intheircolonies,thewhiterulersand
settlersdiscriminatedagainstthelocalinhabitantswhowereconsideredinferior
tothem.InmostEuropeancolonies,therewasnointermixingwiththelocal
populationandtheEuropeanslivedinareasexclusivelyreservedforthem.The
worstexampleofracismwasSouthAfricawhereintermixingofwhitesand
blackswasmadeacriminaloffence.ItisinterestingtoknowthatwhenJapan
emergedasanimperialistpower,theJapanesewereexcludedfrombeing
brandedasbelongingtoaninferiorrace.Infact,SouthAfricagavetheJapanese
thestatusofwhattheycalledhonorarywhites

StruggleAgainstImperialism
Ateverystep,theimperialistpowersmetwiththeresistanceofpeoplesthey
weretryingtoenslave.Evenwhentheconquestbyarmswasdecisive,foreign
rulethatensuedwasneverpeacefulfortherulers.Theconqueredpeoples
organizedmovementsnotmerelytooverthrowforeignrulebutalsotodevelop
theircountriesintomodernnations.Inasense,thesemovementsagainst
imperialismwereinternationalincharacterPeoplestrivingforfreedominone
countrysupportedthecauseofpeoplesinothercountries.
Generallyspeaking,theimperialistcountriesretainedtheircolonialpossessions
uptotheSecondWorldWarButwithintwodecadesaftertheendoftheWar,
mostofthecountriessucceededinregainingtheirindependence.
Mostofthenineteenthcenturyandthefirstquarterofthetwentiethcentury
weretheyearsinwhichthenationsofthewesternworldheldAsiaandAfricaas
theircolonialpossessions.Inthelateryearsofthisperiodofimperialism,about
twothirdsoftheworldspopulationwaslivingundertheruleofoneforeign
governmentortheother.TheempiresacquiredbytheEuropeannationswere
thelargestinworldhistory.
Imperialismisastoryofdeception,brutality,andarmedmight.Theimperialist
powers,however,Justifiedtheirenslavementofothernationsandpeoplesinthe
nameofspreadingcivilization.
Gettingpossessionofnewmarketsandrawmaterialsandestablishingindustries
tobeworkedbycheaplabourcreatedmanysmallwarsandtwoworld
conflicts.Despitethegentlemensagreements,therewasacontinuouseffort
amongthewesternpowerstoredividetheworldasbetweenthemselvesbut
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neverwithanyconsiderationforthewelfareofthepeopletowhomtheterritory
reallybelonged.

EXERCISES
1. ExplainwhytheIndustrialRevolutionledtotheemergenceofimperialism
2. Describethesteps,givingexamples,bywhichtheimperialistcountries
tookovermostofAfrica.
3. WhywereAsianandAfricancountriessoeasilydominatedbytheWestern
powers?
4. HowdidnationalismhelptomakeimperialismpopularinEurope?
5. DescribetheemergenceoftheUnitedStatesofAmericaasanimperialist
powerGiveexamples
6. Describetheimperialistexpansionofjapanupto1914
7. Explainthemeaningofthefollowingterms,withexamples:Sphereof
influence,exploitation,extraterritorialrights,protectorate,Monroe
Doctrine,Dollardiplomacy.
8. PreparemapsofAsiaandAfricashowingthecoloniesandspheresof
influenceofthevariousimperialistpowersbeforetheFirstWorldWar
9. StudythedevelopmentsthathavetakenplaceinAfricaafterthe
revolutioninPortugalinApril1974
10. WriteanessayonSlaveryandSlaveTradeandtheStrugglefortheir
Abolition
11. Howdidtheempiresofthenineteenthandtwentiethcenturiesdifferfrom
theempiresofancienttimesforexample,thoseoftheMauryas,the
RomansandofAlexander?
12. Discussthedifferencesbetweentheimperialistexpansionduringthe
sixteenthtotheeighteenthcenturiesand1870toI914
13. Nameanddiscusssomeofthebigproblemsfacedbynewlyindependent
countriesWhyaretheirproblemsalsotheproblemsofallcountries?
14. Discussthelongtermimpactofimperialistcontrolonthecountriesof
Asia,AfricaandSouthAmerica

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imperialismcolonizationofasiaafricaamericas.html
PostedByMrunalOn08/07/2013@19:18InthecategoryHistory

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[OldNCERTWorldHistorych10]FirstWorldWar:Causes,Consequences,
TreatyofVersailles,TripleAlliance
1. TheFirstWorldWar
2. ImperialistRivalries
3. ConflictswithinEurope
4. FormationofAlliances
5. IncidentsPrecedingtheWar
6. TheOutbreakofWar
7. TheCourseoftheWar
8. EndoftheWar
9. PeaceTreaties
10. ConsequencesoftheWarandthePeaceTreaties
11. EXERCISES
UPSChasincludedWorldHistoryinGeneralstudies(Mains)syllabusfrom
2013.HenceOldNCERT,particularlyChapter9to13fromClass10=becomes
necessaryasthefoundation/basematerialforthetopicsofWorldHistory.But
fornonDelhicandidates,itisalmostimpossibletogetthatbook,because
NCERTchangedsyllabus,hencebookisnolongerprinted.ThereforeIm
uploadingthechaptersonebyone.And,justbecausethesechaptersare
uploaded,doesntmeanImstoppingmyJackSparrowserieson[World
History],itwillcontinueatitsownpace.

TheFirstWorldWar
IN1914,awarbeganinEuropewhichsoonengulfedalmosttheentireworld.
Thedamagecausedbythiswarhadnoprecedentinhistory.Intheearlierwars,
thecivilianpopulationswerenotgenerallyinvolvedandthecasualtieswere
generallyconfinedtothewarringarmies.Thewarwhichbeganin1914wasa
totalwarinwhichalltheresourcesofthewarringstatesweremobilized.It
affectedtheeconomyoftheentireworldthecasualtiessufferedbythecivilian
populationfrombombingofthecivilianareasandthefaminesandepidemics,
causedbythewarfarexceededthosesufferedbythearmies.Initsimpactalso,
thewarhadnoprecedent.Itmarkedaturningpointinworldhistory.Thebattles
ofthewarwerefoughtinEurope,Asia,AfricaandthePacific.Becauseofthe
unprecedentedextentofitsspreadanditstotalnature,itisknownastheFirst
WorldWar.

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ImperialistRivalries
Theunderlyingcausesofthewarweretherivalriesandconflictsamongthe
imperialistcountries.Youhaveseenbefore,inChapter9,thattheimperialist
conquestofAsiaandAfricawasaccompaniedwithconflictsbetweenthe
imperialistcountries.Sometimestheimperialistswereabletocometopeaceful
settlementsandagreetodivideapartofAsiaorAfricaamongthemselves
withoutresortingtotheuseofforceagainsteachother.Atothertimestheir
rivalriescreatedsituationsofwar.Warsweregenerallyavoidedatthattime
becausethepossibilitiesoffurtherconquestwerestillthere.Ifanimperialist
countrywasexcludedfromacertainarea,itcouldfindsomeotherareato
conquer.Sometimeswarsdidbreakoutbetweenimperialistcountriesas
happened,forinstance,betweenJapanandRussia.Bytheendofthenineteenth
century,however,thesituationhadchanged.MostofAsiaandAfricahad
alreadybeendividedupandfurtherconquestscouldtakeplaceonlyby
dispossessingsomeimperialistcountryofitscolonies.Sointheperiod
beginningfromthelastdecadeofthenineteenthcentury,imperialistrivalries
resultedinattemptstoredividetheworld,creatingconditionsofwar.
YouhavereadbeforethatGermanyenteredthescrambleforcolonieslate.After
theunificationofGermanyhadbeenachieved,itmadetremendouseconomic
progress.By1914,ithadleftBritainandFrancefarbehindintheproductionof
ironandsteelandinmanymanufactures.Ithadenteredtheshippingtradeina
bigway.Oneofitsships,theImperator,builtin1912,wasthelargestinthe
world.BothBritainandFrancewerealarmedattheexpansionofGerman
manufacturesastheyconsidereditaseriousthreattotheirposition.Youhave
seenthatGermanycouldnotgrabmanycolonies,havingarrivedlateonthe
scene.MostofAsiaandAfricahadalreadybeenoccupiedbytheolder
imperialistpowers.TheGermanimperialists,therefore,dreamedofexpandingin
theeast.TheirambitionwastocontroltheeconomyofthedecliningOttoman
empire.Forthispurpose,theyhadplannedtheconstructionofarailwayfrom
BerlintoBaghdad.ThisplancreatedafearinBritain,FranceandRussiaasthe
completionoftheBerlinBaghdadrailwaywouldendangertheirimperialist
ambitionsintheOttomanempire.TheGermanshadimperialistambitions
elsewherealso,includinginAfrica.
LikeGermany,allthemajorpowersinEurope,andJapanalsohadtheir
imperialistambitions.Italy,whichafterherunificationhadbecomealmostan
equalofFranceinpower,covetedTripoliinNorthAfricawhichwasunderthe
Ottomanempire.ShehadalreadyoccupiedEritreaandSomaliland.France
wantedtoaddMoroccotoherconquestsinAfrica.Russiahadherambitionsin
Iran,theterritoriesoftheOttomanempireincludingConstantinople,theFarEast
andelsewhere.TheRussianplansclashedwiththeinterestsandambitionsof
Britain,GermanyandAustria.Japanwhichhadalsobecomeanimperialist
powerhadambitionsintheFarEastandwasonwaytofulfillingthem.She
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defeatedRussiain190405afterhavingsignedanagreementwithBritainand
wasabletoextendherinfluenceintheFarEast.
Britainwasinvolvedinaconflictwithallotherimperialistcountriesbecause
shehadalreadyacquiredavastempirewhichwastobedefended.Theriseof
anyothercountrywasconsideredadangertotheBritishempire.Shealsohad
hervastinternationaltradetodefendagainstthecompetitionfromother
countries,andtomaintainhercontroloverwhatsheconsideredthelifelineof
herempire.AustriahadherambitionsintheOttomanempireTheUnitedStates
ofAmericahademergedasapowerfulnationbytheendofthenineteenth
centuryShehadannexedthePhilippinesHermaininterestwastopreservethe
independenceoftradeashertradewasexpandingatatremendousrateThe
expansionofothermajorpowersinfluencewasconsideredathreattoAmerican
interests.

ConflictswithinEurope
Besidestheconflictsresultingfromrivalriesovercoloniesandtrade,therewere
conflictsamongthemajorEuropeanpowersovercertaindevelopmentswithin
Europe.ThereweresixmajorpowersinEuropeatthistimeBritain,Germany,
AustriaHungary,Russia,FranceandItaly.Oneofthequestionswithwhich
almostallthesecountriesgotinvolvedconcernedthecountriescomprisingthe
BalkanpeninsulainEurope.TheBalkancountrieshadbeenundertheruleof
OttomanTurks.However,inthenineteenthcentury,theOttomanrulehadbegun
tocollapse.Therewererevoltsbyvariousnationalitiesforindependence.The
RussianCzarshopedthattheseareaswouldcomeundertheircontroloncethe
Ottomanswereoustedfromthere.TheyencouragedamovementcalledthePan
SlavmovementwhichwasbasedonthetheorythatalltheSlaysofeastern
Europewereonepeople.Many
areasinAustriaHungarywereinhabitedbytheSlaysRussia,therefore,
encouragedmovementsbothagainsttheOttomanempireandAustriaHungary
ThemajorBalkancountry,Serbia,ledthemovementforunitingtheareas
inhabitedbytheSlavsintheOttomanempireaswellasinAustriaHungary.
TheSerbiannationalismwasencouragedbyRussia.OthermajorEuropean
powerswerealarmedatthegrowthofRussianinfluenceintheBalkans,They
wantedtochecktheRussianinfluence,whileAustriaHungaryhadplansof
expansioninthisarea.
CorrespondingtothePanSlavmovement,therewasaPanGermanmovement
whichaimedattheexpansionofGermanyallovercentralEuropeandinthe
Balkans.ItalyclaimedcertainareaswhichwereunderAustrianrule.France
hopedtorecovernotonlyAlsaceLorrainewhichshehadlosttoGermanyin
1871butalsotowreakvengeanceonGermanyforthehumiliatingdefeatthat
shehadsufferedinthewarwithGermanyin187071.

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FormationofAlliances
TheconflictswithinEuropeandtheconflictsovercoloniesmentionedearlier
hadbeguntocreateaverytensesituationinEuropefromthelastdecadeofthe
nineteenthcentury.Europeancountriesbegantoformthemselvesintoopposing
groups.Theyalsostartedspendingvastsumsofmoneytoincreasethesizeof
theirarmiesandnavies,todevelopnewandmoredeadlyweapons,andto
generallypreparethemselvesforwar,EuropeWasgraduallybecomingavast
armedcampSimultaneously,propagandaforwar,tobreedhatredagainstother
countries,topaintonesowncountryassuperiortoothers,andtoglorifywar,
wasstartedineachcountry.
Therewere,ofcourse,peoplewhoraisedtheirvoiceagainstthedangerofwar
andagainstmilitarization.YouhavereadoftheattitudeoftheSecond
Internationalandthevarioussocialistparties.Butsoonallthesevoiceswereto
bedrownedinthedrumbeatsofwar
TheopposinggroupsofcountriesofalliancesthatwereformedinEuropenot
onlyaddedtothedangerofwar,butalsomadeitinevitablethatwhenthewar
brokeoutitwouldassumeaworldwidemagnitude.Europeancountrieshadbeen
formingandreformingalliancessincethenineteenthcentury.Finally,inthe
firstdecadeofthetwentiethcentury,twogroupsofcountriesoralliances,
emergedandfacedeachotherwiththeirarmedmightIn1882wasformedthe
TripleAlliancecomprisingGermany,AustriaHungaryandItaly.However,
ItalysloyaltytothisAlliancewasuncertainashermainaimwastogain
territoriesinEuropefromAustriaHungaryandinconqueringTripoliwith
FrenchsupportAsopposedtothis,emergedtheTripleEntentecomprising
France,RussiaandBritainin1907.Intheoryitwasonlyaloosegroupbasedon
mutualunderstandingasthewordEntente(meaninganunderstanding
indicates.Theemergenceofthesetwohostilecampsmadeitinevitablethata
conflictinvolvinganyoneofthesecountrieswouldbecomeanallEuropean
war.Astheaimsofthecountriesinthesecampsincludedtheextensionoftheir
colonialpossessions,anallEuropeanwaralmostcertainlywouldbecomea
worldwar.Theformationofthesehostilecampswasaccompaniedwitharaceto
buildmoreandmoredeadlyweaponsandhavelargerandlargerarmiesand
navies.

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Aseriesofcrisestookplaceduringtheyearsprecedingthewar.Thesecrises
addedtothebitternessandtensioninEuropeandengenderednational
chauvinismEuropeancountriesalsoenteredintosecrettreatiestogain
territoriesattheexpenseofothers.Often,thesesecrettreatiesleakedoutand
fearandsuspiciongrewineachcountryaboutsuchtreaties.Thesefearsand
suspicionsbroughtthedangerofwarnear.

IncidentsPrecedingtheWar
Theoutbreakofthewarwasprecededbyaseriesofincidentswhichaddedto
theprevailingtensionandultimatelyledtothewar.Oneofthesewastheclash
overMorocco.In1904BritainandFrancehadenteredintoasecretagreement
accordingtowhichBritainwastohaveafreehandinEgypt,andFrancewasto
takeoverMorocco.TheagreementbecameknowntoGermanyandarousedher
indignation.TheGermanemperorwenttoMoroccoandpromisedtheSultanof
MoroccohisfullsupportfortheindependenceofMorocco.Theantagonism
overMorocco,itappeared,wouldleadtoawar.However,thewarwasaverted
whenin1911FranceoccupiedmostofMoroccoand,inexchange,gave

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GermanyapartofFrenchCongo.Eventhoughthewarhadbeenaverted,the
situationinEurope,witheachcountrypreparingforwar,hadbecome
dangerous.
TheotherincidentswhichworsenedthealreadydangeroussituationinEurope
occurredintheBalkans.In1908AustriaannexedtheOttomanprovincesof
BosniaandHerzegovina.TheseprovinceswerealsocovetedbySerbiawhich
hadthebackingofRussiainestablishingaunitedSlavstateintheBalkans.
RussiathreatenedtostartawaragainstAustrianannexationbutGermanys
opensupporttoAustriacompelledRussiatoretreat.Theincident,however,not
onlyembitteredfeelingsinSerbiabutalsocreatedfurtherenmitybetween
RussiaandGermany.ThesituationinEuropehadbecomeevenmoretense.
ThecrisisresultingfromtheannexationofBosniaandHerzegovinabyAustria
wasfollowedbyBalkanwarsin1912,fourBalkancountriesSerbia,Bulgaria,
MontenegroandGreecestartedawaragainsttheTurks.Asaresultofthis
war,TurkeylostalmostallherpossessionsinEuropeHowever,theBalkan
countriesfoughtanotherwaroverthequestionofdistributingtheformer
Turkishterritoryamongthemselves.Finally,Austriasucceededinmaking
Albania,whichhadbeenclaimedbySerbia,asanindependentstate.The
frustrationofSerbiasambitionsfurtherembitteredherfeelingsagainstAustria.
TheseincidentsbroughtEuropeonthevergeofwar.

TheOutbreakofWar
Thewarwasprecipitatedbyanincidentwhichwouldnothavecreatedmuchstir
ifEuropehadnotstooddividedintotwohostilearmedcamps,preparingforwar
formanyyearsOn28june1914ArchdukeFrancisFerdinand,theheirtothe
throneofAustriaHungary,wasassassinatedatSarajevo,capitalofBosnia.
(Bosnia,itmayberecalled,hadbeenannexedbyAustriaonlyafewyears
earlier.)AustriasawthehandofSerbiabehindtheassassinationandservedher
withanultimatum.Serbiarefusedtoacceptoneofthedemandsoftheultimatum
whichwentagainsttheindependenceofSerbiaOn28July1914Austria
declaredwaronSerbia.RussiahadpromisedfullsupporttoSerbiaandstarted
fullscalepreparationsforwar.On1August,GermanydeclaredwaronRussia
andon3AugustonFrance.GermantroopsmarchedintoBelgiumtopressonto
Franceon4AugustandonthesamedayBritaindeclaredwaronGermany.
Manyothercountriessoonenteredthewar.JapandeclaredwaronGermany
withaviewtocapturingGermancoloniesintheFarEast,TurkeyandBulgaria
joinedonthesideofGermanyItaly,inspiteofhermembershipoftheTriple
Alliance,remainedneutralforsometime,andjoinedthewaragainstGermany
andAustriaHungaryin1915.

TheCourseoftheWar
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GermanyhadhopedthatthroughalightningstrikethroughBelgium,shewould
beabletodefeatFrancewithinafewweeksandthenturnagainstRussia.The
planseemedtosucceedforawhileandtheGermantroopswerewithin20kmof
Paris.RussiahadopenedattacksonGermanyandAustriaandsomeGerman
troopshadtobedivertedtotheeasternfront.SoontheGermanadvanceon
FrancewashaltedandthewarinEuropeenteredalongperiodofstalemate.In
themeantimethewarhadspreadtomanyotherpartsoftheworldandbattles
werefoughtinWestAsia,AfricaandtheFarEast.
AftertheGermanadvancehadbeenhalted,anewtypeofwarfaredeveloped.
Thewarringarmiesdugtrenchesfromwhichtheyconductedraidsoneach
other.Thekindofwarfarethatthearmieswereusedtoearlierfightinginthe
openalmostdisappeared.OntheWesternFront,whichincludedeasternFrance
andBelgium,thetroopsofthewarringsidesdugtrenchesandcontinuedtheir
raidsoneachotherspositions.Foraboutfouryears,neithersidecoulddislodge
theother.TheEuropeancountriesmadeuseofthetroopsrecruitedfromtheir
coloniesinthewar.Labourfromcolonieswasalsousedtodigtrenchesin
Europe.OntheEasternFront,GermanyandAustriasucceededinrepulsingthe
RussianattackandcapturingpartsoftheRussianempire.Theywerealso
successfulagainstRumania,SerbiaandItaly.OutsideEurope,therewere
campaignsagainsttheOttomanempireinPalestine,MesopotamiaandArabia
andagainstGermanyandTurkeyinIranwheretheyweretryingtoestablish
theirinfluence.JapanoccupiedGermanpossessionsinEastAsia,andBritain
andFranceseizedmostoftheGermancoloniesinAfrica.
Alargenumberofnewweaponswereintroduced.Themachinegunandliquid
fireweretwosuchweapons.Forthefirsttime,aircraftswereusedinwarfareand
forbombingthecivilianpopulation.TheBritishintroducedtheuseofthetank
whichwastobecomeamajorweaponlater.Boththewarringgroupstriedto
blockeachotherssuppliesoffood,manufacturesandarmsandtheseawarfare
playedanimportantpartinthisSubmarinescalledUboatswereusedby
Germanyonalargescalenotonlytodestroyenemyshipsbutalsoshipsof
neutralcountriesheadingforBritishports.Anotherhorribleweaponusedinthe
warwaspoisongas.Thewardraggedon,takingatollofhundredsofthousands
ofhumanlives.
On6April1917,theUnitedStatesofAmericadeclaredwaronGermany.USA
hadbecomethemainsourceofarmsandotheressentialsuppliesfortheEntente
countries.In1915,theGermanUBoatshadsunkaBritishshipLusitania.Among
the1153passengerskilledwere128Americans.TheAmericansweregenerally
sympathetictoBritain,andthisincidentfurtherrousedantiGermanfeelingsin
USA.Economicconsiderationshadturnedthemevenmoreinfavourofthe
Ententecountries.ThesecountrieshadraisedvastamountsofloansinUSAto
payforthearmsandothergoodsboughtbythem.ManyAmericanshad
subscribedtotheseloanswhichcouldbepaidbackonly,ifthesecountrieswon

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thewar.TherewasalsoafearthatifGermanywonthewar,shewouldbecomea
seriousrivaltoUSA.Thesinkingofships,includingAmericanshipscarrying
Americancitizens,bytheGermanUboatsfinallyledUSAtojointhewar.
Anothermajordevelopmentthattookplacein1917wasthewithdrawalof
RussiafromthewarafterOctoberRevolution.TheRussianrevolutionarieshad
opposedthewarfromthebeginningand,undertheleadershipofLenin,had
decidedtotransformitintoarevolutionarywartooverthrowtheRussian
autocracyandtoseizepower.TheRussianempirehadsufferedseriousreverses
inthewar.Over600,000Russiansoldiershadbeenkilled.Thedayafter
theBolshevikgovernmentcametopower,itissuedtheDecreeonPeacewith
proposalstoendthewarwithoutanyannexationsandindemnities.Russia
decidedtowithdrawfromthewarandsignedapeacetreatywithGermanyin
March1918.RealizingthattheRussiangovernmentwasnotpreparedto
continuethewar,GermanyimposedtermswhichwereveryharshonGermany
usedsubmarines,calledUBoats,duringtheFirstWorldWarRussia.Butthe
Russiangovernmentacceptedtheseterms.TheEntentepowerswhichwere
opposedtotherevolutioninRussiaandtotheRussianwithdrawalfromthewar
startedtheirarmedinterventioninRussiainsupportoftheelementswhichwere
opposedtotherevolution.Thisledtoacivilwarwhichlastedforthreeyears
andendedwiththedefeatofforeigninterventionandofthoseRussianswhohad
takenuparmsagainsttherevolutionarygovernment.

EndoftheWar
Manyeffortsweremadetobringthewartoanend.Inearly1917,afewsocialist
partiesproposedtheconveningofaninternationalsocialistconferencetodraft
proposalsforendingthewarwithoutannexationsandrecognitionoftherightof
peoplestoselfdetermination.However,theconferencecouldnotbeheld.The
proposaloftheBolshevikgovernmentinRussiatoconcludeapeacewithout
annexationsandindemnities,onthebasisoftheselfdeterminationofpeoples
waswelcomedbymanypeopleinthecountrieswhichwereatwar.However,
theseproposalswererejected.ThePopealsomadeproposalsforpeacebutthese
toowerenottakenseriously.Thoughtheseeffortstoendthewardidnotgetany
positiveresponsefromthegovernmentsofthewarringcountries,antiwar
feelingsgrewamongthepeople.Therewaswidespreadunrestanddisturbances
andevenmutiniesbegantobreakout.Insomecountries,followingthesuccess
oftheRussianRevolution,theunrestwassoontotaketheformofuprisingsto
overthrowthegovernments.
InJanuary1918,WoodrowWilson,PresidentoftheUnitedStates,proposeda
peaceprogramme.ThishasbecomefamousasPresidentWilsonsFourteen
Points.Theseincludedtheconductofneotiationsbetweenstatesopenly,
freedomofnavigation,reductionofarmaments,independenceofBelgium,
restorationofAlsaceLorrainetoFrance,creationofindependentstatesin

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Europe,formationofaninternationalorganizationtoguaranteethe
independenceofallstates,etc.Someofthesepointswereacceptedwhenthe
peacetreatiesweresignedattheendofthewar
Britain,FranceandUSAlaunchedamilitaryoffensiveinJuly1918and
Germanyandheralliesbegantocollapse.Bulgariawithdrewfromthewarin
September,andTurkeysurrenderedinOctober.
PoliticaldiscontenthadbeenrisinginAustriaHungaryandGermany.The
emperorofAustriaHungarysurrenderedon3November.InGermany
revolutionbrokeout.GermanybecamearepublicandtheGermanemperor
KaiserWilliamIIfledtoHolland.ThenewGermangovernmentsignedan
armisticeon11November1918andthewarwasover.Thenewswasreceived
withtremendousJubilationallovertheworld.

PeaceTreaties
ThevictoriouspowersortheAllies,astheywerecalled,metinaconference
firstinVersailles,asuburbofParis,andlaterinParis,betweenJanuaryandJune
1919.Thoughthenumberofcountriesrepresentedattheconferencewas27,the
termsofthepeacetreatieswerereallydecidedbythreecountriesBritain,
FranceandUSA.Thethreepersonswhoplayedthedeterminingroleinframing
thetermsofthetreatieswereWoodrowWilson,PresidentoftheUnitedStates,
LloydGeorge,PrimeMinisterofBritain,andGeorgeClemenceau,Prime
MinisterofFrance.Thedefeatedcountrieswerenotrepresentedatthe
conference.ThevictoriouspowersalsoexcludedRussiafromtheconference.
Thetermsofthetreatywerethusnottheresultofnegotiationsbetweenthe
defeatedandthevictoriouspowersbutwereimposedonthedefeatedbythe
victors.
ThemaintreatywassignedwithGermanyon28June1919.Itiscalledthe
TreatyofVersailles.TherepublicangovernmentofGermanywascompelledto
signthistreatyunderthethreatofinvasion.ThetreatydeclaredGermanyand
heralliesguiltyofaggression.AlsaceLorrainewasreturnedtoFrance.Thecoal
minesintheGermanareacalledSaarwerecededtoFrancefor15yearswhile
thatareawastobegovernedbytheLeagueofNations.Germanyalsoceded
partsofherprewarterritorytoDenmark,Belgium,PolandandCzechoslovakia.
TheareaoftheRhinevalleywastobedemilitarized.Thetreatyalsocontained
provisionsfordisarmingGermany.Thestrengthofherarmywastobelimitedto
100,000andshewasrequirednottohaveanyairforceandsubmarinesShewas
dispossessedofallhercolonieswhichweretakenoverbythevictors.Togoand
theCameroonweredividedandsharedbyBritainandFrance.Germancolonies
inSouthWestAfricaandEastAfricaweregiventoBritain,Belgium,South
AfricaandPortugal.GermancoloniesinthePacificandthespheresunderher
controlinChinaweregiventoJapanChinawasalignedwiththeAlliesduring

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thewarandwasevenrepresentedattheParisConference.Butherareasunder
GermanpossessionofcontrolwerenotrestoredtoChinainsteadtheywere
givenawaytoJapan.Germanywasalsorequiredtopayforthelossand
damagessufferedbytheAlliesduringthewar.Theamountofreparationswas
fixedatanenormousfigureof$6,500,000,000.
SeparatetreatiesweresignedwiththealliesofGermany.AustriaHungarywas
brokenupandAustriawasrequiredtorecognizetheindependenceofHungary,
Czechoslovakia,YugoslaviaandPoland.Shehadtocedeterritoriestothemand
toItaly.ManychangesweremadeintheBalkanswherenewstateswerecreated
andtransfersofterritoriesfromonestatetoanothertookplaceBalticstates
whichearlierformedpartsoftheRussianempireweremadeindependent.The
treatywithTurkeystipulatedthecompletedismembermentoftheOttoman
empireBritainwasgivenPalestineandMesopotamia(Iraq)andSyriawentto
Franceaswhatwerecalledmandates.Intheory,themandatorypowers,that
isBritainandFrance,weretolookaftertheinterestsofthepeopleofthe
mandatesbutactuallytheyweregovernedascolonies.Mostoftheremaining
TurkishterritoriesweretobegiventoGreeceandItalyandTurkeywastobe
reducedtoaverysmallstate.However,therewasarevolutioninTurkeyunder
theleadershipofMustaphaKemal.TheSultanwasdeposedandTurkeywas
proclaimedarepublicin1922.TurkeyregainedcontrolofAsiaMinorandthe
cityofConstantinople(Istanbul)andtheAllieswereforcedtoabandonthe
earliertreaty.
AnimportantpartofthepeacetreatieswastheCovenantoftheLeagueof
Nations.WilsonsFourteenPointsincludedthecreationofaninternational
organizationforthepreservationofpeaceandtoguaranteetheindependenceof
allstates.TheLeagueofNationswascreated.Itwasintendedasaworld
organizationofallindependentstates.Itaimedatthepreservationofpeaceand
securityandpeacefulsettlementofinternationalconflicts,andboundits
membersnottoresorttowarOneofitsimportantprovisionswaswithregard
tosanctions.Accordingtothisprovision,economicandmilitaryactionwould
betakenagainstanycountrywhichcommittedaggression.Italsoboundits
memberstoimprovelabourandsocialconditionsintheircountries.Forthisthe
InternationalLabourOrganizationwassetupwhichisnowoneofthe
specializedagenciesoftheUnitedNations.
Thehopesofhavingatrulyworldorganizationdevotedtothepreservationof
peaceandindependenceofnationswere,however,notrealizedwiththe
formationoftheLeague.TwomajorcountriesGermanyandtheSovietUnion
werenotallowedtobecomeitsmembersformanyyearswhileIndia,which
wasnotindependent,wasmadeamember.TheUnitedStateswhichhadplayed
animportantpartinthesettingupoftheLeagueultimatelydecidednottojoin
it.TheLeaguewasneveraneffectiveorganization.Inthe1930swhenmany
countriesresortedtoaggression,theLeaguewaseitherignoredordefied

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Animportantfeatureofthepeacetreatieswhichindicatesitsnaturewasthe
decisionwithregardtothecoloniesofthedefeatedpowers.TheAllieshad
enteredintomanysecretagreementsfordividingthespoilsofwarTheSoviet
government,tobringouttheimperialistnatureofthewar,madethesetreaties
public.Duringthewar,theAllieshadbeenclaimingthatthewarwasbeing
foughtforfreedomanddemocracy.PresidentWilsonhadsaidthatthewarwas
beingfoughttomaketheworldsafefordemocracy.Thepublicationofsecret
treatiesbytheSovietgovernmentexposedtheseclaims.However,inspiteof
this,thedistributionofthecoloniesofthedefeatedcountriesamongthevictors
tookplaceashasbeenmentionedbefore.Ofcourse,theSovietUnionwhichhad
repudiatedallthesecretagreementsdidnotreceiveanyspoilswhichhadbeen
promisedtotheRussianemperor.TheLeagueofNationsalsorecognisedthis
divisionofthespoils.Legallymostofthecolonieswhichweretransferredtothe
victoriouspowersweremandatesandcouldnotbeannexed.

ConsequencesoftheWarandthePeaceTreaties
TheFirstWorldWarwasthemostfrightfulwarthattheworldhadsofarseen.
Thedevastationcausedbyit,asstatedearlier,hadnoprecedent.Thenumberof
personswhofoughtinthewarisstaggering.Estimatesvarybetween53and70
millionpeople.Thetotalnumberofthosekilledanddeadinthewarare
estimatedataboutninemillion,thatis,aboutoneseventhofthosewho
participatedinit.Severalmillionbecameinvalids.Theairraids,epidemicsand
famineskilledmanymoreamongthecivilianpopulations.Besidestheseterrible
humanlosses,theeconomyofmanycountrieswasshattered.Itgaveriseto
manyserioussocialproblems.Thepoliticalinstitutionsastheyhadbeen
evolvinginvariouscountriesalsosufferedaserioussetback
Thewarandthepeacetreatiestransformedthepoliticalmapoftheworld,
particularlyofEurope.ThreerulingdynastiesweredestroyedtheRomanov
inRussiaduringthewaritself,theHohenzollerninGermanyandtheHabsburg
inAustriaHungary.Soonafterthewar,theruleofOttomanscametoanendin
Turkey.AustriaandHungarybecameseparateindependentstates.
CzechoslovakiaandYugoslaviaemergedasindependentstates.Polandwhich
hadbeendividedamongRussia,AustriaandPrussiaintheeighteenthcentury
wasreformedasanindependentstate.
Theperiodafterthewarsawthewarsawthebeginningoftheendofthe
Europeansupremacyintheworld.Economicallyandmilitarily,Europewas
surpassedbytheUnitedStateswhichemergedfromthewarasaworldpower
TheSovietUnionwasalsotosooncomeupasamajorworldpower.Theperiod
afterthewaralsosawthestrengtheningofthefreedommovementsinAsiaand
Africa.TheweakeningofEuropeandtheemergenceoftheSovietUnionwhich
declaredhersupporttothestrugglesfornationalindependencecontributedto
thegrowingstrengthofthesestruggles.TheAlliedpropagandaduringthewar

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todefenddemocracy,andtheparticipationofAsianandAfricansoldierinthe
battlesinEuropealsohelpedinarousingthepeoplesofAsiaandAfrica.The
Europeancountrieshadutilizedtheresourcesoftheircoloniesinthewar.The
forcedrecruitmentofsoldiersandlabourersforwar,andtheexploitationof
resourcesofthecoloniesforwarbytheimperialistcountrieshadcreated
resentmentamongthepeopleofthecolonies.Thepopulationofthecolonial
countrieshadbeennurturedonthemyththatthepeoplesofAsiaandAfrica
wereinferiortotheEuropeans.TheroleplayedbythesoldiersfromAsiaand
AfricainwinningthewarforonegroupofnationsofEuropeagainstanother
shatteredthismyth.ManyAsianleadershadsupportedthewareffortinthe
hopethat,oncethewarwasover,theircountrieswouldbegivenfreedom.These
hopeswere,however,belied.WhiletheEuropeannationswontherighttoself
determination,colonialruleandexploitationcontinuedinthecountriesofAsia
andAfrica.
Thecontrastbetweenthetwosituationswastooglaringtobemissed.Its
increasingawarenessledtothegrowthofnationalistfeelingsinthecolonies.
Thesoldierswhoreturnedtotheirrespectivecountriesfromthetheatresofwar
inEuropeandelsewherealsobroughtwiththemthenewstirrings.Allthese
factorsstrengthenednationalistmovementsinthecolonies.Insomecountries,
thefirststirringsofnationalismwerefeltafterthewar.
TheFirstWorldWarhadbeenbelievedtobeaWartoendallwar.However,
thePeaceTreatieshadfailedtoensurethis.Onthecontrary,thetreaties
containedcertainprovisionswhichwereextremelyharshonthedefeated
countriesandthustheysowedtheseedsoffurtherconflicts.Similarly,some
victoriouscountriesalsofeltcheatedbecausealltheirhopeshadnotbeen
fulfilled.Imperialismwasnotdestroyedasaresultofthewar.Thevictorious
powershadinfactenlargedtheirpossessions.Thefactorswhichhadcaused
rivalriesandconflictsbetweenimperialistcountriesleadingtothewarstill
existed.Therefore,thedangerthatmorewarswouldbefoughtforanother
redvisionoftheworld.remainedlurking.TheemergenceoftheSovietUnion
wasconsideredadangertotheexistingsocialandeconomicsysteminmany
countries.Thedesiretodestroyitinfluencedthepoliciesofthosecountries.
Thesefactors,combinedwithcertaindevelopmentsthattookplaceinthenext
twentyyears,createdconditionsforanotherworldwar.

EXERCISES
1. ExplainthebasicreasonsfortheconflictsbetweenEuropeannationsfrom
thelatenineteenthcenturytotheearlyyearsofthetwentiethcentury.
2. WhatwerethecountriescomprisingtheTripleAllianceandtheTriple
Entente?Whatwerethemainaimsofthesegroupings?
3. WhatismeantbythePanSlavmovement?Whydiditaddtotheconflict

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betweenRussiaandAustria?
4. ExplainthereasonsfortheentryoftheUnitedStatesintheFirstWorld
War.
5. Whythewarthatbrokeoutin1914iscalledtheFirstWorldWar?
6. ExplaintheconsequencesoftheFirstWorldWaronGermany,Austria,
HungaryandTurkey
7. WhatwerethepurposesforwhichtheLeagueofNationswasestablished?
8. WhydidRussiawithdrawfromthewarafterthe1917Revolution?
9. Onamapoftheworld,showtheareasinAsiaandAfricawhichcaused
conflictsamongvariousEuropeancountriesAlsoshowtheEuropean
countrieswhichemergedasindependentstatesaftertheFirstWorldWar.
10. Howwastheworldredividedamongthevictoriouspowers?Preparea
maptoshowtheterritorieswhichweretakenoverfromthedefeated
countriesbythevictoriouscountries.
11. StudytheFourteenPointsofPresidentWilsonandthepeacetreatiesthat
weresignedafterthewar.MakeachecklisttoshowwhichoftheFourteen
Pointswerecoveredbythepeaceteatiesandwhichwerenot.
12. HowfarwereimperialistrivalriesthebasiccauseoftheFirstWorldWar?
13. Doyouthinkthepeacetreatieslaidthefoundationsofajustandstable
peace?Discuss.
14. Howisitthatanotherwiseminorincidentledtotheoutbreakofaworld
war?Discuss.

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[OldNCERTWorldHistorych11]RussianRevolution:Causes,Consequences,
Comintern
1. ConditionsinRussiabeforetheRevolution
2. GrowthofRevolutionaryMovementsinRussia
3. THERUSSIANREVOLUTION
4. BeginningoftheRevolution
5. ConsequencesoftheRevolution
6. Comintern
7. EXERCISES
UPSChasincludedWorldHistoryinGeneralstudies(Mains)syllabusfrom
2013.HenceOldNCERT,particularlyChapter9to13fromClass10=becomes
necessaryasthefoundation/basematerialforthetopicsofWorldHistory.But
fornonDelhicandidates,itisalmostimpossibletogetthatbook,because
NCERTchangedsyllabus,hencebookisnolongerprinted.ThereforeIm
uploadingthechaptersonebyone.And,justbecausethesechaptersare
uploaded,doesntmeanImstoppingmyJackSparrowserieson[World
History],itwillcontinueatitsownpace.

ConditionsinRussiabeforetheRevolution
INapreviouschapter,youhavereadabouttheriseandgrowthofthesocialist
movement.Bytheearlyyearsofthetwentiethcentury,politicalmovements
basedontheideasofsocialismhademergedinanumberofcountriesinEurope.
WiththeoutbreakoftheFirstWorldWar,however,thesocialistmovementin
mostcountriesofEuropesufferedasetback.TheSecondInternationalfaceda
splitonthequestionofattitudetotheWarandceasedtofunction.Duringthis
period,however,unrestwasbrewinginRussia.TheRussianRevolutiontook
placein1917,affectingthecourseofworldhistoryformanydecades.
Inthenineteenthcentury,almost,entireEuropewasundergoingimportant
social,economicandpoliticaltransformation.Mostofthecountrieswere
republicslikeFranceorconstitutionalmonarchieslikeEngland.Theruleofthe
oldfeudalaristocracieshadbeenreplacedbythatofthenewmiddleclasses.
Russia,however,wasstilllivingintheoldworldundertheautocraticruleof
theCzars,astheRussianemperorswerecalled.Serfdomhadbeenabolishedin
1861,butitdidnotimprovetheconditionofpeasants.Theystillhadmiserably
smallholdingsoflandwithnocapitaltodevelopeventhese.Forthesmall

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holdingstheyacquired,theyhadtopayheavyredemptionduesfordecades.
LandhungerofthepeasantswasamajorsocialfactorintheRussiansociety.
IndustrializationbeganverylateinRussia,inthesecondhalfofthenineteenth
century.Thenitdevelopedatafairlyfastrate,butmorethanhalfofthecapital
forinvestmentcamefromforeigncountries.Foreigninvestorswereinterestedin
quickprofitsandshowednoconcernfortheconditionsofworkers.Russian
capitalists,withinsufficientcapital,competedwithforeigninvestorsby
reducingworkerswages.Whetherfactorieswereownedbyforeignersor
Russians,theconditionsofworkwerehorrible.Theworkershadnopolitical
rightsandnomeansofgainingevenminorreforms.ThewordsofMarxthat
workershavenothingtolosebuttheirchainsrangliterallytruetothem
TheRussianstateundertheCzarswascompletelyunsuitedtotheneedsof
moderntimesCzarNicholasII,inwhosereigntheRevolutionoccurred,still
believedinthedivinerightofkings.Thepreservationofabsolutismwas
regardedbyhimasasacredduty.TheonlypeoplewhosupportedtheCzarwere
thenobilityandtheupperlayersoftheclergy.Alltherestofthepopulationin
thevastRussianempirewashostile.ThebureaucracythattheCzarshadbuilt
wastopheavy,inflexibleandinefficient,themembersbeingrecruitedfrom
amongsttheprivilegedclassesratherthanonthebasisofanyability.
TheRussianCzarshadbuiltavastempirebyconquestofdiversenationalitiesin
EuropeandAsia.Intheseconqueredareas,theyimposedtheuseoftheRussian
languageandtriedtobelittletheculturesofthepeopleoftheseareas.Also,
Russiasimperialistexpansionbroughtherintoconflictswithotherimperialist
powers.Thesewarsfurtherexposedthehollownessoftheczariststate.

GrowthofRevolutionaryMovementsinRussia
ThereweremanypeasantrebellionsinRussiabeforethenineteenthcenturybut
theyweresuppressed.ManyRussianthinkershadbeeninfluencedby
developmentsinWesternEuropeandwantedtoseesimilarchangesinRussia.
Theireffortshadhelpedtobringabouttheabolitionofserfdom.This,however,
turnedouttobeahollowvictory.Thehopesofgradualchangesinthedirection
ofconstitutionaldemocraticgovernmentweresoonshatteredandeveryattempt
atgradualimprovementseemedtoendinfailure.Intheconditionsthatexisted
inRussia,evenamoderatedemocratorreformerhadtobearevolutionary.In
thelastquarterofthenineteenthcentury,therewasamovementknownas
goingtothepeoplewhenintellectualsstartedpreachingtheirideastothe
peasants.
Whentheworkersorganizationsweresetupafterindustrializationbegan,they
weredominatedbyideasofsocialism.In1883,theRussianSocialDemocratic
PartywasformedbyGeorgePlekhanov,afollowerofMarx.Thispartyalong

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withmanyothersocialistgroupswasunitedintotheRussianSocialDemocratic
LabourPartyin1898.However,thepartywassoonsplitoverquestionsof
organizationandpolicy.Onegroupwhichwasinaminority(henceknownas
theMensheviks)favouredapartyofthetypethatexistedincountrieslike
FranceandGermanyandparticipatedinelectionstotheparliamentsoftheir
countries.Themajority,knownastheBolsheviks,wereconvincedthatina
countrywherenodemocraticrightsexistedandwheretherewasnoparliament,
apartyorganizedonparliamentarylineswouldnotbeeffective.Theyfavoured
apartyofthosewhowouldabidebythedisciplineofthepartyandworkfor
revolution.
TheleaderoftheBolshevikswasVladimirIlyichUlyanov,popularlyknownas
Lenin.Heisregardedasoneofthegreatestleadersofthesocialistmovement
afterMarxandEngels.Hedevotedhimselftothetaskoforganizingthe
BolshevikPartyasaninstrumentforbringingaboutrevolution.Hisnamehas
becomeinseparablefromtheRevolutionof1917.TheRussiansocialists,
includingPlekhanovandLenin,hadplayedanimportantpartintheSecond
International
BesidestheMenshevikandtheBloshevikparties,whichwerethepolitical
partiesofindustrialworkers,therewastheSocialistRevolutionaryPartywhich
voicedthedemandsofthepeasantry.ThentherewerepartiesofthenonRussian
nationalitiesoftheRussianempirewhichwereworkingtofreetheirlandsfrom
colonialoppression.
TherevolutionarymovementinRussiahadbeengrowingwhenthe1905
Revolutionbrokeout.In1904,awarhadbrokenoutbetweenRussiaandJapan.
TheRussianarmieshadsufferedreversesinthewar.Thishadfurther
strengthenedtherevolutionarymovementinRussia.On9January1905,amass
ofpeacefulworkerswiththeirwivesandchildrenwasfiredatinSt.Petersburg
whileonitswaytotheWinterPalacetopresentapetitiontotheCzarMorethan
athousandofthemwerekilledandthousandsofotherswerewounded.Thisday
isknownasBloodySunday.Thenewsofthekillingsprovokedunprecedented
disturbancesthroughoutRussia.Evensectionsofthearmyandthenavy
revolted.ThesailorsofthebattleshipPotemkinjoinedtherevolutionaries.A
newformoforganizationdevelopedinthisrevolutionwhichproveddecisivein
theupheavalof1917.ThiswastheSoviet,orthecouncilofworkers
representatives.Beginningascommitteestoconductstrikes,theybecamethe
instrumentsofpoliticalpowerSovietsofpeasantswerealsoformed.
InOctober,theCzaryieldedandannouncedhismanifestograntingfreedomof
speech,pressandassociation,andconferredthepowertomakelawsuponan
electedbodycalledtheDuma.TheCzarsmanifestocontainedprinciples
whichwouldhavemadeRussiaaconstitutionalmonarchylikeEngland.
However,theCzarsoonrelapsedintohisoldways.Nolongercouldonehope

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forgradualreform.The1905Revolutionprovedtobeadressrehearsalofthe
revolutionthatcamein1917.

THERUSSIANREVOLUTION
Itarousedthepeopleandpreparedthemforrevolution.Itdrewsoldiersandthe
peoplesofnonRussiannationalitiesintoclosecontactwiththeRussian
revolutionaries.
HopingtosatisfyhisimperialambitionsbyannexingConstantinopleandthe
StraitsoftheDardanelles,theCzartookRussiaintotheFirstWorldWar.This
provedfatalandbroughtaboutthefinalbreakdownoftheRussianautocracy.
TheCzariststatewasincapableofcarryingonamodernwar.Thedecadenceof
theroyalfamilymademattersworse,NicholasIIwascompletelydominatedby
hiswife.She,inturn,wasruledbyafiendnamedRasputinwhovirtuallyranthe
government.Corruptioninthestateresultedingreatsufferingamongthe
people.Therewasashortageofbread.TheRussianarmysufferedheavy
reverses.Thegovernmentwascompletelyunmindfuloftheconditionsof
soldiersonthefront.ByFebruary1917,600,000soldiershadbeenkilledinwar.
Therewaswidespreaddiscontentthroughouttheempireaswellasinthearmy.
Theconditionwasripeforarevolution.Insettingforththefundamentallawfor
asuccessfulrevolution,Leninhadincludedtwoconditionsthepeopleshould
fullyunderstandthatrevolutionisnecessaryandbereadytosacrificetheirlives
forittheexistinggovernmentshouldbeinastateofcrisistomakeitpossible
forittobeoverthrownrapidly.ThattunehadcertainlyarrivedinRussiain
1917.

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BeginningoftheRevolution
Minorincidentsusuallysetoffrevolutions.InthecaseoftheRussian
Revolutionitwasademonstrationbyworkingclasswomentryingtopurchase
bread.Ageneralstrikeofworkersfollowed,inwhichsoldiersandotherssoon
joined.On12March1917thecapitalcityofSt.Petersburg(renamedPetrograd,
laterLeningradandonceagain,afterthecollapseoftheSovietUnion,St.
Petersburg)fellintothehandsoftherevolutionaries.Soontherevolutionaries
tookMoscow,theCzargaveuphisthroneandthefirstProvisionalGovernment
wasformedon15March.ThefamouspoetMayakovsky,expressingthe
contemptoftheRussianpeoplefortheCzar,wroteonthefalloftheCzar:
Likethechewedstumpofafag
wespattheirdynastyout
ThefalloftheCzarisknownastheFebruaryRevolutionbecause,accordingto
0ldRussiancalendar,itoccurredon27February1917.ThefalloftheCzar,
however,markedonlythebeginningoftherevolution.
Themostimportantdemandsofthepeoplewerefourfold:peace,landtothe
tiller,controlofindustrybyworkers,andequalstatusforthenonRussian
nationalities.TheProvisionalGovernmentundertheleadershipofamannamed
Kerenskydidnotimplementanyofthesedemandsandlostthesupportofthe
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people.Lenin,whowasinexileinSwitzerlandatthetimeoftheFebruary
Revolution,returnedtoRussiainApril.Underhisleadership,theBolshevik
Partyputforwardclearpolicies
toendthewarandtransferlandtothepeasantsandadvancedthesloganAll
PowertotheSoviets.OnthequestionofnonRussiannationalities,Bolsheviks
weretheonlypartythenwithaclearpolicy.LeninhaddescribedtheRussian
empireasaprisonofnationsandhaddeclaredthatnogenuinedemocracy
couldbeestablishedunlessalltilenonRussianpeoplesweregivenequalrights
Hehadproclaimedtherightofallpeoples,includingthoseundertheRussian
empire,toselfdetermination.TheunpopularityoftheKerenskygovernmentled
toitscollapseon7November1917,whenagroupofsailorsoccupiedthe
WinterPalace,theseatoftheKerenskygovernment.LeonTrotskywhohad
playedanimportantroleinthe1905RevolutionreturnedtoRussiainMay
1917.AsheadofthePetrogradSoviet,hewasoneofthemostoutstanding
leadersoftheNovemberuprising.AnAllRussianCongressofSovietsmeton
thesamedayandassumedfullpoliticalpower.Thiseventwhichtookplaceon7
NovemberisknownastheOctoberRevolutionbecauseofthecorresponding
dateoftheoldRussiancalendar,25October.
TheCongressofSovietsonthenextdayissuedaproclamationtoallpeoples
andbelligerentstatestoopennegotiationsforajustpeacewithoutannexation
andindemnities.Russiawithdrewfromthewar,thoughformalpeacewassigned
withGermanylater,aftercedingtheterritoriesthatGermanydemandedasa
priceforpeace.Followingthedecreeonland,theestatesofthelandlords,the
ChurchandtheCzarwereconfiscatedandtransferredtopeasantssocietiesto
beallottedtopeasantfamiliestobecultivatedwithouthiredlabour.Thecontrol
ofindustrieswastransferredtoshopcommitteesofworkers.Bythemiddleof
1918,banksandinsurancecompanies,largeindustries,mines,watertransport
andrailwayswerenationalised,foreigndebtswererepudiatedandforeign
Investmentswereconfiscated.ADeclarationoftheRightsofPeopleswasissued
conferringtherightofselfdeterminationuponallnationalities.Anew
government,calledtheCouncilofPeoplesCommissars,headedbyLeninwas
formed.Thesefirstactsofthenewgovernmentwerehailedasthebeginningof
theeraofsocialism.
TheOctoberRevolutionhadbeenalmostcompletelypeaceful.Onlytwopersons
werereportedkilledinPetrogradonthedaytheRevolutiontookplace.
However,soonthenewstatewasinvolvedinacivilwar.Theofficersofthe
armyofthefallenCzarorganisedanarmedrebellionagainsttheSovietstate.
TroopsofforeignpowersEngland,France,Japan,UnitedStatesandother
joinedthem.Warragedtill1920.BythistimetheRedArmyofthenewstate
wasincontrolofalmostallthelandsoftheoldCzaristempire.TheRedArmy
wasbadlyequippedandcomposedmainlyofworkersandpeasantsHowever,it
wonoverbetterequippedandbettertrainedforces,justasthecitizenarmiesin

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theAmericanandFrenchrevolutionshadwon.

ConsequencesoftheRevolution
Theoverthrowofautocracyandthedestructionofthearistocracyandthepower
ofthechurchwerethefirstachievementsoftheRussianRevolution.TheCzarist
empirewastransformedintoanewstatecalledtheUnionofSovietSocialist
Republics(U.S.S.R)forshortSovietUnion.Thepoliciesofthenewstatewereto
bedirectedtotherealizationoftheoldsocialistideal,fromeachaccordingto
hiscapacity,toeachaccordingtohiswork.Privatepropertyinthemeansof
productionwasabolishedandthemotiveofprivateprofiteliminatedfromthe
systemofproduction.Economicplanningbythestatewasadoptedtobuilda
technologicallyadvancedeconomyatafastrateandtoeliminateglaring
inequalitiesinsociety.Workbecameanessentialrequirementforeveryperson
therewasnounearnedincometoliveon.Therighttoworkbecamea
constitutionalrightanditbecamethedutyofthestatetoprovideemploymentto
everyindividual.Educationoftheentirepeoplewasgivenahighpriority.The
equalityofallthenationalitiesintheUSS.R.wasrecognizedintheconstitution
framedin1924andlaterin1936.Theconstitutiongavetherepublicsformedby
thenationalitiesautonomytodeveloptheirlanguagesandcultures.These
developmentswereparticularlysignificantfortheAsianrepublicsofUS.SR
whichweremuchmorebackwardthantheEuropeanpart.
Withinafewyearsoftherevolution,theSovietUnionemergedasamajor
powerintheworld.Thesocialandeconomicsystemsthatbegantobebuiltthere
washailedbymanyasthebeginningofanewcivilizationwhileotherscalledit
anevilsystemAfterabout70yearsoftherevolution,thesystemcollapsedand
in1991theSovietUnionceasedtoexistasastate.(Themapintinschapter
showsthe15republicswhichformedtheSovietUnionbeforeitsbreakup)You
willreadinthenexttwochaptersaboutsomeofthemajordevelopmentsthat
tookplaceintheSovietUnionandtheroleitplayedinworldaffairsfromthe
timeofitsemergencetillitscollapse.
Initsimpactontheworld,theRussianRevolutionhadfewparallelsinhistory.
Theideasofsocialismwhichthesocialistmovementhadbeenadvocatingand
whichtheRussianRevolutionespousedwereintendedforuniversalapplication.
TheRussianRevolutionwasthefirstsuccessfulrevolutioninhistorywhich
proclaimedthebuildingofasocialistsocietyasitsobjective.Ithadledtothe
creationofanewstateoveravastareaoftheglobe.Itwas,therefore,boundto
haverepercussionsfortherestoftheworld.

Comintern
Soonaftertherevolution,theCommunistInternational(alsoknownastheThird
InternationalorComintern)wasformedforpromotingrevolutionsonan

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internationalscale.ThesplitinthesocialistmovementatthetimeoftheFirst
WorldWarhasbeenmentionedbefore.Theleftwingsectionsinmanysocialist
partiesnowformedthemselvesintocommunistpartiesandtheyaffiliated
themselvestotheComintern.Communistpartieswerealsoformedinother
countries,oftenwiththeactiveinvolvementandsupportoftheComintern.Thus
theinternationalcommunistmovementaroseunderoneorganizationwhich
decidedonpoliciestobefollowedbyallcommunistpartiesTheSovietUnion
wasconsideredtheleaderoftheworldcommunistmovementbythecommunist
partiesinvariouscountriesandtheCommunistPartyofSovietUnionplayeda
leadingroleindeterminingthepoliciesoftheComintern.Itisgenerallyagreed
thatCominternwasoftenusedbytheSovietUnionasaninstrumentfor
pursuingitsownobjectivesHowever,theformationofcommunistpartiesin
manycountriesoftheworldwiththeobjectiveofbringingaboutrevolutionand
followingcommonpolicieswasamajorconsequenceoftheRussianRevolution.
WiththeformationoftheComintern,thesocialistmovementwasdividedinto
twosectionssocialistandcommunist.Thereweremanydifferencesbetween
themonthemethodsofbringingaboutsocialismandabouttheconceptof
socialismitself.Despitethesedifferences,socialismbecameoneofthemost
widelyheldideologieswithinafewdecadesafteritsemergence.Thespreadof
theinfluenceofsocialistideasandmovementsaftertheFirstWorldWarwasin
nosmallmeasureduetothesuccessoftheRussianRevolution.
ThegrowingpopularityofsocialismandmanyachievementsmadebytheSoviet
Unionledtoaredefinitionofdemocracy.Mostpeoplewhodidnotbelievein
socialismalsobegantorecognizethatfordemocracytobereal,politicalrights
withoutsocialandeconomicrightswerenotenough.Economicandsocial
affairscouldnotbelefttothecapitalists.Theideaofthestateplayinganactive
roleinregulatingtheeconomyandplanningtheeconomytoimprovethe
conditionsofthepeoplewasaccepted.Thebiblicalidea,revivedbythesocialist
movementandtheRussianRevolution,Hethatdoesnotworkneithershallhe
eat,gainedwidespreadacceptance,addinganewdignitytolabour.The
popularityofsocialismalsohelpedtomitigatediscriminationsbasedonrace,
colourandsex.
Thespreadofsocialistideasalsohelpednippromotinginternationalism.The
nations,atleastintheory,begantoaccepttheideathattheirrelationswithother
nationsshouldgofartherthanmerelypromotingtheirnarrowselfinterests.
Manyproblemswhichwereconsiderednationalbegantobelookeduponas
concernsoftheworldasawhole.Theuniversalityandinternationalismwhich
werefundamentalprinciplesofsocialistideologyfromthebeginningwere
totallyopposedtoimperialism.TheRussianRevolutionservedtohastentheend
ofimperialism.AccordingtoMarx,anationwhichenslavesanothernationcan
neverbefree.Socialistsallovertheworldorganizedcampaignsforputtingan
endtoimperialism.

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ThenewSovietstatecametobelookeduponasafriendofthepeoplesofthe
coloniesstrugglingfornationalindependence.RussiaaftertheRevolutionwas
thefirstcountryinEuropetoopenlysupportthecauseofindependenceofall
nationsfromforeignrule.ImmediatelyaftertheRevolution,theSoviet
governmenthadannulledtheunequaltreatieswhichtheCzarhadimposedon
China.ItalsogaveassistanceofvariouskindstoSunYatSeninhisstrugglefor
theunificationofChina.TheRussianRevolutionalsoinfluencedthemovements
forindependenceinsofarasthelattergraduallybroadenedtheobjectivesof
independencetoincludesocialandeconomicequalitythroughplanned
economicdevelopment.WritingabouttheRussianRevolutioninhis
Autobiography,JawaharlalNehrusaid,Itmademethinkofpoliticsmuchmore
intermsofsocialchange.

EXERCISES
1. Explainthefollowingterms:Bolsheviks,Mensheviks,Soviet,February
Revolution,OctoberRevolution,BloodySunday,CommunistInternational
2. DescribethesocialandeconomicconditionsinRussiabeforethe
Revolutionof1917.HowdidRussiasparticipationintheFirstWorldWar
helpcreateconditionsforthefalloftheRussianautocracy,
3. WhatwerethemainobjectivesoftheRussianrevolutionaries?
4. DescribetheimmediateconsequencesoftheOctoberRevolutionon
RussiasparticipationintheFirstWorldWar,theownershipofland,and
positionofthenonRussiannationalitiesoftheRussianempire.
5. ExplaintheattitudeoftheUSSR.towardsthemovementsfor
independenceinAsia.
6. CollectpicturesconnectedwiththeRussianRevolutionfordisplay.
Describetheeventsandtheroleofpersonalitiesshowninthepictures.
7. CollectdocumentsconnectedwiththeRussianRevolution(forexample,
thetextoftheDecreesonLandandPeace)andselectstatementsfora
bulletinboarddisplay.
8. DiscusstheimpactoftheRussianRevolutionontheworld.
9. DiscusstheviewthattheRussianRevolutionwasbroughtaboutbyasmall
groupofrevolutionarieswithoutthesupportofthemasses.

URLtoarticle:http://mrunal.org/2013/07/oldncertworldhistorych11russian
revolutioncausesconsequencescomintern.html
PostedByMrunalOn08/07/2013@19:24InthecategoryHistory

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[OldNCERTWorldHistorych12](Part1of2)BetweenTwoworldWars,
Nazism,Fascism,TheGreatDepression
1. EuropebetweentheWars
1. FascisminItaly
2. NazisminGermany
3. DevelopmentsinBritainandFrance
2. UnitedStatesEmergesastheStrongestPower
1. TheDepression
3. TheEmergenceoftheSovietUnion
4. NationalistMovementsinAsiaandAfrica
1. India
2. TurkeyandKhilafatMovement
3. China
4. Africa
5. BeginningofFascistAggression
6. JapaneseInvasionofChina
7. GermanMilitarization
8. ItalianInvasionofEthiopia
9. TheSpanishCivilWar
10. TheMunichPact
UPSChasincludedWorldHistoryinGeneralstudies(Mains)syllabusfrom
2013.HenceOldNCERT,particularlyChapter9to13fromClass10=becomes
necessaryasthefoundation/basematerialforthetopicsofWorldHistory.But
fornonDelhicandidates,itisalmostimpossibletogetthatbook,because
NCERTchangedsyllabus,hencebookisnolongerprinted.ThereforeIm
uploadingthechaptersonebyone.And,justbecausethesechaptersare
uploaded,doesntmeanImstoppingmyJackSparrowserieson[World
History],itwillcontinueatitsownpace.

BetweentheWars
HARDLYtwentyyearshadpassedsincetheendoftheFastWorldWar,when,in
1939,theSecondWorldWarbrokeout.Itwasthemostdestructivewarin
historywhichaffectedthelifeofthepeopleineverypartoftheglobe.The
twentyyearsbetweentheFirstandSecondWorldWarswereaperiodof
tremendouschangesallovertheworld.Manydevelopmentstookplacein
EuropewhichpavedthewayfortheoutbreakoftheSecondWorldWar.Amajor

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economiccrisistookplaceduringthisperiodwhichaffectedalmosteverypart
oftheworldand,moreparticularly,themostadvancedcapitalistcountriesofthe
West.InAsiaandAfrica,theperiodsawanunprecedentedawakeningofthe
peopleswhichfounditsfulfilmentaftertheSecondWorldWar.Thechanges
anddevelopmentsinthisperiodareimportantnotonlyforunderstandingthe
forcesandfactorswhichledtotheSecondWorldWarbutalsotheworldthat
emergedafterthewar.Thustheyarecrucialtoanunderstandingofthepresent
dayworld.

EuropebetweentheWars
ThemiserycausedbytheFirstWorldWarinfluencedthepoliticaldevelopments
inmanycountries.YouhavereadearlierabouttherevolutioninGermany
towardstheendofthewarwhichforcedtheGermanemperortofleethecountry.
Germanybecamearepublic.Theproclamationoftherepublicdidnotsatisfythe
GermanrevolutionarieswhoattemptedanotheruprisinginJanuary1919.The
uprisingwas,however,suppressed.TwoleadersoftheGermanrevolutionary
movement,KarlLiebknechtandRosaLuxemburg,wereassassinated.Therewas
anuprisinginHungarybuttherevolutionarygovernmentwhichcameintobeing
wasoverthrownwithinafewmonths.InspiredbytheRussianRevolution,there
wererevolutionsinmanyothercountriesofEuropesuchasFinland,andBaltic
StatesofLatvia,EstoniaandLithuaniawhichhadearlierbeenpartsofthe
Russianempire.Butalltheserevolutionswereshortlived.Therewere
movementsinotherpartsofEuropeforimprovementinlivingconditions.The
politicalsituationinalmosteverycountryinEuropewascomplicated.The
periodsawthegrowthofsocialistandcommunistpartiesinalmostevery
countryofEuropeHowever,withinafewyearsinmanycountriesofEurope,the
socialistmovementsweredefeatedanddictatorialgovernmentscametopower.
Thesegovernmentsnotonlysuppressedsocialistmovementsbutalsodestroyed
democracy.TheemergenceofdictatorialgovernmentsinEuropeinthisperiod
haddangerousconsequencesnotonlyforthepeoplesofEuropebutforthe
wholeworld.Themostdangerousdevelopmentwasthetriumphoffascismin
ItalyandGermanywhichpavedthewayfortheSecondWorldWar.

FascisminItaly
AnumberofpoliticalmovementswhicharoseinEuropeaftertheFirstWorld
Wararegenerallygiventhenamefascist.Thecommonfeaturesofthese
movementsweretheirhostilitytodemocracyandsocialism,andtheaimof
establishingdictatorships.Theysucceeded,inmanycountriesofEurope,such
as,Hungary,Italy,Poland,Portugal,Germany,Spain.TheirsuccessinItalyand
Germanyhadthemostseriousconsequences.
ThetermfascismisofItalianorigin.Itwasfirstusedforthemovementwhich
startedinItalyundertheleadershipofBenitoMussolini.Mussolinihad
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organisedarmedgangsagainstsocialistsandcommunistsin1919.Youhave
readearlierabouttheunificationofItalyandherimperialistambitions.The
Italiangovernmenthadshownlittleconcernforthewelfareoftheagricultural
andindustrialworkerswhoseconditionsweremiserableintheextreme.Ithad,
instead,plungedItalyintotheFirstWorldWarinthehopeofgainingcolonies.
About700,000Italianswerekilledinthewar.Theconditionsofthepeoplehad
worsenedfurther.ThegrowingstrengthofthesocialistmovementinItalyposed
athreattotheexistingsystem.
Italyhadjoinedthewarwiththeaimofgainingcolonies.However,thepeace
tree,tieshadfailedtosatisfyherambitions.TheItaliangovernmentatthetime
wasdominatedbycapitalistsandlandlords.Thesesectionsbegantosupport
antidemocraticmovementswhichpromisedtosavethemfromthedangerof
socialismaswellastosatisfytheircolonialaspirations.Themovementstarted
byMussoliniwasonesuchmovement.Hisarmedgangswereusedbylandlords
andindustrialiststoorganizeviolenceagainstsocialistsandcommunists.A
systematiccampaignofterrorismandmurderwaslaunchedbutthegovernment
showedlittleinterestincurbingit.
In1921,electionswereheldmItaly.However,nosinglepartycouldwina
majorityandnostablegovernmentcouldbeformed.Inspiteoftheterror
organizedbyMussolinisgangs,hispartycouldgetonly35seatswhilethe
socialistsandcommuniststogetherwon138seats.Inspiteofhispoorshowing
intheelections,Mussoliniopenlytalkedofseizingpower.On28October1922,
heorganizedamarchonRome.ThegovernmentofItalydidnotshowanysign
ofresistanceagainstthevolunteersofMussolini.Instead,on29October1922,
thekingofItalyinvitedMussolinitojointhegovernment.Thuswithoutfiringa
shot,fascistsunderMussolinisleadershipcametopowerinItaly.
Thetakeoverofthegovernmentbyfascistswasfollowedbyareignofterror.
Thesocialistmovementwassuppressedandmanysocialistandcommunist
leaderswereeitherjailedorkilled.In1926allpoliticalpartiesexcept
Mussolinispartywerebanned.ThevictoryoffascismItalynotonlyledtothe
destructionofdemocracyandthesuppressionofsocialistmovement,italsoled
tothepreparationforwar.Thefascistsbelievedthattherecouldbenoharmony
betweentwoormorenations.Theyglorifiedwarwhich,accordingtothem,
ennobledpeople.Theyopenlyadvocatedapolicyofexpansionandsaidthat
nationswhichdonotexpandcannotsurviveforlong.
ThevictoryoffascisminItalywasneithertheresultofavictoryinelectionsnor
ofapopularuprising.ThegovernmentofItalywashandedovertothefascists
becausetherulingclassesofItalyconsidereddemocracyandsocialismas
threatstotheirpower.

NazisminGermany
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WithinelevenyearsofthefascistcaptureofpowerinItaly,Nazismtriumphed
inGermany.NazismwhichwastheGermanversionoffascismwasmuchmore
sinisterthantheoriginalItalianversionTheNazis,undertheleadershipof
AdolfHitler,establishedthemostbarbarousdictatorshipofmoderntimes.
YouhavereadearlierabouttheunificationofGermanyandcertainaspectsof
GermanyshistoryuptotheFirstWorldWar.Germanyhadsoughttosatisfyher
imperialambitionsthroughwarbutshehadsuffereddefeat.Theoutbreakof
revolutioninGermanytowardstheendoftheFirstWorldWarledtothe
collapseoftheGermanmonarchy.However,eventhoughGermanybecamea
republic,theforcesbehindthemonarchytheindustrialists,thebiglandowners
andtheofficersofthearmyremainedquitepowerful.Thegovernmentof
Germanrepublicwasnotabletodestroytheirpower.Theseforcesbegantoturn
totheantidemocraticforcesrepresentedbyNazismtoextendtheirpowerandto
checkthepowerofthesocialistmovement,ThetermNazismderivedbornthe
nameofthepartwhichHitlerfoundedin1921theNationalSocialistGerman
WorkersParty,forshortNaziParty.LikeMussolini,Hitlerhadalsoplannedto
capturepowerthroughamarchonBerlin.Hewasarrestedandjailed,but
releasedlongbeforehistermwasover.InjailhewrotehisbookMeinKampf
(literalmeaningMyStruggle)whichexpressedsomeofthemostmonstrous
ideasoftheNazimovement.Heglorifiedtheuseofforceandbrutality,andthe
rulebyagreatleaderandridiculedinternationalism,peaceanddemocracy.He
preachedextremehatredagainsttheGermanJewswhowereblamednotonlyfor
thedefeatofGermanyintheFirstWorldWarbutforalltheillsofGermany.He
glorifiedviolentnationalismandextolledwar.ThedreadfulideasoftheNazis
foundfavourwiththearmy,theindustrialists,thebiglandownersandtheanti
republicanpoliticians.TheybegantolookuponHitlerasthesaviourof
Germany.
TheNaziscapitalizedonthesenseofhumiliationwhichmanyGermansfeltat
theirdefeatinthewarandtheunjustprovisionsoftheTreatyofVersailles.They
alsoexploitedthemiseryofthepeoplewhichhadworsenedduetothe
reparationswhichGermanywasmadetopaytotheAlliedpowers.In1929
occurredthemostseriouseconomiccrisiswhichaffectedallthecapitalist
countriesoftheworld.Aboutthis,youwillreadlater.Asaresultofthiscrisis,
eightmillionworkers,abouthalfoftheworkingpopulationofGermany,were
renderedunemployed.ItwasduringthisperiodthattheNaziParty,whichwas
nomorethanaconspiratorialgroupinthebeginning,begantospreadits
influence.TheSocialDemocraticPartyandtheCommunistPartywerepowerful
partieswithhugefollowing.Thesetwoparties,however,failedtouniteagainst
theNazis.
ThevictoryofNazisminGermany,likethatoffascisminItaly,wasneitherthe
outcomeofapopularuprising,northeresultofashammarchonBerlinsuchas
MussolinisonRome.IntheelectionsheldinGermanybeforeHitlercameto

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power,theNaziPartyhadpolledlessvotesthantheSocialistandCommunist
voteputtogether.Ithadwononly196seatsoutofatotalofabout650.Hitlers
comingtopowerwastheresultofpoliticalintrigues.Inspiteofhispoor
showingintheelections,HitlerwasappointedtheChancellorofGermanybythe
PresidentofGermanyon30January1933.Withinafewweeks,theentirefabric
ofdemocracyinGermanywasshattered.Soonaftercomingtopower,Hitler
orderedfreshelectionsandletlooseareignofterror.AssassinationofantiNazi
leaderswasorganizedonalargescale.On27February1933,theReichstag
(Parliament)buildingwassetonfirebytheNazis.TheCommunistParty
Germanywasblamedforthefireandwassuppressed.Inspiteoftheterror
organizedbytheNazis,theNaziPartycouldnotwinamajorityofseatsin
Parliament.However,Hitlerassumeddictatorialpowersand,in1934,became
thePresident.Tradeunionsweresuppressedandthousandsofsocialists,
communistsandantiNazipoliticalleaderswereexterminated.TheNazisstarted
hugebonfiresintowhichtheworksofsomeofthebestwritersofGermanyand
othercountrieswerethrown.Besidessocialistsandcommunists,Jewswere
madevictimsofanorganizedcampaignofhumiliationandviolence.Withina
fewyearstheyweretobecompletelyexterminated.Simultaneously,amassive
programmeofmilitarizationwaslaunchedandpreparationsforwarbegan.The
victoryofNazismwasacalamitynotonlyfortheGermanpeoplebutforentire
Europeandmanyotherpartsoftheworld.ItbroughtintheSecondWorldWar.
ThepoliciesandactsofthefascistgovernmentsofItalyandGermanywhich
ultimatelyledtotheSecondWorldWararedescribedinanothersection.

DevelopmentsinBritainandFrance
ThetwomajorcountriesofEuropewhichdidnotsuccumbtofascistmovements
wereBritainandFrance.However,boththesecountrieswerefacedwithserious
economicdifficulties.In1921,therewere2millionunemployedpersonsin
Britain.Theworkersmovementmadegreatadvances.In1924,thefirstLabour
Partygovernmentcametopower.However,itdidnotremaininpowerforlong.
In1926occurredthebiggeststrikeinthehistoryofBritaininvolving6million
workers.Thestrikeultimatelyfailed.Afewyearslater,Britainwasbadly
affectedbytheworldwideeconomiccrisisandaboutthreemillionpeoplewere
unemployed.In1931,theNationalgovernmentcomprisingtheConservative,
theLabourandtheLiberalpartieswasformed.Thisgovernmenttooksomesteps
toovercometheseriouseconomicdifficultiesthoughtheunemployment
situationreroamedserious.AfterthevictoryoffascisminGermany,afascist
movementstartedinBritainbutitcouldnotmakemuchheadwayandBritain
continuedasademocraticcountry.
ThegovernmentofFranceformanyyearswasdominatedbybigbankersand
industrialists.IthopedthatbymakinguseoftheresourcesoftheGermanareas
whichhadcomeunderhercontrolafterthewar,itwouldbeabletomakeFrance
economicallystrong.However,thesehopeswerenotfulfilled.Francecouldnot
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attainpoliticalstabilityalso.Manygovernmentscameandfell.Political
instabilitywasmadeworseasaresultoftheeconomiccrisis,andcorruption
becamerampant.Fascistmovementroseitsheadandtherewasviolenceinthe
streets.Ultimately,tomeetthethreatposedbyfascistandotherantidemocratic
forces,agovernmentcomprisingSocialist,RadicalSocialistandCommunist
partieswasformedin1936.ThisisknownasthePopularFrontgovernmentand
itlastedforabouttwoyears.Duringthisperiodmanyimportanteconomic
reformswereintroducedinFrance.
ThusBritainandFrancesucceededinremainingdemocraticcountrieseven
thoughtheywerefacedwithseriousproblems.However,theforeignpolicyof
thesecountries,asyouwillseelater,wasnotconducivetothemaintenanceof
democracyinotherpartsofEuropeandinpreventingtheoutbreakofwar

UnitedStatesEmergesastheStrongestPower
OneofthemostimportantfeaturesoftheperiodaftertheFirstWorldWarwas
thedeclineinthesupremacyofEuropeintheworldandthegrowing
importanceoftheUnitedStatesofAmerica.Shehad,infact,emergedasthe
richestandthemostpowerfulcountryintheworldattheendofthewar.This
wasclearfromtheimportantrolethatsheplayedduringtheframingofthe
peacetreaties.Whilethewarhadseverelydamagedtheeconomyofthe
Europeancountries,theeconomyofUSAduringthistimehadinfactbecome
stronger.Shehadmadetremendousindustrialprogressandwasbeginningto
makeheavyinvestmentsinEurope.However,inspiteofthisprogress,the
UnitedStateswasfrequentlybesetwithseriouseconomicproblems.These
problemsweretheresultofthecapitalistsystemaboutwhichyouhaveread
before.

TheDepression
Theworldwideeconomiccrisiswhichbeganin1929hasbeenmentioned
before.ThecrisisoriginatedinUSA.TheyearsafterFirstWorldWarhadseena
bigincreaseintheproductionofgoodsinAmerica.Inspiteofthis,however,
morethanhalfofthepopulationlivedatlessthantheminimumsubsistence
level.InOctober1929,theentireeconomybegantocollapse.Thestockmarket
inNewYorkCrashed.Thefallinthevalueofshareshadcreatedsomuchpanic
thatinoneday16millionsharesweresoldinNewYorkStockExchange.In
somecompanies,thesharesheldbypeoplebecametotallyworthless.Duringthe
nextfouryears,morethan9,000Americanbankscloseddownandmillionsof
peoplelosttheirlifessavings.Themanufacturersandfarmerscouldnotgetany
moneytoinvestandaspeoplehadlittlemoneytobuy,thegoodscouldnotbe
sold.Thisledtotheclosingofthousandsoffactoriesandthrowingofworkers
outofemployment.Thepurchasingpowerofthepeoplewasthusreducedwhich
ledtotheclosingdownofmorefactoriesandtounemployment.
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FaceoftheGreatDepression:
Amotherofthreewhohadjustsoldthefamilystentto
buyfood
TheDepression,asthissituationiscalled,begantospreadtoallthecapitalist
countriesofEuropein1931.AftertheFirstWorldWar,theeconomiesofthe
countriesofEurope,excludingRussia,hadbecomecloselyconnectedwithand
evendependentontheeconomyofUSA,particularlyontheAmericanbanks.
TheconsequencesoftheDepressioninEuropeweresimilartothoseintheUSA
andinsomecasesevenworse.TheeconomiesofthecoloniesoftheEuropean
countrieswerealsoaffected.
TheDepressionresultedinlargescaleunemployment,lossofproduction,
povertyandstarvation.Itcontinuedthroughoutthe1930seventhoughafter
1933,theeconomiesoftheaffectedcountriesbegantorecover.Thecrisisas
longasitlastedwasthemostterribleandaffectedthelivesofscoresofmillions
ofpeopleallovertheworld.Theestimatesofunemployedduringthisperiodall
overtheworldvarybetween50and100million.InUSAalone,therichest
countryintheworld,thenumberoftheunemployedexceeded15million.
Thousandsoffactories,banksandbusinessenterprisesstoppedworking.The
industrialproductionfellbyabout35percent,insomecountriesbyabouthalf.
Itmayappearsurprisingthatthecrisiswascausedbyoverproduction.Youhave
readearlierhowundercapitalism,theownersoffactoriesandbusiness
enterprisestrytomaximizetheirprofitsbyproducingmoreandmoregoods.
Whenproductionincreasesbutthepurchasingpoweroftheworkersremains
low,thegoodscannotbesoldunlesstheirpricesarereduced.However,the
pricescannotbereducedbecausethiswouldaffecttheprofits.Sothegoods

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remainunsoldandthefactoriesareclosedtostopfurtherproduction.Withthe
closureoffactoriespeoplearethrownoutofemploymentwhichmakesthe
situationworseasthegoodswhichhavebeenproducedcannotbesold.Such
crisesoccurredofteninalmosteverycountryafterthespreadoftheIndustrial
Revolution.Thecrisisof192933was,however,theworstinhistory.Inthis
crisiswhilemillionswerestarving,lakhsoftonnesofwheatwereburntdownin
someareastopreventthepriceofwheatfromfalling.
Theeconomiccrisishadseriouspoliticalconsequences.Youhavereadhowthe
NazisinGermanyexploitedthediscontentofthepeopletopromotetheir
antidemocraticprogramme.Inmanycountries,hungermarcheswereorganized
andthesocialistmovementpressedforfarreachingchangesmtheeconomic
systemsothatsuchcriseswouldnotrecur.Theonlycountrywhichwasnot
affectedbytheeconomiccrisisof192933wastheSovietUnion.
TheeconomiccrisishadworstaffectedtheeconomyoftheUnitedStates.It
ledtothevictoryoftheDemocraticPartyandFranklinD.Rooseveltbecamethe
PresidentoftheUnitedStatesin1933.Underhisleadershipaprogrammeof
economicreconstructionandsocialwelfarewasstarted.Thisprogrammeis
knownastheNewDeal.Stepsweretakentoimprovetheconditionsofworkers
andtocreateemployment.AsaresultoftheNewDeal,theeconomyofthe
UnitedStatesrecoveredfromthecrisisandtheindustrialproductionpickedup
again.In1939,however,therewerestill9millionunemployedpeopleinthe
UnitedStates.
TheUnitedStateshadretainedherpositionasamightypower.However,her
foreignpolicywasnotverydifferentfromthatofBritainandFrance.She,like
BritainandFrance,didnotadoptastrongpositiontoresistaggressiveactsof
fascistpowersuntilaftertheoutbreakoftheSecondWorldWarwhenshe
herselfhadtoenterthewar.

TheEmergenceoftheSovietUnion
TheperiodaftertheFirstWorldWarsawtheemergenceoftheSovietUnionasa
majorpowerandshebegantoplayacrucialroleinworldaffairs.Themilitary
interventionbyBritain,France,USAandJapaninRussiainsupportofthe
counterrevolutionaryforceshasalreadybeenmentioned.By1920the
counterrevolutionaryforceshadbeendefeatedandtheforeignarmiesdriven
out.
RussiasparticipationintheFirstWorldWarandthelongperiodofcivilwar
andforeigninterventionwhichfollowedtherevolutionhadcompletely
shatteredtheeconomyofthecountry.Thiswasaperiodofacuteeconomic
distressforthepeople.Therewasasevereshortageoffood.Theproductionof
industrialgoodshadfallenfarbelowtheprewarlevel.Tomakethedistribution

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ofgoodsequitableinconditionsofseverescarcity,certainstrongmeasures
weretaken.Thepeasantsweremadetopartwiththeirproducewhichwasin
excessofwhatwasessentialfortheirownneeds.Theywerenotallowedtosell
itinthemarket.Thepaymentofsalariesincashwasstoppedandinsteadpeople
werepaidinkind,thatisfoodstuffsandmanufacturedgoods.Thesemeasures
hadcreatedunrestamongthepeasantsandothersectionsofsocietybutwere
acceptedbecausetheywereconsideredessentialtodefendtherevolution.After
thecivilwarended,thesemeasureswerewithdrawnandin1921,theNew
EconomicPolicywasintroduced.Underthispolicy,thepeasantswereallowed
toselltheirproduceintheopenmarkets,paymentofwagesincashwas
reintroducedandproductionofgoodsandtheirsaleinsomeindustriesunder
privatecontrolwaspermitted.Afewyearslater,in1929,theUSSRslattedits
vigorousprogrammeofeconomicreconstructionandindustrializationwhenit
adoptedthefirstofaseriesofitsFiveYearPlans.Withinafewyears,theSoviet
Unionemergedasamajorindustrialpower.Theextraordinaryeconomic
progressthattheSovietUnionachievedwasagainstheavyodds.Thoughthe
foreigninterventionhadbeenended,manycountriesofEurope,andtheUnited
Statesfollowedapolicyofeconomicboycottwiththeaimofdestroyingthe
revolution.However,theSovietUnionnotonlysurvivedbutcontinuedtogrow
economicallyatafastrate.Shewas,asmentionedbefore,theonlycountry
whichremainedunaffectedbytheeconomiccrisisof192933.Onthecontrary,
itsindustrialdevelopmentwentonasbeforewhilemillionsofpeopleinthewest
wereunemployedandthousandsoffactorieshadcometoastandstill.
Majorchangeswereintroducedinagriculture.Aftertherevolutiontheestatesof
thelandlords,thechurchandthenobilityhadbeenconfiscatedanddistributed
amongthepeasants.Therewereinallabout25millionlandholdingsmostof
whichwereverysmall.Thesmalllandholdingsorfarmswereconsiderednot
veryproductive.Toincreaseproduction,itwasconsideredessentialto
introducetractorsandotherfarmmachinery.Itwasthoughtthatthiscouldbe
doneonlyifthesizeofthefarmswaslarge.Forthis,thegovernmentstartedits
ownfarms.Besides,itadoptedthepolicyofpromotingcollectivefarmsby
bongingthesmallfarmsofthepeasantstogether.Inthesefarms,individual
ownershipoffarmsbypeasantswasendedandthepeasantsworkedonthese
collectivefarmscollectively.Thegovernmentpursuedthepolicyof
collectivizationvigorouslyandby1937almostallcultivablelandwasbrought
undercollectivefarms.Initially,thepeasantswerefreetodecidewhetherthey
wantedtojointhecollectivefarmsornot.Later,theywereforcedtojoin.The
richpeasantswhoopposedcollectivizationwereseverelydealtwith.The
processofcollectivizationofagriculturewasaccompaniedbymanyatrocities.
Accordingtosomeestimates,millionsofpeopleperishedinthisperiod.Thus,
whiletheoppressionbylandlordshadbeenended,theintroductionofnew
measureswasnotwithoutseriousproblemsandoppression.Inindustryalso,
whileproductionofgoodstoprofitafewcapitalistshadbeenendedand
industrializationofthecountrytookplaceatafastrate,theproductionofgoods
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ofdailynecessitieswasneglected.
Themaincentresoftherevolutionin1917wereinRussia.Inthefollowing
years,therevolutionspreadtomanyotherpartsoftheoldRussianempireand
theBolshevikPartyanditssupporters.formedgovernmentsintheareas
inhabitedbynonRussiannationalities.In1922alltheseterritorieswereformally
unitedintheUnionofSovietSocialistRepublics(USSR),forshortSoviet
Union,whichwasafederationofmanyrepublics.Atthattime,thenumberof
RepublicsconstitutingtheUSSRwasfive.Whenanewconstitutionwasadop
tedin1936,theirnumberwaseleven.Afewyearslater,in1940,theirnumber
roseto15.
AfterthedeathofLeninin1924manyseriousdifferencesarosewithinthe
rulingCommunistPartytheonlypoliticalpartywhichexistedoverpolicies
tobefollowed.Therewasalsoseriousstruggleforpowerbetweendifferent
groupsandindividualleaders.Inthisstruggle,Stalinemergedvictorious.In
1927,Trotskywhohadplayedanimportantroleintherevolutionandhad
organizedtheRedArmywasexpelledfromtheCommunistParty.In1929,he
wassentintoexile.Inthe1930s,almostalltheleaderswhohadplayedan
importantroleintherevolutionandmthefollowingyearswereeliminated.
Falsechargeswerebroughtagainstthem,andafterfaketrialstheywere
executed.Politicaldemocracyandfreedomofspeechandpressweredestroyed.
Theexpressionofdifferencesevenwithinthepartywasnottolerated.Stalin,
whohadbeentheGeneralSecretaryoftheCommunistParty,assumed
dictatorialpowerswhichheexercisedtillhisdeathin1953.Thesedevelopments
hadanadverseeffectonthebuildingofsocialismintheUSSRandintroduced
featureswhichwerecontrarytothehumanisticidealsofMarxismandofthe
revolution.Thedevelopmentofartandliteraturealsosufferedbecauseof
restrictionsonfreedom.
TheSovietUnionwasnotrecognizedbymostEuropeanpowersandUSAfora
longtime.Youhavereadbeforethatshewasnotallowedtoberepresentedat
thePeaceConferencewhichwasheldattheendoftheFirstWorldWarnorin
theLeagueofNations.Sheremainedsurroundedbycountrieswhichwere
openlyhostiletoher.However,withitsgrowingstrengthshecouldnotbe
ignoredandgraduallyonecountryafteranotherrecognizedher.Britain
establisheddiplomaticrelationswiththeSovietUnionin1933.In1934shealso
becameamemberoftheLeagueofNations.However,inspiteoftheendingof
theisolationoftheSovietUnion,thehostilitytowardstheSovietUnion
continued.TheSovietUnionfollowedapolicyofsupporttothemovementsfor
independence.ThehelpgiventoChinaisnotableinthiscontext.Whenthe
fascistcountriesstartedtheiractsofaggression,theSovietgovernmentpressed
foractionagainstthem.However,theWesterncountriesdidnotagreetothe
Sovietproposals.TheycontinuedtoregardtheSovietUnionasadangertothem
andhopedthatthefascistcountrieswoulddestroyher.Theirhostilitytothe

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SovietUnionledtotheappeasementoffascistpowersandpavedthewayforthe
SecondWorldWar.

NationalistMovementsinAsiaandAfrica
TheperiodfollowingtheFirstWorldWarsawthestrengtheningofthe
movementsofthepeoplesofAsiaandAfricaforindependence.Asstated
earlier,manyleadersoffreedommovementsinAsiaandAfricahadsupported
thewareffortoftheAlliesinthehopethattheircountrieswouldwinfreedom,
oratleastmorerightsafterwarwasover.Theirhopeshadbeenbeliedandthe
imperialistleaderssoonmadeitclearthatthewartimeslogansoffreedomand
democracywerenotmeantforthencolonies.However,thewarhadweakened
theimperialistcountriesaridhadcontributedtotheawakeningofthecolonial
peoples.Theirstrugglesforfreedomenteredanewphaseafterthewar.The
supportoftheSovietUnionfurtheraddedtothestrengthofthefreedom
movements.EventhoughmostofthecountriesofAsiaandAfricaemergedas
independentnationsaftertheSecondWorldWar,theperiodaftertheFirst
WorldWarsawseriousweakeningofimperialism.

India
InIndiathiswastheperiodwhenthefreedommovementbecameamass
movementundertheleadershipofMahatmaGandhi.ManycountriesinAsia
madesignificantadvancestowardsfreedom.YouhavereadbeforethatIranhad
beendividedintoRussianandBritishspheresofinfluencebeforetheFirst
WorldWar.TheSovietgovernmentaftertherevolutionof1917hadgivenup
thesphereunderhercontrolandhadwithdrawnallhertroopsfromthere.The
British,however,triedtoextendtheirinfluenceovertheentirecountry.These
effortsweremetwithawidespreaduprising.In1921,powerwasseizedbyReza
Khanwhoin1925becametheemperor.TheBritishtroopsleftIranandthe
modernizationofIranbegan.
TheBritishgovernmenthadwagedmanywarsagainstAfghanistaninthe
nineteenthcentury.Asaresultofthesewars,theindependenceofAfghanistan
hadbeencurbed.TheforeignrelationsofAfghanistanhadpassedunderBritish
control.In1919,thekingofAfghanistanwasassassinatedandhisson,
AmanullahbecametheKing.Amanullahproclaimedcompleteindependenceof
Afghanistan,whichwasimmediatelyrecognizedbytheSovietUnion.The
BritishgovernmentinIndiawagedawaragainstthenewAfghangovernment
butintheendBritainagreedtorecognizetheindependenceofAfghanistan.
AmanullahsgovernmentmadevigorouseffortstomodernizeAfghanistan.
TherewasanupsurgeinArabcountriesagainstBritainandFrance.TheArabs
hadbeenaskedbytheAllies,duringtheFirstWorldWar,tofightagainsttheir
Ottomanrulers.However,theendofthewardidnotresultintheindependence

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ofArabcountries.Thesecountrieshadassumedadditionalimportanceafterit
wasknownthattheyhadimmenseoilresources.BritainandFrancehad
extendedtheircontroloverthesecountriesastheirprotectoratesandmandates
.TherewereuprisingsagainstBritaininEgyptandBritainwasforcedin1922to
grantindependencetoEgyptthoughBritishtroopscontinuedtostaythere.
SyriahadbeenhandedovertoFranceafterthewar.However,fromthevery
beginningFrancemetwithintenseoppositionthere.In1925therewasanopen
rebellionandtheFrenchgovernmentresortedtoareignofterror.Thecityof
Damascuswhichbecameacentreofrevoltwasreducedtoruinswhenthe
Frenchtroopsbombedthecityfromtheairandmadeuseofheavyartilleryto
shellthecity.About25,000peoplewerekilledasaresultofbombingand
shellingofDamascus.However,inspiteofthesemassacres,theresistanceto
Frenchrulecontinued.

TurkeyandKhilafatMovement
Oneofthemostimportanteventsinthenationalawakeningofthepeoplesafter
theFirstWorldWarwastherevolutioninTurkey.Youhavereadearlierofthe
disintegrationoftheOttomanempirewhichbeganinthenineteenthcenturyand
wascompletedafterTurkeysdefeatintheFirstWorldWar.Duringthisperiod,
manynationswhichwereformerlyunderthesubjugationoftheOttomanempire
hadbecomefree.TheArabterritoriesoftheempirehadbeengivenawayto
BritainandFranceasmandatesaftertheFirstWorldWar.TheAllies,however,
didnotstopatthedismembermentoftheempire.Theywantedtoestablishtheir
dominationoverTurkeyitselfandtogiveawaypartsofTurkeytoGreeceand
Italy.ThetreatmentmetedouttoTurkeybytheAllieshadledtoamassupsurge
inIndiadirectedagainstBritain.ThisupsurgeisknownastheKhilafat
movementwhichhadmergedwiththeIndiannationalistmovement.
ThenationalistmovementinTurkeywasorganisedtopreventthedominationof
thecountrybytheAlliedpowersandtheannexationofpartsofTurkeyby
GreeceandItaly.TheSultanofTurkeyagreedtothetermsdictatedbythe,
Alliedpowers.However,evenbeforethetreatywassignedbytheSultan,a
nationalgovernmenthadbeenestablishedundertheleadershipofMustafa
KemalwithitsheadquartersatAnkara.Thisgovernmentsignedatreatyof
friendshipwiththeSovietgovernmentin1921underwhichTurkeyreceived
Sovietpoliticalsupportandarmsforthenationalistcause.Followingthetreaty
withtheSultan,TurkeyhadbeeninvadedbyGreece.TheTurksunderKemals
leadershipwereabletorepeltheinvasionandtheAllieswereforcedto
repudiatetheearliertreaty.TheAlliedtroopswerewithdrawnfromTurkish
territoryandtheareaswhichweretobeannexedbyEuropeancountries
remainedinTurkey.ThusTurkeywasabletowinhercompleteindependence.
ThesuccessoftheTurksinwinningthecompleteindependenceoftheircountry

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wasfollowedbyaprogrammetomodernizeTurkeyandtoendtheinfluenceof
backwardlookingfeudalelements.TurkeywasproclaimedarepublicThe
TurkishSultanhadcarriedthetitleofCaliph.Thenewgovernmentabolished
theinstitutionofCaliph.Educationwastakenoutofthehandsofthereligious
leaders.Religionwasseparatedfromthestate.
TherevolutioninTurkeybecameasourceofinspirationforthemovementsfor
freedominAsia.Italsohelpedtopromotetheideasofsocialreformand
modernization.
MovementsforindependencewerestrengthenedintheotherpartsofAsia.In
Indonesia,forexample,therewereuprisingsagainsttheDutchruleIn1927the
NationalPartyWasorganisedwiththeaimofachievingindependence.InKorea
therewasamovementforindependencefromJapaneserule.Movementsfor
independencegatheredstrengthinIndoChina,Burmaandothercountries.

China
OneofthemostpowerfulmovementsinthisperiodbeganinChina.Youhave
readbeforeabouttheimperialistdominationofChina.In1911,therewasa
revolutioninChinawhichresultedintheestablishedofarepublic.However,
powerpassedintothehandsofcorruptgovernorscalledwarlords.Thenational
movementinChinaaimedattheoverthrowofforeigndominationandthe
unificationofChinabyendingtheruleofthewarlords.Thefounderofthe
nationalmovementinChinawasDr.SunYatSen.Hehadplayedanimportant
roleinthe1911revolutionandin1917hadsetupagovernmentatCantonin
southChina.ThepartyformedbyhimcalledKuomintangledthenational
struggleinChinaforanumberofyears.
TheRussianRevolutionhadadeepimpactonChina.Thenewgovernmentin
RussiahadrenouncedalltheunequaltreatieswhichtheRussianemperorshad
imposedonChinaandhadpromisedfullsupporttotheChinesenational
struggle.In1921theCommunistPartyofChinawasformed.In1924,the
KuomintangandtheCommunistPartydecidedtoworktogetherandtheSoviet
governmentgavevariouskindsofaid,suchasthetrainingofarevolutionary
army.AnumberofSovietpoliticalandmilitaryadvisersworkedwiththe
Chineseliberationmovement.AfterthedeathofSunYatSenin1925,theunity
betweentheKuomintangandtheCommunistPartywasbrokenandaperiodof
civilwarbegan.Inthe1930swhentheJapaneseattackedChinawiththeaimof
subjugatingtheentirecountry,thetwopartiesagreedtoworktogethertoresist
theJapaneseinvasion.TheCommunistPartyplayedaleadingroleinthewarof
resistanceagainsttheJapaneseinvasion.Itwasabletoestablishitssupremacy
inthecountryandwithinafewyearsaftertheendoftheSecondWorldWarwas
victoriousinthecivilwar.

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Africa
Thisperiodalsosawtheemergenceofpoliticalandnationalconsciousnessin
Africa.ThoughthestrugglesfornationalindependenceinAfricagained
momentumaftertheSecondWorldWar,the1920sandthe1930swereaperiod
whenthefirstpoliticalassociationswereformed.Animportantroleinthe
growthofnationalconsciousnessinAfricawasplayedbyaseriesofPanAfrican
Congresses.ThePanAfricanmovementassertedtheidentityandunityofthe
Africanpeople,andindependenceofAfrica.Thenationalmovementinthe
UnionofSouthAfricahademergedearlierthaninotherpartsofAfrica.In1912
hadbeenformedtheAfricanNationalCongresswhichbecametheleading
organizationoftheSouthAfricanpeople.ThepeopleofEthiopiafought
heroicallyagainsttheItalianinvasionofChencountryin193536andtheir
resistanceservedasasourceofinspirationtothepeopleofAfrica.
ThenationalawakeningofthepeopleofAsiaandAfricaandthegrowing
strengthoftheirstruggleforfreedomwerefactorsofgreatimportanceinthe
makingofthemodernworld.Whilethelongoppressedpeoplesinthesetwo
continentswerebeginningtoasserttheirrighttoindependence,preparationsfor
anotherwarwerebeingmadeinEurope.

BeginningofFascistAggression
Inthe1930sthefascistpowersbegantheirwarsofconquestwhichultimately
ledtotheSecondWorldWar.ThemajorfascistcountrieswereItalyand
Germany.Theyacquiredanallyinthemilitaristregimewhichcametopowerin
Japan.ThetriumphoffascisminItalyandGermanyhasalreadybeendescribed.
YouhavealsoreadearlierabouttheriseofJapaneseimperialism,herwars
againstChinaandRussia,theconquestofKoreaandheracquisitionofthe
GermanspheresinChinaaftertheFirstWorldWar.ThegovernmentofJapan
graduallypassedintothehandsofmilitarists.Thesethreecountriesstarted
seriesofaggressionsinEurope,AsiaandAfrica.Allofthemclaimedtohave
beenfightingagainstcommunismandwereunitedin1937underthe
AntiCominternPact.(CominternisshortforCommunistInternationalwhich,as
mentionedbefore,hadbeenformedaftertheRussianRevolutionandtowhich
theCommunistPartiesofvariouscountrieswereaffiliated.)Germany,Italyand
JapancametobeknownastheAxisPowers.
Whentheactsofaggressionbegan,theaggrievedcountries,theSovietUnion
andmanyleadersmdifferentcountriesoftheworlddemandedcollectiveaction
todefeattheaggressions.In1935,theCommunistInternationaladvocatedthe
formationofPopularFrontsconsistingofCommunists,Socialistsandother
antifasciststocounterthedangeroffascismandwar.Itmayberecalledthat
HitlerhadcometopowermGermanybecausetheCommunistandSocial
DemocraticPartiesofGermanyhadfailedtouniteagainsttheNazis.The
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Cominternsadvocacyofunitingallantifascistforceswasfollowedbythe
formationofPopularFrontsinmanycountries.InFrance,thePopularFront
succeededinpreventingafascisttakeover.ThepolicyofPopularFrontalsohad
asignificantinfluenceinbringingtogethervariousantiimperialistforcesinthe
colonies.Italsocreatedaworldwideawarenessofthedangerthatfascismposed
toallcountriesandhelpedinbuildingsupportforthevictimsoffascist
aggression.TheleaderoftheCominternatthistimewasGeorgiDimitrov,a
BulgarianCommunist,whohadbeenarrestedalongwithGermanCommunists,
bytheNazisin1933aftertheReichstagfire.Hiscourageousdefenceatthetrial
hadwonhimworldwideadmirationandhehadbeenreleased.
YouhavereadearlierthatthecovenantoftheLeagueofNationscontaineda
provisionforeconomicandmilitarysanctionsandcollectiveactionagainst
aggression.However,theWesterngovernments,insteadofresistingthe
aggressions,followedapolicyofappeasementoftheaggressivepowers.
Appeasementmeantapolicyofconciliatinganaggressivepowerattheexpense
ofsomeothercountry.ButfortheWesterncountriespolicyofappeasement,
fascismcouldnothavesurvivedaslongasitdidandwouldnothavebeenable
tounleashtheSecondWorldWar.
Germany,ItalyandJapanwhichlaunchedaseriesofaggressionsinthe1930s
claimedthattheywerefightingcommunism.Hitlerhadtimeandagaindeclared
thatGermanyhadambitionsofconqueringthevastresourcesandterritoryof
theSovietUnion.Inallthesecountries,thesocialistandcommunistmovements
hadbeensuppressed.SincethesuccessoftheRussianRevolution,theWestern
countrieshadbeenhauntedbythedangerofcommunismandtheyhopedthat
fascistcountrieswouldridthemofthisdanger.TheattitudeoftheWestern
powerstothefascistaggressionshasbeensummedupbyahistorianthus:
TherewasnoquestionthattheNazishaddonetheirbesttoconvincetheworld
thattheywereouttosmashBolshevismandconquertheSovietUnion.Hitlers
speechsayingthatifhehadtheUralsalltheGermanswouldbeswimmingin
plentywasonlyanoutstandingexampleofthispropaganda.Norwasthereany
reluctanceamongtheelitesintheWesternworldtobelievehim.Thegreat
landowners,aristocrats,industrialists,bankers,highchurchmen,armyleaders
magnatesofeverykindinWesternEurope,togetherwithmanymiddleclass
elementshadneverlosttheirfearthattheirownworkersandpeasantsmight
demandasocialrevolution,perhapsonespearheadedandorganizedby
communists.Theirsupportoffascismasaforce,albeitagangsterone,which
woulddefeatcommunismandatthesametimeleavethevestedinterestslargely
incontrol,hadbeeninstinctiveandsincere.Therecanbelittledoubtthatmany
powerfulpeopleinBritainandFranceworkedtostrengthenandbuildupthe
AxispowerswithaviewtoanattackbythemupontheSovietUnion.The
Policyofappeasement.strengthenedthefascistpowersandledtotheSecond
WorldWar.

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JapaneseInvasionofChina
OneofthefirstmajoractsofaggressionaftertheFirstWorldWarwasthe
JapaneseinvasionofChinain1931.Aminorincidentinvolvingarailwayline
ownedbytheJapaneseinManchuria,thenortheasternprovinceofChina,was
madethepretextfortheinvasion.China,amemberoftheLeagueofNations,
appealedtotheLeagueforsanctionsagainstJapantostoptheaggression.
However,BritainandFrance,theleadingcountriesintheLeague,were
completelyindifferenttotheappealandacquiescedintheaggression.Japan
occupied
Manchuria,installedapuppetgovernmentthereandproceededtoconquermore
areas.TheUnitedStatesalsodidnothingtocountertheaggression.In1933,
JapanquittheLeagueofNations.ShehadalsostartedseizingtheBritishand
AmericanpropertyinChina.However,theappeasementofJapancontinuedas
theWesterncountriesthoughtthattheJapanesecouldbeusedtoweakenChina
aswellastheSovietUnion.Britainhadanadditionalreason.Shedidnotwantto
alienateJapanandthusendangerherpossessionsinAsia.

GermanMilitarization
GermanyhadbeenadmittedtotheLeagueofNationssometimeafterits
formationbutsoonafterHitlercametopower,shequittheLeagueand
undertookamassiveprogrammeofmilitarization.AccordingtotheTreatyof
Versailles,severerestrictionshadbeenimposedonthemilitarystrengthof
Germany.ThebeginningofGermanremilitarizationinviolationoftheTreaty
createdasenseofinsecurityinmanycountries,particularlyFrance.Itwasin
thissituationthattheSovietUnionbecameamemberoftheLeaguein1934.
However,nothingwasdonetostooptheGermanremilitarization.Accordingto
theTreatyofVersailles,theGermanareaborderingFrancecalledtheRhineland
hadbeendemilitarizedtomakeaGermanattackonFrancedifficult.In1936,
HitlerstroopsenteredtheRhinelandinviolationoftheTreaty.Thoughthisstep
alarmedPrance,nothingwasdonetostopGermany.BythenGermanyhadbuilt
anarmyof800,000menwhiletheTreatyofVersailles,youmayremember,had
imposedalimitof100,000men.Shehadalsostartedbuildingastrongnavy.

ItalianInvasionofEthiopia
In1935,ItalyinvadedEthiopiaOntheappealofEthiopia,theLeagueofNations
passedaresolutioncondemningItalyasanaggressor.Theresolutionalso
mentionedtheuseofeconomicsanctionsagainstItaly,includingabanonthe
saleofarmstoItaly.However,noactionwastakentopunishItalyandby1936
ItalyhadcompletedtheconquestofEthiopia.

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TheSpanishCivilWar
ThenexteventwhichmarkedthebeginningofanalliancebetweenGermany
andItalywastheinterventionbythesetwocountriesintheCivilWarinSpain.
In1931Spainhadbecomearepublic.In1936aPopularFrontcomprisingthe
Socialist,Communistandotherdemocraticandantifascistpartiescameto
power.AsectionofthearmyundertheleadershipofGeneralFrancowiththe
armedsupportofItalyandGermanyrevoltedagainstthegovernment.Italyand
GermanystartedinterveningopenlyintheCivilWarthatfollowed.Theysent
forces,tanksandwarshipsinsupportoftherebels.TheGermanaircrafts
conductedairraidsonSpanishtownsandvillages.Thegovernmentofthe
SpanishRepublicappealedforhelpagainstthefascists.OnlytheSovietUnion
cametothehelpoftheRepublicanforcesBritainandFranceadvocatedapolicy
ofnoninterventionandrefusedtogiveanyaidtothegovernmentofSpain.They
remainedIndifferenttotheGermanandItalianinterventioninthewar
.However,thecauseoftheRepublicansevokedtremendousresponsetheworld
over.Thousandsofantifascistvolunteersfrommanycountriesincludingmany
antifascistGermanswereorganizedintointernationalbrigadeswhowentto
SpainandfoughtalongsidetheSpaniardsagainstfascism.Thousandsofthem
werekilledinSpain.Someofthebestwritersandartistsofthetwentiethcentury
activelysupportedthecauseoftheRepublicans.ThebattleinSpainassumedan
internationalsignificanceasitwasincreasinglyrealizedthatthevictoryof
fascisminSpainwouldencouragemorefascistaggressions.Thesacrificeof
theirlivesbythousandsofnonSpaniardsinSpainmthecauseoffreedomand
democracyisoneofthefinestexamplesofinternationalisminhistory.TheCivil
WarinSpaincontinuedforthreeyears.Aboutamillionpeoplewerekilledin
thewar.Finally,thefascistforcesunderGeneralFrancosucceededin
destroyingtheRepublicin1939.Soonthenewgovernmentwasrecognizedby
mostoftheWesternpowers.
ItmaybyrecalledthattheIndiannationalistmovementwhichwasalivetothe
dangeroffascismhadextendeditssupporttotheRepublicancause.Jawaharlal
NehruwenttoSpainduringthisperiodasamarkofsolidarityoftheIndian
nationalistmovementwiththeRepublicans.
ThevictoryoffascismwastheresultoftheWesterncountriesappeasementof
fascism,whichmadethefascestcountriesmoreaggressive.Germanyhadtested
theeffectivenessofmanynewweaponsintheSpanishCivilWarwhichshewas
touseintheSecondWorldWar.

TheMunichPact
WhiletheSpanishCivilWarwasstillgoingon,Hitlerstroopsmarchedinto
AustriainMarch1938andoccupiedit.Eventhoughthiswasaviolationofthe
peacetreatiessignedaftertheFirstWorldWar,theWesternpowersdidnot
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protestagainstit.
ThefinalactofappeasementoffascismbytheWesternpowerswastheMunich
Pact.GermanycovetedCzechoslovakiawhichwasveryimportantbecauseofher
industries.TheareaalsohadstrategicimportancefortheexpansionofGermany
intheeasttowardstheSovietUnion.HitlerclaimedapartofCzechoslovakia
calledSudetenlandwhichhadsubstantialGermanpopulation.Thisareaformed
aboutonefifthoftheareaofCzechoslovakiaandhadoneofthelargest
munitionfactoriesintheworld.InsteadofmeetingthethreatposedbyGermany,
thePrimeMinistersofBritainandFrancemetHitlerandMussoliniatMunichin
Germanyon29and30September1938andagreedtoGermanystermswithout
theconsentofCzechoslovakia.Soonafter,theSudetenlandwasoccupiedby
GermantroopsAfewmonthslaterinMarch1939entireCzechoslovakiawas
occupiedbyGermany.
TheMunichPactwasthelastmajoractofappeasementbytheWesternpowers.
ItledGermanytomakemoredemands.Theonlywaythefascistaggression
couldhavebeencheckedandanotherworldwarpreventedwasanallianceof
theWesternpowerswiththeSovietUnion.TheSovietUnionhadbeenpleading
forsuchanalliance.However,theWesternpoliciesofappeasementhad
convincedtheSovietUnionthattheirmaininterestwastodiverttheGerman
expansiontowardstheSovietUnion.TheMunichPactwasanadditionalproof
totheSovietUnionthattheWesternpowersweretryingtoappeaseGermany
withaviewtodirectingheraggressioneastwardagainsttheSovietUnion.The
SovietUnionatthistimesignedaNonAggressionPactwith,Germanyin
August1939.ThesigningofthisPactbytheSovietUnionshockedantifascists
theworldover.InthemeantimeBritainandFrancepromisedtocometotheaid
ofPoland,Greece,RumaniaandTurkeyincasetheirindependencewas
endangered.
InthenextpartofthischapterwellseetheeventsofWW2.
exercise/questionsaftersecondpartofchapterisover.

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of2betweentwoworldwarsnazismfascismthegreatdepression.html
PostedByMrunalOn08/07/2013@19:32InthecategoryHistory

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[OldNCERTWorldHistorych12](Part2of2):SecondWorldWar,events,
battles,resistancemovements
1. THESECONDWORLDWAR
2. TheInvasionofPoland
3. ConquestofNorway,Denmark,Holland,BelgiumandFrance
4. TheBattleofBritain
5. GermanInvasionofSovietUnion
6. PearlHarbour:EntryofUSA
7. TheBattleofStalingrad
8. TheSecondFront
9. EndoftheWarinEurope
10. NukeAttackonJAPAN
11. ResistanceMovements
12. TheDamageCausedbytheWar
13. EXERCISES
UPSChasincludedWorldHistoryinGeneralstudies(Mains)syllabusfrom
2013.HenceOldNCERT,particularlyChapter9to13fromClass10=becomes
necessaryasthefoundation/basematerialforthetopicsofWorldHistory.But
fornonDelhicandidates,itisalmostimpossibletogetthatbook,because
NCERTchangedsyllabus,hencebookisnolongerprinted.ThereforeIm
uploadingthechaptersonebyone.And,justbecausethesechaptersare
uploaded,doesntmeanImstoppingmyJackSparrowserieson[World
History],itwillcontinueatitsownpace.
InthefirstpartofCh.12,wesawtheeventsbetweentheTwoworldwars.Now
comes

THESECONDWORLDWAR
TheSecondWorldWar,liketheFirst,startedinEuropeandassumedthe
characterofaworldwar.InspiteofthefactthatWesterncountrieshad
acquiescedinalltheaggressionsofJapan,ItalyandGermanyfromtheinvasion
ofManchuriatotheannexationofCzechoslovakia,thefascistcountries
ambitionshadnotbeensatisfied.Thesecountrieswereplanninganother
redivisionoftheworldandthushadtocomeintoconflictwiththeestablished
imperialistpowers.TheWesternpolicyofdivertingtheaggressionofthefascist
countriestowardstheSovietUnionhadfailedwiththesigningoftheSoviet
GermanNonAggressionPact.ThusthewarbeganinEuropebetweenthefascist
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countriesandthemajorWestEuropeanPowersBritainandFrance.Withina
fewmonthsitbecameaworldwarasitspreadtomoreandmoreareas,
ultimatelyinvolvingalmosteverycountryintheworld.

TheInvasionofPoland
AftertheFirstWorldWar,EastPrussiahadbeenseparatedfromtherestof
Germany.ThecityofDanzigwhichseparatedEastPrussiafromtherestof
GermanyhadbeenmadeafreecityindependentofGermancontrol.Hitlerhad
demandedthereturnofDanzigtoGermanybutBritainhadrefusedtoaccept
thisdemand.

TimelineofWW2(ClicktoEnlarge)
On1September1939GermanarmiesmarchedintoPoland.On3September
BritainandFrancedeclaredwaronGermany.ThustheinvasionofPoland
markedthebeginningoftheSecondWorldWar,TheGermanarmiescompleted
theconquestofPolandinlessthanthreeweeksasnoaidreachedPoland.In
spiteofthedeclarationofwar,however,therewaslittleactualfightingformany
months.Therefore,thewarduringthisperiodfromSeptember1939toApril
1940whenGermanyinvadedNorwayandDenmarkisknownasthephoney
war.
SoonaftertheGermaninvasionofPoland,theSovietUnionattackedeastern
PolandandoccupiedtheterritorieswhichwereearlierintheRussianempire.It
isbelievedthatthisoccupationwasapartofthesecretprovisionsofthe
SovietGermanNonAggressionPact.In1940,theBalticStatesofLatvia,Estonia
andLithuaniawhichhadbecomeindependentaftertheFirstWorldWarwere
alsooccupiedbytheSovietUnion.They,alongwithMoldavia,became
republicsofUSSR.InNovember1939,theSovietUnionalsowenttowar
againstFinland.

ConquestofNorway,Denmark,Holland,Belgiumand
France
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GermanylaunchedherinvasionofNorwayandDenmarkon9April1940and
withinthreeweekscompletedtheconquestofthesetwocountries.InNorway,
theGermaninvaderswerehelpedbyQuisling,leaderofNorwaysfascistparty,
whosetupapuppetgovernmentinNorwayunderGermanoccupation.Thevery
nameQuislinghascometomeanatraitorwhocollaborateswiththeinvaders
ofhiscountry.InearlyMaybegantheinvasionofBelgiumandHollandwhich
wascompletedbeforetheendofMay.SoontheGermanarmiesmarchedinto
Franceandby14June1940,thecapitalcityofParishadfallenintoGerman
handsalmostwithoutafight.Inthemeantime,Italyalsohadjoinedthewaron
thesideofherally,Germany.On22June1940,theFrenchgovernment
surrenderedandsignedatrucewithGermanyaccordingtowhichabouthalfof
FrancewasoccupiedbyGermany.Theremainingpartremainedunderthe
FrenchgovernmentwhichwasrequiredtodisbandtheFrencharmyandprovide
forthemaintenanceoftheGermanarmyinFrance.TheFrenchgovernment
whichhadsurrenderedtoGermanyruledfromVichy.WiththedefeatofFrance,
GermanybecamethesupremepoweroverthecontinentofEurope.Thewar
conductedbyGermanywithgreatspeedandforceisknownasblitzkriegwhich
meansalightningwar.

TheBattleofBritain
BritainwastheonlymajorpowerleftinEuropeafterthefallofFrance.Germany
thoughtthatBritainwouldsurrendersoonasshewaswithoutanyalliesin
Europe.GermanairforcebeganbombingraidsonBritaininAugust1940with
theaimofterrorizingherintosurrender.Thebattlethatensuedisknownasthe
BattleofBritain.TheRoyalAirForceofBritainplayedaheroicroleinits
defenceagainstairraidsandconductedairraidsonGermanterritoriesin
retaliation.ThePrimeMinisterofBritainduringthewaryearswasWinston
Churchill.Underhisleadership,thepeopleofBritainsuccessfullyresistedthe
Germanairraidswithcourageanddetermination.
Inthemeantime,ItalyhadstartedmilitaryoperationsinNorthAfrica.Shealso
invadedGreece,buttheItalianattackinboththeareaswasrepulsed.However,
GermanysucceededincapturingtheBalkansGreece,Yugoslavia,Bulgaria
andalsolargepartsofNorthAfrica.

GermanInvasionofSovietUnion
HavingconqueredalmosttheentireEurope,exceptBritain,Germanyattacked
theSovietUnion,despitetheNonAggressionPact,on22June1941.As
mentionedbefore,Hitlerhadalwayscovetedthevastterritoryandresourcesof
theSovietUnion.
HethoughtthatthedestructionoftheSovietUnionwouldtakeabouteight
weeks.HitlerhadgrosslyunderestimatedthestrengthoftheSovietUnion.Inthe

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firstphaseofthewarwiththeSovietUnion,Germanyachievedsignificant
victories.VastareasoftheSovietUnionweredevastated,Leningradwas
besiegedandGermantroopsweremarchingtowardsMoscow.However,inspite
oftheinitialGermansuccesses,theGermanonslaughtwashalted.TheSoviet
Unionhadbuiltupherindustrialandmilitarystrength.SheresistedtheGerman
invasionheroicallyandtheGermanhopesofaquickvictorywerethwarted.
WiththeGermaninvasionoftheSovietUnion,anewvasttheatreofwarhad
beenopened.Animportantdevelopmentthatfollowedwastheemergenceofthe
BritishSovietAmericanunitytofightagainstaggression.Soonaftertheinvasion,
ChurchillandRooseveltdeclaredBritishandAmericansupport,respectively,
totheSovietUnioninthewaragainstGermanyandpromisedaidtoher.
Subsequently,agreementsweresignedbetweentheSovietUnionandBritain,
andSovietUnionandUSA.ItwasasaresultofthisunitythatGermany,Italy
andJapanwereultimatelydefeated.

PearlHarbour:EntryofUSA
YouhavereadbeforeabouttheJapaneseinvasionofChinain1931.In1937,
theJapanesehadstartedanotherinvasionofChina.Japanwasoneofthethree
membersoftheAntiCominternPactalongwithGermanyandItaly.InSeptember
1940,thesethreecountrieshadsignedanotherpactwhichboundthemtogether
evenmore.JapanrecognizedtheleadershipofGermanyandItalyinthe
establishmentofaneworderinEuropeandJapansleadershipwasrecognized
forestablishinganeworderinAsia.On7December1941,theJapanese,without
adeclarationofwar,conductedamassiveraidontheAmericannavalbaseat
PearlHarborinHawaii.TheAmericanPacificFleetwhichwasstationedthere
wasdevastated.TheAmericanslost20warships,andabout250aircrafts.About
3000personswerekilled.TheAmericanswerecompletelytakenunawares.
NegotiationshadbeengoingonbetweentheJapaneseandAmerican
governmentstosettletheirdifferencesinAsiaandthePacific.Theattackon
PearlHarborinthemidstofnegotiationsshowedthattheJapanesewere
determinedtoconquerAsiaandthePacific.WiththistheSecondWorldWar
becametrulyglobal.TheUnitedStatesdeclaredwaronJapanon8December
1941andsoonafterGermanyandItalydeclaredwarontheUnitedStates.
FollowingtheU.S.entryintothewar,manycountriesintheAmericasjoinedthe
waragainstGermany,ItalyandJapan.TheJapaneseachievedsignificant
victoriesinthewarinAsia.WithinsixmonthsoftheattackonPearlHarbor,
theyhadconqueredMalaya,Burma(nowMyanmar),Indonesia,thePhilippines,
Singapore,Thailand,Hongkongandnumerousotherareas.
Bythemiddleof1942,thefascistpowershadreachedthepeakoftheirpower.
Afterthatthedeclinebegan.

TheBattleofStalingrad
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InJanuary1942theunityofthecountriesfightingagainstthefascistpowers
wascemented.Therepresentativesof26nations,includingBritain,theUnited
StatesandtheSovietUnion,signedadeclaration,knownastheUnitedNations
Declaration.ThesignatoriestothisDeclarationresolvedtoutilizealltheir
resourcestopursuethewaruntilvictorywasachievedandtocooperatewith
oneanotheragainstthecommonenemy,andpromisednottohaveaseparate
peacetreaty.
OneofthemostimportantturningpointsinthewarwastheBattleofStalingrad
(nowcalledVolgograd).InNovemberandDecember1941,theGermanadvance
onMoscowmetwithstubbornresistanceandtheinvasionwasrepulsed.
GermanythenlaunchedanoffensiveinsouthernRussia.InAugust1942,the
Germantroops1reachedtheoutskirtsofStalingrad.Foroverfivemonths,the
battleraged.Itinvolvedabout2millionmen,2000tanksand2000aeroplanes.
ThecivilianpopulationofStalingradjoinedthesoldiersinthedefenceofthe
city.InFebruary1943,about90,000Germanofficersandsoldierssurrendered.
Inall,Germanyhadlostabout300,000meninthisbattle.Thisbattleturnedthe
tideofthewar

TheSecondFront
Thefascistcountriesbegantosufferreversesinotherareasalso.Japanhad
failedtocaptureAustraliaandHawaii.InNorthAfrica,theGermanandItalian
troopswereroutedbyearly1943.ThedestructionofthefascistarmyinNorth
Africawasalsoamajorturningpointinthewar.InJuly1943,Britishand
AmericantroopsoccupiedSicily.ManysectionsinItalyhadturnedagainst
Mussolini.Hewasarrestedandanewgovernmentwasformed.Thisgovernment
joinedthewaragainstGermany.However,Germantroopsinvadednorthern
ItalyandMussolini,whohadescapedwiththehelpofGermans,headeda
proGermangovernmentthere.Meanwhile,BritishandAmericantroopsentered
ItalyandalongbattletothrowtheGermansoutofItalyfollowed.TheSoviet
UnionwasattainingsignificantvictoriesagainstGermanyandhadalready
enteredCzechoslovakiaandRumaniawhichhadbeenunderGerman
occupation.
On6June1944,morethan100,000BritishandAmericantroopslandedonthe
coastofNormandyinFrance.BySeptembertheirnumberhadreached
2,000,000.Theopeningofthisfrontplayedaverycrucialroleinthedefeatof
Germany.ThisisknownastheopeningoftheSecondFront.Since1942in
EuropethemostferociousbattleshadbeenfoughtbetweenGermanyandthe
SovietUnion.TheSovietUnionhadbeendemandingtheopeningofthesecond
frontforlong,asthiswouldcompelGermanytofightonotherfrontsalsoand
wouldthushastenthedefeatofGermany.FromthistimeonwardstheGerman
armieswereontherunonallfronts.

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EndoftheWarinEurope
After6June1944,GermanarmieshadtofacetheforcesoftheAlliesfromthree
directions.InItaly,theBritishandAmericantroopswereadvancing.Northern
andwesternFranceandthecityofParishadbeenfreedandtheAlliedtroops
weremovingtowardsBelgiumandHollandOntheeasternfront,theGermans
werefacingacollapse.TheSovietarmyfromtheeastandotherAlliedtroops
fromthewestwereclosingonGermany.OnMay1945theSovietarmiesentered
Berlin.Hitlerhadcommittedsuicideonthemorningofthesameday.On7May
1945Germanyunconditionallysurrendered.TheendofallhostilitiesinEurope
becameeffectivefrom12,00a.m.on9May1945

NukeAttackonJAPAN
AfterthedefeatofGermany,thewarinAsiacontinuedforanotherthreemonths.
BritainandUSAhadlaunchedsuccessfuloperationsagainstJapaninthePacific
andinthePhilippinesandBurma.Inspiteofseriousreverses,however,the
JapanesewerestillholdinglargepartsofChina.On6August1945,anatom
bomb,thedeadliestweapondevelopedduringthewar,wasdroppedonthe
JapanesecityofHiroshima.Thiswasthefirsttimethattheatombombhadbeen
used.Withonesinglebomb,thecityofHiroshimawasobliterated.Another
atombombwasdroppedonthecityofNagasakion9August1945.Thecitywas
destroyed.Inthemeantime,theSovietUnionhaddeclaredwaronJapanandhad
startedmilitaryoperationsagainstJapaneseforcesinManchuriaandKorea.On
14AugustJapanconveyeditsacceptanceoftheAllieddemandtosurrenderbut
theactualsurrendertookplaceon2September1945.WiththeJapanese
surrender,theSecondWorldWarcametoanend.

ResistanceMovements
InallthecountriesofEuropewhichhadfallenvictimtotheaggressionsof
fascistcountries,thepeopleorganisedresistancemovements.Inmany
countries,thegovernmentscapitulatedbeforetheaggressorswithoutmuch
fightingbutpeopleofthosecountriescontinuedtoresistthefascistrule.For
example,whenthegovernmentofFrancesurrendered,thepeopleofFrance
organizedapopularresistancemovementagainsttheGermanoccupation.A
FrencharmywasalsoformedoutsideFranceundertheleadershipofGeneralde
Gaullewhichactivelyparticipatedinthewar.Similararmiesofothercountries
werealsoorganized.Insidetheoccupiedcountries,theresistancemovements
setupguerillaforces.Largescaleguerillaactivitieswereorganizedinmany
countriessuchasYugoslaviaandGreece.Inmanycountriestherewere
largescaleuprisings.TheheroicuprisingofthePolishpeopleinWarsawisa
gloriouschaptermthehistoryoftheresistancemovements.Therewere
resistancemovementswithinthefascistcountriesalso.Thefascistgovernments

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ofItalyandGermanyhadphysicallyexterminatedhundredsofthousandsof
peoplewhowereopposedtofascism.However,manyantifascistsfromthese
countriescontinuedtofightagainstfascisminsideandoutsidetheircountries.
TheantifascistforcesinItalywereverypowerfulandplayedanimportantrole
inthewaragainstMussoliniandinfightingagainstGermantroopsinItaly.In
France,Greece,andundertheleadershipofMarshalTito,inYugoslavia,the
peoplefoughtmostheroicallyagainstfascistaggression.Thesocialists,the
communistsandotherantifascistsplayedaveryimportantpartintheresistance
movements,Millionsofcivilianfightersagainstfascismperishedinthewar.
Thepeopleincountrieswhichwerevictimsofaggressionfoughtbackvaliantly.
InAsia,thepeopleofChinahadtobeartheMintofJapaneseaggressionfrom
theearly1930s.ThecivilwarthathadbrokenoutinChinabetweenthe
communistsandtheKuomintanginthelate1920swassupersededbyamassive
nationalresistanceagainstJapaneseaggression.InotherpartsofAsiaalso
whichwereoccupiedbyJapan,forexampleinIndochina,Korea,Indonesia,the
PhilippinesandBurma,peopleorganizedthemselvesintostrongresistance
movements.ThepeopleswhohadbeenfightingagainstBritishaFrench
imperialismexpressedtheirsupporttothewaragainstfascism.Fascismwas
organizedbarbarismandwasnotconsideredanallybythepeopleswhowere
strugglingfortheirindependence.Forexample,theIndianNationalCongress
whilefightingfortheindependenceofIndiafromBritishruleexpresseditself
againstfascism.

TheDamageCausedbytheWar
TheSecondWorldWarwasthemostdestructivewarinhistory.Thefascistshad
convertedalargepartofEuropeintoavastgraveyardandaslavecamp.The
NazishatredoftheJewshasbeenmentionedbefore.InsideGermanyandin
thosepartsofEuropewhichcameunderGermanoccupationbeforeandduring
thewar,Jewswerepickedupandsixmillionofthemwereexterminated.The
labourofthecountriesoccupiedbyGermanywasutilizedandmosthorrible
labourcampswerestarted.Millionsofpeopleweretransferredtowhatare
knownasconcentrationcampsandkilled.Manyofthesecampssuchasthosein
Buchenwald,OswiecimandDachauweredeathcampswherenewwaysof
killingpeoplewereintroduced.Peoplewereburntingaschambers.Therewere
massmassacresPrisonersweremadetodigmassgraves,wereshotandthen
buriedinthosegraves.Certainkindsoffactorieswerelocatednearthe
concentrationcampswhichproducedgoodsmadefromhumanskinsandbones.
Thekindsoftorturesandbrutalitiesthatthefascists,particularlytheGerman
Nazis,perpetratedhadnoprecedentnordidthemassscaleonwhichtheywere
practiced.ManyofthesebrutalitiescamefullytolightwhenGermanylostthe
war,afterthediscoveryofplacesofmassmurdersandfromthedescriptionsof
thoseintheconcentrationcampswhohadsurvived.Theatrocitiescommittedby
theJapaneseincountriesoccupiedbythemwerenolessbrutal.Inhuman
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medicalexperimentswereconductedbyJapanesedoctorsandscientistson
humanbeings.
Thedestructioncausedbythewarintermsofhumanliveshasnoprecedentin
history.Over50millionpeopleperishedintheSecondWorldWar.Ofthem
about22millionweresoldiersandover28millioncivilians.About12million
peoplelosttheirlivesinconcentrationcampsorasaresultoftheterror
unleashedbythefascistsSomecountrieslostalargepercentageOftheir
population.Forexample,Polandlostsixmillionpeople,aboutfivemillionof
themcivilians,whichwasabout20percentofthePolishpopulation.TheSoviet
Unioninabsolutetermssufferedtheworstabout20millionpeoplewhich
wasabout10percentofthepopulation.Germanylostoversixmillionpeople,
about10percentofherpopulation.Besidesthehumanlosses,theeconomyand
materialresourcesofmanycountrieswerebadlydamaged.Manyancientcities
werealmostcompletelydestroyed.ThetotalcostoftheSecondWorldWarhas
beenestimatedatthestaggeringfigureof$1,384,900,000,000.
ManynewweaponsofdestructionweredevisedandusedintheSecondWorld
War.Themostdreadfulofthesewastheatombomb.Theatombombwasfirst
devisedintheUnitedStatesduringtheSecondWorldWar.Scientistsofmany
countries,includingthosewhohadcometotheUnitedStatestoescapethe
fascisttyrannyinEurope,hadhelpedindevelopingit.Theprojecttodevelop
thebombwastakenupwhenanumberofscientists,suspectingthattheNazi
Germanywasdevelopingtheatombomb,approachedtheUSgovernment.They
hadfearedthatiftheNazisdevelopedthebomb,theywoulduseittoterrorize
theworldintosubmission.TheatombombwasfirsttestedinJuly1945.Bythen,
Germanyhadalreadysurrendered.Manyofthosewhohadhelpedinits
developmentappealedtotheUSgovernmentnottouseitagainstJapanagainst
whomthewarwasstillcontinuing.Theyalsowarnedofthedangerofstartinga
raceintheproductionofatomicweaponsiftheatombombwasusedagainst
Japan.However,thegovernmentoftheUnitedStatesusedtheatombombs
againsttheJapanesecitiesofHiroshimaandNagasaki,ashasalreadybeen
mentioned.Thetwobombskilledover320,000peoplealmostinstantaneously
andcompletelywipedoutlargepartsofthetwocities.Theeffectsofthese
bombsonthehealthofthosewhosurvivedandontheirchildrencontinuetothis
day.ThegovernmentoftheUnitedStatesjustifiedtheuseoftheatombombon
thegroundthatitbroughttheSecondWorldWarimmediatelytoacloseand
thushelpedtosavehumanliveswhichwouldhavebeenlostifthewarhad
continued.Manyotherpeople,includingmanyScientistswhohadhelpedin
makingthebomb.condemnedtheuseoftheatombomb.Afterthedefeatof
GermanyandtheendingofthewarinEurope,Japanwasnotinapositionto
continuethewarandhercapitulationwasamatterofdays.Somescholarshold
theviewthatthemainreasonforusingtheatombombwastoestablishthe
superiorityofUSAintheworldafterthewarasatthattimeshealonepossessed
theseweapons.Inanycase,thepredictionofthescientiststhattheuseofthe

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atombombwouldleadtoaraceforproducingatomicweaponscametrue.
WithinafewyearsaftertheSecondWorldWar,someothercountriesalso
developedatomicweapons.Alsoothernuclearweapons,thousandsoftimes
moredestructivethantheonesusedagainstJapan,weredevelopedwhich,if
used,cancompletelydestroyallhumanlifeonearth.

EXERCISES
1. WhatwerethemainfeaturesofthefascistandNazimovements?
2. Explaintheconsequencesoftheeconomiccrisisof192933.
3. WhatismeantbythetermAxisPowers
4. DescribetheconsequencesofthevictoryoffascismonItalyandGermany.
5. WhatwerethemainaimsoftheforeignpoliciesofItalyandGermany?Of
Japan?
6. Describethemaineventsbetween1936and1939whichcreated
conditionsforanother
7. worldwar.
8. WhatdidtheWesternpowersdotocountertheaggressiveactsofJapan,
ItalyandGermanybetween1931and1938?
9. DescribethegrowthofnationalmovementsinAsiaaftertheFirstWorld
War.NametheAsiancountrieswhichwontheirindependencebetween
1919and1939
10. Explaintheterms:PhoneyWar,SecondFront,theBattleofBritain
11. OnanoutlinemapofEurope,showthecountrieswhichwereoccupiedby
Germanybetween1936andAugust1939.
12. OnanoutlinemapofAsia,showtheareaswhichwereunderJapanese
occupationduringtheSecondWorldWar.
13. TrytocollecttheviewsofJawaharlalNehruandtheIndianNational
CongressonfascismfrombooksonIndianfreedommovement.
14. ReadaboutthenewweaponsdevelopedaftertheSecondWorldWarWrite
anessaycomparingthedestructivepoweroftheseweaponswiththose
usedintheSecondWorldWar.
15. DoyouthinkWesternpolicyofappeasementofthefascistpowersbrought
abouttheSecondWorldWar?Why?Orwhynot?
16. Whatwasthebasicreasonforthepolicyofappeasement?
17. DoyouthinktheUnitedStateswasjustifiedinusingtheatombomb
againstJapan?
18. WhydidtheSovietUnionsigntheNonAggressionPactwithGermany?
Whatdidshegainfromit?Discuss

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PostedByMrunalOn08/07/2013@19:41InthecategoryHistory

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[OldNCERTWorldHistorych13]AfterWW2:BirthofUN,Divisionof
GermanyUSSRYugoslavia(Part1of4)
1. Prologue
2. Introduction
3. SecondWorldWar:ImmediateConsequences
4. YaltaConference
5. BirthofUNITEDNATIONS
6. ThePotsdamConference
7. EuropeaftertheSecondWorldWar
8. GERMANY:partition
9. GERMANY:FallofBerlinWall
10. FranceandItaly:riseofcommunism
11. Britain:RiseofLabourParty
12. EasternEurope
13. FallofUSSR
14. RetreatofSocialism
15. Bosnia

Prologue
Sofar,intheOldNCERTClass10,weveseenfollowing
Ch.No.details
9. Imperialism,ColonizationofAsia,AfricaandAmericas
10. WW1
11. RussianRevolution
12. InterwaryearsandWW2
Now13thChapterdealswithWorldafterSecondWorldWar,ColdWar,NAM.
TheUPSCGSSyllabusissilentaboutColdwar,whileNAMistooclichdand
outdatedtopicforInternationalrelations(IR),stillthis13thchapterremains
relevantincontextoffollowingtopicsofGSMainspaperIsyllabus:
1. Decolonization
2. Redrawalofnationalboundaries

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TheredrawalofnationalboundarieshadbegunwithChapter9itself:when
ImperialistcountriesstartedcolonizingAsia,AfricaandAmericas,recallthe
paperpartitionofAfricaandhow30%ofitsnationalbordersarestraightlines.
Chapter13istheclimaxintermsofredrawlsofNationalboundaries,wecansee
that:
Region
Europe

EasternEurope

Asia

BoundariesredrawnafterWW2
Germany=>EastandWest,latercombined.
FallofUSSRleadsto15independentrepublics
FromCzechoslovakia=>CzechRepublic+SlovakRepublic.
Yugoslaviabreaksinto
1. SerbiaandMontenegro
2. Croatia
3. Macedonia
4. Slovenia
5. BosniaHerzegovina
FromBritishIndiato:India+Pakistan(+laterBangladesh)
Indochina=>Vietnam,Laos,Cambodia
Vietnam=>North+South,latercombined
Korea=>North+South,nevercombined.
ChinaTaiwan
IsraelPalestine

Anyways,letsstartthechapter:

ChapterIntroduction
THEworldhasbeencompletelytransformedduringtheyearssincetheendof
theSecondWorldWarin1945.Itspoliticalmaphasalsochanged.The
influenceandthedominationswhichafewEuropeanimperialistpowers
exercisedintheprewaryearsbecamethingsofthepast.Alargenumberof
nationsinAsiaandAfricawhichhadbeensufferingundercolonialrule
emergedasindependentnationsTogether,theyhavebecomeamajorfactorin
theworld.TheUnitedStateshademergedasthebiggestpoweraftertheFirst
WorldWar.TheSovietUnionalsoemergedasamightypoweraftertheSecond
WorldWar,inspiteoftheterribledevastationthatshesufferedduringthewar
BeforetheSecondWorldWar,theSovietUnionwastheonlycountry.Inthe
worldwhichprofessedsocialism.Afterthewar,anumberofothercountries
joinedher.
Thetwoworldwars,foughtwithinabriefperiodofabout30years,resultedin

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thelossofmillionsofhumanlives.Thedangerofanewworldwarwhichwould
destroyhumanlifealtogethercreatedanewawarenessoftheneedfor
establishinglastingpeace.Peoplesandnationsmadeeffortsinthisdirectionby
promotingmutualrelationsbasedonfriendshipandcooperation.Theyalso
createdmanynewinstitutionsandagenciesforthepurpose.
However,inspiteoftheseeffortstheperiodaftertheSecondWorldWarhas
beenfullofstressesandstrains.Ithasseenmanyconflictsandwarsinwhich
hundredsofthousandsofpeoplehavebeenkilledeventhoughtheworldhas
escapedalargescaleconflagration.
Sincethelate1980s,furtherchangeshavetakenplacemsomepartsofthe
world.SomeoftheconsequencesoftheSecondWorldWarand,insomecases,
evenoftheFirstWorldWarhavebeenundoneduringthepastfiveyears.
Duringthisperiod,someoftheissueswhichdominatedtheworldandsomeof
theforcesandfactorswhichshapedtheworldforaboutfourdecadesafterthe
warhavebecomeirrelevant.Thethreatofcommunismwhichhadbeenamajor
factorindeterminingthepoliciesofmanycountriessincetheRussian
Revolutionand,evenmoreso,aftertheSecondWorldWarisnolongeranissue.
CommunistregimesintheSovietUnionandinthecountriesofEasternEurope
havecollapsed.TheSovietUnionhasbrokenupinto15independentStates.
Manyotherchangeshavetakenplacetheworldoveranditispossibletothink
oftheperiodfromthelate19805astheonemarkingthebeginningofanew
phaseinthehistoryoftheworldaftertheSecondWorldWar.

SecondWorldWar:ImmediateConsequences
Duringthewar,themajorAlliednationshadheldmanyconferencesandhad
issueddeclarationsstatingtheprincipleswhichwouldformthebasesofpeace.
ThefirstmajordeclarationhadbeenissuedbyBritainandUSAin1941.Itstated
thatBritainandtheUnitedStateswouldnotseekanyterritory.Italsosupported
therightofeverypeopletohavetheformofgovernmentoftheirchoice.Early
in1942wasissued,asmentionedbefore,theUnitedNationsDeclaration.This
DeclarationsupportedtheoneissuedbyBritainandUSAearlier.Another
declarationstatedthatalltheChineseterritoriestakenbyJapanwouldbe
restoredtoher.In1943,Churchill,RooseveltandStalin,leadersofBritain,USA
andtheSovietUnion,respectively,metatTeheran.Theydeclaredtheirresolve
tobanishthescourgeandterrorofwarandtocreateaworldinwhichall
peoplesmaylivefreelivesuntouchedbytyrannyandaccordingtotheirvarying
desiresandtheirownconsciences.

YaltaConference
Earlyin1945whenGermanywasonthevergeofdefeat,theheadsofthethree
bignationsmetatYaltaintheSovietUnion.Heretheyagreedonanumberof

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issuessuchashowtodealwithGermanyandthenonGermanterritorieswhich
hadbeenliberatedfromGermany.
TheYaltaConferencealsotookthedecisiontosetupaneworganisationto
replacetheLeagueofNations.

BirthofUNITEDNATIONS
Subsequently,aconferencewasheldatSanFrancisco,USA,from25April1945.
Theconferencewasattendedby50nations.On26Junetheconferenceadopted
theUnitedNationsCharterunderwhichanewworldorganizationwassetup
ThiswastheUnitedNationsOrganizationwhichwasbasedontheprincipleof
thesovereignequalityofallpeacelovingstatesThepurposesoftheUnited
NationsOrganizationweretomaintaininternationalpeaceandsecurity,to
developfriendlyrelationsamongnationsandtoachieveinternational
cooperationinsolvinginternationalproblemsofaneconomic,social,culturalor
humanitariancharacter
Tocarryouttheseobjectives,sixprincipalorgansoftheUnitedNations
Organization(nowreferredtoastheUnitedNationsorsimplytheUN)were
createdthesewere:
1. theGeneralAssemblycomposedofallthemembersoftheUN
2. theSecurityCouncilcomposedoffivepermanentmembers,viz.theUnited
States,theSovietUnion,Britain,FranceandChina,andsixotherstobe
electedbytheGeneralAssemblyforaperiodoftwoyearsTheSecurity
Councilwasmadeprimarilyresponsibleforthemaintenanceofpeaceand
security(Thenumberofnonpermanentmemberswassubsequentlyraised
fromsixtoten)
3. theEconomicandSocialCouncilof18memberstopromoterespectfor,
andobservanceof,humanrightsandfundamentalfreedomsforall
4. theTrusteeshipCouncil
5. theInternationalCourtofJustice
6. theSecretariatwithaSecretaryGeneralappointedbytheGeneral
Assemblyasitshead.
AnumberofspecializedagenciesoftheUNwerealsocreatedsuchasthe
UnitedNationsEducational,ScientificandCulturalOrganization(UNESCO),
theWorldHealthOrganization(WHO),FoodandAgricultureOrganization
(FAO),theInternationalLabourOrganization(ILO)(thisbodyhadbeencreated
aftertheFirstWorldWar),etc.Itwasrealizedthatunlessallthepermanent
membersoftheSecurityCouncil,whowereatthattimethebiggestpowers,were
agreed,nocourseofactionforthemaintenanceofpeaceandsecuritycouldbe
effective.HenceitwasprovidedthatanydecisionoftheSecurityCouncilmust
havethesupportofallfivepermanentmembers.ThesettingupoftheUnited

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NationswasoneofthemostimportantconsequencesoftheSecondWorldWar.
btw,toseethecompletelistofvariousUNorgans,downloadfollowingPDFfile
http://www.un.org/en/aboutun/structure/pdfs/unsystemchartcolorsm.pdf

ThePotsdamConference
AnothermajorconferenceoftheheadsofgovernmentofBritain,theUnited
StatesandtheSovietUnionwasheldatPotsdam(nearBerlin)from17Julyto2
August1945.Thedeclarationissuedbythisconferencementionedthemain
aimsoftheAllieswithregardtoGermanywhichhadalreadysurrendered
Germanyhadbeenpartitionedintofourzones,eachunderthecontrolofBritain,
France,theUnitedStatesandtheSovietUnion.Thedeclarationstatedthatthe
aimoftheAlliedoccupationofGermanywastobringaboutthecomplete
disarmamentofGermany,todestroytheNaziPartyandtoprepareconditions
forthecreationofademocraticGermany.Itwasalsodecidedtosetupan
internationaltribunaltobringtotrialpersonswhohadcommittedcrimesagainst
humanity.DecisionswerealsotakenregardingtheborderbetweenPolandand
Germany,andthetransferofthenorthernpartofEastPrussiatotheSoviet
UnionandthesouthernparttoPoland.Thevariousconferencesheldduringand
afterthewarinfluencedthepoliticaldevelopmentsafterthewar.

EuropeaftertheSecondWorldWar
ManycountriesinEuropehadbeenliberatedfromGermanoccupationbythe
Sovietarmies.ThesecountrieswerePoland,Hungary,Rumania,Bulgariaand
Czechoslovakia.
TheCommunistpartiesandotherantifascistpartiesinthesecountrieshad
playedanimportantroleinthestruggleagainstGermanoccupationofthese
countries.Bytheendof1948,thegovernmentsofallthesecountrieswere
dominatedbytheCommunistparties.InAlbaniaandYugoslavia,thestruggle
againstGermanoccupationhad,beenledbytheCommunistpartiesofthese
countries.InthesecountriestooCommunistpartiesformedthegovernments.
TheestablishmentoftheCommunistpartiesruleinthesecountrieswasa
significantdevelopmentaftertheSecondWorldWarUptotheSecondWorld
War,theonlycountryinEurope,andtheworld,ruledbyaCommunistpartywas
theSovietUnion.NowalargenumberofEuropeancountrieswereruledby
Communistparties.Inthesecountries,otherpoliticalpartieswereeithernot
allowedtoexistorhadonlyanominalpresence.Thepoliticalpowerwas
exclusivelyinthehandsoftheCommunistparties.
ThepresenceofSoviettroopsinthesecountriesensuredthecontinuanceofthe
Communistpartiesmonopolyofpower.Sometimes,theSoviettroopswereused

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tosuppressmovementswhichopposedthedominationofCommunistparties.
WithintheCommunistpartiesthemselves,differencesoverpolicieswerenot
allowedandthepowerwithin,theCommunistpartiesbecameconcentratedina
fewhands.AsintheSovietUnion,dissentevenwithintherulingpartieswasnot
toleratedandmanyveterancommunistswereshotorsentencedtolongperiods
ofimprisonmentafterfaketrials.Sometimesthesecountrieswerebrandedas
satellitesoftheSovietUnion.TheCommunistpartyofYugoslaviawasthe
onlyrulingCommunistPartywhichrefusedtobedominatedbytheSoviet
Union.Butatthesametime,thegovernmentofYugoslaviadidnotallowother
politicalpartiestofunction.

GERMANY:partition
WithinalittlemorethanfouryearsaftertheendoftheSecondWorldWar,
certaindevelopmentstookplacewhichresultedinthedivisionofGermanyThe
fourpowersBritain,France,theUnitedStatesandtheSovietUnionwhich
wereinoccupationoffourdifferentzonesofGermanyfolloweddifferent
policiesindealingwiththesocial,economicandpoliticalproblemsintheir
respectivezones.IntheBritish,FrenchandAmericanzones,theeconomic
developmentcontinuedoncapitalistlines.Thetwomajorpartiesinthesezone,
weretheChristianDemocraticPartyandtheSocialDemocraticParty.In1948,
Brain,FranceandtheUnitedStatesdecidedtomergethethreezonesundertheir
controlwhichwereinWestGermanyandformaseparategovernmentthere.In
September1949thesezoneswereunitedandaseparatestateinWestGermany
calledtheFederalRepublicofGermanywithitscapitalatBonncameintobeing.
InEastGermanywhichwasunderSovietoccupation,thepoliciespursuedwere
differentfromthosethathadbeenfollowedinthewesternzones.Landswere
distributedamongpeasantsandallthemajorindustriesweretakenoverfrom
privatehandsandmadethepropertyofthestate.In1946theCommunistParty
andtheSocialDemocraticPartyintheSovietzoneofGermanymergedtoform
theSocialistUnityPartyofGermany.InOctober1949,theSovietzonebecamea
separatestatecalledtheGermanDemocraticRepublic.TheSocialistUnityParty
ofGermanybecametherulingpartyintheGermanDemocraticRepublic.Thus
Germanycametobedividedintotwostates,eachfollowingitsownpatternof
social,economicandpoliticaldevelopment.ThedivisionofGermanyintotwo
independentstates,whichlastedforoverfourdecades,wasamajor
consequenceoftheSecondWorldWar.

GERMANY:FallofBerlinWall
ThedivisionofGermanyhadbeenasourceoftensioninEuropeandamajor
factorintheColdWar.EastBerlinwasthecapitalofEastGermany(German
DemocraticRepublicorGDR)whileWestBerlinwhichwaslocatedwithinthe
GDRterritorywastreatedasapartofWestGermany(FederalRepublicof
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GermanyorFRG).
In1961,theGDRauthoritiesbuiltawallbetweenEastandWestBerlinto
preventEastGermansfromgoingawaytoWestBerlin.

ThebuildingofthewallbecameafurthersourceoftensioninEurope.The
processofendingcommunistruleinGDRandofthereunificationofGermany
beganin1989whentheBerlinWallwasopenedandpoliticalpartieswhich
wereoutsidethecontrolofthecommunistparty(calledtheSocialistUnity
Party)wereallowedtofunction.Inearly1990electionswereheldandanew
governmentcametopower.On3October1990,thedivisionofGermanywas
endedandaunifiedGermanyagainemerged.

FranceandItaly:riseofcommunism
InotherpartsofEuropealso,importantpoliticalchangestookplace.The
CommunistpartiesofFranceandItalyhadplayedanimportantroleinthe
resistancemovementsinthesecountries.Theyhademergedaspowerfulparties
attheendofthewar.

France
InthefirstgovernmentformedinFranceafterthewar,theCommunistPartyof
Francewasrepresented.However,itquitthegovernmentin1947becauseof
differencesovereconomicpoliciesandoverthequestionofindependencefor
thecountriescomprisingIndoChina.TheFrenchgovernmentwastryingto
reestablishitsruleoverIndoChinawhichtheCommunistPartyopposed.

Italy
IntheItaliangovernment,theCommunistPartyandtheSocialistPartywerean
importantforce.In1946,monarchywasabolishedandItalybecamearepublic.
In1947theChristianDemocraticPartycametopowerandtheCommunistParty

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quitthegovernment.However,eventhoughtheCommunistandSocialistparties
wereoutofthegovernmentinthesetwocountries,theyweretogethera
powerfulforceinthepoliticsofthetwocountries.Formanyyears,inboththese
countries,thesocialistpartiesbecametherulingpartieseitheraloneorin
alliancewithotherpartiesTheCommunistparties,however,werealmost
throughouttheperiodafter1948keptoutofthegovernment.Inrecentyears,
whiletheItalianCommunistPartyitisnowcalledtheDemocraticPartyofthe
Lefthasremainedapowerfulforce,theinfluenceoftheFrenchCommunist
Partyhasdeclined

Britain:RiseofLabourParty
InBritain,theelectionswereheldinJuly1945.TheConservativePartywhose
leaderWinstonChurchillhadbeenthePrimeMinisterduringthewarlostand
theLabourPartycametopower.Indiawonherindependenceduringthisperiod.
DuringtheLabourPartysrulemanysignificantchangestookplaceinthe
economyofthecountry.Manyimportantindustriessuchascoalminesand
railwayswerenationalized.Stepsweretakentoprovidesocialsecuritytothe
people,andtobuildawelfarestateinBritain.In1951,theConservativeParty
wasreturnedtopowerandtheLabourPartybecametherulingpartyin1964.
Thus,neitherofthesepartiesremainedinpowerforlongandbothoftheparties
weremoreorlessequallymatched.Onlyinrecentyears,thereseemstohave
beenadeclineintheinfluenceoftheLabourParty.
ThepoliticalsysteminmostcountriesofWesternEuropewasbasedonthe
parliamentaryformofgovernment.Theireconomieshadsufferedaserious
setback,anditaffectedtheirinternationalposition.Graduallythroughtheirown
effortsandwithmassiveAmericanaid,thesecountriesweresoononthewayto
rebuildtheireconomiesHowever,thedominationthatthesecountriesexercised
overtheworldbeforetheFirstWorldWarandtoalesserextentafterthathad
declined.TheperiodaftertheSecondWorldWarsawtherapiddeclineoftheir
empires.

EasternEurope

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ManychangesofgreathistoricalimportancehavetakenplaceintheSoviet
UnionandincountriesofEasternandCentralEurope.Themostsignificantof
thesehasbeenthecollapseoftheSovietUnionandtheendingofthecommunist
regimesthereandinothercountriesofEurope.In1956,threeyearsafterthe
deathofStalin,theCommunistPartyofSovietUnionhaddenouncedthe
excessesandcrimescommittedbyStalin.From1985,manyimportantreforms
begantobeintroducedmthepoliticalsystemoftheSovietUnionwithaviewto
promotingpoliticaldemocracy.Therewasfreeandopendiscussiononevery
issueandcurbsonthefreedomofthoughtandexpressionwerelifted.
Reformsineconomywerealsoinitiatedtoendthestagnationthathadsetinand
toimprovethelivingconditionsofthepeople.Theimportanceofthesereforms
wasrecognizedtheworldover,TwoRussianwordswereusedtodescribethese
reforms:
perestroika Restructuring
glasnost
openness
TheholdoftheCommunistPartyoverthepoliticallifeofthecountrywas
loosenedandotherpoliticalpartieswereallowedtofunction.

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FallofUSSR
Inthemeantime,therewasademandforgreaterautonomybytherepublics
whichconstitutedtheSovietUnion.Somerepublicswantedtobecome
independent.Attemptsweremadetoframeanewtreatywhichwouldprovide
greaterautonomytotherepublicsandatthesametimepreservetheUnion
However,inAugust1991,therewasanattempttostageacoupbysomeleaders
oftheCommunistParty.Thoughthecoupcollapsed,theSovietUnionbeganto
breakup.Manyrepublicsdeclaredtheirindependence.On25December1991,
MikhailGorbachev,whowasthePresidentoftheSovietUnionduringthis
periodandhadinitiatedthereformsmentionedearlier,resignedandtheSoviet
Unionformallyceasedtoexist.InplaceoftheSovietUnionwhichhadbeena
majorinfluenceonworldhistoricaldevelopmentforaboutsevendecades,there
emerged15independentrepublics.Thoughtheruleofthecommunistparties
hasendedinalltheserepublics,manyofthemarefacedwithseriouspolitical
andeconomicproblems.Therearealsomanyproblemsbetweentherepublics
although12ofthemhaveformedaloosefederationcalledtheCommonwealth
ofIndependentStates.However,thenamesofrepublicshavechanged.Thenew
namesare
NewName

OldName

1. RussianFederation

RSFSR

2. Kazakhstan

KazakhSSR

3. Estonia

EstonianSSR

4. Latvia

LatvianSSR

5. Lithuania

LithuanianSSR

6. Ukraine

UkrainianSSR

7. Moldova

MoldavianSSR

8. Armenia

ArmenianSSR

9. Georgia

GeorgianSSR

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10. Azerbaijan

AzerbaijanSSR

11. Turkmenistan

TurkmenSSR

12. Uzbekistan

UzbekSSR

13. Tajikistan

TajikSSR

14. Belarus

ByelorussianSSR

15. Kyrgyzstan

KrighizSSR

EquallyimportantchangeshavetakenplacemthosecountriesofEuropewhich
wereruledbycommunistparties.Therehadbeenoutburstsofresentmentin
someofthesecountriesagainstSovietcontrolandagainsttheSovietsupported
communistgovernmentssincethe1950s.TherewereoccasionswhenSoviet
troopswereusedtosuppresstheunrestinthesecountries.Thechangesinthe
SovietUnionaffectedthesecountriesdirectly.Thereweremassupheavalsinall
thesecountriesinthelate1980s.By1989,Sovietcontroloverthemcametoan
end.Themonopolyofpoliticalpowerenjoyedbythecommunistpartiesinthese
countrieswasended.Therewerefreeelectionsandnewgovernmentswere
formed.Itisnotablethatthesefarreachingchangestookplaceinmostcountries
withouttheuseofviolence.Insomecountries,leaderswhohadmisusedtheir
positionforpersonalgainandpowerweretriedandjailed.Manycommunist
partiesnolongerrulingpartiesintheircountriesexpelledsomeoftheir
formerleaderswhohadcommittedexcesseswhentheywereinpower.Inone
country,Rumania,theCommunistPartyleaderwhoforabout15yearshadbeen
thevirtualdictatorwasexecuted.TheWarsawPact,themilitaryalliancewhich
washeadedbytheSovietUnionandofwhichthecommunistruledstatesof
Europeweremembers,wasdissolvedin1991.

RetreatofSocialism
ThecollapseoftheSovietUnionandofcommunistgovernmentsinEuropehas
beenamajorfactorinendingtheColdWar.Ithasalsobeenseenasmarkingthe
retreatofsocialism.Itcan,however,besaidthatthesystemwhichwasbuiltin
thesecountrieswasonlyadistortedversionofthesocialistidealandthatsocial
justicewhichwasfundamentaltothatidealhasbecomeapartofthe
consciousnessofthepeopletheworldover.
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ThechangesinEasternandCentralEurope,asintheformerSovietUnion,have
notbeenwithoutproblems,botheconomicandpolitical.
CzechoslovakiahademergedasanewstateaftertheFirstWorldWarhas
brokenupintotwoindependentstatestheCzechRepublicandthe
SlovakRepublic.
InunifiedGermany,therehavebeenmanyinstancesofviolencebyneo
Nazisagainstimmigrants.

Bosnia
DevelopmentsofatragicnaturehavetakenplaceinYugoslaviainrecentyears.
YugoslaviawhichhademergedasastateaftertheFirstWorldWarwasruledby
acommunistpartysincetheendoftheSecondWorldWar.Thecommunist
governmentofYugoslaviahadkeptitselffreefromtheSovietUnionalmost
fromthebeginning.YugoslaviawasoneofthefoundersoftheNonAligned
Movement.Shewasafederationofsixrepublics.Infouroftheserepublics,the
ruleofthecommunistpartiescametoanendin1990.By1992,Yugoslavia
brokeupintofiveindependentstatesthenewstateofYugoslaviacomprising
1. SerbiaandMontenegro,
2. Croatia,
3. Macedonia,
4. Slovenia
5. BosniaHerzegovina
However,theproblemsofYugoslaviadidnotendwithitsbreakup.Alargeparty
ofBosniaHerzegovinaisunderthecontrolofSerbiansandCroats.Abloody
warhasbeengoingonbetweenBosnianCroats,BosnianSerbsandBosnian
Muslims,particularlybetweenthelattertwo,causingterriblesufferingstothe
people.
WhilethesedevelopmentshavetakenplaceinonepartofEurope,inanother,
Western,part(includingGermany),therehadbeenamovetowardsEuropean
unityItconsistsincreatingaEuropewithoutborders,withacommoncurrency
andunrestrictedmovementofgoodsandpeopleandultimatelyapoliticalunion
withacommonparliament.Somestepshavealreadybeentakeninthisdirection.
Itmay,however,berememberedthattheconceptofEuropeanunityatpresent
excludesallEastEuropeancountriesandsomeothers.
Inthenextparts,wellsee
2. coldwar,formationofmilitaryblocs(NATO,CEATOetc)andNAM
3. IndependenceofAsiancountriesafterWW2+KoreanandVietnamWar.
4. IndependenceofAfrica

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[OldNCERTWorldHistorych13]AfterWW2:ColdWar,NATO,CENTO,
SEATO,WarsawandNAM(Part2of4)
1. TheColdWar
2. MilitaryBlocs
1. NATO
2. SEATO
3. BaghdadPact
4. CENTO
5. WARSAWPact
3. ArmsRace
4. EndofColdWar
5. NONALIGNEDMOVEMENT(NAM)
1. BandungConference
2. NAM:oppositiontoMilitaryblocs
3. NAM:BelgradeSummit
4. Nehrusspeech@1stNAMconference

TheColdWar
Amajorfeatureofthehistoryoftheworldforalmostfourdecadesaftertheend
oftheSecondWorldWarwastheantagonismbetweentheUnitedStatesandthe
SovietUnionandthearmedconfrontationbetweenthemilitaryblocsheadedby
them.ThiswastheperiodoftheColdWarandtheraceinthedesigningand
productionofevernewweaponsofmassdestruction.Itposedadangertothe
verysurvivalofhumankind.
SincetheendoftheFirstWorldWar,theUnitedStateshademergedasthe
strongestpowerintheworld.AftertheSecondWorldWar,herpowerhadgrown
stillmorecomparedwiththeEuropeanpowerswhohaddominatedtheworldfor
centuries.Thiswasbothinthespheresofeconomicandmilitarystrength.After
sheacquiredtheatombomb,theawarenessofherpowerwasfurther
strengthened.TheUnitedStatesatthattimewastheonlycountrywhich
possessedtheatombomb.
NexttotheUnitedStatesthemightiestpowerintheworldaftertheSecond
WorldWarwastheSovietUnion.Shehadsufferedmorethananyothercountry
inthewar.Besidesthe20millionpeoplethatshelostduringthewar,hundreds
ofhertownsandthousandsoffactorieshadbeencompletelydestroyed.
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However,inspiteoftheselosses,herpowerandprestigehadincreased.This
wastosomeextentduetotheveryimportantrolethatshehadplayedin
defeatingGermany.Sincetherevolution,shehadbeenostracizedandboycotted
andhadfacedtheopenhostilityoftheotherbigpowers.However,afterthewar,
anumberofcountriesinEurope,ashasalreadybeenmentioned,wereruledby
communistparties.TheSovietUnionexercisedalotofinfluenceoverthe
governmentsofthesecountries.Asaresultofthesedevelopments,theisolation
oftheSovietUnionhadcometoanend.Also,inmanycountriesofEurope,as
wellasofAsia,communistpartieshademergedstrongerafterthewar.These
partiesweregenerallysupportersoftheSovietUnion.Someoftheseparties
wereactivelyengagedinorganizingrevolutionsintheircountries.Forexample,
thecommunistshadbeenamajorforceintheresistanceagainstGerman
occupationofGreece.Alargepartofthecountrycameundertheircontrolwhen
theGermanarmyretreatedfromthere.However,afterthewarwasover,
monarchywasrestoredinGreeceandthenewgovernmentbegantosuppressthe
communists.Thisresultedinacivilwarwhichlastedtill1949whenthe
communistswerefinallydefeated.
Duringthewar,Britain,theUnitedStatesandtheSovietUnionhadtogether
foughtagainstthefascistcountries.Manydeclarationsissuedduringthewar
hademphasizedthattheunityamongthesecountrieswouldcontinueafterthe
waralsoandwouldbethebasisofadurablepeaceandinternational
brotherhood.Thesedeclarationshadarousedhopesallovertheworld.However,
thewarwashardlyoverwhenconflictsandtensionsbegantoemergebetween
BritainandtheUnitedStatesontheonehandandtheSovietUnionontheother.
Therelationsbetweenthembegantodeteriorateandcametobecharacterized
bywhathasbeencalledtheColdWarGradually,theColdWarbecamemore
andmoreintenseandtheworldwasdividedintotwomajorblocstheUnited
StatesandWestEuropeancountriesformingoneblocandtheSovietUnionand
thesocialistcountriesofEasternEuropeformingtheother.Sometimesthe
coldwarbecamehotbutthehostilitiesremainedconfinedtospecificareas.
ThemostimportantreasonfortheoutbreakoftheColdWarwastheWestern
countriesfearofcommunism.WiththeincreaseinthemightoftheSoviet
Union,theemergenceofgovernmentsruledbycommunistpartiesinEastern
andCentralEuropeandthegrowingstrengthofcommunistpartiesinmany
partsoftheworld,alarmedthegovernmentsoftheUnitedStates,Britainand
otherWestEuropeancountries.In1949,thevictoryoftheCommunistPartyof
Chinainthecivilwarwhichhadbeenragingthereforabouttwodecadesadded
tothealarm.TheUnitedStatesopenlydeclaredthatherpolicywastoprevent
thespreadofcommunism.Oneoftheobjectivesofthemassiveeconomicaid
thattheUnitedStatesgavetoWestEuropeancountrieswasalsotocontain
communismTheUnitedStatesbegantolookuponeverydevelopmentinthe
worldfromthisstandpoint,whetheritpromotedorhelpedinchecking
communismBritainandWestEuropeancountriesbecamealignedwiththe

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UnitedStatesandbegantofollowapolicymainlyaimedatcurbingthegrowth
ofcommunism.Thishadmanyadverseconsequencesfordemocracy,and
freedommovementsinthecoloniesRestrictionswereimposedontheliberties
ofthepeople,forexample,intheUnitedStates,andjustifiedonthegroundof
nationalsecurityandpreventingcommunistinfluence.Thefreedommovements
inmanycountriesbegantobeconsideredunsympatheticallybycountrieswhich
werenotthemselvescolonialpowersbutwerealignedtothecolonialpowers.
Forexample,theUnitedStatessupportedFranceinsuppressingthefreedom
movementinIndoChina.Countrieswhichwantedtopursueanindependent
policyandpromoterelationswiththeSovietUnionwerelookeduponwith
suspicion.Allthesefactorsmadetheinternationalsituationtensehisomeareas
itresultedinwarsandinmanyotherareasitledtoprolongingofconflicts.
Thegrowingtensionintheworldwasworsenedbythesettingupofmilitary
blocs.

MilitaryBlocs
NATO
In1949,NorthAtlanticTreatyOrganization(NATO)wasformedfordefense
againsttheSovietUnion.ThemembersofthisallianceweretheUnitedStates,
Canada,Denmark,Norway,Iceland,Portugal,Britain,France,Belgium,Holland
andLuxemburg.Turkey,Greece,theFederalRepublicofGermanyandSpain
becameitsmemberslater.ANATOarmywascreatedwhichestablisheditsbases
inmanycountriesofEurope.SimilarmilitaryalliancesweresetupbytheUnited
StatesandBritaininotherpartsoftheworld.

SEATO
In1954SouthEastAsiaTreatyOrganization(SEATO)wassetupwiththe
UnitedStates,Britain,France,Australia,NewZealand,Thailand,thePhilippines
andPakistanasmembers.

BaghdadPact
In1955theBaghdadPactwasbroughtintobeing.ItconsistedofBritain,
Turkey,Iraq,PakistanandIran.TheUnitedStatesestablisheditsmilitarybases
allovertheworldforuseagainstwhatsheconsideredthedangerofcommunist
aggression.Theformationofthesealliancesandtheestablishmentofmilitary
basesworsenedthealreadytenseinternationalsituation.Thesealliancesandthe
militarybasescametobelookeduponbycountries,whichwerenotmembersof
thealliances,asadangertopeaceandtotheirindependence.Insomecountries
whichweremembersofthesealliances,theseallianceswereveryunpopular.For
example,whentherewasarevolutioninIraqin1958,thatcountrywithdrew

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fromtheBaghdadPactwhichhadbeennamedaftercapitalofIraq.

CENTO
ThenameofBaghdadPactwasthenchangedtotheCentralTreatyOrganization
(CENTO).ThesealliancesweregenerallyunpopularinthecountriesofAsiaand
AfricaasalltheimperialistpowersofEuropeweremembersofthesealliances
andusedittosuppressthemovementsforfreedom.Mostofthecountriesof
AsiaandAfricawhichhadwontheirfreedomrefusedtojointhesealliances.

WARSAWPact
AsagainsttheseWesternandWesternsponsoredalliances,theSovietUnion
andthesocialistcountriesofEuropePoland,Czechoslovakia,Hungary,
Rumania,BulgariaandtheGermanDemocraticRepublicformedtheWarsaw
Pact.Underthispact,theSovietUnionstationedhertroopsinthesecountries.
However,theSovietUnionandtheothermembersoftheWarsawPactdidnot
haveanymilitarybasesinotherpartsoftheworld.TheSovietUnionhad
treatiesoffriendshipandmutualassistancewithChina.

ArmsRace
Theformationofthemilitaryallianceswasaccompaniedbyanotherdangerous
development.Thiswastheracefordeadlierweaponsofdestruction.Youhave
alreadyreadabouttheuseoftwoatombombsagainstJapantowardstheendof
theSecondWorldWar.ForaboutfouryearsaftertheSecondWorldWar,only
theUnitedStatespossessedatomicweapons.In1949,theSovietUniontested
herfirstatombomb.Afewyearslaternuclearweaponswhichwerethousandsof
timesmoredestructivethantheatombombsusedagainstJapan,were
developed.Thesewerethethermonuclearorhydrogenbombs.Thetestingalone
ofthesebombscreatedserioushazardstolife.Manymovementswerelaunched
inallpartsoftheworldtodemandabanonthetestingandmanufactureof
nuclearweapons.MostoftheleadingscientistssuchasEinsteinandLinus
Paulingalsosupportedthisdemand.
However,thearsenalsofnuclearweaponsintheworldwentonincreasing.
Therearesomanynuclearweaponsintheworldtodaythattheworldcanbe
destroyedmanytimesover.Alongwiththenuclearweaponsandmanyother
kindsofweaponry,newbombers,submarinesandmissileshavebeendeveloped
whichcancarrytheseweaponsoverthousandsofkilometers.Theracefor
armamentswhichwasapartoftheColdWarhascreatedthedangertothevery
survivalofhumanrace.Vastresourceshavebeenspentondevelopingthese
weapons.Theseresources,iftheyhadbeenutilizedforpeacefulpurposes,
wouldhavegonealongwayinabolishingwantandpovertyofwhichmillions
ofpeopleallovertheworldarevictims.

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EndofColdWar

Inthe1970sandearly1980s,somebeginningsweremadetoendtheColdWar.
AgreementswerereachedbetweentheUnitedStatesandtheSovietUnionto
eliminatesomecategoriesofcarriersofnuclearweaponsandtoreducethe
numberofcertaintypesofweaponsinstalledincertainareas.Theprocessof
endingtheColdWar,however,sufferedmanysetbacks,forexample:

Afghanistan

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In1979,SoviettroopsenteredAfghanistan.Thisdevelopmentincreasedthe
tensionbetweentheUnitedStatesandtheSovietUnion.

StarWars
TheUnitedStateslaunchedaprogrammeofdevelopingnewandevenmore
deadlyweapons,popularlyknownastheStarWars.Theseweaponswouldhave
meanttakingtheconflictintoouterspaceandlaunchingattacksfromthere.
However,theworldsituationbegantoimproveafterthemid1980sandbythe
endofthe1980sitcouldbesaidwithmuchcertaintythattheeraofColdWar
hadcametoanend.Byearly1989,Soviettroopswerewithdrawnfrom
Afghanistan.Manyotherchangestookplacefromthelate1980sanditis
generallyagreedthatwearenowlivinginapostColdWarworld.Thiscanbe
consideredasthemostsignificantandpositivedevelopmentthathastaken
placeinrecentyears.

NONALIGNEDMOVEMENT(NAM)
ManynewlyindependentnationsofAsiaandAfricaaswellasmanynationsin
othercontinentsdidnotlikethemilitaryblocs.Theybegantofollowapolicyof
nonalignmentwithanymilitarybloc.Theiremergenceplayedaveryimportant
roleinreducingtheintensityoftheColdWarandincreatinganatmosphereof
peace.AcrucialroleinpromotingnonalignmentandpeacewasplayedbyIndia
afterherindependence.
TheemergenceofthecountriesofAsiaandAfricaasindependentnations
markedanewphaseinthehistoryoftheworld.Thesecountrieswhichhadbeen
suppressedandkeptundersubjugationforalongtimecametotheirownand
begantoplayanimportantroleintheworld.Similardevelopmentshavealso
takenplaceinCentralandSouthAmericaandtheCaribbean.Thecountries
whichwereunderEuropeancolonialruleinthispartoftheworldhavebecome
independentTheUnitedStatesfrequentlyinterferedintheinternalaffairsof
thesecountries,particularlywhenradicalgovernmentscametopowerandtried
toasserttheirpoliticalandeconomicindependence.Oneofthesignificant
developmentsinthisregionwastheCubanrevolutionwhichoverthrewthe
corruptanddictatorialgovernmentheadedbyBatistaon31December1958.In
1961,theUnitedStatessentmercenariestoCubabuttheinvasionendedina
fiascoandwascrushedinlessthanthreedays.
Havingcommonproblemsandsharingcommonaspirations,thepeoplesofthese
countriesbegantoacttogetheralthoughtherewasnoorganizationbinding
them.However,theybegantodevelopsomecommonunderstandingonworld
affairs,particularlyonthequestionoftheindependenceofnationswhichwere
stillunderforeignrule.

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BandungConference
In1955,animportanteventtookplacewhichhelpedtostrengthentheunityof
AfricanandAsiancountries.ThiswastheAfroAsianconferencewhichwas
heldatBandunginIndonesia.Theconferencewasattendedby23Asianand6
Africancountries.TheleadersofthreeAsiannations,India,Chinaand
Indonesiaplayedanimportantroleinthedeliberationsofthisconference.The
growingimportanceoftheAfroAsiancountrieswasreflectedintheUnited
NationswhereonanumberofissuesthecountriesofAsiaandAfricafunctioned
asagroup.

NAM:oppositiontoMilitaryblocs
AnothersignificantdevelopmentintheworldaftertheindependenceofAsian
andAfricancountrieswastheemergenceofNonAlignedMovement.Youhave
readbeforeabouttheColdWarandtheformationofmilitaryblocsandthe
growthoftensioninmanypartsoftheworld.Mostofthenewlyindependent
countriesofAsiaandAfricarefusedtojointheColdWar.Theyconsideredthe
formationofmilitaryblocsasaseriousdangertopeaceandtotheir
independence.Thesecountrieswerefacedwiththeenormoustaskofsocialand
economicreconstructionwhichcouldbedoneonlyinaworldfreefromwarand
tension.SomecountriesinAsiahadjoinedthemilitaryalliancesandhad
allowedforeignbasestobesetupontheirsoil.Theextensionofmilitary
alliancesandthesettingupofforeignbaseswereconsideredbymostAsian
countriesasathreattotheirIndependenceandasourceoftension.Hencethey
opposedthesealliances.Theywerealsoawareofthedangerwhichthe
continuanceofimperialisminsomepartsofAsiaandAfricaposedtothemand
toworldpeace.TheNonAlignednationsofAsiaandAfrica,therefore,werein
theforefrontofthestrugglefortheliquidationofcolonialism.Nonalignment
hasprimarilybeenapolicyaimingatthestrengtheningofindependence,ending
ofcolonialismandpromohngworldpeace.Itwasnotmerelyapolicyof
noninvolvementwithmilitaryblocsbutapolicyforcreatingabetterworld.
IndiaunderthePrimeMinistershipofJawaharlalNehruplayedapioneeringrole
inmakingnonalignmentamajorforceintheworld.Theotherleaderswho
playedanimportantroleintheNonAlignedmovementwere:
President
Sukarno
Nasser
Tito

Country
Indonesia
Egypt
Yugoslavia

NAM:BelgradeSummit
ThefirstsummitconferenceofNonAlignednationswasheldatBelgradein

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YugoslaviainSeptember1961.Itwasattendedbyheadsofstateorgovernment
of25countries.BesidesYugoslaviaandCuba,fromEuropeandtheAmericas,
respectively,theotherparticipatingcountrieswerefromAsiaandAfrica.Three
othercountriesattendedasobservers.Thestatementissuedattheendofthis
conferenceaffirmedthebasicprinciplesofnonalignmentsuchas
1. thestabilizationofpeace
2. liquidationofcolonialismandimperialisminalltheirforms
3. peacefulcoexistencebetweennations
4. condemnationofracialdiscrimination
5. oppositiontomilitaryalliances
6. disarmament
7. respectforhumanrights
8. establishmentofeconomicrelationsbetweennationsbasedonequality
andfreefromexploitation
Thepopularityofthepolicyofnonalignmentwasreflectedbythenumberof
countrieswhichjoinedthegroupofNonAlignednations.Beginningwith25
CountrieswhichattendedtheBelgradeconferencein1961,therearetoday109
countrieswhicharefollowingthepolicyofnonalignment.Theyaredrawnfrom
Asia,Africa,EuropeandtheAmericas.TheTenthSummitoftheNonAligned
MovementwasheldatJakarta,inIndonesia,inSeptember1992.TheSeventh
SummithadbeenheldatNewDelhiwithIndiasPrimeMinisterIndiraGandhi
astheChairperson,andtheSixthSummitatHavana,inCuba,in1979underthe
ChairmanshipofPresidentFidelCastro.Twomovementsofnationalliberation
thePalestineLiberationOrganizationandSouthWestAfricaPeoples
OrganizationweremadefullfledgedmemberstatesoftheNonAligned
Movement.(Asmentionedearlier,Namibia,whosestruggleforindependence
wasledbySWAPO,hasalreadybecomeindependent),AllcountriesofAfrica,
includingSouthAfrica,aremembersoftheNonAlignedMovement.
Movementhasplayedaveryimportantroleinworldaffairs,particularlyin
endingcolonialismandinpromotingpeace.TheNonAlignedcountriesarealso
workingforthecreationofanewinternationaleconomicorderinwhichthe
economicrelationsbetweennationswouldbebasedonequality,
nonexploitationofonenationbyanother,andthenarrowingdownofeconomic
disparitiesbetweennations.

Nehrusspeech@1stNAMconference
ThewordNonAlignedmaybedifferentlyinterpreted,butbasicallyitwas
coinedandusedwiththemeaningofbeingNonAlignedwiththegreatpower
blocsoftheworldNonAlignedhasanegativemeaning.Butifwegiveita
positiveconnotationitmeansnationswhichobjecttoliningupforwar
purposes,tomilitaryblocs,tomilitaryalliancesandthelike.Wekeepaway

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fromsuchanapproachandwewanttothrowourweightinfavourofpeace.In
effect,therefore,whenthereisacrisisinvolvingthepossibilityofwar,thevery
factthatweareunalignedshouldstirustofeelthatmorethaneveritisuptous
todowhateverwecantopreventsuchacalamitydownuponus
Somesix,sevenoreightyearsago,nonalignmentwasararephenomenon.Afew
countrieshereandthereaskedaboutitandothercountriesrathermadefunofit
oratanyratedidnottakeitseriously.NonalignmentWhatisthis?Youmust
beonthissideorthat!thatwastheargument.Thatargumentisdeadtoday,
thewholecourseofhistoryofthelastfewyearshadshownagrowingopinion
spreadinfavouroftheconceptofnonalignment.Why?Becauseitwasintune
withthecourseofevents,itwasintunewiththethinkingofthevastnumbersof
people,whetherthecountryconcernedwasNonAlignedornot,becausethey
hungeredpassionatelyforpeaceanddidnotlikethismassingupofvastarmies
andnuclearbombsoneitherside.Therefore,theirmindsturnedtothose
countrieswhorefusedtolineup.
Themostfundamentalfactoftheworldtodayisthedevelopmentofnewand
mightyforces.Wehavetothinkintermsofthenewworld.Thereisnodoubt
thatimperialismandtheoldstylecolonialismwillvanish.Yetthenewforces
mayhelpotherstodominateinotherwaysoverus,andcertainlythe
underdevelopedandthebackward.Therefore,wecannotaffordtobebackward.
WehavetobuildinourowncountriessocietieswherefreedomisrealFreedom
isessential,becausefreedomwillgiveusstrengthandenableustobuild
prosperoussocieties.Theseareforusbasicproblems.Whenwethinkinterms
ofthesebasicproblems,warbecomesanevengreaterfollythanever.Ifwe
cannotpreventwar,allourproblemssufferandwecannotdealwiththem.Butif
wecanpreventwar,wecangoaheadinsolvingourotherproblems.Wecan
helptoliberatethepartsoftheworldundercolonialandimperialruleandwe
canbuildupourownfree,prosperoussocietiesinourrespectivecountries.That
ispositiveworkforustodo.
Innextpartswewillsee:
3. IndependenceofAsiancountriesafterWW2+KoreanandVietnamWar.
4. IndependenceofAfrica
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[OldNCERTWorldHistorych13]AfterWW2:AsianIndependence,Korean
war,VietnamWar,KhmerRouge(Part3of4)
1. AsianCountries:Independence
2. India
3. Burma
4. Indonesia
5. SriLanka,Thailand,PhilippinesandMalaysia
6. ChineseRevolution
7. TheKoreanWar
8. VietnamPartition
9. VietnamWar
10. Cambodia:KhmerRouge

AsianCountries:Independence
TheriseandgrowthofnationalisminAsiaandAfricahasbeenbriefly
mentionedinChapter12.TheperiodaftertheSecondWorldWarsawthe
emergenceofmostcountriesofAsiaandAfricaasindependentnations.One
countryafteranotherinthesecontinentsbecameindependent.Theywontheir
independencethroughlongandhardstrugglesagainstcolonialpowers.Tosome
countriesindependencecameonlyafterlongandbitterarmed,struggle,to
otherswithoutmuchbloodshedbutnotwithoutalongperiodofstrife.
Generally,thecolonialpowerswerenotwillingtogiveuptheirholdonthe
coloniesandleftonlywhentheyfoundthatitwasnotpossibletomaintaintheir
ruleanymore,DuringtheSecondWorldWar,manyimperialistcountrieshad
beenoustedfromtheircolonies,butafterthewartheytriedtoreestablishtheir
rule.Forsometimetheysucceededindoingsobutwereultimatelyforcedto
withdraw.
Theachievementofindependencewastheresultprimarilyofthestrugglesof
thepeoplesofthecolonies.However,thechangesintheinternationalclimate
whichfollowedtheSecondWorldWarhelpedthepeoplesstrugglingfor
independenceImperialismasawholehadbeenweakenedasaresultofthewar.
Theeconomiesofmanyimperialistcountrieshadsuffered.Forceswithinthe
imperialistcountrieswhichwerefriendlywiththepeoplesstrugglingfor
independencealsohadgrownpowerful.Freedomanddemocracywerethemajor
aimsforwhichtheAllieshadfoughtagainstthefascistcountriesandtheseaims
hadbeenmadethebasisforarousingpeoplesallovertheworldagainstfascism.
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ThefulfilmentoftheseaimscouldnolongerbeconfinedonlytoEurope,ashad
beendoneaftertheFirstWorldWar.Inmanycolonieswhichfascistcountries
hadoccupiedbyoustingtheoldercolonialpowers,thefreedommovementshad
playedanimportantroleinthestruggleagainstfascistoccupation.Forexample,
Japanhadtofacetheresistanceofthefreedommovementsinthecountriesof
EastandSouthEastAsiawhichshehadoccupied.Itwasnoteasytorestorethe
ruleoftheformercolonialpowersoverthesecountries.
Anothermajorinternationalfactorwhichfacilitatedtheendofimperialismwas
theemergenceoftheSovietUnionandothersocialistcountriesasamajorforce.
Thesecountrieswereinimicaltoimperialismandoftengaveaidandsupportto
thefreedommovementsinthecolonies.Similarly,themovementsofsocialism
whichhadgrownpowerfultheworldover,includinginthecolonialcountries,
alsosupportedthemovementsoffreedominthecolonies.
Theentireinternationalcontextinwhichthefreedommovementswerelaunched
hadchangedaftertheSecondWorldWar.Attheinternationalforums,
particularlyattheUnitedNations,thecauseoftheindependenceofcolonies
begantogainpopularity.Theinternationalopinionwasclearlyagainstthe
continuationofimperialism.Imperialistcountriesresortedtovariousmeansto
maintaintheirrule.Theytriedtocreatedivisionsinthefreedommovements.
Theyresortedtotheuseofterror.Insomecountriestheytriedtoinstall
governmentswhichwerenominallyfreebutwereinfacttheirpuppets.
However,mostofthefreedommovementswereabletodefeatthesemethodsof
disruption.
AnimportantroleintheachievementofindependencebythecountriesofAsia
andAfricawasplayedbytheunitywhichfreedommovementsinvarious
countriesachieved.Thefreedommovementinonecountrysupportedthe
freedommovementsinothercountries.Theroleofcountrieswhichhad
achievedtheirindependencewasverycrucialinthisregard.Thesecountries
supportedthecauseofthosepeopleswhowerestillundercolonialruleatthe
UnitedNationsandotherinternationalforums.Theyalsogaveactivehelptothe
freedommovements.Indiaplayedacrucialroleinpromotingthecauseof
freedominAsiaandAfrica.Besidesthemovementsinthecoloniesfor
independence,therewerealsomovementsinAsianandAfricancountriesto
oustoutdatedpoliticalsystems,tomodernizethesocialandeconomicsystems
andtoassumecontrolovertheresourcesofonescountrywhichhadremained
underforeigncontrolevenafterfreedom.Thesemovementsexpressedthe
resolveofthepeoplesofAsiaandAfricatobecomefullyindependentaswellas
tolaunchprogrammesofrapidsocialandeconomicdevelopment.Withintwo
decadesoftheendoftheSecondWorldWar,thepoliticalmapofAsiaand
Africahadbeencompletelychanged.

India
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WithinafewyearsaftertheSecondWorldWar,alargenumberofAsian
countriesbecameindependentOneofthefirsttowinherindependencewas
India.Indiahad,however,beenpartitionedandalongwithIndia,another
independentstate,Pakistan,alsocameintobeing.(Pakistanbrokeupin1971
whenhereasternpartnowBangladeshbecameindependent).The
independenceofIndiawasofgreatimportanceinthehistoryoffreedom
movementsinAsiaandAfrica.Thepoliciespursuedbythegovernmentof
independentIndiaundertheleadershipherfirstPrimeminister,Jawaharlal
Nehru,helpedinstrengtheningthefreedommovementsinothercountriesandin
hasteningtheachievementofindependencebythem.

Burma
Burma,renamedMyanmarrecently,achievedherindependencefromBritaina
fewmonthsafterIndiabecameindependent.In1944,theAntifascistPeoples
FreedomLeague(AFPFL)hadbeenformedinBurma.Itsaimwastoresistthe
JapaneseinvasionofBurmaandtowinindependenceforBurma.Afterthewar,
theBritishtriedtorestoretheirruleoverBurma.Thisledtotheintensification
ofthemovementforfreedom.Inthecourseofthestruggle,manyleadersofthe
Burmesefreedommovementwereassassinated.However,Britainwasforcedto
agreetothedemandforfreedomandBurmabecameindependenton4January
1948.

Indonesia
ThebeginningofthenationalistmovementinIndonesiahasbeenreferredtoin
thepreviouschapter.AfterthedefeatofJapan,Sukarno,oneofthepioneersof
thefreedommovementinIndonesia,proclaimedtheindependenceofIndonesia.
However,soonaftertheBritishtroopslandedthereinordertohelptheDutchto
restoretheirrule.ThegovernmentofindependentIndonesiawhichhadbeen
formedbySukarnoresistedtheattempttoreestablishcolonialrule.Therewere
demandsinmanycountriesoftheworldtoputanendtothewarwhichhadbeen
startedinIndonesiatorestoretheDutchrule.InAsiancountries,thereaction
wasparticularlyintense.TheleadersoftheIndianfreedommovement
demandedthatIndiansoldiers,whohadbeensenttoIndonesiaasapartofthe
Britisharmyshouldbewithdrawn.AfterIndiabecamefree,sheconveneda
conferenceofAsiannationsinsupportofIndonesiasindependence.The
conferencemetinNewDelhiinJanuary1949andcalledforthecomplete
independenceofIndonesia.TheresistanceoftheIndonesianpeopleandthe
mountingpressureofworldopinionandAsiancountriescompelledHollandto
settheleadersofIndonesianpeoplefree.On2November1949,Holland
recognizedtheindependenceofIndonesia.

SriLanka,Thailand,PhilippinesandMalaysia

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Withinafewmonthsof,Indiasindependence,SriLanka
(Ceylon)alsobecamefreeinFebruary1948.
ThailandhadbeenoccupiedbyJapanandafterthedefeatof
THAILAND
Japanbecameindependent.
Duringthewar,JapanhaddrivenouttheAmericanforcesfrom
PHILIPPINES thePhilippines.In1946,thegovernmentoftheUnitedStates
agreedtotheindependenceofthePhilippines.
InMalayaBritishrulehadbeenreestablishedafterthewar.In
MALAYASIA
1957,Malaya(nowMalaysia)becameanindependentnation.
SRILANKA

ChineseRevolution
YouhavereadearlierabouttheunitybetweentheKuomintangandthe
CommunistPartyofChinawhichhadbeenbuiltundertheleadershipofDr.Sun
YatSenforthecompleteindependenceandunificationofChina.Thisunityhad
beenbrokenafterthedeathofSunYatSenandacivilwarstartedinChina
betweentheKuomintangundertheleadershipofChiangKaiShekandthe
CommunistPartyofChina,whosemostimportantleaderwasMaoZedong.After
theJapaneseinvasionofChina,thetwopartiesandtheirarmiescooperatedfor
sometimetoresisttheJapaneseaggression.However,theconflictsbetweenthe
twoneverceased.TheKuomintangunderChiangKaiShekwasapartywhich
mainlyrepresentedtheinterestsofcapitalistsandlandlords.TheCommunist
Party,ontheotherhand,wasapartyofworkersandpeasants.Intheareasunder
CommunistPartyscontrol,theestatesoflandlordshadbeenexpropriatedand
thelanddistributedamongthepeasants.Becauseofthepoliciespursuedbythe
CommunistParty,itgraduallyhadwonovermillionsofChinesepeopletoits
side.TheCommunistPartyhadalsoorganizedahugearmycalledthePeoples
LiberationArmy(PLA).AfterthedefeatofJapanandthedrivingoutofthe
JapaneseforcesfromChina,thecivilwaragainbrokeout.Thegovernmentof
theUnitedStatedgavemassiveaidtoChiangKaiShek,butby1949hisarmies
werecompletelyrouted.Withtheremnantsofhistroops,ChiangKaiShekwent
toTaiwan(Formosa),anislandwhichhadbeenoccupiedbyJapanaftershehad
defeatedChinain1895.Seethemap:

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On1stOctober1949,thePeoplesRepublicofChinawasproclaimedandthe
CommunistPartyofChinaundertheleadershipofMaoZedongCametopower.
ThevictoryoftheCommunistrevolutioninChinawasaworldshakingevent.
Themostpopulouscountryintheworldhadcomeundercommunistrule.
BesidesthesocialistcountriesofEurope,therewerenowtwomightypowersin
theworldtheSovietUnionandChinaWhichwereruledbycommunist
parties.ImperialismwasfurtherweakenedinAsiaasaresultoftheChinese
revolution.

ChinavsUSA
TheestablishmentofthePeoplesRepublicofChinawasadefeatforthe
UnitedStates.SherefusedtorecognizethegovernmentofChinaforovertwo
decades.AccordingtotheUnitedStates,thelegalgovernmentofChinawasthat
ofChiangKaiShekinTaiwan(Formosa).BecauseoftheUSattitude,themost
populouscountryintheworldwasdeniedevenmembershipoftheUnited
Nationsforovertwodecades.

ChinavsIndia
Formanyyears,friendlyrelationsexistedbetweenIndiaandChina.Together,
thetwocountriesplayedaveryimportantroleinthefreedommovementsofthe
peoplesofAsiaandAfricaandinbringingabouttheunityoftheAsianand
Africannations.However,towardstheendofthe1950s,theforeignpolicyof
theChinesegovernmentbegantochange.In1962,Chinacommittedaggression
againstIndiawhichdealtasevereblownotonlytothefriendshipbetweenIndia
andChinabutalsototheunityofAsianAfricannations.Chinasrelationswith
theSovietUnionalsobegantodeteriorate.ShesupportedPakistanagainstIndia
overvariousissues.After1970,herrelationswiththeUnitedStatesbeganto
improve.ShewasadmittedtotheUnitedNationsandisnowoneofthefive
permanentmembersoftheUNSecurityCouncil(UNSC).

ChinaafterMao
ThereweremanyturmoilsinthepoliticalandeconomiclifeofChinaafterthe
establishmentofcommunistrulethere.AfterthedeathofMaoZedongin1975,
manychangeshavetakenplaceintheeconomicpoliciesofthecountry.These
areaimedatmodernizingtheeconomy.Forthis,foreigncompaniesandforeign
capitalhavebeeninvitedandareplayinganimportantrole.Manypractices
whichwereatonetimeconsideredbasictotheconceptofsocialismhavebeen
givenup.TherehavealsobeenchangesinChinasforeignpolicy.Therehas
beenanimprovementinChinasrelationswithIndia.Inthepoliticallifeof
China,however,therehasbeenlittlechangeanditcontinuestobeunderthe
exclusivecontroloftheCommunistParty.Thedemandfordemocracyvoicedby

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studentsandotherssomeyearsagowassuppressed.

TheKoreanWar
Korea,asyouhavereadbefore,hadcomeunderJapaneserulein1910.After
JapansdefeatintheSecondWorldWar,shewasdividedintotwozones,the
northernzoneunderSovietoccupationandthesouthernzoneunderAmerican
occupation,tobringaboutthesurrenderofJapanesetroops.Theaimwasto
makeKoreaanindependentstate.However,asinthecaseofGermanyin
Europe,twodifferentgovernmentsinKoreawereformedin1948.SeetheMap

DemocraticPeoplesRepublicofKorea(NorthKorea)underthe
leadershipofKoreanCommunists
TheRepublicofKorea(SouthKorea)byagroupofpartiesunderthe
South
leadershipofSyngmanRhee.
North

RheewasananticommunistandwantedanalliancewithChiangKaiShekto
preventthespreadofcommunism.Boththestatesorganizedtheirarmiesand
therewerefrequentclashesbetweenthem.In1948,theSoviettroopswithdrew
fromKoreafollowedbytheAmericantroopswhowithdrewin1949.Boththe
governmentsofKoreafavouredunificationofthecountrybuttherewasno
meetinggroundbetweenthem.
InJune1950warbrokeoutbetweenNorthandSouthKorea.TheChinese
revolutionhadalreadytakenplaceandtheUnitedStatesfearedfurther
expansionofcommunisminthisarea.TheUnitedStatessenttroopstosupport

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SouthKoreainthewar.Troopsfromsomeothercountriesalignedwiththe
UnitedStatesalsofoughtinKorea.Thesetroopsfoughtasthetroopsofthe
UnitedNationsbecausetheSecurityCounciloftheUnitedNationshadpasseda
resolutioncondemningNorthKoreaandhadaskedmembersoftheUnited
NationstoaidSouthKorea.AftertheentryoftheAmericanforcesinthewar,
theChineseforcesalsoenteredthewarandthesituationtookaveryserious
turn.Therewasarealdangerofanotherworldwarbreakingout,asbythistime
theSovietUnionalsohadacquiredatomicbombs.However,thoughthewarin
Korearagedforthreeyears,itdidnotturnintoaworldwar.Thearmisticewas
signedin1953Korearemaineddividedintotwoseparatestates.Indiaplayeda
veryimportantroleinbringingthewarinKoreatoanend.Eventhoughthewar
wasconfinedtoKorea,hundredsofthousandsofpeoplewerekilled,including
over142,000Americans.
TheKoreanwaraddedtothedangerofanotherworldwar.Italsoworsenedthe
tensionsintheworldandledtotheintensificationoftheColdWar.

VietnamPartition
OneofthemostheroicbattlesforfreedomwasfoughtbythepeopleofVietnam.
ThiscountryalongwithLaosandCambodiacomprisedIndoChinawhichhad
comeunderFrenchcolonialrule.AftertheFrenchgovernmentsurrenderedto
Germany,manypartsofIndoChinawereoccupiedbyJapan.Themovementfor
thefreedomofIndoChinafromFrenchrulehadstartedmanyyearsearlier.The
greatestleaderofthepeopleofVietnamwasHoChiMinh.Hehadbeenengaged
inorganizingthecommunistandthenationalistmovementsinVietnamsince
soonaftertheendoftheFirstWorldWar.TheVietnamesepeopleunderHo
ChiMinhsleadershipresistedtheJapaneseoccupationandorganizeda
peoplesarmycalledtheVietMinh.BythetimetheSecondWorldWarended,
theVietMirthcontrolledalargepartofVietnam.InAugust1945,the
DemocraticRepublicofVietnamwasproclaimedwithHoChiMinhasPresident.
However,theBritishtroopsaswellasthetroopsofChiangKaiShekarrivedin
VietnaminthepretextofcompletingthesurrenderofJapanesetroopsthere.In
October1945,theFrenchtroopsalsoarrivedwiththeaimofrestoringFrench
rule.In1946,theFrencharmystartedfightingagainsttheVietMinh.Theyalso
setupagovernmentwithBaoDal,whohadheadedthepuppetgovernment
underJapanearlier,astheruler.ThewarbetweentheVietMinhandFrance
continuedforeightyears.In1954,theFrenchforcessufferedasevereblowat
thehandsofthedonetoVietnamasaresultoftheheavyVietMinhatthe
fortressofDienBienPhu.TheFrenchdefeatatDienBienPhuhasbecome
famousbecauseapeoplesarmywithoutanysophisticateddefeatedthearmyof
apowerfulimperialistcountry.ThedebacleatDienBienPhucompelledthe
FrenchgovernmenttostartnegotiationswiththegovernmentofDemocratic
RepublicofVietnam.InJuly1954aninternationalconferencewasheldat
Geneva.ItwasagreedtopartitionVietnamtemporarilyintoNorthVietnam
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SouthVietnamandtoholdelectionsalloverVietnamwithintwoyearstounify
thecountryunderasinglegovernment.
CambodiaandLaos,theothertwocountriesofIndoChinaweremade
independent.SeetheMap:

VietnamWar
WiththepartitionofVietnam,anotherphaseinthefreedommovementin
Vietnambegan.ThegovernmentthatwasestablishedinSouthVietnam,withthe
supportoftheUnitedStates,refusedtoabidebythedecisionsoftheGeneva
conferencewithregardtotheholdingofelectionsandtheunificationof
Vietnam.Itcametobeincreasinglyregardedasbeingunderthecontrolofthe
UnitedStateswhichwasopposedtotheunificationofVietnamundertheleader
shipofthecommunistparty.Intheearly1960s,uprisingsbrokeoutinSouth
Vietnamagainstthegovernmentthere.Thiswasfollowedbythemassive
militaryinterventionoftheUnitedStatesinVietnam.Hundredsofthousandsof
Americantroopsweresenttherewithsomeofthemostadvancedweaponryto
suppressthepopularuprising.Thewarcontinuedforanumberofyears.The
SouthVietnamesepeopleledbytheNationalLiberationFrontcarriedon
guerillawarfare.TheyhadthesupportofNorthVietnam.TheAmericantroops
carriedthewarintoNorthVietnam.IncalculabledamagewasdonetoVietnam
asaresultoftheheavybombingsbyAmericanforces.TheAmericantroopsalso
usedweaponsofbacteriologicalwarfare.VastareasofVietnamweredevastated
andhundredsofthousandsofpeoplekilled,TheAmericanforcesalsosuffered
heavycasualties.
TheUnitedStateswasalmostcompletelyisolatedintheworldoverthewarin
Vietnam.Besidestheoppositiontothiswarbyscoresofgovernments,therewas
aworldwidemovementofprotestagainsttheU.S.governmentandofsolidarity

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withthepeopleofVietnam.Theonlymovementofthiskindhademergedinthe
1930sinsupportoftheRepublicancauseintheSpanishCivilWarandagainst
GermanyandItalywhowereactivelyhelpingthefascistsinSpain.The
oppositiontothewargrewintheUnitedStatesitselfonanunprecedentedscale.
ThousandsofAmericansrefusedtobedraftedintheU.S.armyandmany
Americansoldiersdeserted.Noothersingleissuehadunitedmillionsofpeople
allovertheworldasthewarinVietnam.However,theU.Sgovernment
continuedthewareventhoughitwasclearthatshecouldnotwinit.
Earlyin1975,thewartookadecisiveturn.ThearmiesofNorthVietnamandof
theNationalLiberationFrontofSouthVietnamsweptacrossthecountryrouting
theAmericansupportedtroopsofthegovernmentofSouthVietnam.InJanuary
1973,theAmericantroopshadbeguntowithdrawfromVietnam.Duringthewar
inVietnam,58,000ofthemhadlosttheirlives.By30April1975,allthe
AmericantroopshadwithdrawnandthecapitalofSouthVietnam,Saigon,was
liberated.NorthandSouthVietnamwereformallyunitedasonecountryin
1976.ThecityofSaigonwasrenamedHoChiMinhCityafterthegreatleader
oftheVietnamesepeoplewhohaddiedafewyearsearlierin1969.
TheemergenceofVietnamasaunitedandindependentnationisanhistoric
eventinthehistoryoftheworld.Asmallcountryhadsucceededinwinningher
independenceandunificationinthefaceofthearmedoppositionofthegreatest
powerintheworld.ThehelpgiventoVietnambythesocialistcountries,the
politicalsupportextendedtoherbyalargenumberofAsianandAfrican
countries,andthesolidarityexpressedbythepeoplesinallpartsoftheworld
hadhelpedinbringingvictorytothepeopleofVietnam.

Cambodia:KhmerRouge
ThewarinVietnamhadalsospreadtoCambodiaIn1970,thegovernmentof
PrinceNarodomSihanoukwasoverthrownandapuppetgovernmentwas
installedthere.ThetroopsoftheUSAandSouthVietnamhadcarriedthewarto
CambodiaonthegroundthattheVietnamesewerereceivingtheirsuppliesfrom
basesinCambodia.BythetimetheUnitedStateswithdrewfromthewarin
1975,apartywhichcalleditselfKhmerRougehadtakencontrolofCambodia
undertheleadershipofPolPot.ThegovernmentofPolPotestablishedaregime
ofterrorinCambodiaandstartedfollowingapolicyofgenocideagainstitsown
people.TheestimatesofpeoplemurderedbytheKhmerRougevaryfromoneto
threemillion.

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GenocidebyKhmerRougeTroops
In1979,PolPotsgovernmentwasoverthrownwiththehelpofVietnamese
troops.However,thewarinCambodiacontinuedastheKhmerRougestillhad
someareasunderitscontrolinsidethecountry.Italsooperatedfromacrossthe
borderwithThailand.Inthemeantime,threegroups,includingtheKhmer
RougeandthegroupledbyNarodomSihanouk,cametogetherinoppositionto
thegovernmentinCambodiawhichwassupportedbyVietnam.
PeacewasrestoredinCambodiarecently.TheUnitedNationsbroughtthe
variouswarringfactionstogetherandanagreementwassignedunderthe
auspicesoftheUnitedNations.TheVietnamesetroopswerewithdrawnfrom
Cambodia.In1993,electionswereheldandacoalitiongovernmentwasformed.
TheKhmerRouge,however,remainedoutsidethegovernmentanditstroops
continuedtheirarmedattacksinsomepartsofthecountry.
Inthenext(andlast)partofChapter13,wellseetheIndependenceofAfrica.
ForarchiveofallWorldhistoryrelatedarticlesvisitMrunal.org/history

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ww2asianindependencekoreanwarvietnamwarkhmerrougepart3of
4.html
PostedByMrunalOn10/07/2013@14:31InthecategoryHistory

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Mrunal [Old NCERT World History ch13] After WW2: African Independence: Egypt, French Guniea, Mau Mau rebellion, Ap

[OldNCERTWorldHistorych13]AfterWW2:AfricanIndependence:Egypt,
FrenchGuniea,MauMaurebellion,Apartheid(Part4of4)
1. WestAsia
2. SyriaandLebanon
3. Israel
4. AfricanIndependence
5. Egypt:Naseer
6. Libya:Gaddafi
7. Algeria:DeGaulle
8. GoldCoast=GHANA:Nkrumah
9. Guinea
10. Kenya:MauMaurebellion
11. PortugueseColonies
12. SouthAfrica:apartheid
13. NelsonMandela
14. Namibia
15. AFRICARenamingofPlaces
16. World@1990
17. EXERCISES

WestAsia
SyriaandLebanon
AsinotherpartsofAsia,therewasanupsurgeforfreedominWestAsiaalso
immediatelyaftertheSecondWorldWar.Youhavereadinthepreviouschapter
aboutthemovementofthepeopleofSyriaagainsttheFrenchrule.Afterthe
war,theFrenchtriedtorestoretheirauthorityoverSyriaandLebanonbut,inthe
faceofoppositionfromthepeopleofthesecountriesandtheworldopinion,
theywereforcedtowithdraw.BothSyriaandLebanonbecameindependentby
theendof1946.
TherewasanupsurgeinalltheArabcountriesatthistimeandthe1950ssaw
theiremergenceasindependentnations.Somecountrieswhichhadbeen
nominallyfreeassertedtheirindependence.Therewerealsomovementsto
overthrowtheoutdatedpoliticalsystemswhichexistedinsomecountries.All
theseledtoconflictsand,insomecases,prolongedwarsbetweentheArab
countriesandtheimperialistpowers.TheperiodsawthegrowingpowerofArab
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nationalismwhichledtoeffortsbytheArabpeopleandgovernmentstocome
togethertofaceandsolvecommonproblems.TheArabLeaguewasformed
comprisingalltheArabstates.
However,beforemanyoftheArabcountriescouldgaintheirindependence,a
developmenttookplaceinWestAsiawhichwastobecomeasourceoftension
andleadtomanywarsintheyearstocome.Thiswasthecreationofthestateof
Israel.

Israel
Mrunal:IsraelPalestinehasbeendiscussedindetailinaseparatearticle:click
me
Palestine,ashasbeenmentionedbefore,hadbecomeaBritishmandatein1919.
TheBritishtroopsagainoccupiedthecountryin1945.Palestinewasinhabited
byArabsandJews.AmovementcalledtheZionistmovementclaimedthat
PalestinewasthehomelandofalltheJews,wherevertheymaybeliving,and
shouldberestoredtothem.ThepersecutionwhichtheJewsinEuropehad
sufferedforcenturieshadculminatedintheNaziGermanyspolicyof
exterminatingthem.MillionsofJewswerekilledinGermanyandinthose
countriesofEuropewhichhadbeenoccupiedbyGermany.Theterribletragedy
hadwonthemthesympathyandsupportoftheworld.
TheBritishinPalestinehadpermittedsomeJewsfromoutsidePalestinetosettle
there.TheZionistshad,meanwhile,beencampaigningforaJewishstatethere.
ThishadcomplicatedthefreedommovementinPalestinethemajorityofwhose
inhabitantswereArabs.In1947theUnitedNationspassedaresolution
accordingtowhichPalestinewastobedividedintoanArabstateandaJewish
state.However,in1948,theBritishwithdrewtheirtroopsfromPalestineand
soonafterthestateofIsraelwasproclaimed.ThisledtoawarbetweentheArab
statesandIsrael.TheArabstatesweredefeatedinthewar.
ThecreationofIsraelbecameasourceoftensioninWestAsia.TheArabstates
refusedtorecognizeherasalegitimatestate,Thepoliciespursuedbythe
governmentofIsraelfurtheraddedtothebitterness.About900,000Arabswere
forcedtoleavetheirhomesandlandsinPalestineandwererenderedhomeless.
TheyfoundshelterinvariousrefugeecampsinArabstates.Mostcountriesof
AsiaandAfricacondemnedtheIsraeligovernmentstreatmentoftheArabsof
Palestineandforfollowingracistpolicies.In1956,IsraeljoinedBritainand
FranceininvadingEgypt.LatertherewereotherwarsbetweenIsraelandthe
ArabstatesasaresultofwhichIsraeloccupiedlargepartsoftheterritoriesof
otherArabstates.
TheseterritoriesincludetheGazaStrip,theGolanHeightsandtheWestBank.
MorethanamillionPalestiniansliveintheoccupiedterritories.Inspiteofthe
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resolutionsoftheUnitedNations,IsraelrefusetovacateArabterritoriesand
restoretherightsofthePalestinianArabs,manyofwhomliveasrefugeesin
variousArabstates.In1964,thePalestineLiberationOrganization(PLO)was
formedtofightfortheestablishmentofaPalestinianstate.Itenjoysthestatusof
amemberstateoftheNonAlignedMovement.Recentlyanagreementwas
signedbetweenthegovernmentofIsraelandthePLO.Underthisagreement,the
PLOrecognizedthestateofIsraelandthegovernmentofIsraelagreedtogive
thePalestiniansautonomyinsomeareaspresentlyunderIsraelioccupation.

AfricanIndependence
Youhaveseeninthe[WorldHistory]ColonizationofAfricaarticle,thatwith
theexceptionofEthiopiaandLiberia,almosteverypartofAfricahadbeen
conqueredbyEuropeanimperialistpowersbytheendofthenineteenthcentury.
AftertheFirstWorldWar,theonlychangethattookplacetherewasthetransfer
oftheformerGermancoloniesinAfricatothevictoriousAlliedpowers.
However,theperiodaftertheFirstWorldWarsaw,asinAsia,aresurgenceof
nationalistmovementsinAfrica.AftertheSecondWorldWar,thedisintegration
ofthecolonialruleinAfricabegan.TheachievementofindependencebyNorth
Africancountrieshasbeenmentionedalready.ThecountriesofsouthernAfrica
begantogaintheirindependenceafterthemid1950s.Withintwodecades,
almosteverycountryinAfrica,withtheexceptionofSouthAfricaandSouth
WestAfrica(Namibia),becameindependent.
ThefreedommovementsinAfrica,asinotherpartsoftheworld,werethe
consequenceofthegrowthofnationalismandtheincreasingresentmentagainst
theexploitationandoppressionbythecolonialcountries.Theinternational
situationfurtherstrengthenedthesemovements.TheSecondWorldWarhad
resultedinthegeneralweakeningofimperialism.Ithadalsoshatteredthemyth
oftheinvincibilityofsomemajorcolonialpowersinAfricasuchasFranceand
BelgiumwhichhadsuffereddefeatinEuropeduringthewar.Thecollapseof
colonialisminAsiawithinafewyearsafterthewaralsohadatremendous
impactonfreedommovementsinAfrica.ThequestionofAfricasfreedom
graduallybecameoneofthemajorissuesintheworld.

Egypt:Naseer
Recallthe[WorldHistory]ColonizationofAfricaarticle.AftertheFirstWorld
War,EgypthadbecomeaBritishmandate.However,underthepressureofthe
nationalistmovement,Egypthadbeendeclaredindependentin1922,though
Britishtroopscontinuedtoremainthere.AftertheSecondWorldWar,the
demandforthewithdrawalofBritishtroopsgainedstrength.Therewereserious
clashesbetweentheEgyptiansandtheBritishsoldiersinwhichhundredsof
Egyptianswerekilled.Thediscontentwasalsodirectedagainstthekingof
EgyptwhohadbeeninstalledbytheBritish.ThediscontentagainsttheBritish
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andthekingledtoarevolutionin1952whentheEgyptianarmyunderthe
leadershipofLt.ColonelGamalAbdalNaseerandGeneralMuhammadNaguib
overthrewthemonarchyanddeclaredEgyptarepublic.ThenewEgyptian
governmentdemandedthewithdrawalofBritishtroopsandtheywere
withdrawninJune1956.
ThegovernmentofEgyptundertheleadershipofColNasserbeganthe
economicreconstructionofthecountry.Egyptrefusedtobealignedwiththe
UnitedStatesandthelatterstoppedthesaleofarmstoEgypt.Egypt,however,
begantoreceivemilitaryandeconomicaidfromtheSovietUnion.In1956,
EgyptannouncedthenationalizationtotheSuezCanalwhichhadbeenunder
thecontrolofBritainandFrance.Threemonthslater,Israel,BritainandFrance,
accordingtoaplan,invadedEgypt.TheaggressioncommittedagainstEgyptled
toworldwideprotests.ThecountriesofAsiavoicedtheirvehement
condemnationoftheinvasion.Thereweremassiveprotestdemonstrations
againsttheBritishgovernmentinsideBritainalso.TheSovietUnionwarnedthe
aggressorcountriesthatunlesstheywithdrewfromEgypt,shewouldsendher
forcestocrushtheaggressors.Almosteverycountryintheworld,includingthe
UnitedStates,denouncedBritain,FranceandIsraelintheUnitedNations.The
universalcondemnationofaggressionledtothewithdrawalofBritishand
FrenchforcesfromEgypt.Theendingofaggressionstrengthenedfurtherthe
unityofAsianandAfricancountriesingeneralandofArabcountriesin
particular.Italsoshowedthegrowingstrengthofthecountrieswhichhadwon
theirindependenceonlyafewyearsago.TheSuezWaralsoaddedtothe
prestigeandinfluenceoftheSovietUnionasafriendofthepeopleswhowere
tryingtoasserttheirindependence.

Libya:Gaddafi
In[WorldHistory]ColonizationofAfricaarticle,wesawthatLibyahadcome
underItalianrulein1911.DuringtheSecondWorldWar,someofthemost
ferociousbattlesbetweenGermanandBritishtroopswerefoughtinLibya.At
theendofthewar,thecountrywasoccupiedbyBritainandFrance.In1951,
Libyabecameindependentwithamonarchicalformofgovernment.From1960
shebecameoneofthelargestpetroleumproducingcountriesintheworldandas
aresultsomesectionsofLibyansocietygrewveryrichwhilethemajorityofthe
populationremainedextremelybackward.Thekingdidnotpermitany
oppositiontohisrule.TheUnitedStatesbuiltoneofitsstrongestairbaseson
Libyanterritory.In1969,agroupofarmyofficerscapturedpowerandsoon
afterabolishedthemonarchy.Thenewgovernmentproclaimedthatitwould
giveprimacytotheunityandsolidarityoftheArabpeople

Algeria:DeGaulle
The1950ssawtheemergenceofanumberofindependentnationsinNorth
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Africa.However,theindependencewasprecededbyyearsofstruggleagainst
theimperialistcountrieswhichwantedtoretaintheircolonialpossessions.Asin
IndoChina,theFrenchreturnedtoTunisia,MoroccoandAlgeria.However,in
1956TunisiaandMoroccowontheirindependence.
TheNorthAfricancountrywhichhadtowagethelongestandthehardestbattle
forfreedomwasAlgeria.ShehadbeenconqueredbyFranceasearlyas1830
thoughithadtakenFranceanotherfourdecadestofullyestablishherrulethere.
AsinIndoChina,thestruggleagainstFrenchruleinAlgeriahadalonghistory
behindit.In1954thenationalistorganisationofthepeopleofAlgeriacalledthe
FLN(NationalLiberationFront)gaveacallforanarmedstruggleagainstthe
FrenchruleArmedclashesresultedinthousandsofcasualtiesonbothsides.By
1958,theAlgeriannationalistshadorganizedalargearmyoftheirownand
proclaimedtheformationofagovernmentoftherepublicofAlgeria.Thewarin
AlgeriahadseriousconsequencesinsideFrance.Itcreatedpoliticalinstability
inFrance.TheCommunistPartyofFrancealongwithmanyotherFrenchleaders
hadbeensupportingthecauseofAlgerianindependence.However,many
sectionsintheFrencharmywereundertheinfluenceoftheFrenchsettlersin
AlgeriawhowereopposedtoanynegotiationswiththeAlgerianleadersover
thequestionofindependence.In1958,GeneraldeGaullebecamethePresident
ofFrance.HeconcededtherightoftheAlgerianpeopletoselfdetermination
andopenednegotiationswiththeleadersoftheFLN.
ThispolicywasopposedbysomesectionsoftheFrencharmyinAlgeria,who
revoltedagainstdeGaulleandevenmadeattemptstoassassinatehim.However,
therevoltwassuppressed.On1July1962,areferendumwasheldinAlgeriaand
thepeopleofAlgeriavotedalmostunanimouslyforindependence.On4July
1962Algeriabecameanindependentrepublic.TheindependenceofAlgeriahad
beenwonatthecostofover140,000Algerianlives.

GoldCoast=GHANA:Nkrumah
ThefirstcountryinsouthernAfricatogainindependencewasGhana.Therewas
apowerfulkingdomofGhanainWestAfricaduringtheeighthtothetwelfth
centuries.TheBritishhadconqueredapartofthisregiontowhichtheygavethe
nameGoldCoast.ThemostprominentleaderofthepeopleoftheGoldCoast
colonywasKwameNkrumah,whoin1949hadorganizedtheConvention
PeoplesParty.AstrongtradeunionmovementhadalsoemergedinGoldCoast.
TheConventionPeoplesPartyandthetradeunionsjoinedtogethertodemand
independencefromBritain.However,mostoftheirleaderswerearrestedand
attemptsweremadetosuppressthedemandforfreedom.After1950,theBritish
governmentstartedintroducingcertainconstitutionalreforms.Underpressure
fromthePeoplesPartywhichhadwonaresoundingvictoryinelections,the
BritishgovernmentagreedtotheindependenceofGoldCoast.Thenew
independentstatewhichcameintobeingon6March1957calleditselfGhana,

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afterthenameoftheoldWestAfricankingdom.ThepartofTogolandwhich
hadbeenunderBritishcontrolalsojoinedGhana.

Guinea
ThenextcountrytoachieveherindependencewastheFrenchcolonyofGuinea
inWestAfrica.In1958,whileembroiledinthewarinAlgeria,Francehelda
referenduminhercolonieswhichhadbeengroupedtogetherasFrenchWest
AfricaandFrenchEquatorialAfrica.ThepeopleofGuineavotedforcomplete
independenceandGuineawasproclaimedarepublicon2October1958.
TheachievementofindependencebyGhanaandGuineagaveadditional
confidencetothefreedommovementsinotherpartsofAfricaandaccelerated
thepaceofachievementofindependencebyothernations.Thepromotionofthe
causeofAfricanfreedomwasamajorobjectiveofIndiasforeignpolicyfrom
thetimeIndiawonherindependence.Indiasstruggleforfreedomhadalsobeen
asourceofinspirationtoAfricannationalists.
Theyear1960isgenerallyregardedastheAfricaYear.Inthatyear,
seventeencountriesinAfricagainedtheirindependence.Theseincludedallthe
FrenchcoloniesinFrenchWestAfricaandEquatorialAfrica,Nigeriaand
Congo(formerlyBelgianCongo,nowcalledZaire).
Between1961and1964,anumberofcountriesinEastandCentralAfricaalso
becameindependent.ThesewereKenya,Uganda,Tanganyika,Zanzibar,
Nyasaland,NorthernRhodesia,RwandaandBurundi.
SierraLeone,Gambia,Lesotho(formerlyBasutoland)andBotswana(formerly
Bechuanaland)alsogainedtheirindependence.

Kenya:MauMaurebellion
ThefreedommovementinKenyawasledbyJomoKenyatta,leaderofthe
KenyaAfricanUnion.In1952,arevoltbypeasantshadbrokenout.Thisis
knownastheMauMaurebellion.Itwasdirectedagainsttheseizureoflandby
theBritishcolonialauthorities.Tosuppresstherebellion,15,000Kenyanswere
killedandabout80,000senttoconcentrationcamps.JomoKenyattawas
imprisonedin1953onthechargeofsupportingtheMauMaurebellion.Having
failedtosuppressthefreedommovement,BritainhadtogiveinandKenya
becameindependentin1963.
ManyofthenewlyindependentcountriesofAfricafacedseriousproblems
duringtheyearsfollowingtheirindependence.Theimperialistpowerstried
theirbesthimaintaintheirholdovertheirformercoloniesbydirectintervention
andbycreatingdissensions.InCongo,forinstance,Belgium,withthehelpof

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someothercountriesandthemercenariesfromvariouscountries,broughtabout
thesecessionoftherichprovinceofKatanga.OntheappealofPatrice
Lumumba,PrimeMinisterofCongo,UnitedNationstroopsweresenttobring
aboutthewithdrawalofforeigntroopsandmercenaries.However,Patrice
Lumumbawasassassinatedandthecountrythrownintochaosforanumberof
years.

PortugueseColonies
Beforetheendofthe1960s,almostentireAfrica,withtheexceptionof
PortuguesecoloniesofAngola,MozambiqueandGuineaBissauandCape
VerdeIslands,andSouthAfrica,SouthWestAfricaandRhodesia,hadbecome
free.PowerfulfreedommovementshadstartedinthePortuguesecolonies.They
hadorganizedtheirliberationforcesandhadsecuredthehelpofmanycountries
intheirstruggleforfreedom.InApril1974,thePortuguesearmy,whichhad
beenmainlyusedtosuppressthefreedomstrugglesinthecolonies,overthrew
the50yearolddictatorshipinPortugalwiththesupportofthepeople.The
communists,socialistsandotherradicalelementsinthearmedforcesandthe
newgovernmentofPortugalwereopposedtothecontinuationofthePortuguese
ruleinAfrica.Theyenteredintonegotiationswiththefreedommovementsin
thePortuguesecoloniesandby1975alltheformerPortuguesecoloniesin
Africabecameindependent.Zimbabwe(formerlySouthernRhodesia)became
independentinApril1980.

SouthAfrica:apartheid
SouthAfricaUnionofSouthAfricasince1910andRepublicofSouthAfrica
since1961hasbeenanindependentcountryinthesensethatshewasnot
ruledfromanothercountry.ThegovernmentofSouthAfricawas,however,
amongthemostoppressiveregimesintheworldinthetwentiethcentury.Itwas
undertheexclusivecontrolofthewhiteminoritypracticingtheworstformof
racism.UnderthesystemofapartheidestablishedinSouthAfrica,allpeople
wereclassifiedandseparatedonthebasisofrace.Eachgrouphadtoliveina
separatearea.Therewereseparateschoolsanduniversities,separatetheatres,
separateshoppingcentres,separatecoachesintrainsforwhitesandblacksand
others.Theteamsforsportsalsowereformedonthebasisofrace.Marriage
betweenpersonsbelongingtodifferentraceswasacriminaloffence.Therewere
restrictionsonmovementfromone,placetoanother.Thebestlandsinthe
countrywereunderthecontrolofthewhiteswhohadalltheeconomicand
Politicalpower.Thenonwhiteshadnovoteandnosayinthegovernanceofthe
country.Thesystemofapartheidwasusedtomaintaintheruleofthewhite
minorityoverabout80percentofthepopulationwhichcomprisedblackand
colouredpeopleaswellaspeopleofIndianorigin.Thissystem,inthenameof
separationoftheraces,deniedhumanrightstothemajorityofthepopulation.

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ItmayberecalledthatMahatmaGandhihadstartedthefightagainstracial
discriminationinSouthAfricalongbeforehebecamealeaderofthefreedom
movementinIndia.
DemonstratorsprotestingagainstapartheidlawsweremassacredatSharpeville
inSouthAfrica,22March1960.ThemainorganizationoftheSouthAfrican
peoplewhichledthemovementforendingtheruleofthewhiteminorityand
establishinganonracistdemocraticSouthAfricawastheAfricanNational
Congress(ANC).Itwassetupin1910.Themovementagainsttheobnoxious
systemofapartheidwasintensifiedinthe1950s.Thegovernmentdependedon
theuseofterrortomaintainitsrule.Therewereincidentsofmassacresof
peacefulprotestors.In1960,theAfricanNationalCongresswasbannedand
mostofitsleaderswerearrestedTheANCthenorganizeditsownarmytofight
.againsttheracistregime.
SouthAfricawasincreasinglyisolatedfromtherestoftheworld.Indiahadbeen
fromthebeginningintheforefrontinsupportofthestruggletodismantlethe
apartheidregime.Shewasthefirstcountryintheworldtoseverrelationswith
SouthAfricaandtoextendherfullsupporttothepeopleofSouthAfricaMany
othercountriesfollowedthesuit.TheUnitedNationsalsocondemnedthe
policiesofSouthAfrica.Inthe1980ssomeWesterncountrieswhichhad
maintainedmilitaryandeconomicrelationswithSouthAfricaalsoimposed
sanctionsagainsther.Bytheendofthe1980s,theinternationalisolationofthe
SouthAfricanregimewascomplete.

NelsonMandela
Fromtheendofthe1980s,theprocessofendingthesystemofapartheidbegan.
ThebanontheAfricanNationalCongresswasliftedanditsleadersreleased.
AmongthemwasNelsonMandelawhohadbeeninprisonfor26yearsandhad
becameasymbolofthestruggleagainstapartheidManyapartheidlawswere
abolishedandnegotiationswerestartedbetweentheANCandtheSouthAfrican
governmentforframinganewconstitutionwhichwouldgiveallSouthAfricans
therighttovote.ElectionsinwhichallSouthAfricansforthefirsttimewere
giventhelighttovote,washeldinApril1994.Aftertheseelections,anewnon
racistanddemocraticgovernmentcametopowerinSouthAfrica,Nelson
Mandelawaselectedpresidentofthecountry.
Thuswithinthelastthreedecades,mostofAfricahasbecomeindependentand
theindependenceoftheremainingpartscannotbedeferredforlong.

Namibia
ThelastcountryinAfricatobecomeindependentwasNamibia,formerlySouth
WestAfrica.ItwasaGermancolonybeforetheFirstWorldWarandwas

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handedovertoSouthAfricaasamandateafterthedefeatofGermanyinthat
war.SouthAfricatreatedSouthWestAfricaashercolonyandrefusedto
withdrawfromthereisspiteoftheresolutionsoftheUnitedNations.The
freedommovementtherewasledbytheSouthWestAfricaPeoples
Organization(SWAPO)whichwasformedin1960.Itgainedmomentumwhen
SWAPOstartedawarwiththehelpofitsguerillaforcestoliberatethecountry.
ItwasmadeamemberoftheNonAlignedMovement.TheNonAligned
Movement,theAfricangovernmentsandtheUnitedNationsplayedan
importantroleinthesuccessofthefreedommovementinNamibia.Thewarin
Namibiacametoanendin1989whenSouthAfricaagreedtoaplanforthe
independenceofthecountry.SWAPOwonamajorityofseatsintheelections
whichwereheldinNovember1989andon21March1990Namibiabecame
independent.

AFRICARenamingPlaces
ManyAfricancountrieshavechangedtheirnames.Thecolonialpowershad
giventhemnameswhichhadlittletodowiththeirpasthistoryandculture.
Somecountriesandcitieshadbeennamedaftercolonialadventurers,for
example,Rhodesia,Leopoldville,Stanleyville,etc.TheAfricanpeoplesare
tryingtoovercomethedamagecausedtothemduringthecolonialrule.
Renamingtheircountriesandcitiesaftertheiroriginalnamesisapartoftheir
efforttoreestablishandasserttheirindependenceandnationalidentity.The
needtouniteinthefaceofcommontasksandforachievingcommonaimsledto
theemergenceoftheunityofallAfricanstatesTheseaimsincludedthe
safeguardingoftheirindependenceandtohelptheliberationmovementsin
thosecountriesinAfricawhichwerestillfightingfortheirindependence.The
mostsignificantsteptakeninthisdirectionwastheformationofthe
OrgandationofAfricanUnity(OAU)in1963.

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ClicktoEnlarge

World@1990
Inspiteofthemanypositivechangesthathavetakenplaceinrecentyears,the
worldinthe1990sisnotwithouttensionsandconflicts.Whilethedangerofwar
involvingtheuseofnuclearweaponshasended,oratleastreceded,therehas
beennoreductioninthearsenalsofweaponsofmassdestruction.Theirvery
existenceisasourceofthreattothesurvivalofhumankind.Similarly,withthe
endoftheColdWar,whethertheworldhasmoved,irreversibly,toaperiodof
detenteand,muchmoreimportantly,cooperationisstilltobeseen.Withthe
collapseoftheSovietUnion,theUnitedStatesbecametheonlysuperpowerin
theworld.WhiletheWarsawPacthasbeendissolved,NATO,themilitarybloc
headedbytheUnitedStates,hascontinuedtoexist.Therehavebeenmisgivings
thatthepresentsituationwouldmakeitpossiblefortheUnitedStates,theonly
superpowernow,todictatetoothers.
Theworldinthe1990s,withallitsproblems,isaverydifferentplacetolivein
comparedwithanyprecedingagePeopletheworldoverhaveamuchgreater
sayinshapingtheirdestinythaneverbefore.Forthefirsttimeinhumanhistory,
thecreationofOneWorldhasbecomeapossibilityinwhichallpeopleswould
cooperatewithoneanotherandwouldcontributetheirbesttoenrichtheirown
livesandoftheentirehumankind.

EXERCISES
1. WhatweretheimmediateconsequencesoftheSecondWorldWarin
Europe?
2. HowwasthepoliticalmapofEuropeafterthewardifferentfromthe
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prewardays?
3. WhatismeantbyColdWar7Whatwerethefactorswhichgaverisetoit?
4. TracethehistoryofthefreedommovementsinAsiancountries.
5. WhatwerethemainaimsoftheforeignpolicyoftheUnitedStates?What
wasthereasonforthemilitaryinterventionoftheUnitedStatesin
Vietnam?Whatwereitsconsequences?
6. WhatwastheimpactofthePortugueserevolutionof1974onthe
PortuguesecoloniesinAfrica?
7. WhatarethecountriesinAfricainwhichthestruggleforliberationisstill
goingon?
8. Whatismeantbynonalignment?Whydidmostofthenewlyindependent
countriesfollowthispolicy?
9. TracethehistoryofthefreedommovementsinAfrica
10. DescribethechangeswhichhavetakenplaceinSouthAfricaafter1989
11. TracethedevelopmentsthatledtothecollapseoftheSovietUnion.
12. DescribethemainchangeswhichhaveoccurredinGermanyandthe
countriesofSouthernEuropesince1989
13. OnanoutlinemapofEurope,showthecountrieswhichcametohave
communistgovernmentsaftertheSecondWorldWar
14. CollectinformationontheAfricancountrieswhichgainedtheir
independenceafter1960,Showthesecountriesonamap
15. TrytogetacopyofthedeclarationissuedbythesummitoftheNon
AlignedMovementheldatJakartain1992Displayitintheclassroom
16. PreparealistofcountrieswheresummitsoftheNonAlignedMovement
havebeenheldaswellasalistofparticipatingcountries
17. CollectinformationaboutdevelopmentswhichhavetakenplaceinSouth
Africaafter1993andprepareareport
18. CollectinformationaboutthesituationinYugoslaviaandthestepstaken
toimplementtheagreementbetweenIsraelandPLOsince1993.
19. Discussthefactorswhichledtotheweakeningofimperialismafterthe
SecondWorldWar
20. DoyouthinktheColdWarhasfinallyended?
21. SomecountriesofAsiahadbecomemembersofmilitaryalliances.Doyou
thinkithelpedinstrengtheningtheirindependence?Why?Orwhynot?
Giveargumentswithexamples
22. DiscusstheimpactoftheemergenceofAsianandAfricancountriesas
independentnationsontheworld.
23. What,inyourview,ledtothecollapseoftheSovietUnionandofthe
communistgovernmentsthereandmothercountriesofEurope?Doyou
thinkthiscollapsemeansthatideasofsocialismarenolongerrelevant?
Discuss.
24. DoyouthinkthepostColdWarworldisasaferplacetoliveinandthere
isnodangerofanycountrydominatingoverothercountries?
ForarchiveofallWorldhistoryrelatedarticlesvisitMrunal.org/history
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ww2africanindependenceegyptfrenchgunieamaumaurebellionapartheid
part4of4.html
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Mrunal [World History] Imperialism and Colonialism: Meaning, Factors responsible Print

[WorldHistory]ImperialismandColonialism:Meaning,Factorsresponsible
1. Prologue
2. Whatisimperialism?
3. Whatiscolonialism?
4. WhatisNeocolonialism?
5. WhatisNewImperialism?
6. Conditions/factorsthathelpedtheriseofImperialism
1. IndustrialRevolutionandCapitalism
2. Marxists:Capitalism=Imperialism
3. Protectionism
4. Mercantilism
5. Supplyofrawmaterial
6. Investment
7. Infrastructureinvestment
8. WhyPoliticaldominationnecessary?
9. Slavetrade
10. Transportandcommunication
11. Riseofextremenationalism
12. Minddiversion
13. Fearandsecurity
14. Civilizingmission
15. ChristianMissionaries
16. Adventurersandexplorers
17. FavorableconditionsinAsiaandAfrica
7. MockQuestions

Prologue
NewSyllabus:GeneralstudiesMainsPaperIcontainsfollowingtopicson
WorldHistory
Historyoftheworldwillincludeeventsfrom18thcenturysuchasindustrial
revolution,worldwars,redrawalofnationalboundaries,colonization,
decolonization,politicalphilosophieslikecommunism,capitalism,socialism
etc.theirformsandeffectonthesociety.
YoualreadyhaveYounger/NewNCERTs,ifnotclickonfollowing:

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1. IndiaandtheContemporaryWorldI(Class9)
2. IndiaandtheContemporaryWorldII(Class10)
3. ThemesinWorldHistory(class11)
Butintermsofdepth/coverage/analysisofWorldHistory,theolderNCERTs
werebetter.Althoughforsomeonelivinginasmalltown/remotearea,its
impossibletofindthem.So,Imuploadingthesummariesonebyoneforthe
benefitofsuchaspirants.
WestartwithClass10(OldNCERT),StoryofcivilizationvolumeII,Chapter
9,ImperialismandColonialism.
Thatchapterrevolvesaroundsubtopics:
1. MeaningofImperialism
2. ConditionsthathelpedgrowthofImperialism
3. ConquestofAsia,Africa,AmericasandthePacific.
4. EffectsofImperialism.
Thisfirstarticledealswithfirsttwotopics(Meaningandconditions).Future
articleswillcovertherest.Keepinmind,
1. Thisismerebase/foundation/startingpointtosupplementyourreadings
fromIGNOUBA,MAetc.
2. Thesearesummaries(andnotverbatimparagraphs).Ivetakenliberty
toincludeexternalsourcestoelaboratetheexplanations.

Whatisimperialism?
Thetermimperialismmeansthepracticeofextendingthepower,control
orrulebyacountryoverthepoliticalandeconomiclifeoftheareas
outsideitsownborders.
Imperialismreferstotheprocessofcapitalistdevelopment,whichleads
thecapitalistcountriestoconqueranddominateprecapitalistcountries
oftheworld.
TheimperialistcountryorMetropolis(literalmeaningmothercountry),
subordinatesanothercountry/colonyforitsowneconomicandpolitical
interests.
Thismaybedonethroughmilitaryorothermeansandparticularlythrough
colonialism.

Whatiscolonialism?
Colonialismmeansthepracticeofacquiringcoloniesbyconquest(or
othermeans)andmakingthemdependent.
Thecountrywhichissubjugatedbyametropolitancapitalistcountryis
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Mrunal [World History] Imperialism and Colonialism: Meaning, Factors responsible Print

describedasacolony,andwhathappensinacolonyiscolonialism.
Inotherwords,Colonialism=thetotalsystemofimperialistdominationof
aprecapitalistcountry.
Occupation/directruleoveracountrybyanothercountry=notalwaysan
essentialfeatureofimperialism
Theessentialfeature=exploitation,withorwithoutdirectpolitical
control.
Untilrecentyears,mostcountriesofAsiaAfricaandotherpartsofthe
world,whereunderthecontrolofoneoranotherimperialistcountry.

Imperialism
Imperialismrefers,morebroadly,tocontrol
orinfluencethatisexercisedeitherformally
orinformally,directlyorindirectly,
politicallyoreconomically
ImperialismisaspecificallyEuropean
phenomenon
Whenwestudyimperialismweexaminethe
impactofempireonthemetropolis(home
country)

Colonialism
Colonialismusuallyimplies
formalpoliticalcontrol,
involvingterritorialannexation
andlossofsovereignty.
colonialismisthesystem
prevalentinthecolonies.
Herewestudyimpactofempire
onthecolony.

WhatisNeocolonialism?
Inthepresentdayworld,almostallcountriesarepoliticallyindependent,
howevertheimperialistcontrolhasnotcometoanend.
Neocolonialismisthepracticeof(mainlyeconomic)exploitationand
dominationofindependentbuteconomicallybackwardcountries,bythe
powerfulcountries.

WhatisNewImperialism?
DuringtheinitialperiodofIndustrialRevolution,thepursuitofcolonieshad
sloweddown.Why?
becauseBetween1775and1875,Europeanslostmoreterritorythanthey
acquiredinNorthAmericaandLatinAmerica,becauseofsuccessful
revolution.
SpanishcolonialrulefromMexicotoArgentinawasoverturned.
TherewasawidespreadfeelinginEuropethatcoloniesweremoretrouble
thantheywereworthandthesoonerorlatercolonieswouldrevoltand
fightforindependence.
BenjaminDisraelisaidThesewretchedcolonieswillallbeindependent
inafewyearsandaremillstonesaroundournecks.

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However,thepursuitsandrivalriesreemergedinthelastquarterofthe19th
century.
Thisnewfaceofimperialism(18751914)isoftendescribedasthenew
imperialism.
Newimperialismresultedbecauseoftheeconomicsystemthathad
developedasaresultofIndustrialRevolution.
Duringthisphaseafewindustrializedcapitalistcountriesestablishedtheir
Politicalandeconomiccontrolanddominationovertherestoftheworld.
Theformofdominationandcontrolincludeddirectcolonialrule,sphere
ofinfluenceandvarioustypesofcommercialandeconomicagreements.
PlayersinNewImperialism:
Newimperialistcountriesemergedviz.Germany,Italy,Belgium,USAand
Japan.While,
BritainandFrancecontinuedtobepowerfulandexpand.
PowerofSpainandPortugaldeclined.
oksofarweknowthemeaningofImperialism.Butwhydidithappen?What
werethe

Conditions/factorsthathelpedtheriseofImperialism
IndustrialRevolutionandCapitalism
IndustrialRevolutioncreatedthecapitalistsystemofproduction.Thecapitalist
entrepreneursusedtwowaystomakebigprofits:
Methodto
increaseprofit?
=>

Consequences?

1. minimum
wagesto
workers

lowwages=lowpurchasingpowerofthemajorityof
thedomesticpopulation=lowdemandofproductsin
homecountry.

2. Moreand
more
production

theproductionofgoodswasfarinexcessofthe
demandathome

Result?=>Becauseoftheunderconsumptionindomesticmarket,the
capitalistnationshadtofindnewmarketsandbuyerstoselltheirproducts.

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Marxists:Capitalism=Imperialism
LeninarguedthatImperialismtheHighestStageofCapitalism,anditdleadto
thedemiseofCapitalism.
InCapitalistsystem,wealthisconcentratedinfewerandfewerhands,the
possibilityforinvestmentathomeisexhausted,andcapitalistshavenochoice
buttoinvestabroad,establishcolonies,andexploitsmall,weaknations.
Problemwiththisexplanation?
1. ItfailstoexplainprecapitalistimperialismofGreeceandRome.
2. ItfailstoexplaintheCommunistimperialismofSovietUnionitself!

Protectionism
Asstarted^above,thecapitalistcountries,Westernpowershadtofindnew
marketsforsellingtheirgoods.
Englandwasthefirstcountrywhereindustriesdeveloped,thereforeshe
gainedalmostcompletecontrolovertheworldmarkets.
EvenwhenotherEuropeancountriesbegantousemachines,theycould
notcompetewithEnglandslowprices.
So,theytriedtoprotectandstimulateitsdomesticindustriesbyimposing
heavytariffsonimporteditems.
Result?=Europeanpowerscouldnotselltheirproductstoeachother.
TheyhadtofindtotallynewmarketsandcustomersinAsia,Africaandthe
twoAmericas.

Mercantilism
ItwastheeconomicpolicyprevailinginEuropeduringthe16th,17th,and18th
centuries.Thispolicyassumedfollowing:
Volumeofworldwealthandtradewasrelativelystatic,soonecountrys
gainrequiredanothercountry/colonysloss.
Wealthofanationdependedprimarilyonthepossessionofgoldand
silver.
Acolonialpossessionshouldprovidewealthtothecountrythatcontrolled
it.
Exportstoforeigncountriesispreferabletoimportsordomestictrade,
becauseexportsbroughtmoremoneyintothecountry.
Governmentalinterferenceinthenationaleconomyisjustifiedifithelps
achievingtheofaboveobjectives.
Sonationsactedaccordingly.Theysetuptradingpostswhichwouldlater

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becomeforts,armtwistedlocalrulerstogainexclusivemarketfortheir
productsandsoon.Allthiswasdoneandjustifiedastheobjectivesof
mercantilismwerefulfilled.

Supplyofrawmaterial
AstheindustriesgrewinEurope,theyneededmoreandmorerawmaterial.For
example,
1. Cotton=IndiaandEgypt
2. rubber=CongoandEastIndies
Theyalsoneeded=foodgrains,tea,coffee,Indigo,tobacco,sugar,coal,
iron,tin,gold,copperandlateroil.
Result?=>
Imperialistsforcedthecoloniestocultivateonlyoneortwocropswhich
wereneededasrawmaterialfortheirownindustries(e.g.indigoinIndia,
SugarinCuba.)
Smuggling:sometimes,goodsproducedinonecountryweresoldto
anothercountrytopayforthegoodsfromthatcountry.e.g.TheEnglish
promotedcultivationofopiuminIndia,thensmuggledintoChinatopay
forthegoodstheyhadboughtfromChina.

Investment
Towardstheendof19thcentury,WesterncountriesbegantolookuponAsia
andAfricaisgoodplacestoinvesttheircapital.ButWhy?
BothAsiaandAfricahadabundantsupplyofrawmaterialandcheap
labour=goodprofit.
AswesawunderDemandtopic,lowwages+excessiveproduction=
underconsumption.Therefore,ifcapitalwasinvestedinEurope,itwould
onlyfetch3to4%profit,becauseoflittlepurchasingpoweroflocal
people.
ButifthesameamountwasinvestedinAsiaorAfrica,youcouldearnas
highas20%profit.
Besides,Towardstheendof19thcentury,financialinstitutionssuchas
banksexpandedtheirinfluenceandpower,thusmakingFDI(!)easierthan
earlier.
Result?=>Theexportofcapitalforinvestmentinothercountriesbeganto
becomemoreimportantintheexportofgoods.

Infrastructureinvestment

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TheWesternpowersinvestedintheircoloniestopromoteindustriesthat
couldproducegoodsforexporte.g.miningandplantation.
Theyalsoinvestedtostrengthencontrolovercolonyseconomye.g.
Railways,postalnetwork.
Result?=>politicaldominationbecamenecessary.

WhyPoliticaldominationnecessary?
Astheforeignpowersinvestedmoreandmoremoneyinbusinessand
infrastructureinAsia,AfricaandAmericas,theirriskincreased:
whatiftheweaklocalprince,Nawabortribeschiefcouldnotcontainan
uprisingorrebellion?
Whatiftherewasachangeinthegovernment?
Suchthingscouldleadtoreductioninprofitorevenlossofwholeinvestment.
Forthesamereasons,FrenchinvestorsinMorocco(N.Africa),appealedtotheir
homegovernmentinFrance,toannexit.ThusMoroccobecameFrench
Morocco.

Slavetrade
TheSpanishruleinAmericashadresultedlargescaleexterminationof
originalinhabitants/NativeAmericans.Because
theywereforcedtoworkingold/silverminesandweremassacred,if
resisted.
Foreignersbroughtnewdiseases,andNativeAmericanshadno
immunityagainstthem.
Later,theEuropeansintroducedplantationsysteminNorthAmerica,West
IndiesandBrazil.
forthecultivationofsugarcane,cottonandtobacco(tosupplyasraw
materialtohomeindustries).
Theseplantationsneededlotoflaborers.
Henceitbecamenecessarytoestablishtradingpostsinthecoastalareasof
AfricatokeepsteadysupplyofAfricanslaves.
later,Britainandotherpowersusedabolitionofslaveryasanexcuseto
wagewaragainstAfricanchiefsandkings,buttheirhiddenaimwasto
expandterritorialpossession.(Fortimber,ivory,mineralsandoil).

Transportandcommunication
TheIndustrialRevolutionbroughtdrasticchangesintransportand
communication.
Steamshipcouldcarrygoodsmuchfasterthantheoldsailingvessels.
Theimperialistcountriesbuiltrailroadsandinlandwaterwaysinthe
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conqueredareas,withthehelpofcheaplocallabor.
Thuscouldgetrawmaterialoutoftheinteriorsandsendtheir
manufacturedproducts,fasterthaneverbefore.
Thuseveryareaoftheworldwasbroughtwithineasyreachofthe
industrializedcountries.

Riseofextremenationalism
thelaterpartof19thcenturywasaperiodofintensenationalism
GermanyandItalyhadjustsucceededinbecomingunifiednations.
Nationalisminthelate19thcenturycametobeassociatedwith
chauvinism.
NationalistintellectualsinallEuropeanpowersarguedthatnational
greatnessmeantseizingcolonialterritory.
Oncethescrambleforcoloniesbegan,failuretoentertheracewas
perceivedasasignofweakness,totallyunacceptabletoanaspiringgreat
power.
manynationsdevelopedmythoftheirsuperiorityoverotherpeople
Eachcountryfeltthatshetoomusthavecoloniestoincreaseherown
prestigeandpower
imperialismbecamethefashionoftheage.
WritersandspeakersinEngland,FranceandGermanypromotedtheidea
ofimperialismandtookgreatprideincallingtheirterritoriesasempires
GermanysexpansionunderHitlerwasalsobasedonthebeliefthat
Germannationalculturewasinherentlysuperiorthanothers.
bytheendofthe19thcenturycolonialismlikenationalismdevelopedinto
amasscult.
Coloniesweresymbolsofnationalgreatnessandnationalistsofevery
economicclasswereproudofthem.
SovietunionspolicytoliberatethepeoplesofEasternEuropeandthe
ThirdWorld,andUSAsprotectingFreedom=alsoexamplesof
imperialismdrivenbymoralandideologicalconcerns.

Minddiversion
Colonieshelpedtoensuresocialpeaceandpreventedsocialistrevolution
athomebytakingthemindsoftheworkingclassofftheirmisery.
Hewhowouldavoidcivilwarmustbeanimperialist.(CecilRhodes).

Fearandsecurity
Initially,colonieswereacquiredtogetcheaprawmaterialandmarketto
sellfinishedproducts.
ButthenImperialistcountriesstartedacquiringplacesfortheirmilitaryor
strategicimportancealso.

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Forexample,EnglandestablishednavalbasesandcoalingstationsatPort
Said,Aden,HongKong,SingaporeandCyprusnottoprotectEngland
buttoprotectitsconqueredlandsandtraderoutestoIndiafromherrival
nations.
Therivalnationsinstalledsimilarbaseselsewheretoprotecttheircolonies
andtraderoutesfromEngland.
Thus,ifyouacquiredonecolony,youhadtoacquireothercoloniesto
protectthefirstcolony=>leadingtoachainreactionandracefor
grabbingmoreandmorecolonies.(AndultimatelyfirstWorldwar).

Civilizingmission
ManyEuropeanwritersandthinkersusedtoblatantlysupportandjustify
Imperilismandcolonization.
WroteapoemtitledWhitemansburden.Itgivesa
Rudyard
England rhetoricalcommandtowhitementocolonizeandrule
Kipling
peopleofothernations.
Jules
Superiorraceshavethedutyofcivilizingtheinferior
France
Ferry
races.
TomanyEuropeansandAmericans,theprospectofsavingsoulsseemed
asimportantastheprospectofexpandingprestigeandprofit.
TheyconsidereditwastheirChristianandmoralresponsibilityto
educatedignorantpeoplesintohighercultureandconvertthemto
Christianity.
Henceforthem,imperialism=anobletask,awayofbringingcivilization
todobackwardpeopleoftheworld.

ChristianMissionaries
Usuallytheywentaloneintoanunknownareasinaspiritofdutyand
religion.
Butoftentheywerefollowedbyprofiteeringtradersandsoldiers.
Thenwarstookplacetoprotectthemissionaries.
AlltheseseemedquitenaturaltomostWesternpeople,becausethey
consideredittheirnationsdestinytocivilizeandChristianizethepeople
ofAsiaandAfrica
USPresidentMcKinleyhimselfjustifiedtheannexationofPhilippinesin
followingwords:
Wemusthelpourlittlebrownbrothers.therewasnothinglefttodobutto
takethemall,andtoeducatetheFilipinosandupliftandcivilisethemasour
fellowmenforwhomChristalsodied.

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Adventurersandexplorers
TheyhadprominentroleinEuropestakingoverofAfrica.
Theyfirstwentintounknownorlittleknownterritoriesandbroughtback
thereportsthatoftenindicatedopportunitiesfortradeanddevelopment.
Onthebasisofsuchreports,atradingpostwouldbefirstsetup.
Gradually,theexplorershomegovernmentwouldtakeovertheprotection
oftheentireareaaroundthetradingPost.
Thenthisimperialhomegovernmentwouldproceedtoclaimtheentire
territoryasherowncolony.

FavorableconditionsinAsiaandAfrica
Biggestfactorwaslackofindustrialization.

Military
strength

AsianandAfricanstatedidnothavetheeconomic
mightofimperialistpowerstofightalongwar.
Theyfoughtwithaxes,bowsandoutdatedfirearms(if
any),whileEuropeanshadnewriflesandamaxim
gun(afastfiringmachinegun)+thenavalartillery
topoundthecoastalcitiesoftheirenemies.while
IndianandArabshipsdidnthaveguns.
Theonlyexceptions,whereEuropeanscouldnot
succeedinwar=AfghanistanandEthiopia.

Internal
rivalries

Politically,AsianandAfricanstateswerenotunited.
TherewereConflictsbetweenstatesandwithinstates,
therulervs.chiefs,warlords,merchantsetc.
HencetheyoftensoughtthesupportofEuropeans
againsttheirrivals.

No
Empires

Intheancientandmediaevaltimes,powerfulempires
hadexistedinAsiaandAfrica.
Butduring19thcenturytheirgovernmentsbecame
veryweak.Theystillfollowedtheoldwaysof
governing,eventhoughtheyhadoutlivedtheir
usefulness.
Theloyaltyofpeoplestillrestedinlocalprincesor
tribalchieftains.Theydidnthavethestrongfeelings
fornationstate,liketheEuropeans.

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No
Machines

TheWesternersadmiredanddesiredthefinequality
goodsmadebyAsianandAfricancraftsmen.
Butthesecraftsmenreliedentirelyonhandmade
tools=smallscaleproduction,couldnotcompetewith
factorymadeproducts.

MockQuestions
12marks
1. Explainimperialismandnewimperialism.
2. Explaincolonialismandneocolonialism.
3. Explaintheroleofcapitalismandindustrialrevolutionintheemergence
ofImperialism.
4. HowdidnationalismhelptomakeimperialismpopularinEurope?
5. Thedominantdirectivemotivebehindimperialismwasthedemandfor
marketsandforprofitableinvestment.Comment
6. Allgreatnationsinthefullnessoftheirstrengthhavedesiredtosettheir
markuponbarbarianlandandthosewhofailtoparticipateinthisrivalry
willplayapitiableroleintimetocome.Comment
7. Writeanoteontheroleofwriters,missionariesandexplorerinthespread
ofcolonization.
25marks
1. WriteanoteontheeconomicangleofImperialism.
2. ListtheconditionsthathelpedgrowthofImperialismandcolonialism.
3. WhywereAsianandAfricancountriessoeasilydominatedbyWestern
Powers?

URLtoarticle:http://mrunal.org/2013/06/worldhistoryimperialismand
colonialismmeaningfactorsresponsible.html
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Mrunal [World History] Imperialism & Colonization: Africa, Scramble for colonies, Paper Partitions, Slave Trade, Boer War

[WorldHistory]Imperialism&Colonization:Africa,Scrambleforcolonies,
PaperPartitions,SlaveTrade,BoerWar
1. Prologue
2. SlaveTrade
1. WhySlavesneeded?
2. WhyAfricanslavespreferred?
3. Whorantheslavetrade?
4. SlaveTrade:BritishEntry
5. Triangulartrade
6. MiddlePassage
7. SlaveTrade:Whydeclined?
8. SlaveTrade:Consequences
3. ColonizationofAfrica:Thebeginning
1. Explorers,tradersandMissionaries
2. WhyAfricawaseasilyconquered?
3. TheScrambleforAfrica
4. BogusTreatiesandPaperPartitions
4. WestandCentralAfrica
1. CongoFreeState(Zaire)
2. CongoEpilogue
3. WestAfrica:FrenchCongo
4. WestAfrica:Nigeria
5. #EPICFAIL:Germany
6. WestAfrica:Liberia
5. SouthernAfrica
1. Rhodesia,CecilRhodes
2. BoerWars(1899)
3. Gandhi@BoerWars
4. ZuluWar(1879)
5. GandhiReturnedMedals
6. EastAfrica
1. #EPICFAIL:Italy
2. BattleofAdowa
7. NorthAfrica
1. UnhappyGermans
2. Egypt,SuezCanal
3. Egypt:Britishoccupation

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4. Sudan
8. TimelineofColonization:Africa+Asia
9. MockQuestions

Prologue
Okwherewerewe?
1. MeaningofImperialism
Alreadycoveredclickme
2. ConditionsthathelpedgrowthofImperialism
3. ConquestofAsia(Boxerrebellion,Riseof
Japanetc.)

Alreadycoveredclickme

4. ConquestofAfrica,

Coveredinthepresent
article

5. ConquestAmericasandthePacific,Effects
ofImperialism.

Willbecoveredinthe
nextarticle

SlaveTrade
AlthoughEuropeansstartedexploringAfricasincelate15thcenturybut
foralongtimetheirpresenceremainsmainlytocertaincoastalareas.
Buteventheselimitedcontactsledtothemosttragicanddisastrous
consequencesfortheAfricansduetoslavetrade.

WhySlavesneeded?
Duringthisera,SpanishwererulingAmericas.
Butitledtoresultedinthelargescaleexterminationoftheoriginal
inhabitantsoftheAmericas(=NativeAmericans).
Why?Because
1. NativeAmericanswereforcedtoworkingoldandsilverminesunder
inhumaneconditions
2. NativeAmericanslackedimmunitytoEuropeandiseases(smallpox,
mumps,andmeasles)
Continent

SlavesneededforPlantationsof

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N.America tobacco,rice,andindigo,Cotton
S.America Sugar

WhyAfricanslavespreferred?
Laborers

Whyunfitforplantationwork?

Native
American

Theycouldeasilyrunawayandhideinjungles.They
werefamiliarwiththeterritories,knewhowtosurvive
onlocalplantsandanimals.
TheylackedimmunitytoEuropeandiseases(smallpox,
mumps,andmeasles)=diedeasilyinplantation.

White
prisoners
/indentured
servants

Notimmunetotropicalmalariaandyellowfever=died
easily.
Theycouldalsoescapeandblendinaswhitetown
folksinthecolony.

Ontheotherhand,Africanslavesofferedfollowingadvantages:
1. Africanslavescamefromanenvironmentwherethosewhosurvivedinto
adolescenceacquiredsomeimmunitytosuchOldWorlddiseasesas
smallpox,mumps,andmeasles
2. Theyalsohadsomeimmunityagainsttropicalmaladiesasmalariaand
yellowfever.
3. Hence,Africanlaborerlivedthreetofivetimeslongerthanwhitelaborers
underthedifficultconditionsonplantations.
4. WhenAfricansranawayfromplantation,theycouldneithergohomenor
disguisethemselvesamongtownfolks.(Unlikethosewhiteprisoners).
Thus,Africanslaves=inexpensivelaborfortheplantationowners.
MostoftheslavestransportedintheAtlanticslavetradewereadultmen.
Why?
BecauseAfricanchiefstendedtoretainwomenslaves,asagricultural
workersandtobearmorechildren.
Childrenwerelesseconomicaltotrade:becausetheycostasmuchto
enslaveandtransport,yetbroughtlowerpriceswhensold.

Whorantheslavetrade?
Inmedievaltimes,Arabshaddominatedtheslavetrade.Theyorganized
slavecaravansandmovedthemfromtheinteriortotheGoldandSlave
coasts(=NowregionofGhana,Togo,Benin,andNigeria)
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ThenPortugueseenteredtheSlavetradebusiness.Theyhadtwo
advantagesoverothers
EarlyintheexplorationraceofAfrica
ItsColonyinBrazilwas@relativelyshortdistancefromAfrica.
PortugueseestablishedaslavemarketinLisbon.
SpaniardsboughtslavesfromthatLisbonmarketandtookthemto
Americancolonies.ButlaterthedemandforslavesinAmericaincreased,
soslavesweresentdirectlyfromAfricatoAmerica.
TheSpanishchurchsawtheblackslavesasanopportunityforconverting
them,soalsogavetacitapproval.
PortuguesethemselvesalsoneededBlackslavestoworkintheirsugar
plantationsofBrazil.
SlavetradersraidedAfricanvillages,kidnapedpeopleandhandedoverto
theEuropeantraders.
SomeAfricanchiefsalsotookpartinthisbusiness.Theysoldslavesto
Europeansinexchangeofgunsandammunition,cloth,metalware,spirits,
cutlery,coins,decorativewear,horses,saltandpaper.

SlaveTrade:BritishEntry
InitiallythePortugueseweredominatingAfricanslavetrade.Butthen
Britishdecidedtotakeoverthisbusiness.
SirJohnHawkinswenttoAfricatobringslavesinashipcalledJesus.He
alsosharedapartofhisslavetradeprofittotheBritishQueenElizabethI.
17thCentury:aregularcompanyreceivedacharterfromtheKingof
Englandforpurposesoftradeinslaves.Theshareofthekingintheprofits
fromslavetradewasfixedat25percent!
Later,SpaingavethemonopolyofslavetradetoBritain.(=Spainonly
boughtslavesfromBritain,toworkintheirAmericancolonies).

Triangulartrade
ItisthetermusedtodescribetheprosperoustradingcycleacrossAtlanticasa
resultofSlavetrade:

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Triangle

Whathappened?

First
leg

EuropeanmerchantspurchasedslavesfromAfrican
chiefsinexchangeofmanufacturedproductsfrom
Europeanfactories.(clothes,cutlery,firearms.)

Second
leg

TheysoldtheslavesintheCaribbeanandpurchased
sucheasilytransportablecommoditiesassugar,cotton,
andtobacco.

Third
leg

Finallythemerchantswouldsellsugar,cotton,and
tobacco.inEuropeandNorthAmerica=truckloadof
profit.
Theywillusesomeofthisprofittobuymanufactured
goods,thengobacktoAfricaandgetnewslaves..and
thustradecyclecontinued.

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ResultofTriangulartrade?
MillionsofAfricanswereuprootedfromtheirhomes.
Manywerekilledwhileresistingtheraidsontheirvillages.
IntheAmericanplantations,theywereforcedtoworkininhumane
conditions.
IfaslavetriedtoescapefromAmericanplantations,hewasbeatenand
tortured.
Ifa(white)mankilledarunawayslave,localauthoritiesevengavehim
reward.

MiddlePassage
Itisthetermusedtodescribebrutalmannerinwhichslaveswere
transportedfromAfricatoAmericas,inAtlanticOcean.
Slavesweretakeninshipsasinanimateobjects.Theyweregivenlessthan
halfthespaceallottedconvictsorsoldierstransportedbyshipatthesame
time.
maleslaveswerekeptconstantlyshackledtoeachotherortothedeckto
preventmutiny.
Intheships,theywerekeptinsuchunhygienicconditionsthatsometimes
evensailorsrevolted.
NotevenhalfoftheslavescapturedreachedAmericaalive.
Lakhsofthemdiedduringthelongvoyage,Dysenterywasthebiggest
killer.
Somanydeadbodieswerethrownintotheoceanthatsharksregularly
followedtheslaveshipsontheirwestwardjourney.

SlaveTrade:Whydeclined?
After1850s,slavetradequicklydeclined.Why?
1. Europeaneconomiesbegantoshiftfromagriculturetoindustry.
Plantationsremainedprofitable,butEuropeanshadpromisingnewareas
forinvestment.
2. TheslaveoperatedAmericanplantationshadtocompeteforcapitaland
preferentiallawswithtextilemillsandotherindustriesthathiredfree
laborers.
3. Americanslavesocietiesapproachedthepointwheretheycould
reproduceenoughoffspringtomeetlaborneeds=notmuchneedfor
furtherslaveimportfromAfrica.
4. SlaverywasalsoahindranceiftheinteriorofAfricawastobeopenedto
colonialexploitation.

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5. Infact,somecolonialpowerswagedwaragainstAfricanchiefs/kingsin
thepretextofabolishingslavetrade,sotheycouldestablishcolonythere.
(recallhowBritishusedtowagewarsonIndianprincelystatesciting
maladministrationasareason!)

SlaveTrade:Consequences
ItremovedofmillionsofyoungmenandwomenfromAfrica,ledto
depopulationthatstifledAfricancreativityandproduction.
Slavingandslavetradingstimulatedwarfare,corruptedlaws(making
morecrimespunishablebyenslavement=togetmoreslaves.)
Itcreatedaclassofeliterulersandtraders.
SlavetradewasthebeginningofadependencyrelationshipwithEurope.
ThisrelationshipwasbasedontheexchangeofAfricasvaluableprimary
products(slaves,ivory,timber,goldetc.)forEuropeanmanufactured
goods
Thisdependencycontinuedaftertheslavetradeended,throughacolonial
periodandbeyond.
Inthissense,theslavetradewasthefirststeptowardmodernAfricas
currentstatusasaregionwheretechnologicaldevelopmenthasyetto
matchthatofmoreindustrializednations.
AfricanculturemixedwithEuropeansandNativeAmericans:ledtonew
mixedraces,music,literature,cuisine,culture,religiouspractices,deep
impactonAmericanhistory,civilwarsetc.
Anyways,bythetimeSlavetradedeclined,theexplorationoftheinteriorof
AfricahadbegunandpreparationsmadebytheEuropeanpowerstoimpose
anotherkindofslaveryonthecontinentofAfricaforthedirectconquestof
almostentireAfrica.

ColonizationofAfrica:Thebeginning
InitiallytheAfricancoastalregionswerelargelyinthehandsoftheoldtrading
nations:
1. Portuguese
2. Dutch
3. British
4. French
Theyhadsetupfortsinthosecoastalregions.
TherewereonlytwoplaceswheretheEuropeanruleextendeddeepintothe
interior.

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Northern
Africa
Southern
Africa

FrenchoccupiedAlgeria
TheBritishoccupiedCapeColonytosafeguardtraderoutes
withIndia

Withinafewyears,however,ascrambleforcoloniesbegatandalmosttheentire
continenthadbeencutupanddividedamongEuropeanpowers.(Justlikethe
cuttingoftheChinesewatermelon).

Explorers,tradersandMissionaries
AllofthemplayedsignificantrespectiverolesintheconquestofAfrica.
(Discussedinfirstarticle)
1. TheexplorersarousedtheEuropeansinterestinAfrica.
2. Merchantssawprofitinthetradeofgold,ivoryandtimber.
3. ThemissionariessawthecontinentasaplaceforspreadingChristianity.
AndEuropeangovernmentssupportedalltheseinterestsbysending
troops.Andthusthestagewassetforconquest.
Threenoteworthyexplorers/adventurerswere

Person

Helpedacquiring

1. CecilRhodes

Rhodesia

2. DeBrazza

FrenchCongo

3. SirHMStanley

CongoFreeState

4. KarlPeters

EastAfrica

WhyAfricawaseasilyconquered?
Latepartof15th
Century

EuropeansstartexploringAfrica.
Establishedcommercialrelationswithsomeparts
ofAfrica+startedslavetrade.

Untilthemiddleof

InteriorofAfricawasalmostunknowntothe

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19thCentury

Europeans.

lastquarterofthe
nineteenthcentury

EuropeancontroloverAfricaextendedoverabout
onefifthoftheterritoryofthecontinent

However,withinafewyearsalmosttheentirecontinentwaspartitionedamong
variousEuropeanimperialistcountries.TheEuropeansoccupiedAfricaata
muchfasterspeedthantheydidinAsia.Why?

#1:Finance
1. Economicmightoftheimperialistpowerswasmuchgreaterthanthe
economicresourcesoftheAfricanstates.
2. Africanchief/kingsdidnothavethefinancialresourcestofightalong
war.

#2:Military
1. Intermsofmilitarystrength,theimperialistcountrieswerefarmore
powerfulthantheAfricanstates.
2. Mostofthetime,Africansfoughtwithaxes,bowsandknives,while
EuropeansusedafastfiringgunknownasMaxiumGun.AnEnglishpoet
evenpraisedthis:
Whateverhappenswehavegot,
Themaximgunandtheyhavenot
3. EvenwhenAfricanchiefswantedtobuyfirearms,Europeantradersonly
soldthemrusted,junk,outdatedrifles.Theywerenomatchforthenew
riflesandgunsusedbyEuropeansarmies.

#3:Internalrivalries
TheAfricanstateswerenotpoliticalunited.(JustlikeIndianprincely
statesof18thcentury.)
Therewereconflictsbetweenstatesandwithinstates
OftentheseAfricanchiefs/kingssoughtthesupportoftheEuropeans
againsttheirrivals.(ThenEuropeanswillforcethemtosigntreatyand
takeawaytheland).
Butontheotherhand,theimperialistcountriesparticipatinginthe
scrambleforAfricawereunited.(Inthesensethattheyneverwagedwar
againsteachotherbutsettledterritorialclaimsinconferencerooms).

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TheScrambleforAfrica
Important:Beforeyouproceedfurther,pleaseclickonfollowinglinktosave
certainMapfilesinyourcomputer.Andwheneveracolony/countrysname
comesyouverifyitslocationinthosemaps.(Otherwiseeverythingwillget
mixedupbythetimethisarticleisover.)
Linkformapsfile:
ClickmetodownloadtheMapfilesforAfricanColonization
AllEuropeancountrieswereeagertogetthemaximumofAfricanterritory
intheshortestpossibletime.
Oftentheircompetition/rivalrywasabouttoresultinawar.
Butineverycase,theyavoidedwarandsignedagreementsastowhowill
getwhichpartofAfrica.
Forexample,
BothBritishandGermanwascompetingforEastAfrica.Butin1890they
reachedanagreementtodividetheregion:
British
TheygaveHeligolandtoGermans
Germans TheygaveUgandatoBritish
In188485,EuropeanStatesorganizedaCongressinBerlintodecidehowto
shareoutAfricaamongthemselves.NoAfricanstatewasrepresentedatthis
Congress.TreatiesweresignedbetweenEuropeanpowerstosettledisputesover
claimstoAfricanterritoriesbetweenthemselves.

BogusTreatiesandPaperPartitions
MostoftreatiessignedbetweenAfricanchiefsandEuropeans=were
fraudulentandbogus.
TheEuropeansgavegiftstoAfricanchiefsandmadethemsigntheir
thumbsonanytreaties.(Wellseetheexamplesofhowadventurerslike
DeBrazzaandSirHMStanleyusedthistechnique.)
Evenwhentreatiesweregenuine,theEuropeansmisinterpretedthe
provisionsintheirfavor.
Forexample,supposeanAfricanchiefhadsignedatreatywithaEuropean
countryXtoseekhersupportagainstalocalAfricanrival.
LaterthatEuropeancountryXwillclaimtheareatobetheir
protectoratestate.Andsometimesevenexchangethatterritorywith
anotherEuropeancountryY,withoutconsultingthelocalAfricanchief.
OtherEuropeanpowerswouldalsoacceptsuchbogusinterpretations.
ThusAfricanoccupationwasdonewithoutanyhindrance.

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Bytheendof19thCentury,thepartitionofAfricawasnearlycompletedin
thismanner.
Thisisgenerallyreferredtoaspaperpartitionbecausetheactual
partitiontookmuchlongertimelongertime(duetointernalrebellionsby
AfricansagainsttheEuropeanpowers).
Ifyoulook@theAfricanmap:Aboutthirtypercentofallboundariesin
Africaareinstraightlines.Why?BecausethecontinentofAfricawas
partitionedonpapermap,intheconferenceroomsofEurope.
ItwillbeeasiertounderstandtheconquestofAfricabyEuropeanpowersifwe
studyitregionbyregion.ButrememberthatEuropeanoccupationdidnottake
placeintheorderdescribedhere:

WestandCentralAfrica

CongoFreeState(Zaire)
SirHenryMortonStanley,anexplorer,ledexpeditionstoCongoRiver.
ThenhefoundedInternationalCongoAssociation(withthefinancialhelp
fromBelgiumKingLeopoldII.)andmadeover400treatieswithAfrican
chiefs.
Hedgivethemcloths/cheapgiftsandinreturnhedaskthemtoplace
theirmarksonapaper.Butactually,thesepaperstransferredtheirland

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totheCongoAssociation!
Stanleyacquiredmorethan2millionsqkmlandusingthistotallyawesome
technique.Thewholeareawasrichinrubberandivory.Hecalledita
uniquehumanitarianandpoliticalenterprise,butitledtobrutal
exploitationoftheCongopeople.
1885(=whenourCongresswasformed):KingLeopoldclaimedhisrights
overthisentireCongoFree(!)State.

CongoExploitation
KingLeopoldwasmainlyinterestedinthewildrubber,palmoil,andivory
ofCongo.
Hisprivatearmy(knownasForcePublique)wouldforcethevillagersto
gatherthoseresources.Anyonewhoresistedwasbeaten,mutilatedor
murdered.
SometimesKingLeopoldsagentswouldevenkidnapCongolesewomen
andchildren,andforcetheirmentomeetquotasofrubber/oil/ivory
collectionbeforereleasingthehostages.
ForcePubliquetroopswouldalsochopoffthehandsofvillagersasa
punishmentandamethodtofurtherterrorizetheCongoleseinto
submission.
Thesoldierswouldevencollectsuchseveredhandsandpresentittotheir
commandingofficers,toprovetheirefficiencyandcommitmenttocrush
therebellion.

CongoEpilogue
KingLeopoldalonemadeprofit>20milliondollarsfromexploitationof
Congo.
ThepopulationoftheentireCongostatedeclinedfromsome20millionto
8million.
ThetreatmentoftheCongolesepeoplewassobadthatevenothercolonial
powerswereshocked.Britishcitizensformedassociationanddemanded
endofLeopoldsrule.
In1908(oneyearbeforeMorleyMintoReforms),finallyKingLeopold
wascompelledtohandovertheCongoFreeStatetotheBelgian
government
NowCongoFreeStatewascalledBelgianCongo.
Gradually,Congosgold,diamond,uranium,timberandcopperbecame
moreimportantthanherrubberandivory.
Manyofthecountries,includingEnglandandtheUnitedStates,joined
Belgiuminexploitingtheseresources.
BritishandBelgianstogetherformedacompanytoexploitcoppermines
inCongo.
Later,thiscompanyplayedaverybigroleinCongospoliticalaffairs(just

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likeEastIndiaCompanyinourcase.)

WestAfrica:FrenchCongo
WhileSirHMStanleyisgatheringlandforKingLeopoldinCongo,
anotherFrenchexplorerstartsoperationinthenorthofCongoRiver.
ThisFrenchman,deBrazza,usesthesametotallyawesometechniqueof
SirHMStanleyandmakesAfricanchiefssignovertheirlandtoFrance.
ThisareanamedFrenchCongo,anditscapitaltown=Brazzaville(after
hisownnameDeBrazza!)
NowFrancesetouttoextendherempireinWestAfrica.
SoonsheobtainsDahomey(presentdayBenin),theIvoryCoastand
FrenchGuinea.
Bytheyear1900,theFrenchempireextendedfurtherintotheinterior:
includingpresentSenegal,FrenchGuinea,theIvoryCoast,Dahomey,
Mauritania,FrenchSudan,UpperVoltaandNigerTerritory.
JustlikeKingLeopoldsregimeoverCongo,thisFrenchconquestalso
resultsinbrutalexploitationofthepeopleeverywhereinAfrica.
Forexample,inaperiodofonly20years,thepopulationoftheFrench
Congowasreducedto1/3rdofitsformersize.

WestAfrica:Nigeria
NigeristhesecondgreatriverofAfrica(afterNile).
ControlofNigerriver=controlovertheWesternAfricasrichresources+
easytransportofslaves.
ABritishcompanytooktheinitiativeintheconquestofNigeria(forslave
trade)
AnotherFrenchcompanycameinforcompetition.ButintheendBritish
companytobuyouttheFrenchandbecametherulerofNigeria.
AfterafewyearstheBritishgovernmentdeclaredNigeriaaprotectorateof
Britain.
InWestAfrica,BritainalsooccupiedGambia,Ashanti,GoldCoastand
SierraLeone.

#EPICFAIL:Germany
After1880,GermanyalsostartsadventuresinAfrica.
FirstsheoccupiedanareacalledTogolandonthewestcoastthen
Cameroons,alittlefarthersouth.
Stillfarthersouth,theGermansestablishedthemselvesinSouthWest
Africa.ThisledtolocalrebellionandGermantroopsmassacredmorethan
halfofthepopulation.
Stillshewasunsatisfied,andwantedthePortuguesecoloniesofAngola
andMozambiqueandCongo.

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ButthendefeatinFirstWorldWarstarted(1914)shatteredherdream.
Afterthewar,whentheGermancoloniesweregiventothevictorious
powers,
Germancolony
beforeWW1
Togoland+
Cameroons
SouthWestAfrica

AfterWW1colonygivento
DividedbetweenEngland+France
GiventoSouthAfrica.
England.ThisregionwasrenamedTanganyika.
(TanganyikaandZanzibarnowformthe
republicofTanzania).

GermanEastAfrica
RuandaUrundi

Spain

Belgium.
hadonlytwocoloniesonthewesterncoastofAfrica
1. RiodeOro(SpanishSahara)
2. SpanishGuinea.

PossessedvaluableregionsofAngolaandPortuguese
Portugal Guinea.(andtheBritishandGermanslustedforthese
colonies).

WestAfrica:Liberia
ExceptLiberia,theWholeWestAfricawasdividedupamongthe
Europeans.
LiberiawassettledbyslaveswhohadbeenfreedinAmerica.
Thoughsheremainedindependent,shecameincreasinglyunderthe
influenceoftheUnitedStates,particularlytheAmericaninvestorsin
rubberplantations.

SouthernAfrica
Rhodesia,CecilRhodes
CecilRhodeswasaBritishadventurer.Hemadetruckloadofcashthrough
ingoldmines(Transvaal)anddiamondmines(Kimberly).
HewasapartnerinthefamousDeBeersdiamondminingcompany.By
hiswill,heestablishedtheRhodesscholarshipsatOxford.
HeplayedinstrumentalroleinformingtheBritishSouthAfricaCompany,
underaroyalcharter.
ThiscompanyacquiredterritoriesinsouthcentralAfricaandnamedthis
areaRhodesiaafterCecilRhodes.

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Rhodesia
Now
Northernregion Zambia
SouthernRegion Zimbabwe(1980)
Rhodesbecamefamousasagreatphilanthropist.HefoundedtheRhodes
scholarshipsinOxforduniversity.butfirstofall,hewasaprofiteerand
empirebuilder.Hesaid
Purephilanthropyisverywellinitsway,butphilanthropyplusfivepercentis
agooddealbetter.RhodesdreamwastoextendtheBritishrulethroughoutthe
world,andhecertainlysucceededinextendingtheBritishEmpireinAfrica.The
BritishoccupiedBechuanaland,Rhodesia,SwazilandandBasutoland.

BoerWars(1899)
InSouthAfrica,theDutchhadestablishedtheCapeColony.(LaterBritish
tookoverCapeColonytoprotecttheirtraderoutestoIndia).
SouthAfricawasthepartofAfricawherealargenumberofEuropeans
(mainlyDutch)weresettled.
ThesesettlerswereknownasBoers.Theyownedlargefarmsand
plantations.(laterBoerswerecalledAfrikaners)
BritishtookoverCapeColonyandabolishedslavery.Boersdidnotlikeit,
sotheywentnorthandsetuptwostates,theOrangeFreeStateandthe
Transvaal.(TogethercalledAfrikanerrepublics).
Transvaalwasrichingold,sotheBritishplottedtooverthrowBoer
government.
ThisledtotheBoerWar(1899)=>Boersweredefeatedbuttheycontinued
tolivehere.
GandhiservedfromBritishside,asanassistantsuperintendentofthe
Indianvolunteerstretcherbearercorps.HewasawardedBoerwarmedal
forhisservices.
Soonafterthis,theUnionofSouthAfricawasformedconsistingofthe
Cape,Natal,TransvaalandOrangeRiverColony.
ThisUnionwasruledbythewhiteminorityBoers,Englishmen,anda
fewsettlersfromotherEuropeancountries.
LaterSouthAfricangovernmentlaterdeclareditselfarepublic.

Gandhi@BoerWars
GandhialsoservedinBoerWars(fromBritishSide).Hewroteinhis
autobiography
Whenthewarwasdeclared,mypersonalsympathieswereallwiththeBoers,but
myloyaltytotheBritishruledrovemetoparticipationwiththeBritishinthat
war.Ifeltthat,ifIdemandedrightsasaBritishcitizen,itwasalsomyduty,as

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suchtoparticipateinthedefenceoftheBritishEmpire.soIcollectedtogether
asmanycomradesaspossible,andwithverygreatdifficultygottheirservices
acceptedasanambulancecorps.

ZuluWar(1879)
BritishwereinterestedinZululand.TheywantedZulupopulationtoserve
aslabourinthediamondminesacrossSouthernAfrica.
Britishtroopsinitiallysufferedlossesbutultimatelywon.

ZuluRebellion(1906)
In1906,theZuluRebellionbrokeoutinNatalprovinceofSouthAfrica
ThiswasactuallyacampaignagainsttaxbeingimposedbytheBritishon
theZulus,whoweredemandingtheirrightsintheirownland.
However,thewhitesdeclaredwaragainsttheZulus.
InthisZuluwar/rebellion,GandhiservedfromBritishside,astheofficer
inchargeoftheIndianvolunteerambulancecorps.HewasgivenZuluWar
Medalforhisservices.

GandhiReturnedMedals
1920:DuringKhilafatmovement,GandhireturnedthemedalstoBritainand
wrote,
ItisnotwithoutapangthatIreturntheKaisariHindgoldmedalgrantedtome
byyourpredecessorformyhumanitarianworkinSouthAfrica,theZuluWar
medalgrantedinSouthAfricaformyservicesasofficerinchargeoftheIndian
volunteerambulancecorpsin1906andtheBoerWarmedalformyservicesas
assistantsuperintendentoftheIndianvolunteerstretcherbearercorpsduring
theBoerWarof18991900.Iventuretoreturnthesemedalsinpursuanceofthe
schemeofnoncooperationinauguratedtodayinconnectionwiththeKhilafat
movement.Valuableasthesehonourshavebeentome,Icannotwearthemwith
aneasyconsciencesolongasmyMussalmancountrymenhavetolabourunder
awrongdonetotheirreligioussentiment.Eventsthathavehappenedduringthe
pastonemonthhaveconfirmedmeintheopinionthattheImperialGovernment
haveactedintheKhilafatmatterinanunscrupulous,immoralandunjust
mannerandhavebeenmovingfromwrongtowronginordertodefendtheir
immorality.IcanretainneitherrespectnoraffectionforsuchaGovernment.

EastAfrica

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Before1884,EastAfricawasnotoccupiedbyanyEuropeans.(Except
PortuguesepossessionofMozambique).
1884(oneyearbeforeourcongressisformed),Germanadventurer,named
KarlPeters,cametothecoastalregionofEastAfrica.
Heusesbriberyandthreats,makesthelocalchiefstosignagreements
placingthemselvesunderGermanprotection.
FranceandBritainalsohasinterestinthisregion.Butinsteadofstarting
war,theysitdownandmakeagreementtodividetheland.
Madagascar

Francegetsit.

EastAfrica

AreaDividedbetweenGermanyandEngland.
BritishcalledtheirregionBritishEastAfrica(present
dayKenya.)

Mozambique

ItwasPortuguesepossession.GermanyandEnglandhad
plannedtodivideitbutfirstworldwarcancelledthe
agreement.

KingofZanzibarsaysEastAfricaasismyproperty.
GermanyandEnglandappeasehimbygivingastripofcoastland,1600
kilometerslongand16kilometersdeep.
Evenhere,GermanyandEnglanddividetheNorthernandSouthernhalfof
thestripundersphereofinfluences.

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1905:(sameyearwhenLordCurzonpartitionedBengal),thelocal
AfricansstartrevoltagainGermans.120,000Africanswerekilledinthis
Germancolony.

Uganda
In1890,therewasanagreementbetweenGermanyandEnglandaccording
towhichUgandawasreservedforEngland.InexchangeGermanywas
givenHeligoland.
In1896,UgandawasdeclaredaBritishprotectorate.
GermanyalsogaveupherclaimstoZanzibarandPembaisland,Wituand
Nyasaland(presentMalawi),butmademoreconquestsintheinterior.
ThePortuguesecolonyofMozambiquewastobesharedoutbetween
GermanyandEngland,buttheFirstWorldWarstoppedtheplanand
Germanylostallhercolonies.
1914:firstWorldWarstart.1919:TreatyofVersaillessignedanddefeated
Germanyhadtohandoverhercoloniestothevictors.letsrecallourtable
Germancolony
beforeWW1
Togoland+
Cameroons
SouthWestAfrica
GermanEastAfrica
RuandaUrundi

AfterWW1colonygivento
DividedbetweenEngland+France
GiventoSouthAfrica.
England.ThisregionwasrenamedTanganyika.
(TanganyikaandZanzibarnowformthe
republicofTanzania).
Belgium.

#EPICFAIL:Italy(Adowa,Ethiopia)
LikeGermany,Italyenteredthecolonialracelate.
TheItaliansoccupiedtwodesertareasinthehornofAfricaSomaliland
andEritrea.
LatershegotinterestedinAbyssinia(akaEthiopia)

BattleofAdowa
ThecountryofAbyssinia,nowknownasEthiopia,wasanindependent
state.
ItalywantedtodeclareAbyssiniaitsprotectorate.
1896:kingofAbyssiniarejectsItalysclaim.Italysendsanarmy.
AbyssiniawasabletoprocurearmsfromFranceanddefeatedtheItalians.

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(UnlikeotherAfricanstates)
Duringthiswar,asmuchas70percentoftheItalianforcewaskilled,
wounded,orcaptured,finallytreatyofAddisAbabawassignedtodeclare
peace.
1935:likeadefeatedgambler,Italymakessecondattempttoconquer
Abyssinia.
BeforetheSecondWorldWarExceptforabriefperiodduringthoseyears,
Ethiopia,maintainedherindependence.

NorthAfrica

Algeria
FrenchoccupiedAlgeriain1830,ittookherabout40yearstosuppress
theAlgerianresistance.
ItwasthemostprofitableofFrancescolonialpossessions,providinghera
vastmarketforFrenchgoods.

Tunisia
BothFranceandEnglandwantedtocontrolTunisia.Buttheydontgoforwar,
theymakeanagreement.
British GetsCyprus.
France GetsTunisia.

Morocco

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MoroccoissituatedonthenorthcoastofAfrica,justsouthofGibraltar.
HenceveryimportanttothewesternentranceoftheMediterranean.
BothFranceandItalywantedMorroco.Buttheydontgoforwar,they
alsomakeanagreement.
France GetsMorocco
GetsTripoliandCyrenaica(eastofTunisia).
Italy

ThisregionwasalreadyunderTurkishEmpire.SoItalysenttroops,
occupiedtwoprovincesandcalleditLibya.

UnhappyGermans
WhileFrance,ItalyandEnglandwerebusydividingNorthAfricaamong
themselves,theyhadignoredGermany.
GermanMinistersaid,You(French)haveboughtyourlibertyinMorocco
fromSpain,England,andevenfromItaly,andyouhaveleftusout.
Thereweremanyinternationalcrisesanditappearedasifwarwouldbreak
out.
ButFranceappeasedGermansbytransfering250,000squarekilometresof
FrenchCongotoGermany.
SimilarlyFrancealsoappeasedSpainbygivingherasmallpartof
Morocco.
In1912FranceestablishedherprotectorateoverMorocco.However,it
tooktheFrenchmanyyearsaftertheFirstWorldWartosuppressthe
rebellionsthere.

Egypt,SuezCanal
Duringthisera,EgyptwasaprovinceoftheTurkishempire
EgyptwasruledbyaPasha(representative/Governorappointedbythe
TurkishSultan)
ButFrancewasinterestedinEgypt,SincethetimeofNapoleon
AFrenchcompanyhadgainedaconcessionfromIsmailPasha,the
GovernorofEgypt,todigacanalacrosstheisthmusofSuez.
SuezCanalConnectsMediterraneanandtheRedseas.Thecanalextends
163kilometresbetweenPortSaidinthenorthandSuezinthesouth.
Thecanalwascompletedin1869andarousedBritishinterestinthearea
becauseitdreducetheshippingtimebetweenEuropeandAsia.
BritishPMDisraeliboughtalargenumberofsharesofthecanalfromthe
PashatomakesureofkeepingtheroutetoIndiasafe.
DisraelicalledSuezcanalahighwaytoourIndianempire.

Pashasgameover

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LaterEgyptsPasharunintofinancialtroubles.TheBritishandFrench
gavehimloansandincreasedtheirinterferenceinallocationoftrading
miningrights.(justlikeinChina).
WhenthePashatriedtoresist,hewasforcedtoabdicateandanew
governorwasappointed.

Egypt:thecottoncolony
BritaindevelopedEgyptasasupplierofcottonforhertextileindustry.
Thecontrolofforeignersovercottonwastotal,fromowningorcontrolling
thelanditwasgrownon,thecottonprocessingandcottoncleaning
industryandthesteamshipsitwastransported.
But,TherewasnotasinglemillinEgypt.Why?Thinkaboutit!
Duringfirstworldwartime,Cottonaccountedfor85%ofEgyptsexports.
By1914cotton
constituted43percentofagriculturaloutput.Itaccountedfor85percentof
exportsin
1913.BeingasinglecropeconomywasdisastrousasEgyptbecamedependent
on
importsforheressentialfoodsupply.

Egypt:Britishoccupation
In1880s,EgyptiansstartedrevoltagainstthisAngloFrenchcontrol.
Britainsentherarmyinpretextofrestoratinglawandorderand
protectionoftheSuezCanal
TheBritishassuredthatwellwithdrawourtroopsfromEgyptassoonas
peaceisestablished.
Aftertherevoltwassuppressed,EgyptcameunderBritishcontrol.
WhentheFirstWorldWarstarted,EnglandannouncedthatEgyptwasno
longeraTurkishprovincebutaBritishprotectorate!
ThenBritainfullyexploiltedthenaturalresources,manpowerand
economyofEgyptduringWW1.Cropswereseizedbythearmy.The
BritishTreasurytookoverthegoldreservesoftheNationalBankof
Egypt.
AftertheFirstWorldWar,EgyptianleadersstartedfortheParisPeace
ConferencetopleadthecaseofEgypt,buttheywerearrested.
Inthe1920s,BritainwasforcedtorecognizeEgyptasanindependent
sovereignstate(butstill,BritainretainedherrightsovertheSuezand
manyotherconcessions)

Sudan
Sudan,orwhatwasearlierknownasEgyptianSudan,wasjointlyexploited

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byEgyptandBritain.
ASudaneseleaderwhohadproclaimedhimselftheMahdihadinthe
1880ssucceededinoverthrowingEgyptianandBritishcontrolover
Sudan.
HisarmyhaddefeatedEgyptianandBritishtroops.
LaterBritishandEgyptiantroopswagedabloodywar,killed20000
SudanesetroopsandrecapturedSudan.Thus,SudancameunderBritish
rule.
TheFrenchatthistimetriedtooccupysouthernpartsofSudanbutwere
forcedtowithdrawbytheBritish.
France,however,wasgivenafreehandtoextendhercontroloverwhat
wasknownaswesternSudanandtheSahara.Franceoccupiedtheseareas
afteralongwarofconquest.
Withthesegains,Francewasabletoconnectherequatorialconquestswith
herwestandnorthAfricanconquests.

FrenchandBritishColonies
Britishterritories
1. Nigeria
2. GoldCoast
3. Gambia
4. SierraLeone
5. Kenya
6. Tanganyika
7. Nyasaland
8. Uganda
9. Rhodesia
10. SouthAfrica.

French

1. Algeria
2. Morocco
3. Cameroon
4. FrenchCongo
5. Tunisia,
6. Madagascar

TimelineofColonization:Africa+Asia
firstletscheckthetimelineofAfricanColonizationonly

clicktoEnglarge
NowletscombinethetimelinesofAsian+Africancolonization(clickto
enlarge)

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clicktoenlarge

MockQuestions
WhatwasthecontributionoffollowinginthescrambleforAfrica(2marks
each?)
1. CecilRhodes
2. DeBrazza
3. SirHMStanley
4. KingLeopoldII

5marks(50words)
1. BattleofAdowa
2. ZuluWar
3. BoerWar
4. CongoFreeState
5. Rhodesia
6. GandhisparturitioninBoerWar.

Commentonfollowing(10markseach)
1. IputmylifeinperilfourtimesforthesakeoftheEmpire:atthetimeof
theBoerwar,atthetimeoftheZulurevolt.Ididallthisinthefullbelief
thatactssuchasminemustgainformycountryanequalstatusinthe
Empire.ButthetreacheryofMr.LloydGeorgeanditsappreciationby
you,andthecondonationofthePunjabatrocitieshavecompletely
shatteredmyfaithinthegoodintentionsoftheGovernmentandthenation
whichissupportingit.
2. Whenthewarwasdeclared,mypersonalsympathieswereallwiththe
Boers,butIfeltthat,ifIdemandedrightsasaBritishcitizen,itwasalso
myduty,assuchtoparticipateinthedefenceoftheBritishEmpire.
3. Iventuretoreturnthesemedalsinpursuanceoftheschemeofnon
cooperationinauguratedtodayinconnectionwiththeKhilafatmovement.

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Valuableasthesehonourshavebeentome,Icannotwearthemwithan
easyconsciencesolongasmyMussalmancountrymenhavetolabour
underawrongdonetotheirreligioussentiment.

12marks(120words)
1. BritishInterestsinfollowing:1)SuezCanal2)CapeColony3)
2. Examinetheroleofindustrializationandcapitalisminscramblethe
scrambleforAfrica.
3. Explaintheseterms:i)MiddlePassageii)Triangulartrade
4. AnalyzetheimpactofTriangulartradeonAfrica,EuropeandAmericas.
5. HowdidadventurersandexplorerhelpedinthescrambleforAfrica?
Describewithexamples.
6. factorsthathelpedEuropeanscolonizetheAfrica.
7. ScrambleforWesternAfricaandNorthAfrica
8. ScrambleforSouthernAfricaandEasternAfrica
9. EnumeratethefactorsthatledtoriseofSladetradeinAfrica.
10. ListtheconsequencesofAfricanslavetrade.
11. Byearlynineteenthcentury,whydidthetradeinslaveslostitsimportance
inthesystemofcolonialexploitation?
12. BritishandFrenchoccupationofAfrica

25marks(250words)
1. WhydidGandhiparticipateinBoerandZuluwar?Doyouagreewith
Gandhisjustificationforhisparticipation?Givereasonstojustifyyour
stand.
2. RedrawalofnationalboundariesinAfricaduringthe19thCentury.
3. ColonizationofAsiaandAfrica:similaritiesanddifferences
4. WriteanoteonthePaperpartitionofAfrica

URLtoarticle:http://mrunal.org/2013/07/worldhistoryimperialism
colonizationafricascrambleforcoloniespaperpartitionsslavetradeboer
war.html
PostedByMrunalOn06/07/2013@23:38InthecategoryHistory

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Mrunal [World History] Imperialism & Colonization: China, Japan, Asia, Boxer Rebellion, Open Door policy, Sphere of influ

[WorldHistory]Imperialism&Colonization:China,Japan,Asia,BoxerRebellion,Open
Doorpolicy,Sphereofinfluence
1. China:OpiumWars,Boxerrebellion,Imperialism
1. TheopiumWars
2. 1stOpiumwar
3. TheTreatyofNanjing(Nanking)
4. 2ndOpiumWar
5. TreatiesofTianjin
6. 1stSinoJapanWar
7. SphereofInfluence
8. UnitedStates:MetooPolicy
9. BoxerRebellion
2. Japan:animperialistPower
1. MeijiRestoration
2. AngloJapaneseAlliance
3. RussoJapaneseWar
3. Asia:SouthandSouthEast
1. Burma
2. Indochina
3. Indonesia
4. MalaysiaandSingapore
5. SriLanka
6. Thailand/Siam
7. Philippines
4. Asia:CentralandWestern
1. AngloRussianagreement(1907)
2. Afghanistan
3. Tibet
4. Iran/Persia
5. WesternAsia
5. MockQuestion
oksofar,Wewerelooking@Class10(OldNCERT),StoryofcivilizationvolumeII,
Chapter9,ImperialismandColonialism.Thatchapterrevolvesaroundsubtopics:
1. MeaningofImperialism
2. Conditionsthathelpedgrowthof
Imperialism
3. ConquestofAsia

Alreadycoveredunderpreviousarticle.
clickme

Asiabeingcoveredinthepresentarticle.

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4. ConquestofAfrica,Americasandthe
Pacific.
Wellseethemlaterinaseparatearticles.
5. EffectsofImperialism.

China:OpiumWars,Boxerrebellion,Imperialism

SemicolonizationofChina

TheopiumWars
TheimperialistdominationofChinabeginwiththeopiumWars
BeforetheseopiumWars,onlytwoChineseportswereopentoforeigntraders.

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Chinawasalreadyaprosperouscivilizationthathadinventedpaper,printingand
gunpowder.TherewasnodemandforBritishgoodsinChina.
SotheBritishhadtopaybackingoldandsilverforimportingChinesetea,silk,jade
andporcelain.
ThisLedtotradedeficitforBritain(AndrecallthemercantilismpolicyEuropeans
preferredexportoverimports.Wealthofacountrywasmeasuredingoldandsilver.)
So,BritishmerchantstartedsmugglingopiumfromIndiaintoChinaonalargescale,to
coverupfortheircostofimportingChinesegoods.

EastIndiaCompanysroleopiumtrade
InIndia,theBritishEastIndiaCompanyhadestablishedamonopolyonopium
cultivation.
ButduetoChinesebanonopium,theEastIndiaCompanydidnotcarrytheopium
itself.
Instead,theyusedcountrytradersi.e.,privatetraderslicensedbythecompanyto
takegoodsfromIndiatoChina.
ThecountrytraderssoldtheopiumtosmugglersalongtheChinesecoastforgoldand
silver.
InChinatheEastIndiacompanyusedthesamegoldandsilver(fromillegalopium
trade)topurchaseChinesetea,silkandothergoods,soldtheminEngland@higher
price=truckloadofprofit.
Thus,theillegalopiumtradewasprofitabletoBritishbutitdidimmensephysicalandmoral
damagetotheChinese.

1stOpiumwar
FinallyChinesegovernmentofficialsseizedanopiumcargoanddestroyedit.Britain
declaredwar(firstOpiumwar)andeasilydefeatedtheChinese.Result?=>

TheTreatyofNanjing(Nanking)
AccordingtothistreatyofNanjing
1. ChinawasforcedtopayfinestoBritishforwardamages.
2. HongKongwasgiventoBritain
3. ChinahadtoopenfiveportcitiestotheBritishtraders.
4. Chinesegovernmentwasnolongerfreetoimposetariffsontheforeigngoods

Extraterritorialrightsclause
TheBritishsubjectsinChinawereanswerableonlytoBritishlaw,evenindisputeswith
Chinese!(RecallsimilarissueinIndiatheIlbertBill.)

MFN(MostFavorednationclause)
WheneveranynationextractedanewprivilegefromChina,thatprivilegewasextended
automaticallytoBritain!

2ndOpiumWar

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Soon,EnglandandFrancefoughtanotherwarwithChina,onthepretextthataFrench
missionaryhadbeenmurdered.(2ndOpiumwar,akaArrowwar).Result?=>

TreatiesofTianjin
1. FreedomofmovementforChristianmissionaries.
2. residenceinBeijingforforeignenvoys
3. theopeningofseveralnewportstoWesterntradeandresidence
4. rightofforeigntravelintheinteriorofChina
5. Chinawasdefeatedagainandwasforcedtograntevenmoreprivilegestothewinners.
Bytheendof1860s,Chinahadtoopen14portstoForeigners.

1stSinoJapanWar
ForcenturiesKoreawasatributarystateofChina.
butJapanwastryingincreaseherinfluenceoverKorea.Why?
KoreaisstrategicallylocatedoppositetheJapaneseislands
Koreasnaturalresourcesofcoalandiron
ThisultimatelyleadstoWarbetweenJapanandChina.
ExpertshadbelievedthatChinawouldwin,givenitsbiggermilitary.ButJapanwon
thankstoitsadoptedwesternmilitarytechnology.
Result?=>
1. ChinahadtorecognizeKoreaasanindependentstate.
2. ChinahadtogiveawayFormosa,TaiwanandpartofSouthernManchuriatoJapan.
3. Chinawasforcedtopayabout$150milliontoJapanforwardamages.

SphereofInfluence
Now,ChinahadtopaywardamagestoJapan,butshedidnothaveenoughca$h.
So,France,Russia,BritainandGermanyagreedtogiveloanstoChina.
butinreturn,theseWesterncountriesdividedChinaintosphereofinfluence
Sphereofinfluence=eachWesterncountryhadcertainregionsofChinareserved
exclusivelyforitspurposeonly.(Exclusiverightstobuildrailway,minesetc.inthat
region).
forexample,BritainhadexclusiverightsoverYangtzevalley,andonlyRussiahadthe
righttobuildrailoadsinManchuria.
ThisdivisionofChinaintospheresofinfluencehasbeenoftendescribedasthe
cuttingoftheChinesemelon

UnitedStates:MetooPolicy
Aftertheeconomicdepressionofthe1890s,USAneededforeigntradetoboostits
economy.
InChina,theAmericantextilemanufacturershadfoundmarketsforcheapcotton
goods.
ButUnitedStatesfearedthatChinawouldbecompletelyparceledouttoFrance,
Russia,GermanyandBritain,becauseofthosespheresofinfluences.
ThereforeUnitedStatessuggestedthepolicyknownasOpendoorpolicy(also
knownasmetoopolicy.)

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Accordingtothispolicy,allcountrieswouldhaveequalrighttomaketradeanywherein
China.
BritainsupportedUnitedStatesinthispolicy,thinkingthatitwoulddiscouragethe
annexationofChinabyJapanorRussia.BecauseJapanandRussiacouldeasilysend
theirarmiestoChinesemainland.

BoxerRebellion
Chinesepeoplewasunhappybecauseoffollowing:
1. EconomicExploitationbyWesternpowers.
2. Theextraterritorialrightgrantedtoforeigners
3. ChinashumiliatingdefeatsinOpiumwarsandagainstJapan.
4. Corruption,inefficiencyoftheirownroyalgovernment.
5. theyresentedtheworkofChristianmissionaries,blamingthemforharmingtraditional
Chineseceremoniesandfamilyrelations+missionariespressuredlocalofficialsto
sidewithChristianconvertsinlocallawsuitsandpropertydisputes.
ThisledtoformationofasecretorganizationknownasYihetuan(Societyof
RighteousnessandHarmony).TheforeignerscalledthemBoxers.
BoxersblamedforeignersforalltheillsinChina.Theystartedseizing/destroying
propertiesofforeigners,ChristianmissionariesandChineseconverts.
Themovementtookformofaviolentrebellion.
AlthoughtheBoxerswereofficiallydenounced,theyweresecretlysupportedbymany
oftheroyalcourt.
British,French,Japanese,Russian,German,andAmericanssenttheirtroopstocurb
thisrebellion.UltimatelythemilitarymightofwesternpowerscrushedtheChinese
rebellion.
Result?=>Westernpowersgotfollowing:
1. FinesfromChinaforaperiodof40years
2. Moretradeconcessions
3. RighttostationtheirtroopsinBeijing.

EpilogueChina
Afterthefailureofboxerrebellion,Imperialismcontinuedwiththecooperationfrom
Chinesewarlords.
Foreignpowersboughtthesemilitarycommandersbygivingloansandinexchange
thewarlordsgrantedevenmoreprivilegestotheforeignpowers.
Thusinaperiodoffewdecades,Chinahadbeenreducedtoastatusofaninternational
colony
AlthoughChinawasnotconqueredoroccupiedbyanyimperialistcountry,butthe
effectofthesedevelopmentsinChinaweresameasanyotherareaswhichwere
formallycolonized.
althoughtherearesomefinedifferences:

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India
ColonizationwasDirect
andabsolute.
Britaingainedthe
monopolyofcontrol
overIndia.

China
indirectcontroloverthepolitics,economyandsocietywithout
takingontheonusforrulingthecountry=semicolonization.
nosingleimperialpowerhadamonopolyofcontrol.Chinawas
simultaneouslyexploitedbymanypowers

Japan:animperialistPower

In1850s,UnitedStatessentwarshipsunderCommodorePerry,andforcedthe
JapanesetoopentheircountryfortheAmericanshippingandtrade.(thisisknownas
Gunboatdiplomacy)
later,JapanmadesimilaragreementswithBritain,Holland,FranceandRussia.
ButJapanitselfbecameanImperialistcountryaftertheMeijiRestoration.

MeijiRestoration
ItwasapoliticalrevolutionunderwhichtheerstwhileTokugawashogunate(feudalmilitary
government)wasreplacedwithanewimperialgovernmentundertheEmperorMeiji.
Japanadoptedthesloganwealthycountryandstrongarmsandsoughttocreateanation
statecapableofstandingequalamongWesternpowers.
FollowingreformswereundertakenbyMeijigovernment:

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1. GovernmentshiftedfromEdotoTokyo
2. Anationalconstitution,bicameralparliament(diet).
3. Dismantedoftheoldfeudalregimeandintroducedprefecturesystemof
administration.
4. Administrationwascentralized
5. Moderncivilservicebureaucracywassetup.
6. Modernbankingandfiscalsystem.
7. Modernindustrialenterprisesrailroad,telegraphs.
8. Universalprimaryeducation
9. Modernarmyandnavyandadoptedwesternmilitarytechnology.
Thus,withinafewdecades,Japanbecameoneofthemostindustrializedcountriesinthe
world.
ButJapanhasfewrawmaterialstosupportherindustries.Soshealsowantsnewlandsfor
rawmaterialandmarketforherfinishedgoods.Result?=>
1. Japanalsostartedherimperialistexpansion.
2. ChinaprovidedampleopportunitiesforJapansimperialistdesigns.Wealreadysaw
howJapandefeatedChinainthefirstSinoJapanesewar.

AngloJapaneseAlliance
betweenBritainandJapan
toassistoneanotherinsafeguardingtheirrespectiveinterestsinChinaandKorea
ItwasacornerstoneofBritishandJapanesepolicyinAsiauntilafterWorldWarI.
HowdidJapanbenefitfromit?
ThisalliancerecognizedJapanasapowerofequalstandingwithgreatEuropean
powers.
IntheRussoJapaneseWar,France(allyofRussia)didnotintervene,fearingthat
BritainwouldintervenefromJapansside.ThishelpedJapanwinthewar.

RussoJapaneseWar
Recallundersphereofinfluence(inChina),Russiawasbuildingrailroadsin
Manchuria.
ButafterfirstSinoJapanwar,Chinawasdefeatedandithandedovercertainpartsof
SouthernManchuriatoJapan.
BothRussiaandJapanwantedtodominateKoreaandManchuria.=>ultimately,Russo
Japanesewar.Russiaisdefeated.Result?=>
PresidentTheodoreRooseveltoftheUnitedStatesservedasmediatorbetweenRussia
andJapanandapeacetreatywassigned.
1. RussiahandedoverPortArthurandtheSouthManchurianrailroad(whichledtoPort
Arthur)toJapan.
2. RussiagavehalfofSakhalinIslandtoJapan.
3. RussiaagreedtoevacuatesouthernManchuria
4. RussiarecognizedJapanscontrolofKorea(ultimatelyin1910,Koreabecamea
colonyofJapan)

Japan:Epilogue

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Japansriseasanimperialistpowershowsthatimperialismwasnotlimitedtoanyone
region,religionorpeople.
Imperialismwasrathertheresultofgreedforeconomicandpoliticalpowerwhich
coulddistortthepolicyofanycountryregardlessofitsrace,cultureorreligion.
Whenfirstworldwarstarted,Japancouldlookbackwithsomepridethatshetoohad
becomeagreatpowerandcouldexpandfurtheratthecostofChinaiftheWestern
powerswouldonlyallowher.
Nowletsbrieflylookoverthecolonizationofotherpartsof

Asia:SouthandSouthEast

Burma

in1880,theKingofBurmagaveFrancetherighttobuilda
railwayinhisterritory
BritishgovernmentfearedFrenchexpansionandhencestarted
awarwithBurma.
BurmeseKingwascapturedandsenttoIndia.
Thus,BurmawasannexedandbecameapartofBritishEmpire
in1886

Indochina

Indochina=Laos,CambodiaandVietnam
Franceusedaseriesofwellplannedsteps,includingthreatsof
war,andbecamethemasterofIndochina.

Indonesia

underDutchcontrol

Malaysia
and
Singapore

acquiredbyBritish
ThusBritishcouldcontrolofallthetradefromfareastand
whateverpassedthroughStraitofMalacca

SriLanka

itwasoccupiedbythePortuguese,thenbyDutchandfinallyby
British
EnglandintroducedandrubberplantationinSriLanka=they
formed7/8thofSriLankanexports

Thailand/
Siam

SandwichedbetweenIndochina(French)andBurma(British).
Althoughitremainedindependentstate,bothFranceand
Britainexercisedmuchpowerandauthorityoveritsaffairs.

Philippines

TherewasarevoltbyFilipinosandCubansagainsttheSpanish
rule.
UnitedStatesusedthisopportunitytojointheimperialistgame,
andoccupiedbothCubaandPhilippines.
latertheFilipinosalsorevoltedagainstAmericanoccupation,
butweresuppressedandPhilippinesbecameanAmerican
possession

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Asia:CentralandWestern
BothEnglandandRussiawantedtocontrolCentralAsia,Iran,AfghanistanandTibet.
2ndhalfof19thCentury:RussianannexedalmostallofCentralAsia.

AngloRussianagreement(1907)
betweenRussiaandBritain
onhowtodividecontrolofIran,Afghanistan,andTibetbetweenthem.
Part

UnderAngloRussianagreement

Iran

DividedIranintoSphereofinfluence(similartoChina)
NorthIran=RussiaSouthernIran=BritaincentralIranwasneutral
andopentoboth.

Afghanistan

RussiaagreedtorecognizeAfghanistanisbeingoutsideherinfluence.
BritainagreednottoannexAfghanistanaslongasAfghaniruler
remainedloyaltoher.

Tibet

bothretainandRussiaagreednottointerfereintheaffairsofTibet

letscheckindividualcountries

Afghanistan
TheBritishhadaminoreconomicinterestinAfghanistan,theyweremainlyworried
aboutdefendingtheircrownjewel(India)againstRussianexpansion.
GovernorGeneralLordAucklandwaged1stAfghanwar,toinstallapuppetregimein
Afghanistan.
WiththreeAngloafghanwars,BritishlearnedthatitiseasytooverrunAfghanistan
butverydifficultofholdandoccupyitpermanently,becauseoftribalrebellions.
1893:DurandLine
betweenAfghanistanandBritishIndia,
markingtheirrespectivespheresofinfluence
inmoderntimesithasmarkedtheborderbetweenAfghanistanandPakistan.
1907:AngloRussianAgreement
RussiaagreedtorecognizeAfghanistanisbeingoutsideherinfluence.
BritainagreednottoannexAfghanistanaslongasAfghanirulerremainedloyal
toher.

Tibet
1907:bothretainandRussiaagreednottointerfereintheaffairsofTibet
1911:ChinesemonarchywasoverthrownandTibetincreasinglypassedunderBritish
influence.

Iran/Persia
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forbothBritainandRussia,independentIranwasaconvenientbufferareabetween
thetheirempires.
Initially,bothRussiaandEnglandsetupbanksinIrantoobtaineconomiccontrol.
1907:EnglandandRussiareachedtheAngloRussianagreementforcontrollingIran
viasphereofinfluence:
NorthIran=RussiaSouthernIran=BritaincentralIranwasneutralandopentoboth.
Thus,ajointAngloRussiansupremacywasestablishedoverIran.
1917:RussianRevolutionestablishedanewSovietgovernment.
ThenewSovietgovernmentdenouncedtheoldAngloRussianagreementsandgaveup
herrightsinIran.
Afterthediscoveryofoil,theBritishandAmericanoilinterestsbecamemorepowerful
inIran.
WhileIranremainednominallyindependent,butunderthedominationofforeignoil
companiesfromUnitedStatesandEngland.

WesternAsia
Duringtheseyears,GermanywasextendingherinfluenceoverTurkey.
AGermancompanygotconcessiontobuildarailwayfromConstantinopletoBaghdad
andthePersianGulf.
Throughthisrailway,Germanywantedtopromotehereconomicinterestsintheregion
ontoIranandIndia.
FranceEnglandandRussiaopposedthis,butanagreementwasreachedtodividethe
regionamongGermany,FranceandEngland.
ButFirstWorldWarchangedthesituation.
GermanyandTurkeyweredefeated.ThewinnerstookawayGermanyscolonial
possessions.thusGermanyasanimperialistnationwascompletelyeliminatedfrom
raceinAsiaandotherpartsoftheworld.
1. Syria,
2. Palestine,
3. Mesopotamia
4. Arabia

TheywereunderTurkishempire,but
EnglandandFrancetookthemawayafter
winningfirstworldwar.

AfterdiscoveryofOil,themainobjectiveofImperialistcountries=obtainoiland
concessionstocontroloilresourcesinWesternAsia.(Mainplayers:America,Britain
andFrance)
ThisconcludesthecolonialdominationofAsia.Clickonthefollowingtimelinetoseehow
individualpiecesfittogether.

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MockQuestion
1. Brieflyexplainthecauseandconsequencesofthefollowingevents(5markseach)
I. TheOpiumwars
II. TheTreatyofNanjing
III. TheFirstSinoJapanWar
IV. BoxerRebellion
V. TheFirstRussoJapanesewar
2. Writeanoteonfollowing(5markseach)
I. Sphereofinfluence
II. OpenDoorpolicy
III. Gunboatdiplomacy
IV. Meijirestoration
V. AngloJapaneseAlliance
VI. AngloRussianagreement
3. AnalysethefactorsresponsiblefortheBoxerrebellion.12m
4. WriteanoteonthecuttingoftheChinesemelonbyWesternpowers.Explainhow
SinoJapanesewarhelpedthem?12m
5. RiseofJapanasanimperialistcountry.12m
6. DescribethepowerstrugglebetweenRussiaandBritishinIranandAfghanistan.12m
7. AlthoughChinawasnotconqueredoroccupiedbyanyimperialistcountry,butthe
effectofthesedevelopmentsinChinaweresameasanyotherareaswhichwere
formallycolonized.Elaborate.15m
8. WhereasChinawithitsincomparablygreaterhumanandmaterialresourcesspentitself
vainlyintryingtoexpelforeigndevils,Japan,byembracingtheWest,notonly
retaineditsindependencebutbecameaworldpowerinitsownright.Comment15m
9. Imperialismwastheresultofgreedforeconomicandpoliticalpowerwhichcould
distortthepolicyofanycountryregardlessofitsrace,cultureorreligion.Comment.
15m

URLtoarticle:http://mrunal.org/2013/06/worldhistoryimperialismcolonizationchina
japanasiaboxerrebellionopendoorpolicysphereofinfluence.html
PostedByMrunalOn21/06/2013@16:38InthecategoryHistory

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