Sie sind auf Seite 1von 32

Thrust Bearings

Jonathan BEDROSSIAN
June 2009

Agenda

1st topic

Generalities

2nd topic

Main design parameters and components

3rd topic

Thrust pad supporting devices

4th topic

Cooling and injection systems

Confidential - For internal use only- Thrust Bearings - June 2009 - P 2

"

Generalities
Basic permanent function of a Thrust-bearing:
% transmit dead weights and axial hydraulic thrust
from rotating parts to fixed parts
% with minimal losses and maximal reliability
Other functions:
% Synchronism use
Long times (a few hours to many months)

% Transient operations (a few minutes):

Start-up (speed from 0 to Vn)


Stoppage in normal or emergency conditions (speed from Vn to 0)
Overspeed
Runaway

Confidential - For internal use only- Thrust Bearings - June 2009 - P 3

"

Generalities
Most of the thrust bearings all around the world are from type
HYDRODYNAMIC
Their operation is on the principle of oil corner
Independant and tilting pads
Thrust pad covered with babbit or plastic (Teflon)
The lubrication is ensured by OIL (mineral or synthetic)

A few projects with the principle of HYDROSTATIC supporting


Circular thrust bearing (Shaft not crossing the bearing)
Supporting Film supplied by external pressure source
The lubrication is ensured by WATER

Confidential - For internal use only- Thrust Bearings - June 2009 - P 4

"

Generalities
Hydrostatic thrust bearing : the exception

Hydrostatic effect

P1 = Annular pressure
Confidential - For internal use only- Thrust Bearings - June 2009 - P 5

"

Generalities
Hydrostatic thrust bearing : the exception

Layout

CRAPAUDINE
Confidential - For internal use only- Thrust Bearings - June 2009 - P 6

"

Generalities
Hydrodynamic thrust bearing

Oil corner theory


VELOCITY

Thrust runner

HYDRODYNAMIC EFFECT
Pressure hill
Oil
Oilflow

Antifriction layer

ALPHA

Tilting pad

Confidential - For internal use only- Thrust Bearings - June 2009 - P 7

"

Generalities
Hydrodynamic Thrust bearing : Geometry of main parts

Thrust pad : Babbit

Thrust pad : Teflon

Confidential - For internal use only- Thrust Bearings - June 2009 - P 8

"

Generalities
Hydrodynamic Thrust bearing : Geometry of main parts

Thrust runner

Roughness : Ra 0.2
Flatness : 0.02 mm

Confidential - For internal use only- Thrust Bearings - June 2009 - P 9

"

Generalities
Scope of supply : partial assembly
EP 01

: ACTIVE PARTS : Thrust pads, Thrust runner, Thrust collar,


Thrust supporting device

EP 02

: VATS and accessories

EP 03

: SAFETY DEVICES : Level Detection, Temperature probes,

EP 04

: COOLING of OIL

EP 05

: WATER COOLING

EP 06

: INJECTION

EP 07

: BRACKET and anchoring parts

EP 08

: TOOLS

EP 09

: SPARE PARTS

EP 12

: OIL VAPORS TREATMENT

Confidential - For internal use only- Thrust Bearings - June 2009 - P 10

"

Agenda

1st topic

Generalities

2nd topic

Main design parameters and components

3rd topic

Thrust pad supporting devices

4th topic

Cooling and injection systems

Confidential - For internal use only- Thrust Bearings - June 2009 - P 11

"

Main design parameters


Values of static and dynamic thrust to be transmitted
Rotational speed of the unit
Inner diameter for surrounding shaft
1 or 2 directions of rotation (case of P/T units)
Speed and duration of runaway
Water cooling temperature
Confidential - For internal use only- Thrust Bearings - June 2009 - P 12

"

Main components for hydrodynamic T/B


Coupling

Thrust runner

Thrust collar
(optional)
Cooling system
(internal or external)

Level detection

Thrust
pad

Vats

Shaft

Confidential - For internal use only- Thrust Bearings - June 2009 - P 13

"

INJECTION
-Pumps AC or DC
-For start and shutdown

Pad support
- Membrane
- Spring plate
- Knuckle
- Spindle

Main components for hydrodynamic T/B

Thrust collar

Thrust runner
Pads

Confidential - For internal use only- Thrust Bearings - June 2009 - P 14

"

Base plate

Membranes

Agenda

1st topic

Generalities

2nd topic

Main design parameters and components

3rd topic

Thrust pad supporting devices

4th topic

Cooling and injection systems

Confidential - For internal use only- Thrust Bearings - June 2009 - P 15

"

Thrust pad supporting devices


TARGET :
% Authorize the tilting of the pad to generate the oil corner
% Thin oil film (50 100 microns) => Balancing of the load on
all the thrust pads
% Compensation of the thrust bearing supporting structure
deflection

Confidential - For internal use only- Thrust Bearings - June 2009 - P 16

"

Thrust pad supporting devices


Many designs

Confidential - For internal use only- Thrust Bearings - June 2009 - P 17

"

Thrust pad supporting devices


Knuckle
Knuckle support :
% Simple technology based on the
principle of Hertz contact
pressure deformation to ensure
self alignment of the pads
% Limited to low and intermediate
thrust loads
% Very sensitive to support defects
% Recent significant simplification
of membrane design, argues in
favour of an abandon of such
technology

KNUCKLES

Confidential - For internal use only- Thrust Bearings - June 2009 - P 18

"

Thrust pad supporting devices


Spring plate
Spring plate support :

THRUST PAD

% Simple technology based on


the principle of a washer
deformation to ensure self
alignment of the pads
% Limited to low and
intermediate capacities
SPRING PLATE

% Recent significant
simplification of membrane
design, argues in favour of a
reduction of the use of such
technology

SUPPORT

Confidential - For internal use only- Thrust Bearings - June 2009 - P 19

% Sensitive to support defects

"

Thrust pad supporting devices


Spindle
High space requirement for
installation, more easily fitted
inside a conventional
partitioned bracket structure.
Cheap individual parts,
assembled at site
Thread to be optimised for load
capacity and adjustment
capability
Requires careful adjustment at
site
Unable to compensate
discrepancies in local flexibility
Confidential - For internal use only- Thrust Bearings - June 2009 - P 20

"

Thrust pad supporting devices


Spindle + Double Layer
Expensive design reserved for
very high loads
(Itapu, Three Gorges)
Allow mastering thermal and
structural deflections of large
pads
Has to be combined with an
other support (Spindles, but
Membranes could be a must)
Careful FEA calculations at
design stage

Confidential - For internal use only- Thrust Bearings - June 2009 - P 21

"

Thrust pad supporting devices


Membranes
MISALIGNMENT

Before loading the pads


are at various altitudes

PAD

<<<<<

CHAMBER

OIL TRANSFERT

Confidential - For internal use only- Thrust Bearings - June 2009 - P 22


!

"

% perfect pad
alignment
% perfect load
distribution because
pressure is equal in
each chamber

><

When thrust bearing is


loaded by rotor lowering
oil transfer between
chambers ensures :

Thrust pad supporting devices


Membranes

Thrust pad
Membrane
flange
Membrane
Anti-extrusion
ring
ORing seal
Support

Elastic disc

Confidential - For internal use only- Thrust Bearings - June 2009 - P 23

"

Agenda

1st topic

Generalities

2nd topic

Main design parameters and components

3rd topic

Thrust pad supporting devices

4th topic

Cooling and injection systems

Confidential - For internal use only- Thrust Bearings - June 2009 - P 24

"

Cooling system
Thrust load and rotational speed create friction between
fixed parts and rotating parts inside the oil film
Friction leads to power dissipation which must be
evacuated
That requires an oil cooling system exchanging oil
heating power to the cooling water circuit

Confidential - For internal use only- Thrust Bearings - June 2009 - P 25

"

Cooling system
Correct dimensioning of a thrust bearing means
% High film reliability (thickness and temperature)
% Low power dissipation (included in the global performance
of the unit)

Three kinds of cooling systems can be encountered


% External circuit with pumps, filters and heat exchangers
% External heat exchangers with internal circulating pumps
% Internal heat exchangers
Confidential - For internal use only- Thrust Bearings - June 2009 - P 26

"

Cooling system
External circuit
Pumps

Coolers

Pumps, filters and heat


exchangers are outside the thrust
bearing tank

% Generally imposed when


the power dissipation is
heavy
% Good accessibility of all the
components
% Expensive because of the
presence of circulation
pump and filters
% Dependant on reliability of
the auxiliary power supply

Filters
Confidential - For internal use only- Thrust Bearings - June 2009 - P 27

"

Cooling system
Self pumping, internal pump / external coolers

Confidential - For internal use only- Thrust Bearings - June 2009 - P 28

"

Oil circulation is ensured by


an internal viscosity pump
on the guide bearing pads

Cooling is ensured by an
external cooler

Cooling is efficient even


failure of power station
auxiliaries

Comparison must be done


with external system
(pumps, strainer, pipes .)

Especially for medium and


high speed machine
(Efficiency of viscosity
pump)

Cooling system
Self pumping, internal pump / external coolers

Confidential - For internal use only- Thrust Bearings - June 2009 - P 29

"

Cooling system
Internal coolers

The heat exchanger is


located inside the thrust
bearing tank
The cooling efficiency is
very low
The volume of the tank
is then increased
Accessibility of the
exchanger is difficult
and risk of oil pollution
by water is increased

Confidential - For internal use only- Thrust Bearings - June 2009 - P 30

"

Injection
Injection : Start and Stop
The thrust bearing is
based on hydrodynamic
film principle
For heavy or large thrust
bearing it is recommended
to ensure safety of start
and stop operations by oil
injection
A high pressure pump
sends oil between pads
and thrust runner plate to
initiate (start operation) or
maintain (stop operation) a
minimum oil lubrication
during these two critical
phases
Confidential - For internal use only- Thrust Bearings - June 2009 - P 31

"

www.alstom.com