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REPUBLIC ACT NO.

1885
REPUBLIC
NO. 1885
- AN
ACT AMENDING
SECTION
OF THE
REVISED ADMINISTRATIVE
CODE OF
Section
1. ACT
Section
seven
hundred
seventy and
seven 771
hundred
seventy-one
of the Revised Administrative
THE PHILIPPINES
TO AUTHORIZE
MEDICAL
OFFICERS OF THE UNITED STATES VETERANS ADMINISTRATION
Code
are hereby amended
to read
as follows:
IN THE
PHILIPPINES
TOagainst
PRACTICE
MEDICINE
"Sec.
770.
Inhibition
practicing
medicine by uncertificated persons. No persons shall practice
medicine in the Philippines without having previously obtained the proper certificate of registration issued
by the Board of Medical Examiners as herein constituted, or the lawful Board which was its predecessor,
except as hereinafter stated in this section and in the next following section of this Act.cralaw
"A person shall be considered to practice medicine within the meaning of this section, who shall, for
compensation or reward or even without the same diagnose, treat, operate, prescribe remedies for any
human disease, injury, deformity, physical or mental condition or anylment, real or supposed, regardless
of the nature of the remedy or treatment used or recommended, or who shall, by means of signs, cards,
advertisements, or in any other way either offer or undertake by any means or method to diagnose, treat,
manipulate, adjust, operate, or prescribe for any human disease, pain, injury, deformity, physical or
mental condition.cralaw
"This section shall not be construed to affect commissioned medical officers serving in the U.S. Army,
Navy, or Public Health Service in the discharge of their duties or medical officers of the United States
Veterans Administration, Manila Regional Office, in the discharge of their duties in accordance with
governing rules and regulations of said U. S. Veterans Administration: Provided, however, That not more
than three medical officers of the U. S. Veterans Administration shall be allowed this exemption, and that
said medical officers of the U. S. Veterans Administration shall submit their names and qualifications to the
Board of Medical Examiners for registration; or any one serving without professional fees as interns on the
resident staff of any legally incorporated hospital; or the furnishing of medicine by authorized Government
employees in Government free dispensaries; or any legally registered dentist exclusively engaged in
practicing dentistry; or the application of massage whenever advised by duly registered physicians or
limited to hygienic or aesthetic purposes; or any persons who mechanically fits or sells lenses, artificial
eyes; limbs or other apparatus or appliances, or is engaged in the mechanical examination of eyes, for the
purpose of constructing or adjusting spectacles, eyeglasses, and lenses; or the furnishing of medical
assistance gratuitously in case of emergency or in places where the services of the duly qualified
physician, midwife, or nurse are not available or the administration of family remedies; or the practice of
chiropody."
"Sec. 771. Persons exempt from registration. Registration shall not be required of the following classes
of persons:
(a)

Physicians and surgeons from other countries called in consultation.cralaw

(b) Medical students who are practicing medicine under the direct supervision of a duly registered
physician.cralaw
(c) Medical officers of the U. S. Army, U. S. Navy, or the U. S. Public Health Service, or the U. S. Veterans
Administration while the latter are engaged in the discharge of their duties in accordance with governing
rules and regulations of the veterans administration.cralaw
(d) Foreigners employed as technical officers or professors in such special branches of medicine or
surgery as may, in the judgment of the Secretary of (Public Instruction) Education, be necessary and
indispensable in the Philippines.cralaw
(c) In cases of epidemics or in municipalities where there is no legally qualified practicing physician, or
when the circumstances require it, in the interest of the public health, the Director of Health may issue
special authorizations, to all medical students who have completed the first three years of their studies, or
to persons who have qualified in medicine, and to graduate or registered nurses, who may request it."
Sec. 2.

This Act shall take effect upon its approval. Approved: June 22, 1957

THE MEDICAL ACT OF 1959


ARTICLE I
Objectives and Implementation
Section 1. Objectives. This Act provides for and shall govern (a) the standardization and regulation of medical education;
(b) the examination for registration of physicians; and (c) the supervision, control and regulation of the practice of
medicine in the Philippines.
Section 2. Enforcement. For the purpose of implementing the provisions of this Act, there are created the following
agencies: the Board of Medical Education under the Department of Education, and the Board of Medical Examiners under
the Commissioner of Civil Service.
ARTICLE II
The Board of Medical Education Its Functions
Section 3. Composition of Board of Medical Education. The Board of Medical Education shall be composed of the
Secretary of Education or his duly authorized representative, as chairman, and the Secretary of Health or his duly
authorized representative, the Director of the Bureau of Private Schools or his duly authorized representative, the
chairman of the Board of Medical Examiners or his duly authorized representative, a representative of private
practitioners, upon recommendation of an acknowledged medical association and a representative chosen by the
Philippine Association of Colleges and Universities, as members.
The officials acting as chairman and members of the Board of Medical Education shall hold office during their incumbency
in their respective positions.
Section 4. Compensation and traveling expenses. The chairman and members of the Board of Medical Education shall
not be entitled to any compensation except for traveling expenses in connection with their official duties as herein
provided.
For administrative purposes, the Board shall hold office in the office of its chairman, who may designate a ranking official
in the Department of Education to serve as secretary of the Board.
Section 5. Functions. The functions of the Board of Medical Education shall be:
(a) To determine and prescribe minimum requirements for admission into a recognized college of medicine;
(b) To determine and prescribe requirements for minimum physical facilities of colleges of medicine, to wit:
buildings, including hospitals, equipment and supplies, apparatus, instruments, appliances, laboratories, bed
capacity for instruction purposes, operating and delivery rooms, facilities for out-patient services, and others, used
for didactic and practical instructions in accordance with modern trends;
(c) To determine and prescribe the minimum number and the minimum qualifications of teaching personnel,
including student-teacher ratio and curriculum;
(d) To determine and prescribe the number of students who should be allowed to take up the preparatory course
taking into account the capacity of the different recognized colleges of medicine.
(e) To select, determine and approve hospitals or some departments of the hospitals for training which comply
with the minimum specific physical facilities as provided in subparagraph (b) hereof: and
(f) To promulgate and prescribe and enforce necessary rules and regulations for the proper implementation of the
foregoing functions.
Section 6. Minimum required courses. Students seeking admission to the medical course must have a bachelor of
science or bachelor of arts degree or their equivalent and must have taken in four years the following subjects with their
corresponding number of units:

Unit
English

12

Latin

Mathematics, including Accounting and


Statistics

Philosophy, including Psychology and


Logic

12

Zoology and Botany

15

Physics

Chemistry

21

Library Science

Humanities and Social Sciences

12

Twelve units of Spanish shall be required pursuant to Republic Act Numbered Seven hundred nine; but commencing with
the academic year nineteen hundred sixty to nineteen hundred sixty-one, twenty-four units of Spanish shall be required
pursuant to Republic Act Numbered Eighteen hundred and eighty-one as cultural, social and nationalistic studies.
Provided, That the following students may be permitted to complete the aforesaid preparatory medical course in shorter
periods as follows:
(a) Students whose general average is below eighty-five per cent but without any grade of failure or condition may
be allowed to pursue and finish the course in three academic years and the intervening summer sessions; and
(b) Students whose general average is eighty-five per cent or over may be permitted to finish the course in three
academic years by allowing them to take each semester the overload permitted to bright students under existing
regulations of the Bureau of Private Schools.
Provided, That upon failure to maintain the general average of eighty-five per cent, students under (b) shall automatically
revert to the category of students under (a) and those under (a), upon having any grade of failure or condition, shall
automatically revert to the category of students required to pursue the preparatory course in four years mentioned above.
The medical course shall be at least five years, including not less than eleven rotating internship in an approved hospital,
and shall consist of the following subjects:

Anatomy
Physiology
Biochemistry and Nutrition
Pharmacology
Microbiology
Parasitology

Medicine and Therapeutics


Genycology
Opthalmology, Otology,
Rhinology and Laryngology
Pediatrics
Obstetrics

Surgery
Preventive Medicine and
Public Health
Legal Medicine, including
Medical Jurisprudence and
Ethics.

Section 7. Admission requirements. The medical college may admit any student to its first year class who has not been
convicted by any court of competent jurisdiction of any offense involving moral turpitude, and who presents (a) a certificate
showing completion of a standard high school course, (b) a record showing completion of a standard preparatory medical
course as herein provided, (c) a certificate of registration as medical student, (d) a certificate of good moral character
issued by two former professors in the pre-medicine course, and (e) birth certificate and marriage certificate, if any.
Nothing in this Act shall be construed to inhibit any college of medicine from establishing, in addition to the preceding,
other entrance requirements that may be deemed admissible.
For the purposes of this Act, the term "College of Medicine" shall mean to include faculty of medicine, institute of
medicine, school of medicine or other similar institution offering a complete medical course leading to the degree of Doctor
of Medicine or its equivalent.

Every college of medicine must keep a complete record of enrollment, grades and turnover, and must publish each year a
catalogue giving the following information:
1. Date of publication
2. Calendar for the academic year
3. Faculty roll indicating whether on full time part time basis
4. Requirements of admission
5. Grading system
6. Requirements for promotion
7. Requirements for graduation
8. Medical hours per academic year by departments
9. Schedule hours per academic year by departments
10. Number of students enrolled in each class.
ARTICLE III
THE BOARD OF MEDICAL EXAMINERS; REGISTRATION OF PHYSICIANS
Section 8. Prerequisite to the practice of medicine. No person shall engage in the practice of medicine in the Philippines
unless he is at least twenty-one years of age, has satisfactorily passed the corresponding Board Examination, and is a
holder of a valid Certificate of Registration duly issued to him by the Board of Medical Examiners.
Section 9. Candidates for board examination. Candidates for Board examinations shall have the following qualifications:
(1) He shall be a citizen of the Philippines or a citizen of any foreign country who has submitted competent and
conclusive documentary evidence, confirmed by the Department of Foreign Affairs, showing that his country's
existing laws permit citizens of the Philippines to practice medicine under the same rules and regulations
governing citizens thereof;
(2) He shall be of good moral character, showing for this purpose certificate of civil status;
(3) He shall be of sound mind;
(4) He shall not have been convicted by a court of competent jurisdiction of any offense involving moral turpitude;
and
(5) He shall be a holder of the degree of Doctor of Medicine or its equivalent, conferred by a college of medicine
duly recognized by the Department of Education.
Section 10. Acts constituting practice of medicine. A person shall be considered as engaged in the practice of medicine
(a) who shall, for compensation, fee, salary or reward in any form, paid to him directly or through another, or even without
the same, physical examine any person, and diagnose, treat, operate or prescribe any remedy for any human disease,
injury, deformity, physical, mental or physical condition or any ailment, real or imaginary, regardless of the nature of the
remedy or treatment administered, prescribed or recommended; or (b) who shall, by means of signs, cards,
advertisements, written or printed matter, or through the radio, television or any other means of communication, either
offer or undertake by any means or method to diagnose, treat, operate or prescribe any remedy for any human disease,
injury, deformity, physical, mental or physical condition; or (c) who shall use the title M.D. after his name.
Section 11. Exemptions. The preceding section shall not be construed to affect (a) any medical student duly enrolled in
an approved medical college or school under training, serving without any professional fee in any government or private

hospital, provided that he renders such service under the direct supervision and control of a registered physician; (b) any
legally registered dentist engaged exclusively in the practice of dentistry; (c) any duly registered masseur or
physiotherapist, provided that he applies massage or other physical means upon written order or prescription of a duly
registered physician, or provided that such application of massage or physical means shall be limited to physical or
muscular development; (d) any duly registered optometrist who mechanically fits or sells lenses, artificial eyes, limbs or
other similar appliances or who is engaged in the mechanical examination of eyes for the purpose of constructing or
adjusting eye glasses, spectacles and lenses; (e) any person who renders any service gratuitously in cases of emergency,
or in places where the services of a duly registered physician, nurse or midwife are not available; (f) any person who
administers or recommends any household remedy as per classification of existing Pharmacy Laws; and (g) any
psychologist or mental hygienist in the performance of his duties, provided such performance is done in conjunction with a
duly registered physician.
Section 12. Limited practice without any certificate of registration. Certificates of registration shall not be required of the
following persons:
(a) Physicians and surgeons from other countries called in consultation only and exclusively in specific and
definite cases, or those attached to international bodies or organization assigned to perform certain definite work
in the Philippines provided they shall limit their practice to the specific work assigned to them and provided further
they shall secure a previous authorization from the Board of Medical Examiners.
(b) Commissioned medical officers of the United States armed forces stationed in the Philippines while rendering
service as such only for the members of the said armed forces and within the limit of their own respective
territorial jurisdiction.
(c) Foreign physicians employed as exchange professors in special branches of medicine or surgery whose
service may in the discretion of the Board of Medical Education, be necessary.
(d) Medical students who have completed the first four years of medical course, graduates of medicine and
registered nurses who may be given limited and special authorization by the Secretary of Health to render medical
services during epidemics or national emergencies whenever the services of duly registered physicians are not
available. Such authorization shall automatically cease when the epidemic or national emergency is declared
terminated by the Secretary of Health.
Section 13. The Board of Medical Examiners, its composition and duties. The Board of Medical Examiners shall be
composed of six members to be appointed by the President of the Philippines from a confidential list of not more than
twelve names approved and submitted by the executive council of the Philippine Medical Association, after due
consultation with other medical associations, during the months of April and October of each year. The chairman of the
Board shall be elected from among themselves by the member at a meeting called for the purpose. The President of the
Philippines shall fill any vacancy that may occur during any examination from the list of names submitted by the Philippine
Medical Association in accordance with the provisions of this Act.
No examiner shall handle the examinations in more than four subjects or groups of subjects as hereinafter provided. The
distribution of subject to each member shall be agreed upon at a meeting called by the chairman for the purpose. The
examination papers shall be under the custody of the Commissioner of Civil Service or his duly authorized representative,
and shall be distributed to each member of the Board who shall correct, grade, and sign, and submit them to the said
Commissioner within one hundred twenty days from the date of the termination of the examinations.
A final meeting of the Board for the deliberation and approval of the grades shall be called by the Commissioner of Civil
Service immediately after receipt of the records from the members of the Board of Medical Examiners. The secretary of
the Board shall submit to the President of the Philippines for approval the names of the successful candidates as having
been duly qualified for licensure in alphabetical order, without stating the ratings obtained by each.
Section 14. Qualifications of examiners. No person shall be appointed a member of the Board of Medical Examiners
unless he or she (1) is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines, (2) is a duly registered physician in the Philippines, (3) has
been in the practice of medicine for at least ten years, (4) is of good moral character and of recognized standing in the
medical profession, (5) is not a member of the faculty of any medical school and has no pecuniary interest, directly or
indirectly, in any college of medicine or in any institution where any branch of medicine is taught, at the time of his
appointment: Provided, That of the six members to be appointed, not more than two shall be graduates of the same
institution and not more than three shall be government physicians.

Section 15. Tenure of office and compensation of members. The members of the Board of Medical Examiners shall hold
office for one year: Provided, That any member may be reappointed for not more than one year. Each member shall
receive as compensation ten pesos for each candidate examined for registration as physician, and five pesos for each
candidate examined in the preliminary or final physician examination.
The President of the Philippines, upon the recommendation of the Commissioner of Civil Service , after due investigation,
may remove any member of the Board of Medical Examiners for neglect of duty, incompetency, or unprofessional or
dishonorable conduct.
Section 16. Executive Officer and Secretary of the Board. The Secretary of the Boards of Examiners appointed in
accordance with section ten of Act Numbered Four thousand seven, as amended, shall also be the secretary of the Board
of Medical Examiners, who shall keep all the records, including examination papers, and the minutes of the deliberations
of the Board. He shall also keep a register of all persons to whom certificates of registration has been granted; set forth
the name, sec, age, and place of birth of each, place of business, post office address, the name of the medical college or
university from which he graduated or in which he had studied, together with time spent in the study of the profession
elsewhere, the name of the country where the institution is located which had granted to him the degree or certificate of
attendance upon clinic and all lectures in medicine and surgery, and all other degrees granted to him from institutions of
learning. He shall keep an up-to-date registration book of all duly registered physicians in the Philippines. He shall furnish
copies of all examination questions and ratings in each subject of the respective candidates in the physicians
examination, one month after the release of the list of successful examinees, to the deans of the different colleges of
medicine exclusively for the information and guidance of the faculties thereof. This report shall be considered as restricted
information. Any school which violates this rule shall be deprived of such privilege. The secretary of the Board shall
likewise keep a record of all registered medical students. He shall keep all the records and proceedings, and issue and
receive all papers in connection with any and all complaints presented to the Board.
Section 17. Rules and regulations. The Board of Medical Examiners, with the approval of the Commissioner of Civil
Service, shall promulgate such rules and regulations as may be necessary for the proper conduct of the examinations,
correction of examination papers, and registration of physicians. The Commissioner shall supervise each Board
examination and enforce the said rules and regulations. These rules and regulations shall take effect fifteen days after the
date of their publication in the Official Gazette and shall not be changed within sixty days immediately before any
examination. Such rules and regulations shall be printed and distributed for the information and guidance of all concerned.
Section 18. Dates of examinations. The Board of Medical Examiners shall give examinations for the registration of
physicians, one in May and one in November every year, in the City of Manila or any of its suburbs after giving not less
than ten days' notice to each candidate who had filed his name and address with the secretary of the Board.
Section 19. Fees. The secretary of the Board, under the supervision of the Commissioner of Civil Service, shall collect
from each candidate the following fees:
For registration as medical student

P 5.00

For complete physician examination

75.00

For preliminary or final examination

40.00

For registration as physician

20.00

All fees paid as provided herein shall accrue to the funds of the Board of Medical Examiners and be expended for the
payment of the compensation of the members thereof. No fees other than those provided herein shall be paid to the
Board.
Section 20. Issuance of Certificate of Registration, grounds for refusal of same. The Commissioner of Civil Service and
the secretary of the Board of Medical Examiners shall sign jointly and issue certificates of registration to those who have
satisfactorily complied with the requirements of the Board. They shall not issue a certificate of registration to any
candidate who has been convicted by a court of competent jurisdiction of any criminal offense involving moral turpitude, or
has been found guilty of immoral or dishonorable conduct after he due investigation by the Board of Medical Examiners,
or has been declared to be of unsound mind.
Section 21. Scope of examination. The examination for the registration of physicians shall consist of the following
subjects: (1) Anatomy and Histology, (2) Physiology, (3) Biochemistry, (4) Microbiology and Parasitology, (5) Pharcology
and Therapeutics, (6) Pathology, (7) Medicine, (8) Obstetrics and Gynecology, (9) Pediatrics and Nutrition, (10) Surgery

and Opthalmology, Otolaryngology and Rhinology, (11) Preventive Medicine and Public Health, and (12) Legal Medicine,
Ethics and Medical Jurisprudence: Provided, however, That the examination questions in each subject or group of subject
shall at least be ten in number: Provided, further, That the examination questions in Medicine shall include at least three
from the following branches: Infectious diseases, Neurology, Dermatology, Allergy, Endocrinology and Cardio-Vascular
diseases: Provided, finally, That the examination questions in Surgery shall include at least four questions from the
following: Opthalmology, Otology, Rhinology, Laryngology, Orthopedic Surgery and Anesthesiology.
The questions shall be the same for all applicants. All answers must be written either in English or Spanish. No name of
the examinee shall appear in the examination paper but the examiners shall devise a system whereby each applicant can
be identified by number only.
In order that a candidate may be deemed to have passed his examination successfully he must have obtained a general
average of seventy-five per cent without a grade lower than sixty-five per cent in Medicine, Pediatrics and Nutrition,
Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Preventive Medicine and Public Health, and no grade lower than fifty per cent in the rest
of the subjects.
The preliminary examinations shall comprise of the following subjects:
(1) Gross Anatomy and Histology
(2) Physiology
(3) Biochemistry
(4) Microbiology and Parasitology
Section 22. Administrative investigations. In addition to the functions provided for in the preceding sections, the Board of
Medical Examiners shall perform the following duties: (1) to administer oath to physicians who qualified in the
examination; (2) to study the conditions affecting the practice of medicine in all parts of the Philippines; (3) to exercise the
powers conferred upon it by this article with the view of maintaining the ethical and professional standards of the medical
profession; (4) to subpoena or subpoena duces tecum witnesses for all purposes required in the discharge of its duties;
and (5) to promulgate, with the approval of the Commissioner of Civil Service, such rules and regulations as it may deem
necessary for the performance of its duties in harmony with the provisions of this Act and necessary for the proper
practice of medicine in the Philippines.
Administrative investigations may be conducted by not less than four members of the Board of Medical Examiners;
otherwise the proceedings shall be considered void. The existing rules of evidence shall be observed during all
administrative investigations. The Board may disapprove applications for examination or registration, reprimand erring
physicians, or suspend or revoke registration certificates, if the respondents are found guilty after due investigations.
Section 23. Procedure and rules. Within five days after the filling of written charges under oath, the respondent physician
shall be furnished a copy thereof, without requiring him or her to answer the same, and the Board shall conduct the
investigation within five days after the receipt of such copy by the respondent. The investigation shall be completed as
soon as practicable.
Section 24. Grounds for reprimand, suspension or revocation of registration certificate. Any of the following shall be
sufficient ground for reprimanding a physician, or for suspending or revoking a certificate of registration as physician:
(1) Conviction by a court of competent jurisdiction of any criminal offense involving moral turpitude;
(2) Immoral or dishonorable conduct;
(3) Insanity;
(4) Fraud in the acquisition of the certificate of registration;
(5) Gross negligence, ignorance or incompetence in the practice of his or her profession resulting in an injury to or
death of the patient;

(6) Addiction to alcoholic beverages or to any habit forming drug rendering him or her incompetent to practice his
or her profession, or to any form of gambling;
(7) False or extravagant or unethical advertisements wherein other things than his name, profession, limitation of
practice, clinic hours, office and home address, are mentioned.
(8) Performance of or aiding in any criminal abortion;
(9) Knowingly issuing any false medical certificate;
(10) Issuing any statement or spreading any news or rumor which is derogatory to the character and reputation of
another physician without justifiable motive;
(11) Aiding or acting as a dummy of an unqualified or unregistered person to practice medicine;
(12) Violation of any provision of the Code of Ethics as approved by the Philippine Medical Association.
Refusal of a physician to attend a patient in danger of death is not a sufficient ground for revocation or suspension of his
registration certificate if there is a risk to the physician's life.
Section 25. Rights of respondents. The respondent physician shall be entitled to be represented by counsel or be heard
by himself or herself, to have a speedy and public hearing, to confront and to cross-examine witnesses against him or her,
and to all other rights guaranteed by the Constitution and provided for in the Rules of Court.
Section 26. Appeal from judgment. The decision of the Board of Medical Examiners shall automatically become final thirty
days after the date of its promulgation unless the respondent, during the same period, has appealed to the Commissioner
of Civil Service and later to the Office of the President of the Philippines. If the final decision is not satisfactory, the
respondent may ask for a review of the case, or may file in court a petition for certiorari.
Section 27. Reinstatement. After two years, the Board may order the reinstatement of any physicians whose certificate of
registration has been revoked, if the respondent has acted in an exemplary manner in the community wherein he resides
and has not committed any illegal, immoral or dishonorable act.
ARTICLE IV
PENAL AND OTHER PROVISIONS
Section 28. Penalties. Any person found guilty of "illegal practice of medicine" shall be punished by a fine of not less than
one thousand pesos nor more than ten thousand pesos with subsidiary imprisonment in case of insolvency, or by
imprisonment of not less than one year nor more than five years, or by both such fine and imprisonment, in the discretion
of the court.
Section 29. Injunctions. The Board of Medical Examiners may file an action to enjoin any person illegally practicing
medicine from the performance of any act constituting practice of medicine if the case so warrants until the necessary
certificate therefore is secured. Any such person who, after having been so enjoined, continues in the illegal practice of
medicine shall be punished for contempt of court. The said injunction shall not relieve the person practicing medicine
without certificate of registration from criminal prosecution and punishment as provided in the preceding section.
Section 30. Appropriation. To carry out the provisions of this Act, there is hereby appropriated, out of any funds in the
National Treasury not otherwise appropriated, the sum of twenty thousand pesos.
Section 31. Repealing clause. All Acts, executive orders, administrative orders, rules and regulations, or parts thereof
inconsistent with the provisions of this Act are repealed or modified accordingly.
Section 32. Effectivity. This Act shall take effect upon its approval: Provided, That if it is approved during the time when
examinations for physicians are held, it shall take effect immediately after the said examinations: Provided, further, That
section six of this Act shall take effect at the beginning of the academic year nineteen hundred sixty to nineteen hundred
sixty-one, and the first paragraph of section seven shall take effect four years thereafter. Approved: June 20, 1959

AN ACT TO AMEND CERTAIN SECTIONS OF REPUBLIC ACT NUMBERED TWENTY-THREE HUNDRED AND
EIGHTY-TWO, OTHERWISE KNOWN AS "THE MEDICAL ACT OF 1959."
Section 1. Sections three, four, five, six, seven, nine, ten, eleven, twelve, thirteen, fourteen, fifteen, sixteen, eighteen,
nineteen, twenty, twenty-one, twenty-two, and twenty-five of Republic Act Numbered Twenty-three hundred and eighty-two
are hereby amended to read as follows:
"Sec. 3. Composition of the Board of Medical Education. The Board of Medical Education shall be composed of the
Secretary of Education or his duly authorized representative, as chairman; and the Secretary of Health or his duly
authorized representative; the Director of the Bureau of Private Schools or his duly authorized representative; the
chairman of the Board of Medical Examiners or his duly authorized representative; a representative of the Philippine
Medical Association; the Dean of the College of Medicine, University of the Philippines; a representative of the Council of
Deans of medical schools; and a representative chosen by the Philippine Association of Colleges and Universities, as
members.
"Sec. 4. Compensation and traveling expenses. The chairman and the members of the secretary of the Board of Medical
Education shall be entitled to twenty-five pesos per diem for every meeting, provided, the number of meeting authorized
with a per diem shall not exceed four times in a month, except officials receiving regular salaries from the Government
and for traveling expenses in connection with their official duties as herein provided.
"Sec. 5. Functions. The functions of the Board of Medical Education shall be:
"(a) To determine and prescribe minimum requirements for admission into a recognized college of medicine;
"(b) To determine and prescribe requirements for minimum physical facilities of colleges of medicine, to wit:
buildings, including hospitals, equipment and supplies, apparatus, instruments, appliances, laboratories, bed
capacity for instruction purposes, operating and delivery rooms, facilities for out-patient services, and others, used
for didactic and practical instructions in accordance with modern trends;
"(c) To determine and prescribe the minimum number and minimum qualification of teaching personnel, including
student-teacher ratio;
"(d) To recommend the minimum required curriculum;
"(e) To determine and prescribe the number of students who should be allowed to take up the preparatory course
taking into account the capacity of the different recognized colleges of medicine;
"(f) To keep a register of medical students and to collect from said medical students the amount of five pesos each
which shall accrue to the operating fund of the Board of Medical Education;
"(g) To select, determine and approve hospitals or some departments of the hospitals for training which comply
with the minimum specific physical facilities as provided for in subparagraph (b) hereof; and
"(h) To promulgate and prescribe and enforce necessary rules and regulations for the proper implementation of
the foregoing functions.
"Sec. 6. Minimum required courses. Students seeking admission to the medical course must have a bachelor of science
or bachelor of arts degree or their equivalent, which should include the following subjects with their corresponding number
of units:
"English

18

"Latin

"Mathematics, including accounting and


statistics

"Philosophy, including psychology and logic

12

"Zoology and Botany


"Physics

15
8

"Chemistry

21

"Humanities and Social Science

12

"Library Science

As many units of Spanish shall be required as may be provided by law for cultural, social and nationalistic studies.
"The medical course shall be at least five years, including not less than eleven months rotating internship in an approved
hospital, and shall consist of the following subjects:

"Anatomy
"Physiology
"Biochemistry and Nutrition
"Pharmacology
"Microbiology
"Parasitology
"Medicine and Therapeutics

"Pathology
"Gynecology
"Ophthalmology, Otology,
Rhinology and Laryngology
"Pediatrics
"Obstetrics
"Surgery

"Preventive Medicine and


Public Health
"Legal Medicine, including
Medical Jurisprudence
"Medical Economics and
Ethics

"Sec. 7. Admission requirements. The medical college may admit any student to its first-year class who has not been
convicted by any court of competent jurisdiction of any offense involving moral turpitude, and who presents (a) a record
showing a bachelor's degree in science or arts or its equivalent as herein provided; (b) a certificate of eligibility for
entrance to a medical school from the Board of Medical Education; (c) a certificate of good moral character issued by two
of his former professors in the College of Liberal Arts; and (d) birth certificate. Nothing in this Act shall be construed to
inhibit any college of medicine from establishing, in addition to the preceding, other entrance requirements that may be
deemed admissible.
"For purposes of this Act the term "College of Medicine" shall mean to include faculty of medicine, institute of medicine,
school of medicine, or other similar institutions offering a complete medical course leading to the degree of Doctor of
Medicine or its equivalent.
"Every college of medicine must keep a complete record of enrollment, grades, graduates, and must publish each year a
catalogue giving the following information:
"1. Date of publication
"2. Calendar for the academic year
"3. Faculty roll indicating whether or full-time or part-time basis
"4. Requirements for admission
"5. Grading system
"6. Requirements for promotion
"7. Requirements for graduation
"8. Curriculum and description of course by departments and
"9. Number of students enrolled in each class in the preceding year.
"Sec. 9. Candidates for board examinations. Candidates for Board examinations shall have the following qualifications:
"(1) He shall be a citizen of the Philippines or a citizen of any foreign country who has submitted competent and
conclusive documentary evidence, confirmed by the Department of Foreign Affairs, showing that his country's
existing laws permit citizens of the Philippines to practice medicine under the same rules and regulations
governing citizen thereof;
"(2) He shall be of good moral character;
"(3) He shall be of sound mind;
"(4) He shall not have been convicted by a court of competent jurisdiction of any offense involving moral turpitude;
and
"(5) He shall be a holder of the degree of Doctor of Medicine or its equivalent, conferred by a college of medicine
duly recognized by the Government.
"Sec. 10. Acts constituting practice of medicine. A person shall be considered as engaged in the practice of medicine (a)
who shall, for compensation, fee, salary or reward in any form paid to him directly or through another, or even without the
same, physically examine any person, and diagnose, treat, operate or prescribe any remedy for human disease, injury,
deformity, physical, mental, psychical condition or any ailment, real or imaginary, regardless of the nature of the remedy or
treatment administered, prescribed or recommended; or (b) who shall by means of signs, cards, advertisements, written
or printed matter, or through the radio, television or any other means of communication, either offer or undertake by any

means or method to diagnose, treat, operate or prescribe any remedy for any human disease, injury, deformity, physical,
mental or psychical condition; or (c) who shall falsely use the title of M.D. after his name.
"Sec. 11. Exemptions. The preceding section shall not be construed to affect (a) any medical student duly enrolled in an
approved medical college or school, or graduate under training, serving without any professional fee in any government or
private hospital, provided that he render such service under the direct supervision and control of a registered physician;
(b) any legally registered dentist engaged exclusively in the practice of dentistry; (c) any duly registered masseur or
physiotherapist, provided that he applies massage or other physical means upon written order or prescription of a duly
registered physician, or provided that such application of massage or physical means shall be limited to physical or
muscular development; (d) any duly registered optometrist who mechanically fits or sells lenses, artificial eyes, limbs or
other similar appliances or who is engaged in the mechanical examination of eyes for the purpose of constructing or
adjusting eyeglasses, spectacles and lenses; (e) any person who renders any service gratuitously in cases of emergency,
or in places where the services of a duly registered physician, nurse or midwife are not available; (f) any person who
administers or recommends any household remedy as per classification of existing Pharmacy Laws; (g) any clinical
psychologist, or mental hygienist, in the performance of his duties in regard to patients with psychiatric problems, provided
such performance is done with the prescription and direct supervision of a duly registered physician, and (h) prosthetists
who fit artificial limbs under the supervision of a registered physician.
"Sec. 12. Limited practice without any certificate of registration. Certificates of registration shall not be required of the
following persons:
"(a) Physicians and surgeons from other countries called in consultation only and exclusively in specific and
definite case, or those attached to international bodies or organizations assigned to perform certain definite work
in the Philippines, provided they shall limit their practice to the specific work assigned to them and provided further
they shall secure a previous authorization from the Board of Medical Examiners.
"(b) Commissioned medical officers of the United States Armed Forces stationed in the Philippines while
rendering service as such only for the members of the said armed forces and within the limit of their own
respective territorial jurisdiction.
"(c) Foreign physicians employed as exchange professors in special branches of medicine or surgery whose
service may, upon previous authorization of the Board of Medical Examiners, be necessary.
"(d) Medical students who have completed the first four years of medical course, graduates of medicine and
registered nurses who may be given limited and special authorization by the Secretary of Health to render
services during epidemics or national emergencies whenever the services of duly registered physicians are not
available. Such authorization shall automatically cease when the epidemic or national emergency is declared
terminated by the Secretary of Health.
"Sec. 13. The Board of Medical Examiners, its composition and duties. The Board of Medical Examiners shall be
composed of six members to be appointed by the President of the Philippines from a list of not more than twelve names
approved and submitted by the Executive Council of the Philippine Medical Association, after due consultation with other
medical association during the month of September each year. The chairman of the Board shall be elected from among
themselves by the members at a meeting called for the purpose. The President of the Philippines shall fill any vacancy
that may occur during any examination from the list of names submitted by the Philippine Medical Association in
accordance with the provisions of this Act.
"No examiner shall handle examinations in more than four subjects or groups of subjects as hereinafter provided. The
distribution of subjects to each member shall be agreed upon at a meeting called by the chairman for the purpose. The
examination papers shall be under the custody of the Commissioner of Civil Service or his duly authorized representative,
and shall be distributed to each member of the Board who shall correct, grade, and sign, and submit them to the said
Commissioner within one hundred twenty days from the date of the termination of the examinations.
"A final meeting of the Board for the deliberation and approval of the grades shall be called by the Commissioner of Civil
Service immediately after the receipt of the records from the members of the Board of Medical Examiners. The Secretary
of the Board shall submit to the President of the Philippines for approval the tabulation of results, without names and
immediately upon receipt of the approved tabulation from the Office of the President, the Board shall insert the names and
cause the publication of the names of successful candidates in alphabetical order without the ratings obtained by each,
and at the same time transmit a copy thereof to the Office of the President.

"Sec. 14. Qualifications of examiner. No person shall be appointed a member of the Board of Medical Examiners unless
he or she (1) is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines, (2) is a duly registered physician in the Philippines, (3) has been
in the practice of medicine for at least ten years, (4) is of good moral character and of recognized standing in the medical
profession as certified by the Philippine Medical Association, (5) is not a member of the faculty of any medical school and
has no pecuniary interest, directly or indirectly, in any college of medicine or any institution where any branch of medicine
is taught, at the time of his appointment.
"Sec. 15. Tenure of office and compensation of members. The members of the Board of Medical Examiners shall hold
office for a term of three years without immediate reappointment and until their successors shall have been duly appointed
and duly qualified. During the first year of the implementation of this amendment, the members of the Board of Medical
Examiners shall hold office as follows:
"Two members of a term of one year;
"Two members of a term of two years;
"Two members of a term of three years:
Provided, That yearly appointments of two new members will be made to replace those whose terms will expire: Provided,
further, That appointments to fill up vacancies created by causes other than through expiration of regular terms will be for
the unexpired period only. Each member shall receive as compensation ten pesos for each candidate examined for
registration as physician, and five pesos for each candidate examined in the preliminary or final physical examination,
provided the sum of said compensation does not exceed eighteen thousand pesos annually.
"The President of the Philippines, upon the recommendation of the Commissioner of Civil Service, after due investigation,
may remove any member of the Board of Medical Examiners for neglect of duty, incompetency, or unprofessional of
dishonorable conduct.
"Sec. 16. Executive officer and Secretary of the Board. The Secretary of the Boards of Examiners appointed in
accordance with Section ten of Act Numbered Four thousand seven, as amended, shall also be the secretary of the Board
of Medical Examiners, who shall keep all the records, including examination papers and the minutes of the deliberations
of the Board. He shall also keep a register of all persons to whom certificates of registration has been granted; set forth
the name, sex, age, and place of birth of each, place of business, post office address, the name of the medical college or
university from which he graduated or in which he had studied, together with the time spent in the study of the profession
elsewhere, the name of the country where the institution is located which had granted to him the degree or certificate of
attendance on clinics and all lectures in medicine and surgery, and all other degrees granted to him from institutions of
learning. He shall keep an up-to-date registration book of all duly registered physicians in the Philippines. He shall furnish
copies of all examination questions and ratings in each subject of the respective candidates in the physicians
examination, one month after the release of the list of successful examinees, to the deans of the different colleges of
medicine exclusively for the information and guidance of the faculties thereof. This report shall be considered as restricted
information. Any school which violates this rule shall be deprived of such privilege. The Secretary shall keep all the
records and proceedings, and issue and receive all papers in connection with any and all complaints presented to the
Board.
"Sec. 18. Dates of the examinations. The Board of Medical Examiners shall give examinations for the registration of
physicians, twice a year, on dates to be determined by it provided that the interval between the first and the second
examinations in a year shall be six months, in the City of Manila or any of its suburbs after giving not less than ten days'
notice to each candidate who had filed his name and address with the Secretary of the Board.
"Sec. 19. Fees. The Secretary of the Board, under the supervision of the Commissioner of Civil Service, shall collect from
each candidate the following fees:
"For complete physician examination

75.00

"For preliminary or final examination

40.00

"For registration as physician

20.00

"All fees paid as provided herein shall accrue to the funds of the Board of Medical Examiners and be expended for the
payment of the compensation of the members thereof. No fees other than those provided herein shall be paid to the
Board.
"Sec. 20. Issuance of Certificates of Registration, grounds for refusal of same. The Commissioner of Civil Service, the
chairman, the members and the Secretary of the Board of Medical Examiners shall sign and issue certificates of
registration to those who have satisfactorily complied with the requirements of the Board. They shall not issue a certificate
of registration to any candidate who has been convicted by a court of competent jurisdiction of any criminal offense
involving moral turpitude, or has been found guilty of immoral or dishonorable conduct after the investigation by the Board
of Medical Examiners, or has been declared to be of unsound mind.
"Sec. 21. Scope of examination. The following subjects shall be given in the examinations:
"(a) Preliminary Examination
"1) Anatomy and Histology
"2) Physiology
"3) Biochemistry
"4) Microbiology and Parasitology
"(b) Final Examination
"1) Pharmacology and Therapeutics
"2) Pathology
"3) Medicine
"4) Obstetrics and Gynecology
"5) Pediatrics and Nutrition
"6) Surgery and Ophthalmology, Otolaryngology and Rhinology
"7) Preventive Medicine and Public Health, and
"8) Legal Medicine, Ethics and Medical Jurisprudence
"(c) Complete Examination
"1) Anatomy and Histology
"2) Physiology
"3) Biochemistry
"4) Microbiology and Parasitology
"5) Pharmacology and Therapeutics
"6) Pathology
"7) Medicine

"8) Obstetrics and Gynecology


"9) Pediatrics and Nutrition
"10) Surgery and Ophthalmology, Otolaryngology and Rhinology
"11) Preventive medicine and Public Health, and
"12) Legal Medicine, Ethics and Medical Jurisprudence
"The questions shall be the same for all applicants. All answers must be written in English. No name of the examinee shall
appear in the examination paper but the examiners shall devise a system whereby each applicant can be identified by
number only.
"In order that a candidate may be deemed to have passed his examination successfully he must have obtained a general
average of seventy-five per cent without a grade lower than fifty per cent in any subject: Provided, That a candidate who
fails for the third time in the complete or final examinations will be required to take a refresher course prescribed by the
Board of Medical Examiners of at least one (1) year in a recognized medical school or college before he could be allowed
to take subsequent examinations.
"If the applicant is found to be proficient in the subjects in the preliminary examinations, he or she shall be exempt in these
subjects at the time of the final examination. In case of failure in any subject at any preliminary examination given in
accordance with this section, the candidate shall not then be reexamined in such subject in which he may have failed until
he shall have finished the prescribed course of medical study and internship.
"Sec. 22. Administrative investigations. In addition to the functions provided for in the preceding sections, the Board of
Medical Examiners shall perform the following duties: (1) to administer oath to physicians who qualified in the
examinations; (2) to study the conditions affecting the practice of medicine in all parts of the Philippines; (3) to exercise
the powers conferred upon it by this article with the view of maintaining the ethical and professional standards of the
medical profession, (4) to subpoena or subpoena duces tecum witnesses for all purposes required in the discharge of its
duties; and (5) to promulgate, with the approval of the Commissioner of Civil Service, such rules and regulations as it may
deem necessary for the performance of its duties in harmony with the provisions of this Act and necessary for the proper
practice of medicine in the Philippines.
"Administrative investigations shall be conducted by at least two members of the Board of Medical Examiners with one
legal officer sitting during the investigation, otherwise the proceedings shall be considered void. The existing rules of
evidence shall be observed during all administrative investigations. The Board may disapprove applications for
examination or registration, reprimand erring physicians, or suspend or revoke registration certificates, if the respondents
are found guilty after due investigation.
"Sec. 25. Rights of respondents. The respondent physician shall be entitled to be represented by counsel or be heard in
person, to have a speedy and public hearing, to confront and to cross-examine witnesses against him or her, and to all
other rights guaranteed by the Constitution and provided for in the Rules of Court."
Section 2. This Act shall take effect upon its approval.
Approved: June 19, 1965
PRESIDENTIAL DECREE No. 223 June 22, 1973
CREATING THE PROFESSIONAL REGULATION COMMISSION AND PRESCRIBING ITS POWERS AND FUNCTIONS
WHEREAS, the regulations of the various profession presently regulated by the Office of the Boards of Examiners is so
extensive, practically covering all social and economic life of the country;
WHEREAS, the existence of the Boards of Examiners is misconstrued for a number of years now as nothing more than
an examining unit, though all the professional laws creating the various Boards have charged them with the supervision
and regulation over the professional practice in the Philippines; and

WHEREAS, to effectively enforce the laws regulating the various professions, there is an urgent need to create a threeman Commission to administer, implement, coordinate and supervise the various Boards of Examiners;
NOW, THEREFORE, I, FERDINAND E. MARCOS, President of the Philippines, by virtue of the powers vested in me by
the Constitution as Commander-in-Chief of all the Armed Forces of the Philippines, and pursuant to Proclamation No.
1081 dated September 21, 1972, and General Order No. 1 dated September 22, 1972, as amended, do hereby order and
decree:
Section 1. Professional Regulation Commission. There is hereby created a three-man Commission to be known as the
Professional Regulation Commission which shall be attached to the Office of the President for general direction and
coordination.
Section 2. Composition. The Commission shall be headed by one full time Commissioner and two full time Associate
Commissioners, all to be appointed by the President for a term of nine (9) years without reappointment to start from the
time they assume office, except the first two Associate Commissioners who shall be appointed, one for six (6) years and
the other for three (3) years, and thereafter, any vacancy in the Commission shall be filled for the unexpired term only with
the most senior of the Associate Commissioners succeeding the Commissioner at the expiration of his term, resignation or
removal. No person shall be appointed chairman or member of the Commission unless he is at least forty (40) years of
age, familiar with the principles and methods of professional regulation and/or licensing and has at least five (5) years of
executive or managerial experience.
Section 3. Exercise of powers and functions of the Commission. The Commissioner, who shall be the Chairman of the
Commission, and the Associate Commissioners as members thereof shall, as a body, exercise general administrative,
executive and policy-making functions for the whole agency.
Section 4. Compensation. The Commissioner shall receive an annual compensation of forty-eight thousand pesos
(P48,000) with five hundred pesos (P500) commutable transportation and representation allowances and the Associate
Commissioners, thirty-six thousand pesos (P36,000) each with three hundred fifty pesos (P350) commutable
transportation and representation allowances.
Section 5. Powers of the Commission. The powers of the Commission are as follows:
a) To administer, implement and enforce the regulatory policies of the National Government with respect to the
regulation and licensing of the various professions and occupations under its jurisdiction including the
maintenance of professional and occupational standards and ethics and the enforcement of the rules and
regulations relative thereto.
b) To perform any and all acts, enter into contracts, make such rules and regulations and issue such orders and
other administrative issuances as may be necessary in the execution and implementation of its functions and the
improvement of its services.
c) To review, coordinate, integrate and approve the policies, resolutions, rules and regulations, orders or decisions
promulgated by the various Boards with respect to the profession or occupation under their jurisdictions including
the results of their licensures examination but their decisions on administrative cases shall be final and executory
unless appealed to the Commission within thirty (30) days from the date of promulgation thereof.
d) To administer and conduct the licensure examinations of the various Boards according to the rules and
regulations promulgated by it; determine and fix the places and dates of examinations; appoint supervisors and
room examiners from among the employees of the Government or private individuals who have been trained by
the Commission for that purpose who shall be entitled to a daily allowance of not less than ten pesos (P10) for
every examination day actually attended; use the buildings and facilities of public and private schools for
examination purposes; and approve the release of examination results;

e) To keep and maintain a register of authorized practitioners of the profession or occupation; issue certificates of
registration or licenses signed by all the members of the Board concerned and the Commissioner with the official
seal of the Board affixed;
f) To have custody of all the records of the various Boards including their examination papers, minutes of
deliberation, records of administrative cases and investigations and examination results;
g) To determine, fix and collect the amount to be charged for examination, registration, registration without
examination, licenses, annual registration fees, certifications, surcharges and other fees not specified under the
provisions of Republic Act No. 6511 or amend the rates provided thereunder subject to approval by the Office of
the President;
h) To appoint, subject to the provisions of existing laws, such as officials and employees of the Commission as are
necessary in the effective performance of its functions and responsibilities, prescribed their duties and fix their
compensation; and to organize or reorganize the structure of the Commission, create or abolish positions, change
the designations of existing positions to meet changing conditions or as the need therefor arises; Provided, That
such changes shall not affect the employment status of the incumbents, reduce their ranks and/or salaries nor
result separating them from the services;
i) To submit and recommend to the President of the Philippines nominees for appointment as members of the
various Boards from among those nominated by the bona fide professional organizations accredited by the
Commission to fill existing or probable vacancies;
j) The Commission may, upon the recommendation of the Board concerned, approve the registration of and
authorize the issuance of a certificate of registration with or without examination to a foreigner who is registered
under the laws of his country: Provided, That the requirement for the registration or licensing in said foreign state
or country are substantially the same as those required and contemplated by the laws of the Philippines and that
the laws of such foreign state or country allow the citizens of the Philippines to practice the profession on the
same basis and grant the same privileges as the subject or citizens of such foreign state or country: Provided,
finally, That the applicant shall submit competent and conclusive documentary evidence, confirmed by the
Department of Foreign Affairs, showing that this country's existing laws permit citizens of the Philippines to
practice the profession under the rules and regulations governing citizens thereof. The Commission is also hereby
authorized to prescribe additional requirements or grant certain privileges to foreigners seeking registration in the
Philippines if the same privileges are granted to or some additional requirements are required of citizens of the
Philippines in acquiring the same certificates in his country;
k) The Commission shall have general supervision over foreign nationals who are authorized by existing laws or
granted special permits to, practice their profession temporarily in the Philippines to see that the terms and
conditions for their employment are strictly observed and adhered to;
l) to prescribe or revise, in conjunction with the Board concerned and the Secretary of Education and Culture or
his authorized representative, collegiate courses the completion of or graduation from which shall be a
prerequisite for admission into the practice of the profession concerned;
m) To exercise general supervision over the members of the various Boards;
n) To promulgate such rules and regulations as may be necessary to effectively implement policies with respect to
the regulation and practice of the professions;
o) To perform such other functions and duties as may be necessary to carry out effectively the various provisions
of professional regulatory laws, decrees or orders;
Section 6. Powers, functions and responsibilities of various Boards. The various Boards shall retain the following powers,
functions and responsibilities:

a) To look from time to time into the condition affecting the practice of the profession or occupation under their
respective jurisdictions and whenever necessary, adopt such measures as may be deemed proper for the
enhancement of the profession or occupation and/or the maintenance of high professional, ethical and technical
standards and for this purpose the members of a Board may personally or through subordinate employees of the
Commission conduct ocular inspection or visit industrial, mechanical, electrical or chemical plants or works,
hospitals, clinics and other engineering works where registered practitioners of the profession or occupation are
employed or are working for the purpose of determining compliance with the provisions of laws relative to the
practice of the profession or occupation or as an aid in formulating policies relative thereto in accordance with the
established policies promulgated by the Commission;
b) To investigate violations of their respective laws and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder and for
this purpose may issue summons, subpoenas and subpoena duces tecum to alleged violators or witnesses
thereof and compel their attendance to such investigations or hearings;
c) To delegate the hearing of investigation of administrative cases filed before them except in cases where the
issue involved strictly concerns the practice of the profession or occupation, in which case the hearing shall be
presided by at least one member of the Board concerned assisted by a legal or hearing officer of the Commission;
d) To promulgate decisions on such administrative cases subject to review by the Commission. If after thirty (30)
days from the receipt of such decision no appeal is taken therefrom to the Commission, the same shall become
final and immediately enforceable;
e) Subject to review by the Commission to approve registration without examination and the issuance of the
corresponding certificates of registration;
f) After due process, to suspend, revoked or reissue certificates of registration for causes provided for by law or by
the rules and regulations promulgated therefor;
g) To determine and prepare the contents of licensure examinations; score and rate the examination papers and
submit the results thereof to the Commission within one hundred twenty (120) days after the last examination day
unless extended by the Commission; and, subject to approval by the Commission determine the appropriate
passing general rating if not provided for in the law regulating the profession.
Section 7. Names of various Boards. The names of the various Boards shall be changed by the Commission by deleting
the word "Examiners."
Section 8. Transfer of personnel, funds, records, etc. The present office of the Boards of Examiners, its personnel, funds,
records, supplies, equipment, materials, furniture, and fixture are hereby transferred to the Commission.
Section 9. Repealing clause. The provisions of Republic Act No. 546 are hereby repealed as well as those of other
pertinent laws inconsistent herewith.
Section 10. Effectivity. This Decree shall take effect immediately.
Done in the City of Manila, this 22nd day of June, in the year of Our Lord, nineteen hundred and seventy-three.
Section 1. Title This Act shall be called the "PRC Modernization Act of 2000."
Section 2. Statement of Policy The State recognizes the important role of professionals in nation-building and, towards
this end, promotes the sustained development of a reservoir of professionals whose competence has been determined by
honest and credible licensure examinations and whose standards of professional service and practice are internationally
recognized and considered world-class brought about the regulatory measures, programs and activities that foster
professional growth and advancement.

Section 3. Professional Regulation Commission There is hereby created a three-man commission to be known as the
Professional Regulation Commission, hereinafter referred to as the Commission, which shall be attached to the office of
the President for general direction and coordination.
Section 4. Composition The Commission shall be headed by one (1) full-time Chairperson and two (2) full-time
Commissioners, all to be appointed by the President for a term of seven (7) years without reappointment to start from the
time they assume office. Appointments to a vacancy that occurs before the expiration of the term of a Commissioner shall
cover only the unexpired term of the immediate predecessor. At the expiration of the Chairperson, the most senior of the
Commissioners shall temporarily assume and perform the duties and functions of the Chairperson until a permanent
Chairperson is appointed by the President.
The Chairperson or Commissioner shall be at least forty (40) years of age, holding a valid certificate of
registration/professional license and a valid professional identification card or a valid certificate of competency issued by
the Commission or a valid professional license issued by any government agency, familiar with the principles and methods
of professional regulation and/or licensing and has had at least five (5) years of executive or management
experience: Provided, That, one (1) of the Commissioners must be a past Chairperson/member of a Professional
Regulatory Board.
Section 5. Exercise of Powers and Functions of the Commission The Chairperson of the Commission, and the
Commissioners as members thereof shall sit and act as a body to exercise general administrative, executive and policymaking functions of the Commission. The Commission shall establish and maintain a high standard of admission to the
practice of all professions and at all times ensure and safeguard the integrity of all licensure examinations.
The Chairperson shall act as the presiding and chief executive officer of the Commission. As presiding officer, he/she shall
preside over the meetings of the Commission sitting as a collegial body. As chief executive officer of the Commission,
he/she shall be responsible for the implementation of the policies and the programs adopted by the Commission for the
general administration of the Commission. He/she shall perform such other activities which are necessary for the effective
exercise of the powers, functions and responsibilities of the Commission.
Section 6. Compensation and Other Benefits The Chairperson shall receive compensation and allowances equivalent
to that of a Department Secretary while the Commissioners shall receive compensation and allowances equivalent to that
of an Undersecretary. The Chairperson and the members of the Commission shall be entitled to retirement benefits
provided under Republic Act Numbered Fifteen Hundred and Sixty Eight, as amended by Republic Act Numbered Three
Thousand Five Hundred and Ninety Five.
Section 7. Powers, Functions and Responsibilities of the Commission The powers, functions, and responsibilities of the
Commission are as follows:
(a) To administer, implement and enforce the regulatory policies of the national government with respect to the
regulation and licensing of the various professions and occupations under its jurisdiction including the
enhancement and maintenance of professional and occupational standards and ethics and the enforcement of the
rules and regulations relative thereto:
(b) To perform any and all acts, enter into contracts, make such rules and regulations and issue such orders and
other administrative issuance as may be necessary in the execution and implementation of its functions and the
improvement of its services;
(c) To review, revise, and approve resolutions, embodying policies promulgated by the Professional Regulatory
Boards in the exercise of their powers and functions or in implementing the laws regulating their respective
professions and other official actions on non-ministerial matters within their respective jurisdictions;
(d) To administer and conduct the licensure examinations of the various regulatory boards in accordance with the
rules and regulations promulgated by the Commission; determine and fix the places and dates of examinations;
use publicly or privately owned buildings and facilities for examination purposes; conduct more than one (1)
licensure examination: Provided, That, when there are two (2) or more examinations given in a year, at least one
(1) examinations shall be held on weekdays (Monday to Friday): Provided, further, That, if only one (1)
examination is given in a year, this shall be held only on weekdays: Provided, finally, That, the Commission is also
authorized to require the completion of a refresher course where the examinee has failed to pass three (3) times,
except as otherwise provided by law; approve the results of examinations and the release of the same; adopt
measures to preserve the integrity and inviolability of licensure examinations; appoint supervisors and room

watchers from among the employees of the government and/or private individuals with baccalaureate degrees,
who have been trained by the Commission for the purpose and who shall be entitled to a reasonable daily
allowance for every examination day actually attended, to be determined and fixed by the Commission; publish
the list of successful examinees; provide schools, colleges and universities, public and private, offering courses
for licensure examinations, with copies of sample test questions on examinations recently conducted by the
Commission and copies of the syllabi or terms of specifications of subjects for licensure examinations; and
impose the penalty of suspension or prohibition from taking licensure examinations to any examinee charged and
found guilty of violating the rules and regulations governing the conduct of licensure examinations promulgated by
the Commission;
(e) To admit the successful examinees to the practice of the profession or occupation; cause the entry of their
names on its registry book and computerized database; issue certificates of registration/professional license,
bearing the registrants name, picture, and registration number, signed by all the members of the Board
concerned and the Chairperson, with the official seal of the Board and the Commission affixed thereto which
certificate shall be the authority to practice; and at the option of the professional concerned, ministerially issue the
professional identification card, to be used solely for the purpose of identification, upon payment of the
appropriate amount: Provided, That, marine deck and marine engineer officers shall also be issued endorsement
certificates exclusively by the Commission pursuant to the 1978 and 1995 Standards of Training, Certification and
Watch-keeping (STCW) Convention, to the exclusion of any other government agency, Section 1(2) of Executive
Order No. 149, Series of 1999 and provisions of other existing laws, executive orders, administrative
issuance/regulations to the contrary notwithstanding:Provided, further, That, once a certificate of
registration/professional license, or certificate of competency, in the case of marine deck and engine officers are
issued, this cannot be withdrawn, cancelled, revoked, or suspended except for just cause as may be provided by
law after due notice and hearing;
(f) To have custody of all the records of the various Boards, including examination papers, minutes of deliberation,
records of administrative cases and investigations and examination results for control and disposition;
(g) To determine and fix the amount of fees to be charged and collected for examination, registration, registration
without examination, professional identification card, certification, docket, appeal, replacement, accreditation,
including surcharges and other fees not specified under the provisions of Republic Act Numbered Four Hundred
Sixty Five as amended by Republic Act Numbered Sixty Five Hundred and Eleven or to charge and collect
reasonable fees at the rates higher than the rates provided thereunder subject to the approval by the Office of the
President.
(h) To appoint subject to the Civil Service laws, rules, and regulations, officials and employees of the Commission
necessary for the effective performance of its functions and responsibilities; prescribe their duties and fix their
compensation subject to the provisions of Republic Act Numbered Six Thousand Seven Hundred and Fifty Eight
and allowances including other fringe benefits; and to assign and/or reassign personnel as the exigency of the
service requires subject to the Civil Service laws, rules and regulations; and to organize or reorganize the
structure of the Commission; and create or abolish positions or change the designation of existing positions in
accordance with a staffing pattern prepared by it and approved by the Office of the President upon the
recommendation of the Department of Budget and Management (DBM) to meet the changing conditions or as the
need arises: Provided, That, such changes shall not affect the employment status of the incumbents, reduce their
ranks and/or salaries nor shall result in their separation from the service;
(i) To submit and recommend to the President of the Philippines the names of licensed/registered professionals
for appointment as members of the various Professional Regulatory Boards from among those nominated to fill up
vacancies pursuant to the provisions of Executive Order No. 496, Series of 1991;
(j) Upon recommendation of the Professional Regulatory Board concerned, to approve the registration of and
authorize the issuance of a certificate of registration/license and professional identification card with or without
examination to a foreigner who is registered under the laws of his state or country and whose certificate of
registration issued therein has not been suspended or revoked: Provided, That, the requirements for the
registration or licensing in said foreign state or country are substantially the same as those required and
contemplated by the laws of the Philippines and that the laws of such foreign state or country allow the citizens of
the Philippines to practice the profession on the same basis and grant the same privileges as those enjoyed by
the subjects or citizens of such foreign state or country: Provided, further, That, the Commission may, upon
recommendation of the Board concerned, authorize the issuance of a certificate of registration/license or a special
temporary permit to foreign professionals who desire to practice their professions in the country under reciprocity
and other international agreements; consultants in foreign-funded, joint venture or foreign-assisted projects of the

government, employees of Philippine or foreign private firms or institutions pursuant to law, or health professionals
engaged in humanitarian mission for a limited period of time: Provided, finally, That agencies, organizations or
individuals whether public or private, who secure he services of a foreign professional authorized by law to
practice in the Philippines for reasons aforementioned, shall be responsible for securing a special permit from the
Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) and the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE), pursuant to
PRC and DOLE rules:
(k) To authorize any officer of the Commission to administer oaths:
(l) To supervise foreign nations who are authorized by existing laws to practice their professions either as holders
of a certificate of registration and a professional identification card or a temporary special permit in the Philippines;
to ensue that the terms and conditions for their practice or of their employment are strictly complied with; to
require the hiring or employing government agency or private entity/institution to secure a temporary special
permit from the concerned Board subject to approval by the Commission and to file a criminal complaint against
the head of the government agency or officers of the said private entity/institution, who shall be liable under the
penalty provided for in the concerned professional regulatory law or the penalty imposed pursuant to this Act,
when the professional was hired and allowed to practice his/her profession without permit; to file upon due
process request for deportation with the Bureau of Immigration and Deportation (BID); and to supervise
professionals who were former citizens of the Philippines and who had been registered and issued a certificate of
registration and a professional identification card prior to their naturalization as foreign citizens, who may, while in
the country on a visit, sojourn or permanent residence, practice their profession: Provided, That, prior to the
practice of their profession they shall have first been issued a special permit and updated professional
identification card by the Board concerned subject to approval by the Commission and upon payment of the
permit and annual registration fees;
(m) To monitor the performance of schools in licensure examinations and publish the results thereof in a
newspaper of national circulation;
(n) To adopt and institute a comprehensive rating system for universities, colleges, and training institutes based
on the passing ratio and overall performance of students in board examinations;
(o) To exercise administrative supervision over the various professional regulatory boards and its members;
(p) To adopt and promulgate such rules and regulations as may be necessary to effectively implement policies
with respect to the regulation and practice of the professions;
(q) To implement the program for the full computerization of all licensure examinations given by the various
professional regulatory boards including the registration of professionals not later than the year 2003 and other
operations of the Commission;
(r) To investigate and decide administrative matters involving officers and employees under the jurisdiction of the
Commission;
(s) To investigate motu proprio or upon the filing of a verified complaint, any member of the Professional
Regulatory Boards for neglect of duty, incompetence, unprofessional, unethical, immoral or dishonorable conduct,
commission of irregularities in the licensure examinations which taint or impugn the integrity and authenticity of
the results of the said examinations and, if found guilty, to revoke or suspend their certificates of registration and
professional licenses/identification cards and to recommend to the President of the Philippines their suspension or
removal from office as the case may be;
(t) To issue summons, subpoena and subpoena duces tecum in connection with the investigation of cases against
officials and employees of the Commission and the members of the Professional Regulatory Boards;
(u) To hold in contempt in erring party or person only upon application with a court of competent jurisdiction;
(v) To call upon or request any department, instrumentality, office, bureau, institution or agency of the government
including local government units to render such assistance as it may require, or to coordinate or cooperate in
order to carry out, enforce or implement the professional regulatory policies of the government or any program or
activity it may undertake pursuant to the provisions of this Act;

(w) To initiate an investigation, upon complaint under oath by an aggrieved party, of any person, whether a private
individual or professional, local or foreign, who practices the regulated profession or occupation without being
authorized by law, or without being registered with and licensed by the concerned regulatory board and issued the
corresponding license/professional identification card or temporary or special permit, or who commits any of the
prohibited acts provided in the regulatory laws of the various professions, which acts are criminal in nature, and if
the evidence so warrants, to forward the records of the case to the office of the city or provincial prosecutor for the
filing of the corresponding information in court by the lawyers of the legal services of the Commission who may
prosecute said case/s upon being deputized by the Secretary of Justice;
(x) To prepare an annual report of accomplishments on the programs, projects and activities of the Commission
during the year for submission to Congress after the close of its calendar year and make appropriate
recommendations on issues and/or problems affecting the Commission, the Professional Regulatory Board, and
the various professions under its jurisdiction; and
(y) To perform such other functions and duties as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this Act, the
various professional regulatory laws, decrees, executive orders and other administrative issuance.
Section 8. Regional Offices The Commission is hereby authorized to create regional offices as may be necessary to
carry out their functions mandated under this Act.
Section 9. Powers, Functions and Responsibilities of the Various Professional Regulatory Boards The various,
professional regulatory boards shall retain the following powers, functions and responsibilities:
(a) To regulate the practice of the professions in accordance with the provisions of their respective professional
regulatory laws;
(b) To monitor the conditions affecting the practice of the profession or occupation under their respective
jurisdictions and whenever necessary, adopt such measures as may be deemed proper for the enhancement of
the profession or occupation and/or the maintenance of high professional, ethical and technical standards, and for
this purpose the members of the Board duly authorized by the Commission with deputized employees of the
Commission, may conduct ocular inspection in industrial, mechanical, electrical or chemical plants or
establishments, hospitals, clinics, laboratories, testing facilities, mines and quarries, other engineering facilities
and in the case of schools, in coordination with the Commission on Higher Education (CHED);
(c) To hear and investigate cases arising from violations of their respective laws, the rules and regulations
promulgated thereunder and their Codes of Ethics and, for this purpose, may issue
summons, subpoenaand subpoena duces tecum to alleged violators and/or witnesses to compel their attendance
in such investigations or hearings: Provided, That, the decision of the Professional Regulatory Board shall, unless
appealed to the Commission, become final and executory after fifteen (15) days from receipt of notice of judgment
or decision;
(d) To delegate the hearing or investigation of administrative cases filed before them except in cases where the
issue or question involved strictly concerns the practice of the profession or occupation, in which case, the
hearing shall be presided over by at least one (1) member of the Board concerned assisted by a Legal or Hearing
Officer of the Commission;
(e) To conduct, through the Legal Officers of the Commission, summary proceedings on minor violations of their
respective regulatory laws, violations of the rules and regulations issued by the boards to implement their
respective laws, including violations of the general instructions to examinees committed by examinees, and
render summary judgment thereon which shall, unless appealed to the Commission, become final and executory
after fifteen (15) days from receipt of notice of judgment or decision;
(f) Subject to final approval by the Commission, to recommend registration without examination and the issuance
of corresponding certificate of registration and professional identification card;
(g) After due process, to suspend, revoke or reissue, reinstate certificate of registration or licenses for causes
provided by law;
(h) To prepare, adopt and issue the syllabi or tables of specifications of the subjects for examinations in
consultation with the academe; determine and prepare the questions for the licensure examinations which shall

strictly be within the scope of the syllabus or table of specifications of the subject for examination; score and rate
the examination papers with the name and signature of the Board member concerned appearing thereon and
submit the results in all subjects duly signed by the members of the Board to the Commission within ten (10) days
from the last day of examination unless extended by the Commission for justifiable cause/s; and subject to the
approval by the Commission, determine the appropriate passing general average rating in an examination if not
provided for in the law regulating the profession; and
(i) To prepare an annual report of accomplishments on programs, projects and activities of the Board during the
year for submission to the Commission after the close of each calendar year and make appropriate
recommendations on issues or problems affecting the profession to the Commission.
Section 10. Compensation of the Members of the Professional Regulatory Boards The members of the Professional
Regulatory Boards shall receive compensation equivalent to, at least, two salary grades lower than the salary grade of the
Commissioners: Provided, That the Chairperson of the Regulatory Board shall receive a monthly compensation of two
steps higher than the members of the Board, and: Provided, further, That they shall be entitled to other allowances and
benefits provided under existing laws.
Section 11. Person to Teach Subjects for Licensure Examination on all Professions All subjects for licensure
examinations shall be taught by persons who are holders of valid certificates of registration and valid professional licenses
of the profession and who comply with the other requirements of the CHED.
Section 12. Assistance of Law Enforcement Agency Any law enforcement agency shall, upon call or request of the
Commission or of any Professional Regulatory Board, render assistance in enforcing the regulatory law of the profession
including the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder by prosecuting the violators thereof in accordance with law
and the rules of court.
Section 13. Appropriations The amount necessary to carry out the initial implementation of this Act shall be charged
against the current years appropriations of the Professional Regulation Commission. Thereafter, such sums as may be
necessary for the continued implementation of this Act shall be included in the succeeding General Appropriations Act.
Section 14. Authority to Use Income In addition to the annual appropriations of the Commission provided under the
Annual General Appropriations Act, the Commission is hereby authorized to use its income not exceeding the amount of
Forty-five million pesos (P45,000,000.00) a year for a period of five (5) years after the effectivity of this Act to implement
the program for full computerization of the operations of the Commission, subject to the usual accounting and auditing
requirements.
Section 15. Penalties for Manipulation and Other Corrupt Practices in the Conduct of Professional Examinations
(a) Any person who manipulates or rigs licensure examination results, secretly informs or makes known licensure
examination questions prior to the conduct of the examination or tampers with the grades in professional licensure
examinations shall, upon conviction, be punished by imprisonment of not less than six (6) years and one (1) day
to not more than twelve (12) years or a fine of not less than Fifty thousand pesos (P50,000.00) to not more than
One hundred thousand pesos (P100,000.00) or both such imprisonment and fine at the discretion of the court.
(b) In case the offender is an officer or employee of the Commission or a member of the regulatory board, he/she
shall be removed from office and shall suffer the penalty of perpetual absolute disqualification from public office to
addition to the penalties prescribed in the preceding section of this Act;
(c) The penalty of imprisonment ranging from four (4) years and one (1) day to six (6) years or a fine ranging from
Twenty thousand pesos (P20,000.00) to not more than Forty-nine thousand pesos (P49,000.00), or both
imprisonment and fine at the discretion of the court, shall be imposed upon the accomplices. The penalty of
imprisonment ranging from two (2) years and one (1) day to four (4) years or a fine ranging from Five thousand
pesos (P5,000.00) to not more than Nineteen thousand pesos (P19,000.00), or both imprisonment and fine at the
discretion of the court, shall be imposed upon the accessories.
Section 16. Penalties for Violation of Section 7 Subparagraph (1) by Heads of Government Agencies or Officers of
Private Entities/Institutions Any head of a government agency or officer(s) of a private firm/institution who violates
Section 7 subpar. (1) of this Act shall be punished by imprisonment of not less than six (6) months and one (1) day to
not more than six (6) years, or a fine of not less than Fifty thousand pesos (P50,000.00) to not more than Five hundred
thousand pesos (P500,000.00) or both at the discretion of the court.

Section 17. Implementing Rules and Regulations Within ninety (90) days after the approval of this Act, the Professional
Regulation Commission, together with representatives of the various Professional Regulatory Boards and accredited
professional organizations, the DBM, and the CHED shall prepare and promulgate the necessary rules and regulations
needed to implement the provisions of this Act.
Section 18. Transitory Provisions The incumbent Commissioner and two (2) incumbent Associate Commissioners shall
serve as Chairperson and Commissioners respectively under the terms for which they have been appointed without need
of new appointments. The incumbent Executive Director shall likewise serve as Assistant Commissioner without need of
new appointment.
Section 19. Separability Clause If any provision of this Act or the application of such provision to any person or
circumstances is declared invalid or unconstitutional, the remainder of this Act or application of such provisions to other
persons or circumstance shall not be affected by such declaration.
Section 20. Repealing Clause Republic Act. No. 546, Presidential Decree No. 223, as amended by Presidential Decree
No. 657, Republic Act No. 5181, and Executive Order No. 266, Series of 1995 are hereby repealed. Section 23 (h) of
Republic Act No. 7836, Section 4 (m & s). Section 23 of Republic Act No. 7920, and Section 29 of Republic Act No. 8050,
insofar as it requires completion of the requirements of the Continuing Professional Education (CPE) as a condition for the
renewal of the license are hereby repealed. All other laws, orders, rules and regulations or resolutions and all part/s
thereof inconsistent with the provisions of this Act are hereby repealed or amended accordingly.
Section 21. Effectivity This Act shall take effect after fifteen (15) days following its publication in the Official Gazette or in
two (2) newspapers of general circulation, whichever is earlier.
Approved: December 05, 2000

(Sgd.)JOSEPH EJERCITO ESTRADA


President of the Philippines
EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 130 October 25, 1993
INSTITUTING THE BALIK SCIENTIST PROGRAM UNDER THE DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
WHEREAS, the Balik Scientist Program ("Program") was established pursuant to Presidential Decree No. 819 dated 24
October 1975 for a period of five (5) years and was extended up to October 1986 by Letter of Instruction No. 1044 dated
18 July 1980;
WHEREAS, the Program allowed any foreign-based scientist, professional, technician, or any person with special skill or
expertise who is of Filipino origin or descent to practice his/her profession or expertise in the Philippines provided he/she
shall first register with the Professional Regulation Commission;
WHEREAS, Section 2, Chapter 1, Title XVIII, Book IV of the Administrative Code of 1987 mandates the Department of
Science and Technology to "formulate and implement policies, plans, programs, and projects for the development of
science and technology and for the promotion of scientific and technological activities for both the public and private
sectors and ensure that the results of scientific and technological activities are properly applied and utilized to accelerate
economic and social development";
WHEREAS, the Department of Science and Technology has approved the revival of the Program, with the different
features, as part of its Science and Technology, Human Resource Development Program:
WHEREAS, utilizing the expertise of expatriate Filipino scientists and technologists is a vital component of the
Government's industrialization efforts;
WHEREAS, it is the policy of the Government to encourage Filipino science and technology experts from abroad to return
to the Philippines and share their expertise for the purpose of accelerating the industrial development of the country; and

WHEREAS, this renewed Program aims to strengthen the scientific and technological manpower of the academe and
public and private institutions in order to promote information exchange and accelerate the flow of new technology into the
country.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, FIDEL V. RAMOS, President of the Republic of the Philippines, by virtue of the powers vested in
me by law, do hereby order:
Sec. 1. A Balik Scientist Program is hereby instituted under the Department of Science and Technology.
Sec. 2. A Balik Scientist is a science or technology expert, as may be defined by the Department of Science and
Technology, who is a Filipino citizen or a foreigner of Filipino descent, residing abroad and contracted by the National
Government to return and work in the Philippines along his/her field of expertise for a short term with a duration of at least
one (1) month ("Short-Term Program") or long term with a duration of at least two (2) years ("Long-Term Program").
Sec. 3. A Balik Scientist under the Short-Term Program may, through the Department of Science and Technology, be
granted and/or avail of the following incentives:
a. Free round-trip economy airfare originating from a foreign country to the Philippines by direct route, and such other
privileges given under the Short-Term Program implementing guidelines; and
b. Grants-in-aid for research and development projects approved by the Secretary of Science and Technology.
Sec. 4. A Balik Scientist under the Long-Term Program and returning new graduates from DOST-recognized science and
technology foreign institutions may, through the Department of Science and Technology, be granted and/or avail of the
following incentives:
a. Free one-way economy airfare from a foreign country to the Philippines, including airfare for the spouse and two (2)
minor dependents; free return trip economy airfare after completion of two (2) years in the case of Balik Scientists, and
three (3) years in the case of new graduates;
b. Duty-free importation of professional instruments and implements, tools of trade, occupation or employment, wearing
apparel, domestic animals, and personal and household effects in quantities and of the class suitable to the profession,
rank or position of the persons importing them, for their own use and not for barter or sale, in accordance with Section 105
of the Tariff and Customs Code;
c. No-dollar importation of motor vehicles, provided that the importer companies with and is qualified in accordance with
the Board of Investments' Guidelines on No-Dollar Importation of Second-Hand Motor Vehicles of Returning
Residents/Immigrants and such other guidelines as may be issued by the Bureau of Import Services and the Department
of Trade and Industry;
d. Exemption from payment of travel tax for Filipino permanent residents abroad in accordance with Section 2 of
Presidential Decree No. 1183. Those not falling under the exempted categories of Section 2 of Presidential Decree No.
1183 may be exempted under Section 3 of Republic Act No. 6768 approved on 3 November 1989, otherwise known as the
Balikbayan Program;
e. Reimbursement of freight expenses for the shipment of a car and personal effects;
The family of the expert/new graduate shall be reimbursement the freight expenses for 2-1/2 tons volume weight for
surface shipment of a car and personal effects. In addition when travelling by air, the expert/new graduate is entitled or
reimbursement for excess baggage not exceeding 20 kgs. per adult and 10 kgs. per minor dependent. Any excess shall
be borne by the expert/new graduate;
f. Housing may be arranged through pre-determined institutions;

g. Assistance in securing a certificate of registration without examination or an exemption from the licensure requirement
of the Professional Regulation Commission to practice profession, expertise or skill in the Philippines in accordance with
Section 5 of Presidential Decree No. 223 dated 22 June 1973, as amended by Presidential Decree No. 657 dated 19
February 1975;
h. Grants-in-aid for research and development projects approved by the Secretary of Science and Technology; and
i. The participants under this Program including their dependents, as certified by the Department of Science and
Technology, shall be granted by the Secretary of Justice special non-immigrant visas under Section 47 (a) (2) of the
Philippine Immigration Act of 1940, as amended, after compliance with the requirements therefor. Said participants
including their dependents shall be exempted from the payment of visa, immigration and registration fees in accordance
with Section 251 of the Philippine Foreign Service Code of 1983.
The length of the validity of said visas and their extension shall be accordance with the policy determined by the Secretary
of Justice. The Secretary of Justice may refuse to grant a 47(a) (2) visa to restricted aliens.
Sec. 5. The incentives herein granted shall be financed through the programmed appropriations of the Department of
Science and Technology for Assistance to Scientific Research and Development Activities with Local and Foreign
Institutions, in accordance with the annual General Appropriations Act.
Sec. 6. The Department of Science and Technology shall administer this Program and shall issue the implementing rules
in consultation with the appropriate agencies to effectivity implement the Program.
Sec. 7. The Secretary of Science and Technology may call on the heads of any of the departments, agencies and
bureaus, including government-owned or controlled corporations, for the effective implementation of this Program.
Sec. 8. This Executive Order shall take effect immediately.
DONE in the City of Manila, this 25th day of October in the year of Our Lord, Nineteen Hundred and Ninety-Three.
As a brain gain initiative of the Philippine government, the Balik Scientist Program (BSP) of the Department of Science
and Technology (DOST) seeks to encourage highly-trained overseas Filipino scientists and technologists, experts, and
professionals to return to the Philippines and share their expertise for the acceleration of the scientific, agro-industrial and
economic development of the country.
Established in 1975, the Program serves as a tool for the strengthening of the country's scientific and technological
human resources. Thru the transfer of diverse new knowledge and expertise, Balik Scientists have been instrumental in
providing solutions to national concerns, especially in areas where there are limited experts residing in the country. Local
private and public institutions seeking technical assistance from foreign-based Filipino experts may apply for DOST
assistance through the Program, either on a Short-Term or Long-Term basis.
To date, the BSP continues to be one of the DOST's strategic programs which addresses the priority areas
consistent with the current S&T priorities as identified by DOST for the country's achievement of greater levels of
competitiveness, economic value and prosperity.
MALACAANG
Manila
PRESIDENTIAL DECREE No. 541 August 20, 1974
ALLOWING FORMER FILIPINO PROFESSIONALS TO PRACTICE THEIR RESPECTIVE PROFESSIONS IN THE
PHILIPPINES.

WHEREAS, a considerable number of Filipino professionals have, with the passage of time, gone to other countries to
pursue further studies and/or take up specialized studies in their chosen fields of endeavor while others emigrated to other
lands in search of better job opportunities;
WHEREAS, since their departure from the Philippines some of these professionals have become naturalized citizens of
their host countries so that they are now barred from the practice of their profession in our country;
WHEREAS, a considerable number of these erstwhile Filipino professionals are now desirous to come home under the
Balikbayan Program and, while here, would like to serve our people or share their advanced knowledge and expertise
with their local professional colleagues;
WHEREAS, for the sake of faster national development our government is now trying to attract these erstwhile Filipino
professionals to return and reside permanently in the Philippines so that they can provide the talent and expertise urgently
needed by the homeland;
NOW, THEREFORE, I, FERDINAND E. MARCOS, President of the Philippines, by virtue of the powers vested in me by
the Constitution, do hereby decree and order the following:
Section 1. The provisions of all existing laws, rules and regulations, decrees, orders, and instructions to the contrary
notwithstanding, professionals who were formerly citizens of the Philippines and who have previously passed licensure
examinations in the Philippines for the practice of their profession, may, while in this country on a visit, sojourn or
permanent residence, practice their profession: Provided, That they are professional practitioners of good standing prior to
their departure from the Philippines and in their adopted country: Provided further, That prior to the practice of their
profession they shall have first registered with the Professional license fee; and Provided finally, That they shall pay the
corresponding income tax due on all incomes realized by them in the practice of their respective professions in the
Philippines.
Section 2. The Professional Regulations Commission shall promulgate the necessary rules and regulations to implement
and carry out the purposes of this Decree.
Section 3. This Decree shall take effect immediately.
DONE in the City of Manila, this 20th day of August, in the year of Our Lord, nineteen hundred and seventy-four.