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IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol.

4, Issue 02, 2016 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613

Optimization of Dual-Band Microstrip Patch Antenna with Quarter


Wave Transformer Feed and Two Narrow Slots
Abdul Sayeed1 Awij Aalam Shaikh2 Khan Tabish3 Mohd Anis4 Ansari Adeeb5
1,2,3,4,5
Department of Electronics and Telecommunications
1,2,3,4,5
M.H. Saboo Siddik College of Engineering, Mumbai University,
Abstract In this paper, we present a new dual band planar
antenna. The proposed antenna consists of a microstrip patch
with 2 narrow vertical slots that is fed by a quarter wave
transformer. Dual-frequency patch antennas may provide an
alternative to large-bandwidth planar antennas, in
applications in which large bandwidth is really needed for
operating at two separate transmit and receive bands. When
the two operating frequencies are far apart, a dual-frequency
patch structure can be conceived to avoid the use of separate
antennas. The designed antenna operates at two frequencies
namely 2.792GHz and 3.216GHz. Simulation of microstrip
patch antenna with 2 vertical microstrip slots structure using
HFSS Electromagnetic simulator.
Key words: HFSS software, microstrip antenna, Return Loss,
VSWR, Gain, Bandwidth, Z parameter

II. DUALBAND ANTENNA DESIGN


A micro strip Patch antenna is a narrowband, widebeam
antenna fabricated by etching the antenna element pattern in
metal trace bounded to an insulting dielectric substrate, such
as on a printed circuit board for hardware implementation,
with a continuous metal layer bonded to the other side of the
substrate forms a ground plane as shown fig 1.low dielectric
constant substrates are generally referred for maximum
radiations. The conducting patch can take any shape but I
shaped are the most commonly used configuration. As other
configurations are complex to analyze and difficult to design.
A micro strip antenna is characterised by its Length, Width,
input impedance, Polarization, Gain and Radiation pattern.

I. INTRODUCTION
Microstrip antennas are widely used in many applications due
to their low profle, low cost and ease of fabrication. In some
applications it is desired to have a dual band or multiband
characteristics. These characteristics can be obtained by
coupling multiple radiating elements or by using tuning
devices such as varactor diodes. A micro strip slot antenna is
that type of antenna which is having slots on the geometry
plane of micro strip patch [1, 2, 3].However, these methods
make antenna more complicated. A simple method to achieve
the dual band characteristic in a microstrip antenna is
embedding two vertical slots in the patch as the structure
proposed in our paper in which the radiating patch includes a
pair of vertical-slots. In microstrip antennas, embedded slots
can also be used to enhance the impedance bandwidth of a
single band antenna. To realize a broadband characteristic in
feeding a microstrip antenna, a quarter wave transformers can
be used. In this paper, dual band characteristics are achieved
by embedding two vertical slots in a rectangular patch near
quarter wave feed line equidistant from centre. Also, quarter
wave transformer is used to realize matching between the
feed systems and radiating system in a wide frequency range.
This vertical shaped slot of microstrip patch operates at
2.792GHz and 3.216GHz for the solution of dual band for
wireless local area network (WLAN) frequencies bands. In
applications in which the increased bandwidth is needed for
operating at two separate sub-bands, a valid alternative to the
broadening of total bandwidth is represented by dualfrequency patch antennas. Indeed, the optimal antenna for a
specific application is one that ensures the matching of the
bandwidth of the transmitted and/or the received signal. Dualfrequency antennas exhibit a dual-resonant behaviour in a
single radiating structure. Despite the convenience that they
may provide in terms of space and cost, little attention has
been given to dual-frequency patch antennas.

Fig. 1(a): Micro strip patch antenna

Fig. 1(b): Design of patch


The configuration of the proposed antenna is shown in Fig.
1(b). The substrate used for this design is FR4 with relative
permittivity of 4.2, loss tangent of 0.025 and thickness of h =
1.6 mm. Dimensions of the ground plane are also 46.8mm
42.2 mm. As shown in Fig. 1, the radiating element is a square
patch with a two narrow vertical slots near the centre. The
radiating patch is fed by a quarter wave transform. By using
these slots, the dual band operation of the antenna can be
achieved. The basic geometry is a slotted rectangular-patch
antenna, in which two narrow slots, with dimensions L, and
d, are etched on the patch close to and parallel to the radiating
edges. The location of the slots with respect to the patch is
defined by the quantities w and l, which are very small with
respect to the dimensions L and W of the patch. The dual-

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Optimization of Dual-Band Microstrip Patch Antenna with Quarter Wave Transformer Feed and Two Narrow Slots
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 02/2016/136)

frequency operation in the slotted structure can be interpreted


as that associated with two modes that arise from the
perturbation of the TM,,, and of the TM,,, mode. In particular,
since the narrow slots are etched close to the centre of the
patch, they are located close to the current minima, so that
minor perturbations of the TM,,, mode are expected. Many
dual banding techniques are discussed in [6],[7],[8].The
frequency ratio f2/f1 for the two frequency bands of 2.79GHz
and 3.21GHz works out to be 1.15. For such small frequency
ratio the most simple design of achieving dual band is to make
the Width and Length of the MS patch correspond to half
wavelength at above two resonances[8].
Calculation of Width:
The width is critical in terms of power efficiency, antenna
impedance and bandwidth. It is largely dependent on the
antenna operating frequency and the dielectric constant[10].
c
W=
(1)
reff +1
2f
2

Where c is the free-space velocity of light = 3108


m/s and r is the dielectric constant of material.
Calculation of Effective Dielectric Constant:
The Micro strip separates two dielectrics, i.e. air and
Substrate. Hence most of the electric field lines remain
inside the substrate and some extend to air. The value of this
effective dielectric constant is given by
+ 1 1 1 + 12 1/2
= eff
+ eff
[
]
(2)
eff
2
2

Where h and W are the height and width of substrate


material for an antenna respectively.
Calculation of Length (L):
The length of the patch determines the resonance frequency
is a critical factor for patch
c
L =
(3)
eff 2f
o eff

Fig. 2: Final dualband antenna design


CALCULATED OPTIMISED
PARAMETERS
VALUES
VALUES
L (Length)
25.13
mm
24.73 mm
W (Width)
32.57
mm
32.80 mm
Length of
34.51
mm
46.8
mm
ground plane
Width of ground
42.203 mm
42.20 mm
plane
Feed line
23.19 mm
Edge feed
8.29
mm
Length of slot
18
mm
Width of slot
1
mm
Substrate
4.4
permittivity (r)
Table 1: Design Parameters of Dual band Antenna on FR4
Substrate
In the table above, we have used iterative method for
calculating optimized length and width. The final antenna
layout is illustrated in Figure 2. The HFSS simulated
frequency responses of the filter are plotted in Figure 3,
Figure 4 and Figure 5 respectively.
IV. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

L
= L 2 L
(4)

The L is the length due to the fringing field and can be


calculated using the equation
=

0.412(
(

eff

+ 0.3) ( + 0.264)
eff

+ 0.258) ( + 0.8)

(5)

Calculation of Ground Dimensions:


The ground dimension for the antenna can be calculated as
below:
Width of ground is given as: Wg =W + 6h
(6)
Length of ground is given as: Lg =L + 6h
(7)
III. DUALBAND ANTENNA CALCULATIONS:
The Resonant Frequency is set to Fr= 2.8GHz and the
specified relative permittivity of FR4 epoxy substrate is r=
4.4 and assuming height of substrate as h=1.6mm.
Considering these specifications, the calculated values of the
prototype microstrip patch antenna with resonant frequency
fr = 2.8GHz.

Fig..3: Return Loss.

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475

Optimization of Dual-Band Microstrip Patch Antenna with Quarter Wave Transformer Feed and Two Narrow Slots
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 02/2016/136)

Fig. 8: Gain at 2.79GHz


Fig. 4: Z-Parameter.

Fig. 9: Gain at 3.21GHz

Fig. 5: VSWR

Fig. 10: Directivity at 2.79GHz

Fig. 6: Radiation Pattern at 2.79GHz

Fig. 7: Radiation Pattern at 3.21GHz

Fig. 11: Directivity at 3.21GHz


The Figure.3 shows the return loss of the microstrip
dualband patch antenna with 2 slots having return loss or S11
parameter of -27.51dB at 2.792GHz and -27.24dB at
3.216GHz. Figure 4 shows Z parameter of 48.31 at
2.792GHz and 51.14 at 3.216GHz. Figure 5 shows VSWR
of 1.0879 at 2.792GHz and 1.0908 at 3.216GHz. Figure 6
shows radiation pattern at 2.79GHz

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Optimization of Dual-Band Microstrip Patch Antenna with Quarter Wave Transformer Feed and Two Narrow Slots
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 02/2016/136)

Figure 7 shows radiation pattern at 3.21GHz. Figure


8 shows gain of 3.172dB at 2.79GHz. Figure 8 shows gain of
3.172dB at 2.79GHz. Figure 9 shows gain of 2.67dB at
3.21GHz. Figure 10 shows directivity of 6.1dB at 2.79GHz.
Figure 11 shows directivity of 3.54dB at 3.21GHz.
PARAMETER 2.79GHz 3.21GHz
Return loss
-27.51dB -27.24dB
Gain
3.172dBi 2.67dBi
Directivity

6.1dBi

3.54dBi

Bandwidth
77MHz
49MHz
Table 2: Performance characteristics of Dual band antenna
on FR4 Substrate
V. CONCLUSION
Thus, we have successfully simulated and designed a
dualband microstrip antenna using HFSS software and
microstrip technology. The Return Loss and VSWR on both
the operating frequency are improved to a better and high
value with an increased bandwidth and gain. This prototype
can be integrated into the design of microwave or millimetrewave integrated circuit where the compactness is crucial.
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