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Sri Vijaya Visakha Milk Producers Company Ltd (Visakha Dairy) was established in the year 1973 under Co-operative Societies Act and commissioned dairy plant at Akkireddipalem, Visakhapatnam with 50,000 LPD handling capacity in the year 1977.

With the introduction of MACS Act in 1995 by A.P State Government, Visakha Dairy was converted in to the said Act in the year 1999 and registered as ‘Sri Vijaya Visakha District Milk Producers Mutually Aided Cooperative Union Ltd'. With the enactment of Companies (Amendment) Act 2002, cooperative form of enterprises known as Producer Companies can be registered under Part IXA of the Companies Act 1956. To fulfil the growth aspirations while retaining cooperative ideology as core principles of governance, converted into Producer Company with effect from 06 Jan 2006 under the name and style of ‘Sri Vijaya Visakha Milk Producers Company Limited’.Visakha Dairy is having procurement operations covering Costal Andhra districts, viz, Visakhapatnam, Vizianagaram, Srikakulam, East and West Godavari Districts and procuring about 7 lakh litres of milk per day from 2,60,699 milk producers thru 3734 collection centres.Visakha Dairy is one of the largest and fastest growing Milk & Milk Products Manufacturing Company having plants at Visakhapatnam and Rangampeta (EG) plants in Andhra Pradesh. Both the plants are equipped with the State of the Art Technology and ISO 22000:2005 certified and has total handling capacity of 9,00,000 litres per day.

Visakha Dairy manufactures all variants of Milk i.e Fresh Milk, UHT, Extended Shelf Life Milk, Aseptic Flavoured Milk, Curd, Butter Milk, Lassi, Dhood peda, Badam Burfi, Milk Cake, Mysore Pak, Kalakand, Mistidoi, Ghee, Panner, Butter, SMP, Yoghurts etc and sold in Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Orrissa and Chattisgarh markets. Company crossed turnover of Rs.1000 crore with CAGR of 14%.Established Training Centre and imparting training to farmers in the areas of clean milk programme, Nutritional aspects, Fodder requirements and Animal Health Care. Attaching importance to animal health, established 633 Veterinary Health Centres equipped with required infrastructure, staff and supplying the required

veterinary medicines at 50% subsidy. Necessary Infrastructure created to improve breed development thru Artificial Insemination with successful cross breed semen imported from National Dairy Development Board, Goushala. 7 Mobile Veterinary Service Vehicles equipped with medicines accompanied by veterinary doctors extends services covering more than 25 villages every day.Cattle feed plants with more than 400 MT per day of feed capacity are organized and supplying cattle feed to farmers at subsidized rates.To improve quality and reduce risk of spoilage, logistics, constructed more than 100 Bulk Milk Cooling Centres covering every 10 kms radius. All the bulk coolers together has a total capacity of 906,000 litres and are automated.Milk Powder Plant with capacity of 13MTPD was constructed in the year 1998 to convert surplus milk into Skimmed Milk Powder.For the first time in the country Ultra Pasteurized Milk in pouches was introduced, having shelf life of 14 days in 2010 with the state of the art technology from Elecster, Finland to cater to the needs of interior tribal areas, underprivileged with no storage, transport or power facilities.Constructed Aseptic Packing Station in the year 2001 with a capacity of 30,000 litres per day for UHT milk production and expanded to 3.0 lakh litres per day capacity in 2015. Visakha Dairy enjoys 10% market share in UHT Milk. Visakha Dairy sells Milk, Cream, Flavoured Milk in UHT segment and planning Milk Shakes shortly.As a green field initiative and to overcome power crisis, commissioned 2 Solar power plants in record time one with a capacity of 1.15 MW at Visakhapatnam and 1.65 MW capacity at Vizianagaram for captive usage.Visakha Dairy is giving employment opportunity to more than 2000 employees including contract labour.Visakha Dairy thru its Milk Producers Educational Health and Medical Welfare Trust are extending Medical services to farmers and their families at subsidised rates in the 400 bed Modern Hospital constructed with 70 crores investment apart from education to the farmers children, preference to producers children in employment, irrigation projects, culverts, kalyanamandapams, bridges, canals etc.Visakha Dairy is growing consistently and paying highest procurement price to milk producers. Visakha Dairy aims at 10 Lakh litres per day procurement and Rs.2000 crores turnover by the year 2020.

Background

Milk is a nutritive beverage obtained from various animals and consumed by humans. Most milk is obtained from dairy cows, although milk from goats, water buffalo, and reindeer is also used in various parts of the world. In the United States, and in many industrialized countries, raw cow's milk is processed before it is consumed. During processing the fat content of the milk is adjusted, various vitamins are added, and potentially harmful bacteria are killed. In addition to being consumed as a beverage, milk is also used to make butter, cream, yogurt, cheese, and a variety of other products.

Raw Materials

The average composition of cow's milk is 87.2% water, 3.7% milk fat, 3.5% protein, 4.9% lactose, and 0.7% ash. This composition varies from cow to cow and breed to breed. For example, Jersey cows have an average of 85.6% water and 5.15% milk fat. These figures also vary by the season of the year, the animal feed content, and many other factors.

Vitamin D concentrate may be added to milk in the amount of 400 international units (IU) per quart. Most low fat and skim milk also has 2,000 IU of Vitamin A added.

Pasteurizing

6 The milk—either whole milk, skim milk, or standardized milk—is piped into a pasteurizer to kill any bacteria. There are several methods used to pasteurize milk. The most common is called the high-temperature, short-time (HTST) process in which the milk is heated as it flows through

the pasteurizer continuously. Whole milk, skim milk, and standardized milk must be heated to 161° F (72° C) for 15 seconds. Other milk products have different time and temperature requirements. The hot milk passes through a long pipe whose length and diameter are sized so that it takes the liquid exactly 15 seconds to pass from one end to the other. A temperature sensor at the end of the pipe diverts the milk back to the inlet for reprocessing if the temperature has fallen below the required standard.

Homogen izing

7 Most milk is homogenized to reduce the size of the remaining milk fat

   
 

particles. This prevents the milk fat from separating and floating to the surface as cream. It also ensures that the milk fat will be evenly distributed through the milk. The hot milk from the pasteurizer is pressurized to 2,500-3,000 psi (17,200-20,700 kPa) by a multiple- cylinder piston pump and is forced through very small passages in an

adjustable valve. The shearing effect of being forced through the tiny openings breaks down the fat particles into the proper size.

 

8 The milk is then quickly cooled to 40° F (4.4° C) to avoid harming its taste.

 

Packaging

9 The milk is pumped into coated paper cartons or plastic bottles and is

 
 

sealed. In the United States most milk destined for retail sale in grocery stores is packaged in one-gallon (3.8-liter) plastic bottles. The bottles or

cartons are stamped with a "sell by" date to ensure that the retailers do

   

not allow the milk to stay on their shelves longer than it can be safely stored.

10 The milk cartons or bottles are placed in protective shipping containers and kept refrigerated. They are shipped to distribution

 

warehouses in refrigerated trailers and then on to the individual markets, where they are kept in refrigerated display cases.

Cleaning

11 To ensure sanitary conditions, the inner surfaces of the process equipment and piping system are cleaned once a day. Almost all the equipment and piping used in the processing plant and on the farm are made from stainless steel. Highly automated clean-in-place systems are incorporated into this equipment that allows solvents to be run through the system and then flushed clean. This is done at a time between the normal influx of milk from the farms.

warehouses in refrigerated trailers and then on to the individual markets, where they are kept in
Science Production Ziegler and oxo processes In the <a href=Ziegler process , linear alcohols are produced from ethylene and triethylaluminium followed by oxidation and hydrolysis. An idealized synthesis of 1- octanol is shown: Al(C H ) + 9 C H → Al(C H ) " id="pdf-obj-5-2" src="pdf-obj-5-2.jpg">
Science Production Ziegler and oxo processes In the <a href=Ziegler process , linear alcohols are produced from ethylene and triethylaluminium followed by oxidation and hydrolysis. An idealized synthesis of 1- octanol is shown: Al(C H ) + 9 C H → Al(C H ) " id="pdf-obj-5-4" src="pdf-obj-5-4.jpg">
Science Production Ziegler and oxo processes In the <a href=Ziegler process , linear alcohols are produced from ethylene and triethylaluminium followed by oxidation and hydrolysis. An idealized synthesis of 1- octanol is shown: Al(C H ) + 9 C H → Al(C H ) " id="pdf-obj-5-6" src="pdf-obj-5-6.jpg">
Science Production Ziegler and oxo processes In the <a href=Ziegler process , linear alcohols are produced from ethylene and triethylaluminium followed by oxidation and hydrolysis. An idealized synthesis of 1- octanol is shown: Al(C H ) + 9 C H → Al(C H ) " id="pdf-obj-5-8" src="pdf-obj-5-8.jpg">
Science Production Ziegler and oxo processes In the <a href=Ziegler process , linear alcohols are produced from ethylene and triethylaluminium followed by oxidation and hydrolysis. An idealized synthesis of 1- octanol is shown: Al(C H ) + 9 C H → Al(C H ) " id="pdf-obj-5-10" src="pdf-obj-5-10.jpg">

Science

Science Production Ziegler and oxo processes In the <a href=Ziegler process , linear alcohols are produced from ethylene and triethylaluminium followed by oxidation and hydrolysis. An idealized synthesis of 1- octanol is shown: Al(C H ) + 9 C H → Al(C H ) " id="pdf-obj-5-14" src="pdf-obj-5-14.jpg">

Production Ziegler and oxo processes In the Ziegler process, linear alcohols are produced from ethylene and triethylaluminium followed by oxidation and hydrolysis. [41] An idealized synthesis of 1- octanol is shown:

Al(C 8 H 17 ) 3 + 3 O + 3 H 2 O → 3 HOC 8 H 17 + Al(OH) 3 The process generates a range of alcohols that are separated by distillation. Many higher alcohols are produced by hydroformylation of alkenes followed by hydrogenation. When applied to a terminal alkene, as is common, one typically obtains a linear alcohol: [41] RCH=CH 2 + H 2 + CO → RCH 2 CH 2 CHO RCH 2 CH 2 CHO + 3 H 2 → RCH 2 CH 2 CH 2 OH Such processes give fatty alcohols, which are useful for detergents. Hydration reactions

Low molecular weight alcohols of industrial importance are produced by the addition of water to alkenes. Ethanol, isopropanol, 2-butanol, and tert-butanol are produced by this general method. Two implementations are employed, the direct and indirect methods. The direct method avoids the formation of stable intermediates, typically using acid catalysts. In the indirect method, the alkene is converted to the sulfate ester, which is subsequently hydrolyzed. The direct hydration using ethylene (ethylene hydration) [42] or other alkenes from cracking of fractions of distilled crude oil.

Hydration is also used industrially to produce the diol ethylene glycol from ethylene oxide.

Biological routes

Ethanol is obtained by fermentation using glucose produced from sugar from the hydrolysis of starch, in the presence of yeast and temperature of less than 37 °C to produce ethanol. For instance, such a process might proceed by the conversion of sucrose by the enzyme invertase into glucose and fructose, then the conversion of glucose by the enzyme zymase into ethanol (and carbon dioxide).

Several of the benign bacteria [which?] in the intestine use fermentation as a form of anaerobic metabolism. This metabolic reaction produces ethanol as a waste product, just likeaerobic respiration produces carbon dioxide and water. Thus, human bodies contain some quantity of alcohol endogenously produced by these bacteria. In rare cases, this can be sufficient to cause "auto-brewery syndrome" in which intoxicating quantities of alcohol are produced. [43][44][45]

Laboratory synthesis

Several methods exist for the preparation of alcohols in the laboratory.

Substitution

Primary alkyl halides react with aqueous NaOH or KOH mainly to primary alcohols in nucleophilic aliphatic substitution. (Secondary and especially tertiary alkyl halides will give the elimination (alkene) product instead). Grignard reagents react with carbonyl groups to secondary and tertiary alcohols. Related reactions are the Barbier reaction and the Nozaki-Hiyama reaction.

Reduction

Aldehydes or ketones are reduced with sodium borohydride or lithium aluminium hydride (after an acidic workup). Another reduction by aluminiumisopropylates is

the Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley reduction. Noyori asymmetric hydrogenation is the asymmetric reduction of β-keto-esters.

Hydrolysis

Alkenes engage in an acid catalysed hydration reaction using concentrated sulfuric acid as a catalyst that gives usually secondary or tertiary alcohols. The hydroboration-oxidation and oxymercuration-reduction of alkenes are more reliable in organic synthesis. Alkenes react with NBS and water in halohydrin formation reaction. Amines can be converted to diazonium salts, which are then hydrolyzed.

The formation of a secondary alcohol via reduction and hydration is shown:

Production[edit]

the <a href=Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley reduction . Noyori asymmetric hydrogenation is the asymmetric reduction of β-keto-esters. Hydrolysis Alkenes engage in an acid catalysed hydration reaction using concentrated sulfuric acid as a catalyst that gives usually secondary or tertiary alcohols. The hydroboration-oxidation and oxymercuration-reduction of alkenes are more reliable in organic synthesis. Alkenes react with NBS and water in halohydrin formation reaction . Amines can be converted to diazonium salts , which are then hydrolyzed. The formation of a secondary alcohol via reduction and hydration is shown: Production [ edit ] Acetic acid is produced industrially both synthetically and by bacterial fermentation . About 75% of acetic acid made for use in the chemical industry is made by the carbonylation of methanol, explained below . The biological route accounts for only about 10% of world production, but it remains important for the production of vinegar because many food purity laws require vinegar used in foods to be of biological origin. As of 2003–2005, total worldwide production of virgin acetic acid was estimated at 5 Mt/a (million tonnes per year), approximately half of which was produced in the United States . European production was approximately 1 Mt/a and declining, while Japanese production was 0.7 Mt/a. Another 1.5 Mt were recycled each year, bringing the total world market to 6.5 Mt/a. Since then the global production has increased to 10.7 Mt/a (in 2010), and further; however, a slowing in this increase in production is predicted. The two biggest producers of virgin acetic acid are Celanese and BP Chemicals . Other major producers include Millennium Chemicals , Sterling Chemicals , Samsung , Eastman , and Svensk Etanolkemi . Methanol carbonylation [ edit ] Most acetic acid is produced by methanol carbonylation . In this process, methanol and carbon monoxide react to produce acetic acid according to the equation: The process involves iodomethane as an intermediate, and occurs in three steps. A catalyst , metal carbonyl , is needed for the carbonylation (step 2). 1. CH OH + HI → CH I + H O 2. CH I + CO → CH COI 3. CH COI + H O → CH COOH + HI Two related processes for the carbonylation of methanol: the rhodium-catalyzed Monsanto process , and the iridium-catalyzed Cativa process . The latter process is greener and more efficien t and has largely supplanted the former process, often in the same production plants. Catalytic amounts of water are used in both processes, but the Cativa process requires less, so the water-gas shift reaction is suppressed, and fewer by-products are formed. " id="pdf-obj-7-32" src="pdf-obj-7-32.jpg">

Acetic acid is produced industrially both synthetically and by bacterial fermentation. About 75% of acetic acid made for use in the chemical industry is made by the carbonylation of methanol, explained below. [10] The biological route accounts for only about 10% of world production, but it remains important for the production of vinegar because many food purity laws require vinegar used in foods to be of biological origin. As of 2003–2005, total worldwide production of virgin acetic acid [25] was estimated at 5 Mt/a (million tonnes per year), approximately half of which was produced in the United States. European production was approximately 1 Mt/a and declining, while Japanese production was 0.7 Mt/a. Another 1.5 Mt were recycled each year, bringing the total world market to 6.5 Mt/a. [26][27] Since then the global production has increased to 10.7 Mt/a (in 2010), and further; however, a slowing in this increase in production is predicted. [28] The two biggest producers of virgin acetic acid are Celanese and BP Chemicals. Other major producers include Millennium Chemicals, Sterling Chemicals, Samsung, Eastman, and Svensk Etanolkemi. [29]

Methanol carbonylation[edit]

Most acetic acid is produced by methanol carbonylation. In this process, methanol and carbon monoxide react to produce acetic acid according to the equation:

the <a href=Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley reduction . Noyori asymmetric hydrogenation is the asymmetric reduction of β-keto-esters. Hydrolysis Alkenes engage in an acid catalysed hydration reaction using concentrated sulfuric acid as a catalyst that gives usually secondary or tertiary alcohols. The hydroboration-oxidation and oxymercuration-reduction of alkenes are more reliable in organic synthesis. Alkenes react with NBS and water in halohydrin formation reaction . Amines can be converted to diazonium salts , which are then hydrolyzed. The formation of a secondary alcohol via reduction and hydration is shown: Production [ edit ] Acetic acid is produced industrially both synthetically and by bacterial fermentation . About 75% of acetic acid made for use in the chemical industry is made by the carbonylation of methanol, explained below . The biological route accounts for only about 10% of world production, but it remains important for the production of vinegar because many food purity laws require vinegar used in foods to be of biological origin. As of 2003–2005, total worldwide production of virgin acetic acid was estimated at 5 Mt/a (million tonnes per year), approximately half of which was produced in the United States . European production was approximately 1 Mt/a and declining, while Japanese production was 0.7 Mt/a. Another 1.5 Mt were recycled each year, bringing the total world market to 6.5 Mt/a. Since then the global production has increased to 10.7 Mt/a (in 2010), and further; however, a slowing in this increase in production is predicted. The two biggest producers of virgin acetic acid are Celanese and BP Chemicals . Other major producers include Millennium Chemicals , Sterling Chemicals , Samsung , Eastman , and Svensk Etanolkemi . Methanol carbonylation [ edit ] Most acetic acid is produced by methanol carbonylation . In this process, methanol and carbon monoxide react to produce acetic acid according to the equation: The process involves iodomethane as an intermediate, and occurs in three steps. A catalyst , metal carbonyl , is needed for the carbonylation (step 2). 1. CH OH + HI → CH I + H O 2. CH I + CO → CH COI 3. CH COI + H O → CH COOH + HI Two related processes for the carbonylation of methanol: the rhodium-catalyzed Monsanto process , and the iridium-catalyzed Cativa process . The latter process is greener and more efficien t and has largely supplanted the former process, often in the same production plants. Catalytic amounts of water are used in both processes, but the Cativa process requires less, so the water-gas shift reaction is suppressed, and fewer by-products are formed. " id="pdf-obj-7-82" src="pdf-obj-7-82.jpg">

The process involves iodomethane as an intermediate, and occurs in three steps. A catalyst, metal carbonyl, is needed for the carbonylation (step 2). [30]

  • 1. CH 3 OH + HI → CH 3 I + H 2 O

  • 2. CH 3 I + CO → CH 3 COI

  • 3. CH 3 COI + H 2 O → CH 3 COOH + HI

Two related processes for the carbonylation of methanol: the rhodium-catalyzed Monsanto process, and the iridium-catalyzed Cativa process. The latter process is greener and more efficient [31] and has largely supplanted the former process, often in the same production plants. Catalytic amounts of water are used in both processes, but the Cativa process requires less, so the water-gas shift reaction is suppressed, and fewer by-products are formed.

By altering the process conditions, acetic anhydride may also be produced on the same plant using the rhodium catalysts. [32]

Acetaldehyde oxidation[edit]

Prior to the commercialization of the Monsanto process, most acetic acid was produced by oxidation of acetaldehyde. This remains the second-most-important manufacturing method, although it is usually not competitive with the carbonylation of methanol. The acetaldehyde can be produced by hydration of acetylene. This was the dominant technology in the early 1900s. [33]

Light naphtha components are readily oxidized by oxygen or even air to give peroxides, which decompose to produce acetic acid according to thechemical equation, illustrated with butane:

  • 2 C 4 H 10 + 5 O 2 → 4 CH 3 CO 2 H + 2 H 2 O Such oxidations require metal catalyst, such as the naphthenatel salts of manganese, cobalt, and chromium. The typical reaction is conducted at temperatures and pressures designed to be as hot as possible while still keeping the butane a liquid. Typical reaction conditions are 150 °C (302 °F) and 55 atm. [34] Side-products may also form, including butanone, ethyl acetate, formic acid, and propionic acid. These side-products are also commercially valuable, and the reaction conditions may be altered to produce more of them where needed. However, the separation of acetic acid from these by-products adds to the cost of the process. [35] Under similar conditions and using similar catalysts as are used for butane oxidation, the oxygen in air to produce acetic acid can oxidizeacetaldehyde. [35]

  • 2 CH 3 CHO + O 2 → 2 CH 3 CO 2 H

Using modern catalysts, this reaction can have an acetic acid yield greater than 95%. The major side-products are ethyl acetate, formic acid, and formaldehyde, all of which have lower boiling points than acetic acid and are readily separated by distillation. [35]

Ethylene oxidation[edit]

Acetaldehyde may be prepared from ethylene via the Wacker process, and then oxidised as above. In more recent times, chemical company Showa Denko, which opened an ethylene oxidation plant in Ōita, Japan, in 1997, commercialised a cheaper single-stage conversion of ethylene to acetic acid. [36] The process is catalyzed by a palladium metal catalyst supported on a heteropoly acid such astungstosilicic acid. It is thought to be competitive with methanol carbonylation for smaller plants (100–250 kt/a), depending on the local price of ethylene. The approach will be based on utilizing a novel selective photocatalytic oxidation technology for the selective oxidation of ethylene and ethane to acetic acid. Unlike traditional oxidation catalysts, the selective oxidation process will use UV light to produce acetic acid at ambient temperatures and pressure.

Oxidative fermentation[edit]

For most of human history, acetic acid bacteria of the genus Acetobacter have made acetic acid, in the form of vinegar. Given sufficient oxygen, these bacteria can produce vinegar from a variety of alcoholic foodstuffs. Commonly used feeds

include apple cider, wine, and fermented grain, malt, rice, or potato mashes. The overall chemical reaction facilitated by these bacteria is:

C 2 H 5 OH + O 2 → CH 3 COOH + H 2 O A dilute alcohol solution inoculated with Acetobacter and kept in a warm, airy place will become vinegar over the course of a few months. Industrial vinegar- making methods accelerate this process by improving the supply of oxygen to the bacteria. [37] The first batches of vinegar produced by fermentation probably followed errors in the winemaking process. If must is fermented at too high a temperature, acetobacter will overwhelm the yeast naturally occurring on the grapes. As the demand for vinegar for culinary, medical, and sanitary purposes increased, vintners quickly learned to use other organic materials to produce vinegar in the hot summer months before the grapes were ripe and ready for processing into wine. This method was slow, however, and not always successful, as the vintners did not understand the process. [38] One of the first modern commercial processes was the "fast method" or "German method", first practised in Germany in 1823. In this process, fermentation takes place in a tower packed with wood shavings or charcoal. The alcohol-containing feed is trickled into the top of the tower, and fresh air supplied from the bottom by either natural or forcedconvection. The improved air supply in this process cut the time to prepare vinegar from months to weeks. [39] Nowadays, most vinegar is made in submerged tank culture, first described in 1949 by Otto Hromatka and Heinrich Ebner. [40] In this method, alcohol is fermented to vinegar in a continuously stirred tank, and oxygen is supplied by bubbling air through the solution. Using modern applications of this method, vinegar of 15% acetic acid can be prepared in only 24 hours in batch process, even 20% in 60-hour fed-batch process. [38] Anaerobic fermentation[edit] Species of anaerobic bacteria, including members of the genus Clostridium or Acetobacterium can convert sugars to acetic acid directly without creating ethanol as an intermediate. The overall chemical reaction conducted by these bacteria may be represented as:

C 6 H 12 O 6 → 3 CH 3 COOH These acetogenic bacteria produce acetic acid from one-carbon compounds, including methanol, carbon monoxide, or a mixture of carbon dioxide and hydrogen:

2 CO 2 + 4 H 2 → CH 3 COOH + 2 H 2 O This ability of Clostridium to metabolize sugars directly, or to produce acetic acid from less costly inputs, suggests that these bacteria could produce acetic acid more efficiently than ethanol-oxidizers like Acetobacter. However, Clostridium bacteria are less acid-tolerant than Acetobacter. Even the most acid-tolerant Clostridium strains can produce vinegar in concentrations of only a few per cent, compared to Acetobacter strains that can produce vinegar in concentrations up to 20%. At present, it remains more cost-effective to produce vinegar using Acetobacter, rather than using Clostridium and concentrating it. As

a result, although acetogenic bacteria have been known since 1940, their industrial use is confined to a few niche applications. [41]

Many innovations have been made to the world through the years. In the course of human history, these changes have played a great role in affecting the life of man in a given time period. One of the most important periods that ushered in the early beginnings of the modern era is the Industrial Revolution. In this time, the machinery industry was born. It has paved way to the invention of various devices that have helped man. Today, this industry still plays a very big role when it comes to business. Machines mean nothing if they are not calibrated and efficient – this is where the Six Sigma Methodology and the Machine Industry marry their goals for the betterment of the business industry.

A machine is anything that is composed of one or more parts that will work to achieve a certain predetermined goal. These tools and devices are powered in order to work. The sources of power can vary ranging from mechanical, electrical, chemical, or thermal means. In order for a thing to be classified as a machine, human ingenuity must be the reason behind it, and not a natural occurrence. In the simplest terms, machines are devices that can modify the magnitude or direction of a force. However, this does not apply in the modern sense with the many things that machines can do today. Machines can be used to form other machines that usher further new innovations. They start a chain reaction that can fuel the world into the future.

The Six Sigma Methodology is a quality improvement process that helps companies ensure that their machines are calibrated correctly, efficient, and are doing what they are designed to do through the help of statistics. By collecting and analyzing data, an individual can determine if a machine is using fuel efficiently, and if it is doing the job it is intended to do accurately.

Machines are widely used in various fields and industries. They are used in manufacturing of various products.

They are also used in fields of construction, agriculture, and mining.

Today, many machines have even been

designed to operate without humans. The field of robotics and automata has paved way to more sophisticated machines. Robots are now used in industries such as the automotive sector.

The machinery industry is a very dominant force that shaped the world today. With its help, the world is modernized and is continuing to advance into the future. In order to keep these machines advancing into the future, statistics-based quality improvement techniques such as the Six Sigma Methodology should be employed to ensure efficiency and accuracy.

social

AS THE weak recovery continues, various experts continue to linger on the importance ofmanufacturing to growth in output and employment. America's economy will work again, many argue, when its workers are once again engaged in the critical task of making things. I continue to struggle to understand this focus. Think of the kinds of tasks that make a product possible: the people who identify a market opportunity and come up with a concept, the people who produce a workable product design, the people who design a production method and supply chain, the people who find supplies and

labour at prices and qualities consistent with profitable production, the people who manage the logistics of bringing inputs together, the people who actually assemble the inputs, the people who manage the logistics of delivering the goods to markets, the people who actually sell the goods to customers, and the people who track these processes and add up the numbers to make sure things are working as planned. Why is the assembly step obviously the most important to economic activity?

Manufacturing enthusiasts often cite the benefits of manufacturing's high compensation levels for middle-skilled work, but this is a mistaken idea. In the tradable sector, high wages are possible only when there are high levels of value creation. That corresponds to high skill levels or capital intensities, both of which limit the extent to which high-wage manufacturing jobs will be responsible for mass employment. Low-skill jobs in tradable sectors will tend to flow to places with very low labour costs. Of course, America can employ lots of people in non-tradable, middle-skill manufacturing jobs: things like home- building, on-site prepared food manufacture, and the production of shortened hair. Yet employment in construction, restaurant, and personal service jobs doesn't satisfy manufacturing enthusiasts, despite the ample market appetite for such workers.

Industrial Upgrading and Modernization Programme (IUMP)

In developing countries and economies in transition, industrial small and medium enterprises (SMEs) often lack managerial capacities and have insufficient knowledge of business processes as well as of operational and production cycles. Furthermore, their performance is often hindered by poor technologies utilized and limited access to finance needed to expand production capacities. Individual SMEs also find it very difficult to deal with policy and regulatory challenges that impact on their sector or on the business sector in general. This results in creating obstacles and barriers to SMEs to compete on domestic and international markets. Tackling these challenges in a holistic way will allow SMEs to produce innovative, cost effective, safe, reliable, and quality products in sufficient volumes.

The Industrial Upgrading and Modernization Programme (IUMP) aims to contribute to economic growth and facilitate regional integration of developing countries and economies in transition by increasing the capacities of local industries for value added generation, economic diversification, exports and employment creation. UNIDO advocates that competitiveness and innovation are the key dynamics to take advantage of liberalization and to drive economic development and growth.

An Integrated Solution for Industry Competitiveness

A number of internal and external factors play a critical role in the performance and competitiveness of SMEs. Factors related to business environment, industrial and economic policies and support institutions are as important as internal factors influencing production and growth of SMEs. Addressing one or a set of factors in a fragmented and uncoordinated manner is unlikely to enhance SME competitiveness and trade performance. Therefore, the integrated technical assistance offered by IUMP consists of remedial actions at three levels to maximize industrial competitiveness. A holistic IUMP focuses on promoting competitiveness and diversification of manufacturing sectors along with improving regulatory frameworks and the business environment, and reinforcing institutional capacities of technical and business support infrastructure.

Abstract

This study is a survey conducted by means of questionnaires. It analyzes the collected data using descriptive analysis as well as t and chi squared tests. In this study we have analyzed the status of small scale industries in Khuzestan and Maharashtra with a special consideration of the impact of these industries on job generation and regional development separately. Statistics show that Iran highly invested in the moderate to large industries such as petroleum and petrochemical, agricultural adapting industries, mines and non-metal minerals, steel and manufacturing machineries, while little attention has been paid to small industries within the framework of the industrial structure. The findings of the research showed that when small scale industries are developed in Khuzestan, job opportunities will be increased more than Maharashtra. The activities of small scale industries in terms of product, consumption, trade and

Importance of International Trade

The buying and selling of goods and services across national

borders is known as international trade. International trade is the backbone of our modern, commercial world, as producers in various nations try to profit from an expanded market, rather than be limited to selling within their own borders. There are many reasons that trade across national borders occurs, including lower

production costs in one region versus another, specialized industries, lack or surplus of natural resources and consumer tastes.

One of the most controversial components of international trade today is the lower production costs of "developing"

nations. There is currently a great deal of concern over jobs being taken away from the United States, member countries of the European Union and other "developed" nations as countries such as China, Korea, India, Indonesia and others produce goods and services at much lower costs. Both the United States and the European Union have imposed severe restrictions on imports from Asian nations to try to stem this tide. Clearly, a company that can pay its workers the equivalent of dollars a day, as compared to dollars an hour, has a distinct selling advantage. Nevertheless,

American and European consumers are only too happy to lower their costs of living by taking advantage of cheaper, imported goods.

Even though many consumers prefer to buy less expensive goods, some international trade is fostered by a specialized industry that has developed due to national talent and/or

tradition. Swiss watches, for example, will never be price- competitive with mass produced watches from Asia. Regardless, there is a strong market among certain consumer groups for the quality, endurance and even "snob appeal" that owning a Rolex, Patek-Philippe or Audemars Piguet offers. German cutlery, English bone China, Scottish wool, fine French silks such as Hermes and other such products always find their way onto the international trade scene because consumers in many parts of the world are willing to foster the importation of these goods to satisfy their concept that certain countries are the best at making certain goods.