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Application composite thread on pipe

By Pieter Tolhoek.

Composite Thread Development Draft


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Summary

Composite Thread Development Draft


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Contents

Introduction ______________________________________________________7

Specifications and criteria __________________________________________8


2.1

Tubing and Thread material and dimensions

2.2

Load and temperature specifications

2.2.1
2.2.2
2.2.3
2.2.4
2.3
3

Axial load due to internal pressure and own weight


Forces during making up and breaking out
Internal pressure load
Impact of Temperature changes resulting in stresses

Criteria

9
9
11
11
11

Market and literature survey _______________________________________14


3.1

Company information

14

3.2

Patent information

14

Concept generation _______________________________________________16


4.1

Method to apply thread on tube

16

4.2

Method to mould thread

17

Work out concept functions ________________________________________19


5.1

Methods to apply thread on tube


5.1.1

Application of adhesive bond

19
19

5.2

Reinforcement type

20

5.3

Thread strength

21

5.3.1
5.3.2

Axial load transfer


Hoop stresses

21
21

5.4

Wear prevention

21

5.5

Seal concepts

22

5.5.1
5.5.2
5.6

Seal compound
Ductile coating or foil

Lubrication concepts
5.6.1
5.6.2
5.6.3
5.6.4

22
23
23

Graphite powder
PTFE Powder or tape
Silicone additive
Grease or other viscous lubricant

23
24
24
24

5.7

Produce thread shape

24

5.8

Force reinforcement in threads

24

5.8.1

Roller tool or contra thread


3

25

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5.8.2
5.8.3
5.8.4
5.8.5
5.8.6
5.8.7
5.8.8
5.9

Smear or Inject fibre paste


Vacuum or compressed air
Use electrostatic force
Use centrifugal forces
Helical coil spring
Use integrated shape to force reinforcements in threads
Push mould on reinforcement

Keep reinforcement in thread shape


5.9.1
5.9.2

29

Binder or tackifier
High matrix viscosity

29
29

5.10 Application of resin in mould


5.10.1
5.10.2
5.10.3
5.10.4
5.10.5

26
26
26
26
27
28
28

29

Pre-impregnate
Centrifugal
Resin infusion
Injection of fibres with resin
Prepreg

30
30
31
33
34

5.11 Centre thread

34

5.12 Protect thread

34

Testing _________________________________________________________35
6.1

Test program set-up


6.1.1
6.1.2

35

Phase II: Application method of thread:


Phase III: Detailed thread connection composition:

6.2

Test phase I Application methods of fibres in threadFout!


gedefinieerd.

6.3

Test phase II Structural tests

Bladwijzer

37
37
niet
37

Concept selection ________________________________________________38

Prototype design _________________________________________________41

Appendices
A

Tubing round thread specifications _________________________________44

Tubing design ___________________________________________________46


B.1

Laminate design considerations

46

B.2

Theoretical analysis Star Fiberglass laminate

47

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Calculation of axial load ___________________________________________51

Calculation of adhesive joint _______________________________________53

Minimum bending radius of glass fibre ______________________________56

Calculation of thread strength ______________________________________57


F.1

Axial load transmission

57

F.2

Tightening Torque

62

Calculation of clamping forces _____________________________________68

Seal methods ____________________________________________________70


H.1

Product Data Sheet of TF-15

70

Force mould on laminate __________________________________________72

Electrostatic force ________________________________________________80


J.1

Electrostatics general

80

J.2

Electrostatics applied to attract glass fibres

80

J.2.1
J.2.2
J.2.3
J.2.4
K

Analogy to powder coating


Fibre sizing
Mould design
Electrostatic bonding

80
81
81
82

Preforms ________________________________________________________83
K.1

Stamping

83

K.2

Directed-Fibre Preforming

83

Resin infusion techniques _________________________________________85


L.1

Resin Transfer Moulding


L.1.1
L.1.2
L.1.3

85

General introduction
Resin flow in injection processes
Injection strategy

85
86
88

M Centre thread ____________________________________________________90


N

Protect thread ___________________________________________________91

Tests ___________________________________________________________92
O.1

Materials
O.1.1
O.1.2
O.1.3
O.1.4

92
Resin
Curing agents
Reinforcements
Fillers

92
92
92
93
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O.1.5

Release agents

93

O.2

Required material quantities for testing

93

O.3

Mixer

95

O.4

Availability of materials

96

O.5

Introduction tests

98

O.5.1
O.5.2
O.5.3
O.6

Introduction test I First composite thread moulding


Introduction test II Second composite thread moulding
Introduction test III Thread casting

98
98
99

Winding tests

102

O.6.1
O.6.2
O.6.3

102
102
106

Preparations sample production


Tube sample production I
Tube sample production II

Patent information _______________________________________________111

Drawings ______________________________________________________113

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1 Introduction
Objective is to design and develop a method to apply male thread on a composite tube.
The study consists of the following parts:
Concept study
Gather and evaluate the required specifications and design criteria
Short market and literature survey
This study mainly consists of an information search on Internet. It concentrates on
patents and company information concerning composite threads on tubes.
Concept study
Concept ideas are generated for:

Concepts for composite thread

Concepts for production methods
Concept analysis
Check feasibility with tools:

Analytical

(FEM)?

Testing
An overview of the initial planning is added below.

Taaknaam
Specifications gathering

6 jan '03
m w

13 jan '03
d
d

20 jan '03
m w
v

27 jan '03
d
d

3 feb '03
m w

10 feb '03
z
d
d

Market and literature survey


Concept generation
Concept analysis
Concept feasibility tests
concept selection
13-2

Selected concept

Figure 1 Planning 20-01-2003

Phases after the initial concept selection are:


Test phase
Detailed design
Production

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2 Specifications and criteria


2.1

Tubing and Thread material and dimensions

Glass fibre reinforced completion tubing is considered with an outer diameter of 2 up to


10. Specifications for high-pressure fibreglass line pipe and for low-pressure fibreglass
line pipe can be found in API Standard 15 HR and API Standard 15 LR respectively.
Information about the tubing composite material is obtained from Amiantit.

Fibres
Matrix

Fibre volume fraction


Fibre orientations

E-glass 1200 TEX Roving


Epoxy resin: Epikote 827
Curing agent: Ancamine DL50
75%
54, mat 0/90

Basic dimensions of Tubing Round Threads are obtained from the API Specification 5B.
The specifications are added in Appendix A. According to API specifications 2 3/8 inch
thread should be applied on a 2 inch glass fibre reinforced tubing. The thread with a 2inch tubing is depicted in Figure 2.

Figure 2 Thread according to API specs on 2" tubing

An extra thickened part must be applied directly after the composite thread on which the
make-up torque can be applied without damaging the tubing. The design of this part after
the thread depends on the type of tool that is applied to apply the tightening torque
2.2

Load and temperature specifications

The following load specifications are given by Mr. Tolhoek:


The pressure rating for 2 3 tubing is 240bar
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The pressure rating for 4 tubing is 200bar


The maximum downhole temperature is 120C

Loads on the male thread are:


Axial load due to internal pressure and tensile forces on the tubing string.
Radial compression load due to pre-tensioning of the tapered thread
Tensile hoop stress due to internal pressure
2.2.1

Axial load due to internal pressure and own weight

The rated axial load given by Star Fiberglass Downhole Tubing for 2 inch tubing with a
pressure rating of 3500 psi (241 bar) is 58kN. This is approximately the own weight of
1962m string length. Combined with an internal pressure of 240 bar this results in a total
axial load of 107 kN.
The ultimate axial load given by Star Fiberglass is 236 kN. This axial load is obtained by
an internal pressure of 240 bar combined with the weight of a string length of 6335
meters (calculated in Appendix B)
The axial load is. The axial load is calculated that is induced by internal pressure and the
own weight of a tube string with the length of 5000 m. The calculated value is compared
to the strength of composite tubing given by Centron. Centron gives a higher axial
strength.
Refer to tubing analysis
2.2.2

Forces during making up and breaking out

Tensile hoop stress is introduced in the female thread in tightening due to the tapered
thread shape. Compression hoop stress is generated in the male thread. The magnitude
of the radial load during tightening depends on the tightening torque, thread shape and
friction. The effect of tightening is considered in paragraph 2.2.2.
Torque is applied during the make-up and break-out of the threaded connection to obtain
an effective seal. Torque can either be applied with a hand tool or with a power tong.
Threaded connections in a 2 inch steel tubing string are tightened with a torque in the
range of 8135 Nm (6000 ftlbf). This torque is applied with power tongs as depicted in
Figure 3.

Figure 3 Power tongs for make-up of tubing connections

Important for the make-op of FRP tubing is that overtorque, undertorque and outer
diameter damage is avoided. Star Fiberglass prescribes that small diameter sizes (4
inch) are made op with a strap wrench. Torque requirements given by Star are given in **.

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Centron tubing can be installed using standard power tongs capable of low torque <500
ftlbs according to the Centron specs.
3

Thread size= 2 /8 inch thread


Optimum torque
Minimum torque
Maximum torque
Thread standoff

Ft/LBS
150
125
225
2 to 4

Nm
203
170
305

Table 1 Star Fiberglass torque specifications for 2 3/8 inch thread

The required clamping forces increase with the torque requirements. The clamping force
must increase with increasing torque to prevent slip. The minimum required clamping
force is calculated in appendix 0. The contact pressure depends on the contact area.
Calculation results are added in Figure 4. A contact length of 100 mm and a friction
coefficient of 0.1 are assumed. The actual contact area can be considerably smaller when
the surface is not flat. A flat outer surface can be obtained by application of a mould or by
machining the outer surface.
1000
990

800

600
F clamp( T )
N
400

200

66

500

1000

1500

200

2000

2500

3000
3000

N m
0

0.05

0.04

0.03

cont( T)
MPa
0.02

0.01

500

1000

1500

200

2000

2500

3000
3000

N m

Figure 4 Contact force and contact pressure due to clamping

The loads on the thread that are introduced by the tightening torque are analysed in
Appendix F.2. From this analysis can be concluded that the assumed proportion between
the contact loads on both sides of the thread has a large influence on the predicted
thread loads that are introduced by the tightening torque. The calculation results are
depicted in Figure 5. The variable in this graph is the proportion between the thread
loads FN2=FN1. It is not known at this stage what is the actual value of .
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In Figure 5 can be seen that a high value of is desired. The figure also shows that the
radial reaction loads and the contact loads can become quite high.

The static load capacity of filled polymers is about 55 to 70 MPa. The dynamic load
capacity of these materials is in the range of 25 to 35 MPa. Much higher contact loads up
to 400 MPa static and 170 dynamic are possible when the reinforcement is optimised for
this specific application. The maximum allowable contact pressure on glass fibre
reinforced epoxy is not known at this stage.
2000000

600
Fax
FN1

1800000

FN2
500

Frad
1600000

1400000

[N]

1000000

300

800000

cont [N/mm2]

400
1200000

200
600000
400000
100
200000
0

0
0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Figure 5 Calculation results Loads on threads due to torque

2.2.3

Internal pressure load

Tensile hoop stress is introduced in both the female and the male thread by internal
pressure. The tangential load introduced by the internal pressure is calculated in **. The
thickness at the location of the threaded joined is larger than the tube wall thickness.
Hoop stress caused by internal pressure is not expected to be a problem when the
threads are applied on the tube laminate because this tube laminate does not fail under
the pressure.
Calculate+ refer to tubing analysis
2.2.4

Impact of Temperature changes resulting in stresses

Especially important when multiple materials are combined with different temperature
expansion ratios.
Calculate+ refer to tubing analysis
2.3

Criteria

This paragraph describes design criteria for evaluation of composite thread concepts.
These criteria can be used for the final concept selection. It is therefore important that the
criteria are evaluated on mutual importance.

Product structural performance


o Axial strength
o Torque strength
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Product Life
o Vulnerability in handling
o Number of couplings and uncouplings (maximum of 4 or 5x)
o Fatigue strength
o Chemical resistance

Process quality
o Accuracy
o Dimensions
o Shapes
o Quality and texture of the surface
o Air locked in
o Centre thread on tubing
o No leak
o Clean thread

Process controllability
o Consistency (dimensional and structural)
o Tolerances

Reparability (on site or in factory)

Impact on production process


o Production Time
o Production complexity
o One or two parts

Material cost
o Mould life;
o mould cost
o Cost of reinforcement and additives

Proven technology

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6.0

5.0

Scale factor

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

0.0
Product structural
performance

Product Life

Process quality

Process
controllability

Reparability (on
site or in factory)

Impact on
production
process

Material cost

Proven
technology

Criteria

Figure 6 Criteria evaluation results

Criteria evaluation results are depicted in Figure 6. This evaluation is based on comments
of Mr. Tolhoek (Amiantit). The product structural performance, process quality and
controllability appear to be most important. It is desired that the application of the thread
dos not make the winding cycle longer. The winding cycle takes about 12 minutes. During
this time a thread can be applied in a process step before or after the winding without
interfering in the winding cycle.
Reparability appears to be not important for composite tubing. (Reparability is important
for composite flow lines.) The tubings will be coupled and uncoupled 4 or 5 times at max.

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3 Market and literature survey


3.1

Company information

The typical thread form used in composites is the round long thread specified by API
(American Petroleum Institute) standard 5B. [http://www.entec.com/threading.shtml]
Tubing is used as flow string in the well. Companies that offer fibreglass epoxy tubings
are:
Centron International Inc., a subsidiary of Ameron International Corp
Star Fiberglass http://www.onr.com/star/connections.html
The Star premium moulded threaded connection moulded by Star Fiberglass is
manufactured with a special composite consisting of epoxy, graphite and ceramic. These
materials, with a Teflon based lubricant and the consistent tolerances of ACT, provides
exceptional sealability to high pressure fluids and gases with excellent make up and
break out performance. The moulded connection provides higher thread shear and
chemical resistance and is preferred over cut or ground fibreglass threads for downhole
tubing. The ACT connection is manufactured with the industry standard API EUE 10RD,
EUE 8RD and OD 8RD thread. The connection is primarily offered as integral joint but
also is offered threaded and coupled for downhole tubulars. (patent no.'s 3,381,715,
3,381,716 4,999,389 & 5,179,140)

Figure 7 Star premium moulded threaded connection

Centron Downhole Tubing is available in two threaded connection systems:


1. Centrons proprietary 4 round thread connection features the multiple seal capability
and reliability of both thread and O-ring seals along with outstanding tensile strength
across-the-joint. The connection system prevents thread lubricant/sealant from
entering the formation in injection service minimizing formation damage.
2. The Petroleum Industry API 8RD EUE long thread per API specification 5B, Table
2.6a (tolerances per API Specification 15HR).
Both thread forms are available in Centrons patented PeNG (Premium Non-Galling)
Female Carbon Thread for ease of make-up and breakout required in downhole
applications.
3.2

Patent information

Patents concerning composite threaded couplings are found from Fiber Glass Systems
inc and from Centron. Short summaries are added in the Appendix O. A summary of the
most important patents is given below.
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The patent US5179140 from Fiber Glass Systems inc describes a filled resin composition
for moulding of composite threads. A filled resin composition is provided which is
particularly adapted for the formation of wear resistant lubricious surfaces. The
compositions when formed into integral threads with the bodies of plastic-reinforced pipe
provide superior thread action and extended thread life. The compositions comprise
ceramic powder, graphite and short fibre lengths.
The Patent US5398975 from Centron describes a method to produce composite threaded
pipe connectors. One of the threaded connectors of the tubular has a composite layer of
carbon fibre reinforced plastic formed thereon. The body of the tubular or pipe joint is
preferably formed of a composite material such as fiberglass reinforced plastic. The layer
of carbon and resin reduces or eliminates galling of the threads and reduces thread wear,
therefore, many make-and-break cycles are possible without excessive thread wear.
According to the patent, the male thread is preferably produced by machining the
composite body of the tubular.

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4 Concept generation
4.1

Method to apply thread on tube

Concepts for production of a male composite thread on composite tubing are generated
in this section. The following methods are possible for application of a male thread on
composite tubing:
Use a prefab thread
o Place prefab thread on uncured tube
 Screw on uncured laminate(Figure 8A)
 Shove over uncured laminate(Figure 8B)
 Integrate in laminate during winding (with or without profile) (Figure
8C)
o Place prefab thread on cured tube
 Mount with thread in female thread on tube (Figure 9A)
 Bond with adhesive on internal surface of tube (Figure 9B)
 Bond with adhesive on outer surface of tube (Figure 9C)
Cure the thread after placement
o Apply thread on uncured tube
o Place uncured thread on cured tube

A
Screw on uncured laminate

Shove over uncured laminate

Integrate in laminate during winding


Figure 8 Prefab thread placement concepts on uncured tube

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Mount with thread in female thread on tube

Bond with adhesive on internal surface of tube

Bond with adhesive on outer surface of tube


Figure 9 Prefab thread placement concepts on cured tube

The described methods for application of a composite thread can roughly be divided in:
Application of a prefab composite thread
Create the composite thread on the tube
A method for moulding the thread shape is required independent of the selected method
for thread placement. This method can then be applied for production of a prefab thread
or for direct moulding on the tube. Concepts for thread moulding are generated in
paragraph 4.2.

4.2

Method to mould thread

The generation of concepts for creating a composite thread is subdivided in product


concepts and production concepts. Product and production functions are defined.
General product functions of the thread are:
Load transfer with reinforcement
Prevent wear
Seal
Lubricate
General production functions of the thread are:
Produce thread shape
Force reinforcement in threads
Keep reinforcement in thread shape
Application of resin in mould
Centre thread on tube
Protect thread during (and after) production

? impregnation, consolidation?

General solutions for these functions are generated and summarised in Table 2. These
concepts are further worked out in section 5.
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Product functions

Reinforcement

Continuous
Perpendicular to
thread direction

Seal

Seal compound

Ductile coating

O-ring Seal

Foil

Wear resistance

Glass fibre

Ceramic filler
(Nano comp)

Prevent abrasion
Smooth surface

Carbon fibres

Lubrication

Graphite

PTFE

Grease Lubricant

Silicone

Continuous
In thread
direction

Random oriented
Short fibre

Particles

Combination

Adhesive

Production functions

Produce thread
shape

Apply mould

Cut thread

Wind over
preform

Force reinforcement
in threads

Push mould on
laminate

Helical coil

Roll or Push with


contra thread

Inject with resin

Vacuum

Electrostatic

Centrifugal

Keep reinforcement
in thread shape

Thermoplastic
binder powder

Epoxy based
binder/tackifier

Cure while forced

Electrostatic

Integrate helical
coil

Increase
viscosity with
filler

Increase
viscosity by
cooling

Application of resin
in mould

Pre-impregnate

Inject
RTM

Vacuum

Prepreg

Centrifugal

Centre thread

On outside of
tube

On inside of tube

On mandrel

On machine

Protect thread

Release agent

Apply protective
tape

Protective foil

Table 2 Concept generation production of male composite thread

Bladder/balloon

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Work out concept functions

5.1

Methods to apply thread on tube

5.1.1

Application of adhesive bond

Chapter 4 describes various methods to apply thread on the tubing. Various concepts are
proposed with an adhesive bond between the composite thread and the tube laminate.

F
F
Figure 10 Adhesive joint

From an adhesive bond can be spoken when the thread-tube interface is a smooth
contact surface without reinforcing fibres crossing this plane. A simple adhesive bond as
depicted in Figure 10 is analysed with the Volkersen Theory. This analysis is added in
Appendix D. From the calculation results is concluded that the peak stresses at the joint
ends are very high.
131.166

150

100

adh ( x)
MPa
50

1.82910

0
0

20

40
x
mm

60

80
80

Figure 11 Calculation results shear stress in adhesive lap joint

In case the thread is applied after curing, the thread and tube ends must be designed so
that the peak stresses are minimised. The peak stress is made lower when:
The stiffness change at the end of the joint is small.
The thickness change at the end of the joint is small.
The adhesive layer thickness is large
The height of the film thickness can be predefined by application of small projections on
the contact surface. A cone shaped end will be shaved on the tubing end. Also
projections can be machined on this cone shaped end. The prefab thread is applied on
this end.

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It must be noted that a good bond between a cured epoxy it is essential to sand the
surface of the cured composite. Bare fibres must be visible.
A consequence of the application of a conical interface is a low accuracy of the axial
location of the thread.

5.2

Reinforcement type

The following different types of reinforcement are proposed in Table 2.


Continuous fibres perpendicular to the thread direction following the thread flanks.
Fibres placed in axial direction that follow the thread flanks are expected to contribute
to a higher axial strength of the thread. A low contribution to the hoop strength is
expected.
The minimum bending radius of a single glass fibre is estimated with a calculation in
appendix E. From this calculation can be concluded that the filaments are not
expected to break when they are applied perpendicular to the thread shape following
the flanks.
Fibres are expected to be the most difficult to apply in perpendicular to the thread
direction following the thread flanks. The glass can pull away from the corners and
cause resin rich areas and voids.

Continuous fibres in thread direction


Fibres in the thread direction are expected to contribute to the hoop strength of the
thread. These threads are expected to have a low axial strength because the fibres
are loaded in transversal direction. Fibres act as stress intensities instead of
reinforcement in case of axial loading. Fibres in the thread direction are expected to
be relatively easy to apply.

Short fibres random oriented


Composite threads with chopped random oriented fibre reinforcement exhibit
isotropic behaviour. The high performance properties available with continuous fibres
are not achieved when chopped fibres are used.
Fibre orientation is likely to occur during production due to for example flow effects.
The short fibres will probably tend to orient in flow direction. Also orientation in
direction of the threads is likely to occur.

Particles
Particle reinforcement is generally not suitable for high strength applications.
Particles can contribute in for example an improved wear resistance or better
lubrication properties.

Combination
With a combination of different types of reinforcement and/or fibre orientations it is
possible to obtain a combination of several positive reinforcement properties. Good
axial strength can for example be combined with good hoop strength and good
lubrication or seal properties.
A combination of a resin filled with either short fibres or particles with continuous fibre
reinforcement can be applied to prevent voids or resin rich areas in thread tips. These
areas can also be filled with a thickened epoxy paste. A colloidal silica filler can be
used. A chopped glass fibre filler is recommended if the corner requires high
strength.

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5.3

Thread strength

5.3.1

Axial load transfer

The strength of the threads dependent on the applied reinforcement is analysed in


Appendix F.1. A simplified composite thread shape is analysed in this appendix. The
thread is imagined as a rectangular shape instead of the actual triangular shape.
The shear load in the thread is estimated based on the simplified thread shape and the
axial load calculated in appendix B. The estimated shear load is 92 MPa. The following
shear strengths are estimated for the different reinforcement concepts:

Continuous fibres perpendicular to direction of thread


Continuous fibres in direction of thread
Random oriented short fibres
Particles??

82 110 MPa
48 MPa
-

From this rough analysis can be concluded that the shear strength of a thread with fibres
perpendicular to the thread direction is in the same order of magnitude as the shear load
that is induced by the axial load. The shear strength of threads with fibres in the direction
of the thread have a shear strength that is too low. It must however be noted that this
calculation is a simplified representation that can only be used to get a first indication of
the strength of various reinforcement concepts compared to the induced shear strength.
The calculation results cannot be used to determine the actual failure load of the threads.
5.3.2

Hoop stresses

5.4

Wear prevention

Possible types of wear are:


Abrasive wear
Adhesive wear
Possible options for wear prevention are:
The addition of hard particles or fibres
Prevent abrasion by good lubrication and smooth surfaces
The application of Carbon fibres
Prevent contact under high contact load between very smooth surfaces made out of
the same material (Adhesive wear often referred to as galling)
The addition of hard particles can increase the hardness of the composite surface. The
wear resistance of this surface can be increased by addition of hard particles. Glass
fibres are already present in the formulation as reinforcement. Extra hard particles can be
added to increase wear resistance. Possible additives are:
Glass particles
Sand
Aluminium oxide

Star Fiberglass applies sand as ceramic filler material. This is also described in the patent
US5179140 (Appendix P). Another example is the NanoTek aluminum oxide. This
material is a solid, nonporous, extremely hard spherical particle. This material has been
dispersed into epoxy resin to provide abrasion resistant properties. The aluminum oxide
must be well dispersed throughout the resin. This is usually accomplished by milling the
aluminum oxide into the epoxy. The milling insures the particles are evenly dispersed
and have been de-agglomerated to their ultimate particle size.
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Laboratory wear testing at 45 pounds applied force demonstrates that nanocrystalline


polymer coated Al2O3 covalently incorporated into an epoxy formulation (using targeted
chemical reactivity) at 45 wt% provides nearly 4 times and 19 times more wear resistance
compared to other commercial materials (80-83 wt% filled epoxy and 46.5 wt% filled
elastomer-modified epoxy, respectively). The nanocrystalline polymer coated
Al2O3/epoxy dispersion is also the only material than can be processed by filament
winding techniques. (http://www.ceramicindustry.com/)
Chemical Formula
Crystal Phase
Typical Average Particle Size
Specific Surface Area (BET)
Purity
Color
Bulk Density
True Density
Refractive Index

Al2O3
Gamma
37 nm
2
30-60 m /g
99.5+%
White to off white
3
0.10 g/cm
3
3.6 g/cm
1.7

Table 3 Typical Physical Properties of NanoTek aluminum oxide

Two thread surfaces are in contact under high contact loads. In this situation it is possible
that hard particles in one material can cause wear at the contra surface. Abrasive wear
can increase especially when hard particles start to break loose.
A way to prevent abrasive wear at the thread flanks is to prevent hard rough surfaces.
The application of good lubrication is important is this case. Possible materials for
lubrication are described in paragraph 5.6.
Centron claims in the patent US5398975 that thread wear is prevented when one of the
threaded connectors of the tubular has a composite layer of carbon fibre reinforcement.
Initially is concluded in this paragraph that it is probably the best to prevent thread wear
prevention of sharp and hard particles and by application of good lubrication.

5.5

Seal concepts

The threaded connection should be pressure tight up to 200 bar. Steel API threaded
connections are made up with a high torque at which local yield can occur. The
composite thread material does not have the ability to yield. The high tightening torque
applied on steel threads is not allowed on composite thread.
Possible concepts for sealing are:
Application of a seal compound
Application of a ductile coating between the two threads
Application of a ductile foil between the two threads
The application of an O-ring seal is not allowed by Amiantit. The application of an
Adhesive is not allowed because the connection must be demountable.
5.5.1

Seal compound

A Seal compound that is recommended by several manufacturers of fibreglass casing


and tubing is TF-15. TF-15 Thread Sealing Compound is a high-pressure sealant

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containing PTFE, Molybdenum Disulphide, Graphite, CZ-EX (JET-LUBEs extreme


pressure additive), rust, corrosion and oxidation inhibitors.
TF-15 assures tight makeup at low torque and allows easy breakout without seizing,
stripping or galling. It provides a permanent seal and maintains joint efficiency under
vibration, pressure surge and temperature fluctuations. It is particularly useful in areas
subject to H2S, salt water, a wide variety of oils, solvents, gases (except oxygen), acids,
alkalis and steam. The product datasheet of TF-15 is added in Appendix H.1

5.5.2

Ductile coating or foil

Possibly a foil or a ductile coating can be applied between the two threads. This foil must
be:
Ductile
Chemical resistant
Resistant to temperatures up to 120C
Possibly the functions of sealing and lubrication can both be combined in this foil. The foil
can also be convenient for production of the thread. It is for example possible to apply a
vacuum without resin flowing into the threads.
Applicable foil materials are:
PTFE Foil
PVDF

5.6

Lubrication concepts

Good thread lubrication minimises the required torque for the make-up and break out of
the composite thread connection. Concepts for lubrication of the composite thread are:
Graphite powder
PTFE powder or tape
Silicone additive
Grease or other viscous lubricant
Solid lubrication materials like graphite or PTFE can be applied on the contact surface or
they can be integrated in the resin. A this lubricant rich resin layer can be applied directly
on the mould surface. A viscous lubricant should be applied before make-up with a brush.
5.6.1

Graphite powder

Graphite Powder is a fine black powder that can be mixed with epoxy to produce a lowfriction exterior coating with increased scuff resistance and durability. Epoxy/graphite is
often used as a bearing surface. It cures to a black color. Graphite powder should not be
applied where the composite will be exposed to strong sunlight. as the dark-coloured
epoxy will absorb more heat than normal. This could take the temperature of the system
above its Tg, causing it to soften. Graphite is a conductor and can cause electrolysis
problems in salt or brackish water. Graphite powder can be added at the rate of up to
10% by volume in the resin.
http://www.cgedwards.com/west/Fillers.html
http://www.wessex-resins.com/westsystem/wsfillers.html
http://www.glen-l.com/supplies/pxman-products2.html

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5.6.2

PTFE Powder or tape

PTFE powder can be mixed through the epoxy resin to produce a low-friction exterior
coating comparable to the application of graphite powder. It is not clear how this
compound will behave because PTFE does not bond to Epoxy.
5.6.3

Silicone additive

Information is requested at Dow


Silicone additives are applied in Epoxy based coatings. The silicone additive migrates to
the outside of the material. It is typically applied in 0.1 up to 1 m%. Especially interesting
additives might be the additives 57 and 18 from Dow.

5.6.4

Grease or other viscous lubricant

Star Fibreglass prescribes the thread lubricant TF-15 Jet Lube ((also mentioned in
paragraph 5.5.1). This thread lubricant should be applied on the pin and box with a brush
prior to make-up. TF-15 is formulated to aid in the makeup of large diameter casing by
providing a lower coefficient of friction than API-MODIFIED. TF-15 provides excellent
protection against galling and wear, seals badly worn threads and greatly increases
connection life. TF-15 is recommended as a sealant on fibreglass tubing and casing
threads. It is particularly useful in areas subject to H2S and salt water and in applications
subject to vibration, pressure surge and temperature fluctuations.
(http://www.jetlube.co.uk)

5.7

Produce thread shape

Possible methods to create a thread shape are:


The application of a mould
Cut the thread after curing the composite
Wind over an integrated preform
The application of a mould is probably the most feasible method. Cutting the thread after
the composite is cured will cause the reinforcing fibres to be cut through. This leads to
lower thread strength.
Winding over a preform will make it very difficult to produce a thread with high accuracy.
Machining after curing will probably still be necessary. Finishing will not be necessary
when the preform is combined with a mould. The preform can in this case be used to
force the reinforcement into the threads (Paragraph 5.8).

5.8

Force reinforcement in threads

Based on the paragraphs 5.2, 5.3 and 2.2.2 is concluded that for optimal thread strength
it is desired that fibres are placed perpendicular to the thread direction. These fibres
should follow the thread flanks. The function of these fibres is to transfer the axial loads.
Furthermore fibres in hoop direction are required to transfer the radial loads that are
introduced during tightening and by the internal pressure.
Fibres in the direction of the thread are probably relatively easy to force into the threads.
Fibres perpendicular to the thread direction are more difficult to force in the threads
because they must be forced to bend over a small bending radius.
A compromise can be to apply random oriented chopped fibres which may me more
easily to put into the threads. A disadvantage is that the chopped fibres will probably give
preference to orientation in the thread direction.

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Three basic approaches to apply the reinforcement in the mould are listed in Table 4.
Methods to force the reinforcement into the thread shape of the mould can possibly be
done with the methods that are listed in this table for each approach. Whether the thread
is placed on the tube or on a mandrel depends on whether the thread is placed on the
mould or a preform is made that is connected to the tube at a later stage.
The required force to push a 1200 TEX roving into one thread is measured to be about
2.5 N. Approximately 3.2 N was measured to push the roving in two adjacent threads.
These forces were measured with an electronic balance and can only be used as an
indication.
Methods to apply reinforcement in mould
1.

Put fibres in mould

Place filled mould on tube or mandrel


Use a roller tool
Push reinforcement with a contra thread
Cover the threads with a thick paste of short fibres and resin
Inject the reinforcement with resin into the threads
Vacuum
Use electrostatic forces
Use centrifugal forces
Bladder/balloon/foil combined with overpressure
Use a helical coil spring.

2.

Place mould on tube or mandrel
Inject the reinforcement with resin into the threads
Vacuum

Inject fibres

3.


Place reinforcement on tube or


Place mould on reinforcement
mandrel
Push mould on reinforcement
Use integrated preform to force reinforcements in threads

Table 4 Basic approaches to apply the reinforcement in mould

This paragraph works out the various possible concepts to force the reinforcement in the
threads of the mould. The possibility exists to combine more of these solutions.
5.8.1

Roller tool or contra thread

The reinforcement can be pushed with a Roller tool or contra thread. The reinforcement
will tend to leave the threads after removal of the push force. Especially in case a roller
tool is applied care must be taken that the reinforcement does not spring back directly
after the roller is passed by. Methods to keep the reinforcement in the threads are
considered in paragraph 5.9.

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5.8.2

Smear or Inject fibre paste

The reinforcement can first be mixed with the resin and other additives. This fibre paste
can subsequently be injected or smeared in the mould. This system of applying a thread
compound is applied by Star Fibreglass.
Advantages of this system are that:
The chopped fibres with short fibre lengths can be easily applied in the mould
Additives for lubrication. Wear resistance and reinforcement can be combined in the
same compound
Disadvantages are:
The reinforcement will probably tend to orient in a preferred direction of the threads;
Inconsistency can occur because in is unclear how the reinforcement will be oriented
and what variations in fibre volume fraction will occur.
With the application of this concept it is important to investigate how to prevent air locked
in at the thread tips and between the thread and the tube in case of direct thread
placement.
Injection moulding with thermosetting epoxy is further described in paragraph 5.10
5.8.3

Vacuum or compressed air

Vacuum can be applied to pull fibres into the thread mould. The reinforcement can also
be pushed into the mould with compressed air. The maximum force that can be applied is
limited because the reinforcement is not airtight. A larger force on the reinforcement can
be applied when the fibre deck is made airtight with for example a foil, bladder or balloon.
In this case vacuum and compressed air can also be combined.
Based on the estimated force required to push reinforcement in the threads can be
calculated that a pressure difference of about 1 bar should be enough. The actual
required pressure difference can be higher due to the friction forces between the fibres
and the mould or foil.
Inflatable mandrels
5.8.4

Use electrostatic force

Appendix J describes several issues concerning the application of electrostatic forces.


The idea is to apply the system of electrostatic powder coating to cover the mould with
glass fibres. This can either be applied on continuous fibres or short fibres.
The glass can be charged after which it will be attracted by a grounded mould. The mould
can also be charged with an opposite charge. Electrostatic charges tend to concentrate
on sharp edges or points. This can be a problem when the thread mould is charged.
Antistatic sizing on glass fibres makes the fibre surface conductive. The charged fibres
will uncharge directly after they contact the conductive mould in case this sizing is
applied.
Testing is required to investigate if this method is feasible.
5.8.5

Use centrifugal forces

Centrifugal force can be used to pull fibres into the thread mould. The centrifugal force
can be calculated with:
F rad

m v

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The centrifugal force on a 1200 TEX glass fibre roving as function of the rotational speed
is calculated in appendix **. The calculation result is depicted in Figure 12. In this figure
can be seen that the force per unit length is very small compared to the required load to
force the roving in the thread. The calculated force over a length of two threads (6 mm) is
1.2 N compared to the estimated required force of 3.2 N. For this reason it is expected
that it is difficult to force the reinforcement into the threads with centrifugal force.

0.2

0.15

F rov( n)
0.1

N
mm

0.05

0
0
1000

1 .10
n

5000

1.5 .10

2 .10
20000
4

1
min

Figure 12 Centrifugal force on roving as function of rotation speed

5.8.6

Helical coil spring

A helical spring can be used to push the fibres in the thread. Use a 0.5mm steel wire to
form a spring. First apply 0 fibres in the mould. Then apply the spring so that it forces the
fibres into the thread mould.
Possible disadvantages of a foreign body integrated in a composite are:
A body with high stiffness and different thermal expansion properties can cause
stress intensities already during cooling down after curing.
These stresses can cause debonding.
Advantages of the integration of a helical spring are:
The spring can contribute in collapse strength
Strong thread tip
Instead of using a steel wire another material can be selected to prevent the problems of
the integrated steel. Possibilities are:
Other metal
Composite spring made out of impregnated roving

drawing
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Calculate spring diameter when feasible


Below is calculated what minimum wire diameter is required to push 1200 TEX roving in
the thread. It is assumed that a straight wire is bent into the grooves.
5.8.7

Use integrated shape to force reinforcements in threads

The idea of this concept is to integrate a thread shape during winding. The mould is
pushed over the reinforcement after winding. The fibres are forced into the mould by the
integrated shape.
Possible disadvantages are:
Air can get trapped in the laminate
Integrated part can initiate failure
The shape must exactly follow the thread shape
5.8.8

Push mould on reinforcement

Probably the simplest method to apply reinforcement in the threads it to press the mould
on the reinforcement after the fibres are applied on a mandrel.
Fibres that are applied in the direction of the threads will enter the threads easily. The
pitch angle of the thread varies between 0.97 and 0.90 meaning that a winding angle of
89 is the most suitable to press in the treads. In paragraph 5.3 is described that threads
with this reinforcement have the lowest axial strength.
Fibres that are placed in another direction are difficult to press in the threads. For optimal
axial strength it is desired that reinforcement under 0 is applied. This fibre orientation is
the most difficult to press in the mould.
Combining an outer layer under 0 with an inner lay er under 89 can make it possible to
force the 0 fibres in the threads. Because it is d ifficult to apply only fibres under 89 it
can be necessary to apply hoop windings under 89. This might make the penetration of
the reinforcement in the mould a little more difficult.
The reinforcement should be applied on the mandrel with a conical shape. This can be
done by:
Application of a cone shaped mandrel
The inner pipe diameter must be machined after curing to obtain the final constant
diameter. This is not desired because it means that the liner is removed. The purpose
of the liner is to offer chemical resistance.
Application by hoop windings with variation of thickness
The axial load in the threads must then be transferred by hoop windings. This is not
preferred because the fibres are loaded in transversal direction.
Wrapping a fabric with specific predetermined shape on the mandrel.
This method is preferred because the fibre orientation can be optimised to both
production and load transfer. The fabric can be wrapped either pre-impregnated or
not. This method is relatively easy and fast.
Various possible laminate configurations can be obtained when the cone is made by
wrapping a fabric. The lay-up depends on how the fabric is made and on how it is
wrapped. Possible configurations of the fabric are worked out in the Appendix I.

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5.9

Keep reinforcement in thread shape

After the reinforcement is forced in the threads it is important that it stays there.
Depending on the way the reinforcement is forced in the threads there are various
possibilities to let it stay there. This paragraph describes the following possible solutions:
Thermoplastic binder powder
Epoxy based binder/tackifier
Use viscosity of matrix
Some methods to force the reinforcement in the mould do not need further measures to
fix the reinforcement. This is the case when the applied method to force the reinforcement
in the thread enables impregnation and/or cure while the reinforcement stays forced in
the mould.
5.9.1

Binder or tackifier

Tackifiers and binders are used to "tack/bind" reinforcement fibres together into a
preform. A powdered binder material is applied and sintered to the fabric in preparation
for the preforming process. The tackifier material behaves like a thermoplastic while a
heating operation sticks the tows together into fibre preforms. Once the treated fabric is
heated and pressed, it stays in shape. It also maintains its drapability.
Preforms allow the reinforcement to fit into the mould quickly. This results in faster cycle
times because it eliminates the need for time consuming placement of the fibres at the
production press.
A tackifier must be chemically compatible with thermoset resin, meaning that it becomes
part of the matrix and does not affect the final part properties. Otherwise it can lead to a
degradation of the material properties. Compatibility can be obtained in two ways:
1. Dissolve in matrix resin. A dissolvable tackifier must dissolve completely. Interaction
of the tackifier with the matrix resin affects both processing and performance!
2. Powder version of matrix resin (e.g., toughened epoxy)
Examples of the application of binders for the production of performs is added in
appendix K

5.9.2

High matrix viscosity

Another way to prevent the reinforcement from leaving the mould is to use the matrix
viscosity. The matrix can for example be thickened with fillers or short fibres. Another way
to thicken the matrix is to apply a very low temperature. The mould should be heated to
about 80C to cure the thread. The reinforcement mu st not be allowed to leave the
threads when the viscosity drops during heating.

5.10 Application of resin in mould


Possible methods to apply the resin in the mould are:
Pre-impregnate before application of the reinforcement in the mould
Use Centrifugal forces to impregnate
Resin infusion
o Inject
o RTM
o Vacuum
o RIM
o
Use a Prepreg

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Important criteria for evaluation of impregnation methods are the occurrence of:
Trapped in air
Undesired fibre orientation
Inhomogeneous impregnation/Resin-rich areas
5.10.1

Pre-impregnate

The simplest way to apply resing on the reinforcement is by pre-impregnation. The


reinforcement is impregnated before it is placed in the mould. Points of attention are:
May be labour intensive and difficult to automise
Possibly difficult to prevent locked in air
Repeatibility
5.10.2

Centrifugal

The thread mould can be rotated round its centreline after application of the
reinforcement and the resin. The centrifugal forces will cause an increased apparent
gravitational force in radial direction.
This centripetal acceleration is calculated with:
2

r rot

g cent

The radial force on the components in the mould is calculated with:


F rad

m v

m r

The difference in density between glass resin and voids makes that the radial force on the
different components varies. Glass has the highest density and will experience the
highest centrifugal force. Voids will experience a driving force in the direction of the centre
of rotation because air is the lightest component.

epoxy := 1200

kg
3

glass := 2540

kg
3

:=
For adequate impregnation with the application of a centrifuge system the resin should be
applied in the mould first. The reinforcement should be applied on top of the resin. It was
already concluded in paragraph 5.8.5 that the centrifugal force is probably not large
enough to pull continuous rovings that are oriented perpendicular to the thread direction
into the threads. Chopped fibres can possibly be pulled into the threads.

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Reinforcement
Resin

Mould

Figure 13 Place reinforcement on resin layer in centrifugal impregnation set-up

This process is usually referred to as centrifugal casting. This process makes cylindrical,
hollow shapes such as tanks, pipes and poles. The reinforcement is placed into a hollow,
cylindrical mould. Resin is applied to the inside of the rotating mould.
The centrifugal method cannot be applied when the thread is directly applied on the tube.
The required high rotational velocity can only be applied when the thread is produced as
separate part. A big advantage of the method can be that a thread without voids is
obtained.
5.10.3

Resin infusion

Closed mould injection techniques (Resin Transfer Moulding, RTM) have been
successfully applied for small products in large series. There are many names (RTM,
VARI, SCRIMP, Infusion, Vacuum bagging) which describe a process that is basically
very simple. Dry reinforcement is placed in a mould, the mould is closed and resin flows
into the mould and impregnates the reinforcement. The driving force for the flow of the
resin is a pressure difference. Information about this impregnation method is added in
Appendix L.
The application of the closed mould injection technique has many advantages for the
production of the composite thread. Some of these advantages are:
Components will have good surface finish
Selective reinforcement and accurate fibre management is achievable
Fibre loadings are typically around 50-60% (Volume). Ability to build-in fibre volume
fraction loadings up to 65%
Process can be automated resulting in higher production rates with less scrap and
reduced labour
Ability to mould complex structural and hollow shapes
Low resultant voidage in moulded components
Ability to achieve from 0.5mm to 90mm laminate thickness
Repeatability.
The main disadvantage of RTM are for the production of composite thread is that Close
attention must be paid to the injection strategy to prevent dry spots. A change in
thickness can cause both runner channels and disturbance of flow (speed difference).
Thickness changes are preferably smooth.

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A change in permeability can have the same effect as a change in thickness. However,
permeability changes can be resolved by applying highly permeable feeder materials onto
low permeable areas.
Edges are critical in every injection. Every edge can lead to a highly permeable channel,
causing resin racetracking. Although reinforcement can be positioned very carefully,
runner channels are very difficult to prevent. The most favourable situation will occur
when the resin flow front is progressing always parallel to the runner channel. When the
resin flow front is perpendicular with the runner channel the flow front will be disturbed
and the resin will flow much faster through the runner channel. A runner channel parallel
to the flow front will not cause disturbances of the resin flow front.
From this can be concluded that for impregnation of the thread it is probably preferable to
inject at the beginning or the end of the thread around the entire perimeter so that the
resin flow front is progressing parallel to the threads.
The required impregnation time can be estimated with:

t=

l2
2 K p

With:

l
p

=
=
=
=
=

Porosity of the reinforcement.


Permeability of the reinforcement.
Viscosity of the resin.
Flow distance (length of the strip)
Applied pressure difference (constant during the injection)

The porosity of most reinforcements used is in between 0.5 and 0.85. The permeability of
-8
reinforcements can differ greatly. The permeability range is typically between 1.0510
-8
2
and 1290010 cm . The viscosity of the Epikote 827 resin strongly depends on the
temperature. The resin viscosity is about 100 Pas when it is heated to 70C as can be
seen in Figure 47 in appendix O.1.1.
An estimation of the required injection time is made with arbitrary selected values for the
-8
porosity (0.6) and permeability (210 cm). The calculation results are depicted in Figure
14 for different pressures. These calculation results indicate that the thread can be
impregnated in a relatively short time. The advantage of the small and robust mould is
that relatively injection high pressures can be applied. This injection process can be
vacuum assisted if necessary.

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10

8
t 1bar( l)
min

t 2bar( l)
min
t 4bar( l)

min
2

10

20

30

40

50

60
60

mm

Figure 14 Estimated impregnation time as function of impregnation length for different pressures
(arbitrary value for permeability of reinforcement is selected)

5.10.4

Injection of fibres with resin

With this concept the composite thread is formed by injecting the thermoset resin with
short fibre reinforcement into the thread mould under very high pressures. The injection
moulding process is a volume production system. A limitation of the process is the high
tooling cost for most applications.
The injection moulded composite part essentially has a random fibre arrangement.
Nevertheless orientation during flow is inevitable and has a significant effect on moulded
parts. The fibre rotation in the shear field is complicated by the fountain-like flow of the
resin-fibre mixture as it advances through the mould system. Even at very high fibre
loading individual fibres or fibre aggregates align themselves with the flow streamlines.
There is no appreciable shear field in the center core. As a result, fibre bundles move
preferentially from the upstream organizing region transverse to the center axis toward
the flow front. Consequently, they have a tendency to orient.
Weld lines occur when two flow fronts meet. These weld lines or planes perpendicular to
meeting flow fronts tend to be resin-rich and generally no reinforcing fibres cross the
plane. Therefore these lines are usually weaker than regions on either side of the weld
line.
These effects lead to anisotropy in physical and mechanical properties in moulded parts
which is an inherent problem for injection moulding of fibre reinforced composites.

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Initiation of weldlines
Possible entrapped air

Possible fibre orientation

Figure 15 Fibre orientation in injection moulding

5.10.5

Prepreg

Prepreg can be applied as unidirectional plies. Also prepreg paste is available that can be
injected. The currently available pasted are not filled with short fibres.

5.11 Centre thread

On outside of tube
o Only possible to centre on cured tube after machining the outer diameter
On inside of tube
o Only possible to centre on inside of tube when it is removed from the mandrel
On mandrel
o This appears to be the simplest and the most accurate method. Enough
length must be available on the mandrel.
On machine
o Accurate enough? The thread must still be centred with sufficient accuracy
when there is more material on one side

Initially the mould will be centred on the mould during the initial thread production tests
because this method is the simplest and most accurate.

5.12 Protect thread

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6
6.1

Testing
Test program set-up

A test program is put together based on the results of sections 4 and 5. It is concluded in
the paragraphs 5.1.1, 5.3 and 2.2.2 that for axial load transfer continuous fibres in axial
direction that follow the thread flanks probably yield the best thread performance. These
fibres are also the most difficult to apply. Fibres in hoop direction have the best
contribution for radial loads that are introduced in tightening and by internal pressure.
It is proposed to start testing with a combination of continuous fibres in axial and in hoop
direction. Also tests with short fibres will be done.
The following methods are proposed to obtain a thread shape:
Apply mould
1.
Cut thread
2.
Wind over preform
3.
The application of a mould is selected for the test phase. The cutting of thread is not
desired because reinforcing fibres are cut. Accurate dimensioning and smooth surfaces
are probably difficult to obtain when winding over a preform.
With the moulding of a thread shape the following three sub-functions were distinguished.
Force reinforcement in threads
Keep reinforcement in thread shape
Application of resin in mould
Various concepts were generated for these functions. There are many possible ways how
these general solutions can be combined into a production method. Possible
combinations are depicted schematically in Figure 16. A test program is set-up based on
this figure. Initially only the most feasible concepts are tested.
Force reinforcement in
threads
Push mould on laminate

Keep reinforcement in thread


shape

Application of
resin in mould

Cure while forced

Centrifugal

Helical coil

Helical coil

Vacuum

Push with contra thread

Epoxy based binder/tackifier

Pre-impregnate

Bladder/balloon

Thermoplastic binder powder

Inject

Electrostatic

Electrostatic

Prepreg

Centrifugal

Increase viscosity with filler

Vacuum

Increase viscosity by cooling

Inject with resin


Figure 16 Possible combinations in thread moulding method

Push mould on laminate Cure while forced Apply the resin with:
Pre-impregnate
Inject
Use a steel wire helical coil to force and keep the reinforcement in the threads Apply
the resin with:
Centrifugal
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Vacuum
Pre-impregnate
Inject

Push the reinforcement in the threads with a contra thread Keep the reinforcement in
the threads by:
Application of a binder/tackifier The resin can be applied by:
o
Increase the viscosity of the resin by cooling, with a filler or apply a prepreg The
resin can be applied by:
o
Electrostatic force The resin can be applied by:
o

The test set-up, test procedures and observations are described in detail in Appendix O.
main results are summarised in this paragraph.

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6.1.1

Phase II: Application method of thread:

Prefab thread on uncured tube


Prefab thread on cured tube
Cure thread after placement on uncured tube
Cure thread after placement on cured tube

6.1.2

Phase III: Detailed thread connection composition:

Lubricant
Seal

Seal

6.2

Seal compound

Ductile coating

O-ring Seal

Foil

Wear
resistance

Glass fibre

Ceramic filler
(Nano comp)

Prevent abrasion
Smooth surface

Carbon fibres

Lubrication

Graphite

PTFE

Grease Lubricant

Silicone

Test phase II Structural tests


Method to test thread strength
Tightening torque tests
Test on gripper forces: collapse loads, slip,
Tensile tests?
Axial compression
Carry out burst pressure test with end caps on short tube lengths with thread

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Concept selection

A concept selection is made in this chapter ased on the criteria that are evaluated in
section 2.3.

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Product functions

Reinforcement

Continuous
Perpendicular to
thread direction

Seal

Seal compound

Ductile coating

O-ring Seal

Foil

Wear resistance

Glass fibre

Ceramic filler
(Nano comp)

Prevent abrasion
Smooth surface

Carbon fibres

Lubrication

Graphite

PTFE

Grease Lubricant

Silicone

Continuous
In thread
direction

Random oriented
Short fibre

Particles

Combination

Adhesive

Production functions

Produce thread
shape

Apply mould

Cut thread

Wind over
preform

Force reinforcement
in threads

Push mould on
laminate

Helical coil

Roll or Push with


contra thread

Inject with resin

Vacuum

Electrostatic

Centrifugal

Keep reinforcement
in thread shape

Thermoplastic
binder powder

Epoxy based
binder/tackifier

Cure while forced

Electrostatic

Integrate helical
coil

Increase
viscosity with
filler

Increase
viscosity by
cooling

Application of resin
in mould

Pre-impregnate

Inject
RTM

Vacuum

Prepreg

Centrifugal

Centre thread

On outside of
tube

On inside of tube

On mandrel

On machine

Protect thread

Release agent

Apply protective
tape

Protective foil

Table 5 Concept generation production of male composite thread

Bladder/balloon

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Prototype design

The ... concept is selected as described in section 7. This section describes the
concept design phase of the composite thread development.

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References
[Reference 1]
C.C., Chamis, Simplified Composite Micromechanics
Equations For Strength, Fracture Toughness and
Environmental Effects, SAMPE Quarterly, July 1984
[Reference 2]
R. M., Jones, Mechanics of Composite Materials, 2nd Edition,
Taylor & Francis Inc., Philadelphia, 1998

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Appendices

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Tubing round thread specifications

A table with the thread size as function of the nominal tube diameter is obtained from
the API Standard 15 HR.

srn

s cs

hn

Pitch line

90

s cn

srs

60

p/2

30

hs

30

Axis

Figure 17 Tubing round thread form

Tubing Round Thread Dimensions


Thread element
10 Threads/inch
[in.]
[mm]
p
0.1000
H
0.08660
hs= hn=0.626p-0.007
0.5560
srs= srn= 0.120p+0.002
0.01400
scs= scn=0.120p+0.005
0.01700

8 Threads/inch
[in.]
[mm]
0.1250
3.175
0.10825 2.74955
0.07125 1.80975
0.01700 0.4318
0.02000 0.508

Table 6 Tubing round thread form


inch

in

The taper of the conical thread is 3/4


/ft= 0.0625 /in. The half cone angle can be
0.0625
/2)=1.78991.
calculated with /2=atan(

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Nominal
Diameter

Thread size

Maximum
Nominal Thread
pressure rating Diamete
size
r
psi
bar
Inch
Inch

Inch

Inch

1
1
1 /2

1.660
1.900

5000
3750

344.7
258.6

2 /8

2750

2 /2

2 /8

2500

3 /2

2750

1 /2

2 /8

189.6

172.4

2 /2

189.6
155.1

Minimum
pressure
rating
psi
bar
3000

206.8

2 /8

2750

189.6

3 /2

3000

206.8

4 /2

2500

172.4

3 /2

4 /2

2500

172.4

3 /2

4 /2

2250

155.1

5 /2

2250

155.1

5 /2

2250

155.1

5 /8

3250

224.1

2000

137.9

9 /8

2250

Table 7 Thread size as recommended in API Spec 15 HR

External-upset long round thread dimensions for fibreglass pipe


3
D
Size Designation
2 /8
D4
Major Diameter
2.594
No. Of Threads per inch
8
Length: End of pipe to L1
1.779
Hand-Tight Plane
L2
Length: Effective Threads
2.328
Total Length: End of Pipe to L4
2.563
Vanish Point
Pitch Diameter at Hand- E1
2.50775
Tight Plane
End of pipe to centre of J
0.500
coupling, Power tight makeup
Length: Face of coupling to M
0.534
hand-tight plane
Diameter
of
Coupling Q
2.656
Recess
3
q
Depth of coupling Recess
/8
Hand Tight Standoff,Thread A
2
turns
Minimum Length, Full Crest Lc= L4-0.900 in. For 1.563
Threads From End of pipe
10 thread tubing
Lc= L4-1.000 in. For
8 thread tubing

Metric
60.325
65.8876
45.1866
59.1312
65.1002
63.69685
12.7

13.5636
67.4624
9.525

39.7002

Table 8 External-upset long round thread dimensions for fibreglass pipe obtained from API
spec 5B

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Tubing design

B.1 Laminate design considerations


This appendix describes the design issues of the composite tubing. The laminate
theory is used to analyse the tubing design. Objective of the appendix is to determine
the required wall thickness that should be applied so that the tubing does not fail
under the specified loads. This tubing wall thickness is important for the thread
design.
The calculated values for the ultimate load are compared to the values that are
presented in the Star Fiberglass catalogue for composite tubing.
The laminate configuration of the composite tubing is assumed to be a symmetrical
angle-ply laminate. The angle ply laminate is assumed to be put together from
unidirectional E-glass Epoxy plies. Mechanical properties of the unidirectional plies
are calculated using the formulas listed in Table 12.
The internal pressure in an end capped cylinder introduces an axial laminate load a
and a laminate load in tangential direction t=2a. The longitudinal and transversal
loads on the UD plies depend on the winding angle as depicted in Figure 18. These
local stresses can be calculated with the laminate theory. In Figure 18 can be seen
3
that the transversal laminate load is at a minimum at an orientation angle of 54 /4.

Pressure vessel load (t=2


a)

Figure 18 Ply stresses in relation to pressure vessel loads as function of winding angle

Relative laminate and ply deformations are depicted in Figure 19 and Figure 20
respectively. It can be seen that the shear deformation is zero at a winding angle just
above 60. The failure mode at a winding angle of 5 4 can be shear failure. In this
case the failure pressure is found to increase when a somewhat larger winding angle
about 60 is used.

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Pressure vessel load (t=2


a)

Figure 19 Relative laminate deformations in relation to pressure vessel loads as function of


winding angle

Pressure vessel load (t=2


a)

Figure 20 Relative ply deformations in relation to pressure vessel loads as function of winding
angle

The composite tubing is not only loaded under pure internal pressure. Other possible
loads on the tubing are:
Axial tension due to the own weight of the tubing. This load will be the highest in
the upper part of the string.
Axial compression can occur in the bottom part of the string. Axial compression is
introduced by the weight of the string when the string rests on the bottom of the
well. Star Fiberglass prescribes that the maximum axial compression should not
exceed 75% of the tensile rating.
Furthermore bending and some torque can be introduced. These load cases are
assumed to be of minor importance.
A smaller winding angle should be applied when the load on the tubing is a
combination of internal pressure and axial load. For optimisation of the design should
be considered what actual load cases can occur.

B.2 Theoretical analysis Star Fiberglass laminate


Theoretical ultimate strengths of tubing with dimensions specified by Star fiberglass
were calculated. These values are compared to the ultimate values given in the Star
catalogue. The strength values are calculated for various winding angles. The used
input for this calculation is:

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Fibre volume fraction: 65%


Coupling matrix is zero (symmetrical angle-ply is assumed
The used fibre and matrix properties are listed in Table 9
E-Glass
E1f (Pa)
E2f (Pa)
G12f (Pa)
12f
+S1f (Pa)
-S1f (Pa)
f (gm/m3)

Epoxy
7.24E+10
7.24E+10
3.03E+10
2.00E-01
1.86E+09
-1.10E+09
2.60E+06

E1m (Pa)
E2m (Pa)
G12m (PA)
12m
+S1m (Pa)
-S1m (Pa)
S12m (Pa)
m (gm/m3)

4.28E+09
4.28E+09
1.59E+09
3.40E-01
7.79E+07
-1.93E+08
9.66E+07
1.27E+06

Table 9 Fibre and matrix properties

The actual tubing dimension are used where the deviation of 0.875 is incorporated.
Calculation results for the 2 inch tubing of the ACT series 3500 are listed in Table 11.
From the calculations is concluded that the calculated values for the burst pressure
are in the same order of magnitude. The calculated axial failure loads are
considerably lower in most cases. The difference is sometimes even larger than 40%.
The theoretical failure mode in most cases is generally transversal resin tension
resulting in weeping.
Outside Diam.
Inside Diam.
Wall Thick.
Box O.D.

63.0555
49.276
6.88975
85.56625

mm
mm
mm
mm

Table 10 Actual Dimensions 2 inch ACT series 3500

Winding angle
Rated operating values
Typical Ultimate values
Theoretical first failure

?
?
43
48
50
52
54
58

Axial Load
3
x 10 N
95.7
235.8
207.3
194.8
193.8
164.6
144.1
117.9

Internal pressure
Mpa
24.1
68.3
48.3
62.1
67.1
70.8
72.9
72.3

Table 11 Star rated and ultimate strength compared to theoretical calculated first failure

The 2 inch tubing of the ACT series 3500 is analysed in more detail. This tubing
meets the pressure rating specification of 240 bar mentioned in paragraph 2.2. The
safety factor is calculated as function of the winding angle for the following load
cases:
Rated loads according to Star Fiberglass catalogue
o Axial load of 95.7 kN
o Internal pressure of 24.1 MPa
o Combined axial load of 95.7 kN and Internal pressure of 24.1 MPa

Ultimate loads according to Star Fiberglass catalogue


o Axial load of 235.8 kN
o Internal pressure of 68.3 MPa
o Combined Axial load of 235.8 kN and Internal pressure of 68.3 MPa

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The axial load is assumed to act as a constant stress on the entire cross section. The
thick walled pressure vessel equations for isotropic materials are applied to
incorporate the thick wall effect.
The calculation results are depicted in Figure 21 and Figure 22 respectively. From
these calculation results can be concluded that the optimum winding angle for the
internal pressure load case is 58. The optimum win ding angle for the axial load is of
course the smallest possible winding angle.

Optimise winding angle


rated axial
8.00
rated internal

7.00

Combined rated axial


and internal

Safety factor

6.00
5.00
4.00
3.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
15

25

35

45

55

65

75

85

Winding angle [ ]
Figure 21 Safety factor is calculated as function of the winding angle for Rated loads according
to Star Fiberglass catalogue

Optimise winding angle


Ultimate axial
2.00
Ultimate internal

1.75

Combined Ultimate
loads

Safety factor

1.50
1.25
1.00
0.75
0.50
0.25

85

80

75

70

65

60

55

50

45

40

35

30

25

20

15

0.00
Winding angle [ ]
Figure 22 Safety factor is calculated as function of the winding angle for Ultimate loads
according to Star Fiberglass catalogue

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In Figure 22 can be seen that for the ultimate axial load given by Star, a winding angle
of 38 should be applied. For the ultimate interna l pressure given by Star, the winding
angles 50 or 72 can be applied. According to this theoretical analysis, there is no
winding angle at which both the ultimate internal pressure and the Ultimate axial
strength can be reached.
It must be noted that the theoretical failure strength is not a realistic value because
material imperfections are not incorporated. A strength reduction factor must be
applied. The magnitude of this factor depends on the process and material quality.
It must furthermore be noted that large deviations can occur between the actual and
the optimum winding angle. The actual winding angle depends on the following
winding parameters:
Inner diameter and the desired final outer diameter
The tape width of rovings that is applied on the tubing
The tape thickness
The desired overlap (ideally 0 but overlap is better than gap)
Desired winding angle (generally the optimum)

n (W O )
O

ID + 2l 1 +
W

= a cos

)
-O
(W

Figure 23 Dependence of winding angle on parameters

Quite large deviations of the actual winding angle from the desired winding angle can
occur. These deviations become larger with increasing tape width and smaller tubing
diameter.

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Calculation of axial load

The ultimate axial load that is transferred by the threaded connection is compared
with the Centron tubing strength in this appendix. The ultimate axial load is based on
ultimate loads given by Star Fiberglass. The maximum own weight of the tubing is
calculated

Input:
Internal pressure

p := 240bar

Inner Diameter

ID := 2in

Wall thickness

T := 7.9mm

Glass density

glass := 2540

ID = 50.8mm

kg
3

epoxy := 1200

Epoxy density

kg
3

m
String length

Lstring := 6335m

Fibre volume fraction

vf := 65%

Strength of Centron tubing:

max_Centr := 30000psi
max_Centr = 206.843MPa

Calculations:
Outer diameter

OD := ID + 2 T

Axial load due to internal pressure

Fax_p := p ID
4

Density of composite

comp := vf glass + 1 vf epoxy

2
2
Wstring := comp OD ID Lstring

Weight of string

Load due to own string weight

Fax_weight := Wstring g

Total axial load

Fax := Fax_weight + Fax_p

Load / area

ax :=

Factor of safety for stringlength with


Centron strength

S :=

51

Fax

OD2 ID2

max_Centr
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Results:
Outer diameter

OD = 66.6mm

Axial load due to internal pressure

Fax_p = 48.644kN

Density of composite

comp = 2.071 10

3 kg
3

m
Weight of string

Wstring = 19113.569kg

Load due to own string weight

Fax_weight = 187.44kN

Total axial load

Fax = 236.084kN

Load / unit area= "Stress"

ax = 162.051MPa

Factor of safety for stringlength with Centron strength S = 1.276

52

OD ID max_Centr = 301.339kN

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Calculation of adhesive joint

Stress intensities in an adhesive joint are analysed in this appendix. These stress
intensities occur in adhesive joints loaded under tension as depicted in Figure 24.

t1

x
tadh

t2

L
Figure 24 Stress concentrations in tensile loaded adhesive joint

The shear stress in a tensile loaded adhesive joint between two plates can be
estimated according to the theory of Volkersen with the following formulas
[Reference].
Gadh 1
1

+
t adh E1 t 1 E2 t 2

adh

peak
Where:
F
Gadh
E1 ,E2
t1, t2 , tadh

=
=
=
=

Gadh 1
1
cosh ( k x ) + cosh [ k ( L x ) ]

t adh k sinh( kL ) E2 t 2
E 1 t 1

Gadh 1 1

t adh k E1 t 1

(if t<<L)

Tensile load per unit width of the adhesive joint


Shear modulus of the adhesive
Youngs modulus of layer 1 and layer 2 respectively
Thickness of layer 1, 2 and adhesive layer
respectively
Length of overlap

It must be noted that the length of the adhesive joint has no influence on the height of
the stress peaks.
The following is assumed with application of the Volkersen theory.
The stiffness of the plates is considerably higher than the adhesive stiffness.
Deformation of the plates only occurs in load direction. In the adhesive layer, only
shear deformation occurs.
Peel stress that can be introduced by eccentricity of the load is neglected.
Visco-elastic effects in the adhesive layer are neglected.
A difficulty with the application of this theory is how the maximum allowable peak
stress can be determined. Also material suppliers often do not give values for the
maximum allowable peak stress

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Application of the Volkersen theory can give good a first indication of the strength of
an adhesive joint. More detailed strength information can be obtained from a Finite
Element Analysis (FEA) and/or from tests.
An estimation is made with the Volkersen theory of the peak stress in an adhesive
bonded thread on a composite tubing.

Input:
Inner Diameter

ID := 2in

Axial load

Fax := 120kN

Shear modulus of adhesive (Epoxy)

Gadh := 1.5GPa

Axial stiffness of a tube with a winding angle of 57.


Fibre volume fraction is 65%

E1 := 16.139GPa

Axial stiffness of threaded preform


Wall thickness of tubing

E2 := E1
t 1 := 3.35mm

Average wall thickness of thread

t 2 := 4.3mm

Thickness of adhesive layer

t adh := 0.4mm

Length of thread

L := 80mm

x-coordinate

x := 0 , 0.01mm .. 80mm

Calculations:

Wjoint := ID + 2 t 1

Width of adhesive joint lap

Fax

Axial load per unit width of joint

Wjoint
k :=

= 664.299

Gadh 1
1

+
t adh E1 t 1 E2 t 2

adh ( x ) :=

peak :=

Fax

Gadh 1
1
cosh ( k x ) + cosh [ k ( L x ) ]

Wjoint t adh k sinh( k L) E2 t 2


E 1 t 1

Fax

Gadh 1 1

Wjoint t adh k E1 t 1

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131.166

150

100

adh ( x)
MPa
50

1.82910

20

40

x
mm

60

80
80

Figure 25 Calculation results shear stress in adhesive lap joint

From the calculation results can be concluded that high peak stresses do occur under
the assumed conditions. The tensile yield strength of Epoxy is about 60 Mpa
[www.matweb.com]. From this can be calculated that the shear strength of Epoxy is
about 34.5 Mpa. This is considerably lower than the calculated peak stress.

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Minimum bending radius of glass fibre

The minimum bending radius of a single glass fibre is calculated in this appendix. The
objective of this calculation is to check if it is possible to apply fibres in the thread
mould that follow the thread flanks. Minimum bending radius of glass fibre is is
calculated with:
Dfibre
Minimum bending radius of neutral line
Rmin :=
2 max

max := 2.57%

Fibre diameter

Dfibre := 12m

Minimum bending radius of neutral line

Rmin = 0.233 mm

Maximum bending strain

Figuur 1 Strain in bending

The radius of the thread tip is 0.508 mm and the radius at the root is 0.43 mm.

Figure 26 Thread radius

The length of a filament that follows the thread flanks is 1.602 times the thread length.

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Calculation of thread strength

Verify difference between:


Short fibre thread
0 laminate
45 laminate
Calculate contact loads
Superposition of contact compression loads and axial load
Update with new axial load

F.1 Axial load transmission


A simplified composite thread shape is analysed in this appendix. The thread is
imagined as a rectangular shape instead of the actual triangular shape. Different
types of reinforcement are possible:
Continuous fibres in axial direction following the thread flanks (Figure 27)
Continuous fibres oriented in the direction of the thread (Figure 29)
Short fibres***

1
2

2
1

Figure 27 Simplified shape with fibres in axial direction following the thread flanks

The shear load in the thread is estimated based on the simplified thread shape. The
thread thickness is assumed to be the thickness at the half of the thread height.

Input:
Axial load

Fax := 118kN

Number of threads that transfer the axial load

n := 4

Thread thickness

t thread := 1.6mm

Thread diameter

Dt := 63.7mm

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Calculations:
Total thread length for load transfer

L1 := Dt
Lt := n L1

Estimated shear load

:=

Length of one thread revolution

Fax
t thread Lt

Results:
Length of one thread revolution

L1 = 200.119 mm

Total thread length for load transfer

Lt = 800.478 mm

Estimated shear load

= 92.132 MPa

The shear strength of the composite thread is difficult to predict. A formula for
estimation of the shear strength S12 in the simplified thread is given in [Reference 2] .

1
S12 = [1 ( v f v f ) (1

G12 m
)] S12 m
G12 f

Figure 28 Calculation of shear strength

With this shear strength the simplified thread depicted in Figure 27 can be analysed.
The Shear strength is calculated for an E-glass Epoxy laminate with a fibre volume
fraction of 65%. Formulas for calculation of the composite properties are added in
Table 12.
The estimated shear strength of a unidirectional lamina is 82.26 Mpa. This is lower
than the calculated shear stress. Values for the shear strength of E-glass-Epoxy are
found in literature (internet) that vary between 55 and 200 Mpa.
The situation depicted in Figure 27C is approximated by calculating the shear
strength of a 45 laminate. The calculated shear strength of a sy mmetrical 45
laminate is 110.3 Mpa. This is higher compared to the estimated shear stress in the
thread. The estimated shear strength of a 30 laminate is 109 MPa.
No formula is found for calculation of the shear strength of the case depicted in Figure
29. The strength of this configuration is expected to be lower because the fibres act
as stress intensities instead of reinforcement.

Figure 29 Simplified shape with fibres oriented in the direction of the thread

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3
S 2T = [1 ( v f v f ) (1

Em2
)] S1mT
Ef2

Figure 30 Calculation of transversal strength

The shear strength of Epoxy is about 96.6 Mpa. The shear strength of the material in
the plane depicted in Figure 29 is lower because the fibres act as stress intensities
instead of reinforcement. The material behaviour in this plane is isotropic. A way to
estimate the shear strength is by dividing the transversal tensile strength by 3.
Atransversal strength of 82.26 Mpa is calculated. The shear strength is expected to
be approximately:
82.26 MPa
= 47.493 MPa
3
This is considerably lower compared to the shear strength of the simplified threads
depicted in Figure 27. It is also much lower than the estimated shear stress
introduced by the axial load.
From this analysis can be concluded that the reinforcement that follows the thread
flanks is the best suited to transfer the axial load by shear stress.
Look for formula's
Composite books
Papers

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Stiffness properties

Source
[Reference 1]

E1 = v f E f 1 + v m E m1

Maximum allowable stress


Longitudinal tension:

Maximum allowable strain

S1T = v f S1 fT

Longitudinal compression:

S1C = v f S1 fC

Longitudinal tension:

1T =

1C =

Longitudinal compression:

E2 =

Em2 E f 2

[Reference 1]

E f 2 v f (E f 2 Em2 )

Transverse tension:

S 2T

E
= [1 ( v f v f ) (1 m 2 )] S1mT
Ef2

2T =

Transverse compression:

Transverse compression:

S 2C = [1 ( v f v f ) (1

Transverse tension:

Em2
)] S1mC
Ef2

E3 = E 2
G12 = G12 m

(1 v f ) G12 m + (1 + v f ) G12 f

[Reference 2]

(1 v f ) G12 f + (1 + v f ) G12 m

G12 m
G
1 v f (1 12 m

[Reference 1]

G23 f

NU 12 = v f NU 12 f + v m NU 12 m

[Reference 1]

NU 13 = NU 12

NU 21 = NU 12

E2
E1

NU 23 = v f NU 23 f + v m (2 NU 12 m NU 12

shear:

G
S12 = [1 ( v f v f ) (1 12 m )] S12 m
G12 f

G13 = G12

G23 =

Interlaminar

E2
)
E1

[Reference 1]

Table 12 Overview of applied equations for laminae mechanical properties

Shear strain:

12 =

S12
G12

S1T
E1
S1C
E1

S 2T
E2

2C =

S 2C
E2

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F.2 Tightening Torque


A makeup torque is applied to obtain effective seal. Traditional steel threads can yield
locally to obtain a seal. Plastic deformation does not occur in composite material
before failure occurs.
Wrenches are used to apply the torque. These wrenches can damage the composite
tubing. Objective of this appendix is to analyse the effect of torque on the loading of
the threaded connection.
The torque results in an axial load. This axial load results in radial and axial reaction
forces in the conical connection.

Figure 31 Loads on conical thread

Torque is transformed in axial load

The axial resultant force on the thread can be


calculated with:
The angle is determined by the friction force
and the force normal to the thread direction

Fax
tan ( )

Ftan

tan av +
Ffr

)
=>

F'N

Fax

Ftan

The resultant normal force on the threads is


calculated with:

F'N
cos ( )

62

Ffr

F'N

tan av + atan

F'N1 F'N2
F'N_i
FN_i

=>

F'N

cos ( ) ( FN1 FN2)

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The friction force is determined by te normal


contact load on the thread and the friction
coefficient

Ffr

( FN1 + FN2)

Ffr

FN1 + FN2

cos ( ) FN1 FN2

F'N

Ftan

=> Fax

tan av + atan

FN1 + FN2

cos () FN1 FN2

/2

/2

Figure 32 Loads on conical thread

( FN1 + FN2)

The total normal load on the flanks is


determined by the radial force and the thread
shape

Ffr

This radial force is determined by the


cone angle of the thread connection and
the axial load

Frad

Frad1 + Frad2
Frad

sin ( )

sin ()

Fax

tan
=>

63

Ffr

Fax

sin ( ) tan

( FN1 + FN2)

Fax

sin ( ) tan

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Input:
Applied Torque

T := 305N m

Pitch

p := 3.175mm

Diameter at thread end

D2 := 65.8876mm

Thread height

h s := 1.80975mm

Length of thread

Lthread := 65.1002mm

Thread conicity

Cthread := 0.0625

x-coordinate along thread length

x := ( 0mm, 0.01mm.. 65.1002mm)

Coefficient of friction Depends on lubrication additive

:= 0.1

Half thread angle

:= 30deg

Calculations:

Cthread

Cone angle of thread

:= 2 atan

Pitch Diameter at thread end

Dp2 := D2 hs

Pitch Diameter at thread beginning

Dp1 := Dp2 Lthread Cthread

Average Pitch Diameter

Dp_Av :=

(Dp2 + Dp1)
2

Pitch angle at start of thread

1 := atan

Pitch angle at thread end

2 := atan

Average pitch angle

av := atan

Dp1

Dp2

Dp_Av

( x) := atan

D
+
x

C
(
)
p1
thread

Pitch angle as function of coordinate

Ftan :=

Tangential Make-up force

Fax :=

Axial resultant force in case on


straight non conical thread

64

T
Dp_Av

Ftan

tan av + atan ( )

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Results:

Half cone angle of thread

= 1.79deg

Pitch Diameter at thread end

Dp2 = 64.08mm

Pitch Diameter at thread beginning

Dp1 = 60.01mm

Average Pitch Diameter

Dp_Av = 62.04mm

Pitch angle at start of thread

1 = 0.965deg

Pitch angle at thread end

2 = 0.9deg

Average pitch angle

av = 0.93deg

0.98

0.96

( x)
deg

0.94

0.92

1 0.9

20

40

60

80
65

mm

Three unknowns must be solved. Three equations are required for this. The equations
to solve the three unknowns are:
Fax

Fax

Ftan

( 1 + )
tan av + atan

cos ( ) ( 1 )

FN1 ( 1 + ) sin ( ) tan

FN2 := FN1

(1) Equilibrium of forces on thread between tangential


force and axial resultant and friction force

(2) Equilibrium of forces in cone between axial load


and resulting radial load
(3) The variable gives the proportion between the
two contact loads F N1 and F N2 . This is an estimation.
various values of are considered.

First extreme case: = 0.99. The contact loads on both sides of the thread are almost
equal.

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Fax

FN1
F
N2

133.764
= 4301.96 N

4258.941

Ffr := ( FN1 + FN2)


Ffr = 856N

Second case: = 0.5.

Fax

FN1
F
N2

13477.195
= 575027.003 N

287513.501

Ffr := ( FN1 + FN2)


Ffr = 86254N

The contact pressure is calculated for various values of . The calculation for =0.99 is
added below. The calculation results are added in Figure 33. From these results can
be concluded that the distribution of contact loads on the threads has a very large
influence on the contact pressure.

Input:
Proportion Normal thread loads

= 0.99

Contact force

FN1 = 2821N

Number of effective threads

n threads := 8

Thread height

h s = 1.81mm

Half thread angle

= 30deg

Average pitch diameter

Dp_Av = 62.04mm

Calculations:
hs

Width contact area

wc :=

Length of contact area

Lc := Dp_Av n threads

Contact area

Acont := Lc w c

Contact pressure

cont :=

66

cos ( )

FN1
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Results:
Width contact area

wc = 2.09mm

Length of contact area

Lc = 1559mm

Contact area

Acont = 3259mm

Contact pressure

cont = 0.87MPa

2000000

600
Fax
FN1

1800000

FN2
500

Frad
1600000

1400000

[N]

1000000

300

800000

cont [N/mm2]

400
1200000

200
600000
400000
100
200000
0

0
0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Figure 33 Calculation results Loads on threads due to torque

From these calculation results can be concluded that the assumed proportion between
the contact loads FN1 and FN2 has a large influence on the predicted thread loads that
are introduced by the tightening torque.

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Calculation of clamping forces

Input:
T := 200N m .. 3000N m

:= 0.1
OD := 66mm
L := 100mm

Calculations:
Fclamp( T) := T

cont( T) := T

OD
2
OD

2 ( OD L)

1000
990

800

600
F clamp( T )
N
400

200

66

500

1000

1500

200

T
N m

68

2000

2500

3000
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0.05

0.04

0.03

cont( T)
MPa
0.02

0.01

500

1000

1500

200

T
N m

69

2000

2500

3000
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Seal methods

H.1 Product Data Sheet of TF-15


METAL FREE THREAD SEALING COMPOUND
DESCRIPTION
TF-15 Thread Sealing Compound is a high-pressure sealant containing PTFE,
Molybdenum Disulphide, Graphite, CZ-EX (JET-LUBEs extreme pressure additive),
rust, corrosion and oxidation inhibitors. All are blended in JET-LUBEs lithium grease
manufactured using highly refined, low sulphur oil to ensure brushability over a wide
temperature range to all surfaces, resistance to water washout and prevention of
rust/corrosion. TF-15 is highly recommended for use on fibreglass casing and tubing
by several manufacturers.
TF-15 assures tight makeup at low torque and allows easy breakout without seizing,
stripping or galling. It provides a permanent seal and maintains joint efficiency under
vibration, pressure surge and temperature fluctuations. It is particularly useful in areas
subject to H2S, salt water, a wide variety of oils, solvents, gases (except oxygen),
acids, alkalis and steam.
ADVANTAGES
Non metallic, non volatile
Lubricates for tighter makeup with less torque
Seals at temperatures to 315C (600F)
Seals at pressures to 10,000 psi
Seals badly worn threads as tight as new
Seals applications exposed to H2S, salt and water
0.7 Friction Factor (relative to API-MODIFIED)
Available in Arctic, H2S and Thermal grades
APPLICATIONS
TF-15 is expressly formulated for precision threads of API oilfield casing, tubing, line
pipe, subsurface production tools and related accessories. It prevents galling and
thread wear, seals badly worn threads and greatly increases connection life.
SERVICE RATING
Temperatures to 315C (600F)
Pressures to 10,000 psi
PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS
Thickener
Lithium
Fluid Type
Petroleum
Dropping Point (ASTM D-2265)
232C (450F)
Specific Gravity
1.21
Oil Separation
<3.0
Wr. % Loss @ 212F (100C)

Flash Point (ASTM D-92)


NLGI Grade

>221C (430F)
1 1/2
Penetration @ 25C (IP50/ASTM D-217)285-315
Copper Strip Corrosion
1A
(ASTM D-4048)

Shell 4-Ball (ASTM D-2596)


Weld Point, kgf

620

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Friction Factor

0.7

(Relative to API-MODIFIED)

PACKAGING
Code No.
23002
23023
23093

Size
250gm
5Kg
20Kg

Container
Brush Top Can
Can
Pail

LIMITED WARRANTY
Jet-Lube (UK) Limited makes the Limited Express Warranty that at the date of delivery, this
product shall be free from defects in Jet-Lube (UK) Limited materials and workmanship.
This limited Express Warranty is expressly in lieu of any other express or implied warranties,
including any implied warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose, and of any
other obligation on the part of Jet-Lube (UK) Limited.
The sole remedy for breach of the Limited Express Warranty shall be the refund of the purchase
price. All other liability is negated and disclaimed, and Jet-Lube (UK) Limited shall not be liable
for incidental or consequential damages.

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Force mould on laminate

In paragraph 5.8.8 is concluded that a cone shaped reinforcement should be applied


on the mandrel before the mould can be applied. The preferred method to apply this
cone shaped reinforcement is by wrapping a fabric with predetermined shape around
the mandrel. The configuration of this reinforcement is determined in this Appendix.
Various possible laminate configurations can be obtained when the cone is made by
wrapping a fabric. The lay-up depends on how the fabric is made and on how it is
wrapped. The fabric can be wrapped in the following ways:
A. Start with the largest band width and end with the tip

Advantages

Winding a flat fabric on cylindrical shape is no problem

Lower resistance to axial shortening when forced in threads


Disadvantages

Discontinuous top layer

Final outer diameter cannot be adjusted while the fabric is applied by adding longer length
because the end is tapered

B. Start with the tip and end with the largest width

Advantages

Continuous top layer

The final outer cone dimensions can easier be adjusted during application of the fabric by
adding more or less rectangular band. This is not possible when the rectangular part is
applied first and the tapered part the last
Disadvantages

Winding flat fabric on a cone can be difficult or maybe impossible

Larger resistance against shortening when forced in threads

C. Combination of A and B

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D. Apply cylindrical part with hoop windings and make cone with fabric

Advantages

Disadvantages

Increasing thickness of top layer yielding variation in penetration properties

E. Apply cone part with hoop windings and apply top layers with fabric

Advantages

Disadvantages

Difficult to apply accurate cone shape

F. Apply cone part with 0/90 fabric. Apply hoop windings with roving and apply top
layers with 0 fabric

Advantages

Disadvantages

Difficult to apply accurate cone shape


Figure 34 Wrapping methods

Tests must show which wrap method is the best. The band should be cut from a
fabric. The required shape of the fabric depends on the following parameters:
The fabric layer thickness
Cone dimensions
o Mandrel diameter
o Cone Length
o Cone angle
o Outer diameter
The following shapes depicted in Figure 35 and Figure 36 are proposed:

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Figure 35 Shape A: Threads half filled with reinforcement

Figure 36 Shape B: Threads fully filled with reinforcement

The thread side of these shapes consist of a cylindrical and a conical part. First a
band should be wrapped on the mandrel to obtain the cylinder. The outer diameter of
this cylinder is the smallest outer cone diameter. The required band length for the
cylindrical part and the conical part is calculated with:
n cyl1

L cyl

( ID + 2 n t )

ID n cyl + t n cyl t n cyl


2

n =0
n cone 1

L cone

(OD 1 + 2n t)

OD 1 n cone + t n cone t n cone


2

n =0

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Where:
Lcyl
Lcone
n
ncyl
ncone
ID
OD1
t

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Length of band required for cylindrical part


Length of band required for conical part
Layer number
Number of layers in cylindrical layer
Number of layers in cylindrical layer
Mandrel diameter
Smallest cone diameter
Layer thickness

The approximate angle to cut the fabric so that the required cone angle is obtained
can be calculated with:
X
atan

L
cone
Where:
X
=
Cone Length
The precise angle varies along the length of the fabric for the conical part due to the
increasing diameter during the wrapping. The deviation of the average angle from the
actual required angle is however very small.
The dimensions of the required fabric to obtain the shapes depicted in Figure 35 and
Figure 36 are calculated for two different layer thicknesses. The calculation results are
listed in Table 13 and Table 14. These shapes are also depicted in Figure 37.
Input
Inner Diameter
Smallest outer Diameter
Largest outer Diameter
Conicity
Fabric layer thickness
Calculation results

[mm]
[mm]
[mm]
[m/m]
[mm]

Half cone angle


Cone length
Total thickness
Total number of layers
Lagest cone thickness
Number of layers in cone
Thickness cylindrical part
Number of layers in cylindrical part
Fabric length Cylindrical part
Fabric length conical part
Total Fabric length
Approximate angle to cut the fabric

[ ]
[mm]
[mm]
[-]
[mm]
[-]
[mm]
[-]
[mm]
[mm]
[mm]
[ ]

ID=
OD1=
OD2=
C=
t=

/2=
X=
Ttot=
ntot=
Tcone=
ncone=
Tcyl=
ncyl=
Lcyl=
Lcone=
Ltot=
=

Table 13 Fabric dimensions for layer thickness= 0.35 mm

75

Shape A

Shape B

51
59.352
65.915
0.0625
0.35

51
61.2
65.888
0.0625
0.35

1.7899
105.0
7.46
21.3
3.2815
9.4
4.176
11.9
2055.08
1834.54
3889.62
3.28

1.7899
75.0
7.44
21.3
2.344
6.7
5.1
14.6
2552.10
1329.58
3881.68
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Input
Inner Diameter
Smallest outer Diameter
Largest outer Diameter
Conicity
Fabric layer thickness
Calculation results

[mm]
[mm]
[mm]
[m/m]
[mm]

Half cone angle


Cone length
Total thickness
Total number of layers
Lagest cone thickness
Number of layers in cone
Thickness cylindrical part
Number of layers in cylindrical part
Fabric length Cylindrical part
Fabric length conical part
Total Fabric length
Approximate angle to cut the fabric

[ ]
[mm]
[mm]
[-]
[mm]
[-]
[mm]
[-]
[mm]
[mm]
[mm]
[ ]

ID=
OD1=
OD2=
C=
t=

/2=
X=
Ttot=
ntot=
Tcone=
ncone=
Tcyl=
ncyl=
Lcyl=
Lcone=
Ltot=
=

Shape A

Shape B

51
59.352
65.915
0.0625
0.7

51
61.2
65.888
0.0625
0.7

1.7899
105.0
7.46
10.7
3.2815
4.7
4.176
6.0
1020.98
912.12
1933.10
6.57

1.7899
75.0
7.44
10.6
2.344
3.3
5.1
7.3
1268.04
661.11
1929.15
6.47

Table 14 Fabric dimensions for layer thickness= 0.7 mm

Many different types of fabrics can be applied. A selection should be made based on:
Required mechanical properties
o Axial and tangential laminate load due to internal pressure and axial
load43
o Collapse by female thread0
o Axial load transfer through threads90
Ease to force fibres in threads
o Fibres in direction of pitch89
Easy to apply the reinforcement on the mandrelOne band that can be obtained
by cutting and stacking from available materials.
Available materials
o Fabric weight
o Stacked UD or weave
o Distribution of reinforcement over applied orientations
o Random oriented
o
Optimum lay-up considering the mechanical loads and the entering in the threads
Top layer = thin UD layer that can easily be forced in the threads
Second layer= fibres in direction of pitch to enable easy penetration in threads and
transfer of tangential loads
Following layers 43 corresponding with the lay-u p in the tube
Easiest lay-up
Wrap of cross-ply.

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Axial load [kN]


Pressure load [bar]
90
0

95.7
0.0

0.0
95.7
241.0
241.0
90/0 Laminate
8.77
9.86

235.8
0.0

0.0
683.0

235.8
683.0

19.04

3.09

3.42

46.93

1.59

5.09

1.21

0.64

1.80

0.47

10.54

33.83

8.04

4.28

11.94

3.15

29.56

1.32

1.48

11.99

0.47

0.52

90/0/45 Laminate
90
0

45
45

46

16.94

7.60

10.34

6.88

2.68

3.49

1.28

12.56

1.17

0.52

4.43

0.47

8.53

83.40

7.74

3.46

29.43

3.10

10.67

1.14

1.56

4.33

0.40

0.52

24.33

13.93

8.86

9.87

4.91

3.28

3.66

2.10

1.33

1.49

0.74

0.49

12

3.58

4.55
16.74
46 Laminate

1.45

1.60

15.20

20.34

10.54

6.94

8.26

3.72

2.56

2.58

1.71

1.03

1.05

0.60

0.38

12

2.08

2.71

8.92

0.84

0.95

7.18

Table 15 Structural performance calculation results of various laminate lay-ups under internal
pressure and axial load

From the calculation results depicted in Table 15 Structural performance calculation


results of various laminate lay-ups under internal pressure and axial load can be
concluded that the 46 Laminate has the best performance for the axial load and the
single internal pressure load. The 0/90 laminate has a better performance for the
combined load case.

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Figure 37 Fabric shapes

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The fabric can be wrapped on the mandrel in two ways:

Lay-up
Chopped fibres can be applied to fill the complete thread with reinforcement.
These fibres can either be placed in the mould or they can be placed on top of the
fabric.
Fibres in axial direction for optimum axial load transfer
Fibres under pitch angle to make it easier to force the fibres in axial direction into
the threads

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J
J.1

Electrostatic force
Electrostatics general

The idea has come up during the concept generation phase to apply electrostatic
force to pull the reinforcement into the thread and/or to keep it there. The possibility to
use electromagnetic effect is analysed in this appendix.
Rubbing certain materials together can cause the build up of electrical charges on the
surfaces. An object that has static electricity built up on its surface has an electrical
force field coming from the surface. This field mildly attracts neutral objects or objects
with no charge. The field strongly attracts objects that have an opposite charge on
their surface.
Glass, wool, hair and silk collect positive electrical charges on their surface. PE, PP
and rubber collect negative electrical charges.
The force between two charges q1 and q2 is given by Coulombs law:
q 1 q 2
F elec K
2
r
Where:
K = Dielectric constant
r
= Distance between the charges
But neutral particles are attracted by a charged object. This is because a charge is
induced in the neutral particle. If the particle is a conductor, the like charges are
repelled to the far side and the opposite charges are attracted. The charges in an
insulating material are not free to move about as in a metal but the charges can
redistribute on a microscopic level.
The force on a loaded particle in an electrical field is calculated with:

Felec
E

E q

Figure 38 Force on load in electrical field

J.2
J.2.1

Electrostatics applied to attract glass fibres


Analogy to powder coating

A glass fibre can collect positive electrical charges on its surface. A charged glass
fibre is then attracted by a negative charged object. This principle is also applied in
powder coating. This is an advanced yet simple way of spray-painting very fine, dry
plastic powder paint onto a metal surface. The powder is charged with static electricity
as the paint cloud gently leaves the front of the spray gun. The charge attracts the
powder paint to the part that requires coating.

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Powder spray guns charge the powder using a high-voltage power supply. The corona
spray gun charges the powder negatively (-). Only a few positive (+) corona guns are
in use; they seem to do a better job with special powders, such as nylon and Teflon.
The biggest single sieving problem created in powder production was that of mesh
blinding. This is the agglomeration of powder particles combining to block the
apertures of the mesh due to static adhesion. This problem was no surprise as powder
coating is designed to hold an electro-static charge.
Conventional de-blinding devices such as rubber balls, plastic sliders or discs, and
brushes were unacceptable for a number of reasons.
http://www.russellfinex.com/inditm.asp?IndCSID=2&IndISID=2.

J.2.2

Fibre sizing

A sizing is applied to the glass fibre filaments directly after production. A sizing is a
complex mixture of coupling agents, film formers and lubricant. Sizings have many
functions of which the most important are the following:
1. Adhering the fibres together to protect the brittle glass from abrasion.
2. To lubricate the fibres in subsequent processing
3. To provide a good chemical bond between the glass fibre and the polymer matrix
4. To impart anti-static properties to the glass fibre
Increasing the surface conductivity prevents the build-up of electrical charges on the
glass fibres. The application of reinforcement with anti-static agents can make it more
difficult to apply electrostatic forces for production of a composite thread.
Questions:
Does sizing make application of electrostatic charges ineffective?
Are fibres available without the anti-static sizing?
Can sizing be removed?
J.2.3

Mould design

The electrical charge in a conductor is concentrated on the outside. It preferably


concentrates on sharp points or edges. This effect can be a disadvantage for
application on a conductive steel mould. The charge is concentrated on the thread tip
in the mould and fibres are not pulled inwards.

- - -- - -- - - - - -- - -- -- - - - --- - - -- - -- -- - - --- ---------------- -- - + + + + + + ++


+
+
+
+
+ +
--

Figure 39 Thread mould with negative charge and fibre with positive charge

This concentration of the load on the thread tips can possibly be prevented when an
insulating thread mould is applied on a metal body. The thickness in the roots is the
smallest or the roots are not covered by the insulating layer.

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-- - - - - - -- - - - - - --- -- -- --- --- -- ---- - -- - - - - -- --- -- -- --- --- -- --- --- -

+ +++

+ + +

Figure 40 Thread mould with insulating layer

Questions:
Also possible?: conductive thread layer of equal thickness
Faraday cage
Is a coating on the mould necessary
J.2.4

Electrostatic bonding

Electrostatic bonding (also known as anodic or field assisted bonding) was first
reported in 1969 having been developed and patented by P R Mallory and Co Inc (for
which reason it is sometimes known as Mallory bonding).
The technique is used to join glass to metals and semiconductors at temperatures well
below the softening point of the glass. The components to be joined are polished to a
smooth, flat surface finish (e.g. 50m rms) then heated to a temperature below the
softening point of the materials, but sufficiently high for ionic conduction to occur (200600C for glass). A d.c. voltage is applied across the components such that the metal
(or semiconductor) is at a positive potential with respect to the glass. The voltage
applied can vary from a few hundred volts to three thousand volts, for bonding times of
10 seconds to several hours.
A bond is formed as a result of the joint interfaces being brought into intimate contact
by the electrostatic forces generated by ion migration in the glass. No external
pressure is applied other than that required to hold the components in contact.
http://www.twi.co.uk/j32k/protected/band_3/ksnrs002.html

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Preforms

K.1 Stamping
Stamping is used to shape thermoformable continuous strand mat into complex
preforms. "Thermoformable" refers to the binder's ability to soften during heating and
become rigid when cooled. During the stamping process, the reinforcement slides and
stretches (i.e., thins) over the tool's shape. Continuous strand mat with binder on it is
placed in a die. It is heated to soften the binder and stamped in a process much like
steel stamping.

Figure 41 Preform stamping

K.2 Directed-Fibre Preforming


Directed fibre preforming involves the spray-up of fibreglass and binder onto a
perforated screen previously shaped so that the preform is identical to the part to be
moulded. Roving is fed through the chopper gun and sprayed, along with the binder,
onto the perforated screen where it is held in place by a pressure differential. The
carousel is rotated to allow the binder to set. The carousel is indexed again to allow
the preform to be removed and excess fibres may be removed from the screen.

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Figure 42 Spray-up preforming

Advantages
Low cost--roving is the cheapest

available form of the fibre


Process history--the process has been
used for 30 or 40 years.
Shape flexibility--large structures can
be easily made.

Table 16 advantages and disadvantages of

84

Limitations
Because chopped fibres are used, the
high performance properties available
with continuous fibres are not
achieved.
Trimming is necessary
Handling--the preforms can be quite
large indeed. Debulking or
compression may be needed to get
right volume fraction.
Preform weight varies
Fibre volume fraction varies

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Resin infusion techniques

A series of processes have emerged recently in which the reinforcement is placed in


the mould and the resin matrix is injected.
Examples are:
Resin transfer molding (RTM). The reinforcement is placed in the mould after
which the premixed resin injected.
Vacuum-assisted resin injection (VARI). Vacuum assists RTM process.
Reinforced resin injection moulding (RRIM). The reinforcement in the form of
chopped roving is incorporated with the resin in the mixing head.
This appendix describes the various techniques.

L.1 Resin Transfer Moulding


L.1.1

General introduction

RTM allows the moulding of components with complex shape and large surface area
with a good surface finish on both sides. The process is suited for short and medium
production runs and is employed for many different transport applications (truck cabs
are an example).
This process consists of filling a rigid and closed mould cavity by injecting a resin
through one or several points depending on the size of the component. The
reinforcements are previously placed in the interior of the mould before closing and
locking it firmly.
Different types of moulds can be used depending on the required production rate.
Heat can be applied to the mould to shorten the cure-time in which case steel moulds
may be necessary.
The reinforcements may be continuous filament mats, complexes or fabrics, but
generally continuous filament mats are the most widely used. The use of preforms
from continuous strand mats permits a considerable increase in production rate to be
achieved (Appendix K).

Figure 43 Schematic representations of RTM process

Advantages and benefits of using RTM are:


Mouldings can be manufactured to close dimensional tolerances
Components will have good surface finish on both sides.

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Selective reinforcement and accurate fibre management is achievable


Fibre loadings are typically around 50-60% (Volume). Ability to build-in fibre
volume fraction loadings up to 65%
Inserts may be incorporated into mouldings
Tooling costs comparatively low compared to other manufacturing processes
Uses only low pressure injection (34.5 kPa)
Low volatile emission during processing
Ability to produce near net shape mouldings reducing material wastage
Process can be automated resulting in higher production rates with less scrap
Ability to mould complex structural and hollow shapes
Low resultant voidage in moulded components
Ability to achieve from 0.5mm to 90mm laminate thickness
Higher productivity. An open mould usually produces one part per day. A RTM
mould can produce 12 to 30 simple parts per day.
Repeatability.
Reduced labour. For large volume production, labour costs become lower in
contrast to open moulding.

Some disadvantages of RTM are:


Volume requirements. Amortizing the cost of tooling requires high volume
production. Efficient operation also requires trained operators who work with this
process full time.
Tooling options. A wide range of mould types can be used for RTM.
Close attention must be paid to the injection strategy to prevent dry areas.
Internet sources:
http://www.plastech.co.uk/rtm_benefits.htm
http://www.vetrotexeurope.com/fabrication_processes/re_rtm.html
http://howard.engr.siu.edu/staff2/abrate/NSFATE/camps/rtm.htm

L.1.2

Resin flow in injection processes

The flow of resin through the fibre reinforcement is governed by Darcy's law. For onedimensional flows, the flow velocity v is proportional to the pressure gradient.
K dp
v

dx
Where K is the permeability of the reinforcement and is the viscosity of the resin. K
depends of the type of reinforcement and is a measure of its porosity. The viscosity of
the resin depends on the temperature and the degree of cure. It is usually assumed
that the viscosity of the resin remains constant during the mould filling stage because
the cure has not started yet.
From Darcys law can be derived that the filling time t of the injection of a rectangular
strip can be calculated with:
l

t=
0

x
K p

dx =

l2
2 K p

A factor for the porosity of the reinforcement is often added changing the formula in:

t=

l2
2 K p

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With:
=

l
p

=
=

Porosity of the reinforcement. The porosity of most


reinforcements used is in between 0.5 and 0.85.
Permeability of the reinforcement. The permeability of
reinforcements can differ greatly. This can be used to
optimise fill time (also by applying additional highly
permeable feeder materials). The permeability range is
-8
-8
2
typically between 1.0510 and 1290010 cm . (Figure
44)
Viscosity of the resin. The viscosity of the resin is usually
limited to 100 to 500 mPas
Flow distance (length of the strip)
Applied pressure difference (constant during the injection)

K x10-7 [cm2]

.
Figure 44 In-plane unidirectional saturated flow measurements conducted with random, woven,
unidirectional, and stitched fabrics (http://srdata.nist.gov/permeability/)

An example calculation is made with arbitrary values:

:= 0.6
8

K := 2 10

cm

The calculation results are depicted in Figure 45 for an injection pressure difference of
one and two bar.

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45

50

40
t 1bar( l)
min

30

t 2bar( l)
min
20

t 4bar( l)
min

10

10

20

30

40

50

60
60

mm

Figure 45 Results of example calculation for injection time of rectangular strip

L.1.3

Injection strategy

Product properties can be characterised with the product size, volume, shape and
dimensions (influencing flow distance). The process can be described with the
process properties:
Pressure difference (Large products can only be manufactured cost effectively
using a vacuum injection technique, since the use of pressure would require very
stiff and very costly moulds. This implies that a maximum pressure difference of
approximately 1 bar can be achieved.
Injection strategy (influencing flow distance)
The injection strategy and product geometry influence the flow distance and the
sensitivity of the process for disturbances. Generally can be concluded that the
injection time is governed by:
1. The injection distance.
2. The ratio of length of the injection channel and length of the flowfront. For large
products it is therefore often most beneficial to apply a kind of grid-like injection
strategy with one main channel and several branches.
The injection downward is not preferred for two reasons:
1. Air bubbles in the resin and laminate will be entrapped more easily.
2. There is higher risk on the occurrence of dry spots due to racetracking of the resin
through highly permeable runner channels.
It is necessary to verify that there are no local details which can cause the formation of
dry spots or else disturb the injection. Low permeability or substantial thickness
changes could cause dry spots.
A change in thickness can cause both runner channels and disturbance of flow
(speed difference). Thickness changes are preferably smooth.

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A change in permeability can have the same effect as a change in thickness.


However, permeability changes can be resolved by applying highly permeable
feeder materials onto low permeable parts.

Edges are critical in every injection. Every edge can lead to a highly permeable
channel, causing resin racetracking. Although reinforcement can be positioned very
carefully, runner channels are very difficult to prevent. The most favourable situation
will occur when the resin flow front is progressing always parallel to the runner
channel. This is shown in Figure 46. When the resin flow front is perpendicular with
the runner channel the flow front will be disturbed and the resin will flow much faster
through the runner channel. A runner channel parallel to the flow front will not cause
disturbances of the resin flow front.

Figure 46 No disturbance of resin flow front (left) and disturbance of resin flow front due

to a runner channel perpendicular to the flow front (right)


www.clc.tno.nl/projects/

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Centre thread

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Protect thread

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Tests

O.1 Materials
O.1.1

Resin

Amiantit uses the EPIKOTE Resin 827 for the production of fibre glass tubes. This
resin is also used for the test work. EPIKOTE Resin 827 is a medium viscosity liquid
epoxy resin produced from bisphenol A and epichlorohydrin. It contains no diluent.
EPIKOTE 827 is prone to crystallise on storage, particularly in cold conditions. The
viscosity of the resin strongly depends on the temperature as depicted in Figure 47.
This information is obtained from the product datasheet. The A line is fitted through
the data points with the function Viscosity=a(Temperature)-b.
25

Viscosity [Pa.s]

20

15

10

0
20

30

40

50

60

70

Temperature [C]

Figure 47 Epikote 827 Resin viscosity as function of temperature

O.1.2

Curing agents

Amiantit uses the curing agents Ancamine DL 50 and NMA curing agent. These curing
agents cannot be used for testing because of their high toxicity.
Applied instead of Ancamine DL 50 is Epikure 3402. This is a non toxic aromatic
curing agent with long potlife and a high glass temperature after postcure at 180C
O.1.3

Reinforcements

E-glass Roving
0/90 plain weave
0/90 Quadran Weave RE292QH4
UD plain weave UT-E250
Random chopped fibre mat
Preformable continuous fibre mat U750

92

1200 TEX
280 gr/m
290 gr/m
250 gr/m
300 gr/m
450 gr/m

Owens Corning
Duursma
SP
SP
Duursma
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O.1.4

Glass powder
Graphite

O.1.5

Fillers

Release agents

Wax
Spray wax
Semi-permanent release agent
Combination of permanent sealer with semi permanent watershield
Curable release agent used in injection moulding process

O.2 Required material quantities for testing


The required amount of glass and resin is estimated with the calculation below:

Input:
Tube sample dimensions
Inner Diameter

IDtube := 2in

Wall thickness

T := 3.35mm

Tube length

Ltube := 1m

IDtube = 51mm

Thread dimensions
Thread length

Lthread := 65.1002mm

Extra length required

Lextra := 25mm

Max. Outer thread diameter

ODthread_max := 65.8876mm

Thread conicity

C := 0.0625

Composite properties

glass := 2540

Glass density

kg
3

epoxy := 1200

Epoxy density

kg
3

m
vf := 65%

Fibre volume fraction

Sample production
Efficiency

eff := 50%

Number of samples per reinforcement type

n samp := 10
P :=

Proportion curing agent : epoxy resin

93

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Calculations:
Outer diameter

ODtube := IDtube + 2 T

Half cone angle

:= atan

Min. Outer thread diameter

ODthread_min := ODthread_max C Lthread

Average Outer thread diameter

ODthread_av :=

( ODthread_max + ODthread_min)
2

Density of composite

comp := vf glass + ( 1 vf) epoxy

Volume of tube

Vtube :=


2
2
ODtube IDtube Ltube
4

Weight of tube

Wtube := comp Vtube

Approximate thread volume

Vthread :=

Approximate weight of thread

Wthread := comp Vthread


2
2
ODthread_av ODtube ( Lthread + Lextra)
4

Glass volume in tube

Vglass_tube := Vtube vf

Weight of glass in tube

Wglass_tube := Vglass_tube glass

Approximate glass volume in thread

Vglass_thread := Vthread vf

Weight of glass in thread

Wglass_thread := Vglass_thread glass

Total required glass weight for n tube samples

W_glass_tube_tot := n samp

Wglass_tube
eff

W_glass_thread_tot := n samp

Total required glass weight for n thread samples

Wglass_thread
eff

Resin volume in tube

Vresin_tube := Vtube ( 1 vf)

Weight of resin in tube

Wresin_tube := Vresin_tube epoxy

Approximate resin volume in thread

Vresin_thread := Vthread ( 1 vf)

Weight of resin in thread

Wresin_thread := Vresin_thread epoxy

Total required resin weight for n tube samples

W_resin_tube_tot := n samp

Wresin_tube
eff

W_resin_thread_tot := n samp

Total required resin weight for n thread samples

Wresin_thread
eff

Total required resin weight for n samples

W_resin_tot := W_resin_tube_tot + W_resin_thread_tot

Epoxy resin

Epoxy :=

Curing agent

Curing_Agent :=

94

W_resin_tot
127

100

W_resin_tot
127

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Results:
-3

Density of composite

comp = 2071kg m

Volume of tube

Vtube = 569893mm

Weight of tube

Wtube = 1.18kg

Glass volume in tube

Vglass_tube = 370430mm

Weight of glass in tube

Wglass_tube = 0.94kg

Approximate thread volume

Vthread = 54558mm

Approximate weight of thread

Wthread = 113gm

Approximate glass volume in thread

Vglass_thread = 35463mm

Weight of glass in thread

Wglass_thread = 90gm

Total required glass weight for n tube samples

W_glass_tube_tot = 19kg

Total required glass weight for n thread samples

W_glass_thread_tot = 1.802kg

Resin volume in tube

Vresin_tube = 199462mm

Weight of resin in tube

Wresin_tube = 239gm

Approximate resin volume in thread

Vresin_thread = 19095mm

Weight of resin in thread

Wresin_thread = 23gm

Total required resin weight for n tube samples

W_resin_tube_tot = 4.8kg

Total required resin weight for n thread samples

W_resin_thread_tot = 0.5kg

Total required resin weight for n samples

W_resin_tot = 5.2kg

Epoxy resin

Epoxy = 4.1kg

Curing agent

Curing_Agent = 1.1kg

Summarising can be concluded that the following materials are required for the
production of 10 samples:
5 kg of resin
2 kg of curing agent
10 kg of glass fibre reinforcement

O.3 Mixer
A mixer is required for:
Mixing resin with curing agent
Mixing short fibres with resin

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Dispersion of graphite, PTFE, pigments and other powder additives

Generally two different types of mixing are applied:


Mixing of miscible liquids which requires high bulk flow
Dispersion of solid powders which requires high shear or intensive agitation
A propeller mixer is suitable for generating high bulk flow. A high shear blade is more
suited for introducing high shear.
Required for testing:
A mixing device like for example an electric drill machine
Shaft
Propeller mixer
High shear blade

O.4 Availability of materials


/


Materials for production


Reinforcement
o UD mat
o Roving preferably 1200 TEX
o Chopped fibres
o Short fibre random oriented mat
o Prepreg?
o
Resin EPIKOTE RESIN 827
Curing Agent:
o Ancamine DL50 Curing Agent
o Epicure 3402 1 kg
o MDA curing agent 1 kg
Release agents
o LOCTITE FREEKOTE 700 NC
o Zyvax sealer and water shield
o Semi-permanent sprayable Teflon based agent
o Wax
Lubricant
o Graphite powder
o (PTFE powder)
o Silicone additive
Acetone

Expected on

Disposables
Disposable gloves
Mixing sticks
Mixing pots plastic
Metal mixing pots that can be heated
Brushes/rollers
Masks with carbon filter

Expected on

/








Equipment/tools for production of samples


Mandrel 2 inch

Expected on

/



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Moulds and flanges


Tools to roll/push/press.. reinforcement in threads
o (Conical) core
o Threaded (Conical) core
o Roll disc
o
Test winder
Resin bath
Heating blanket for:
o mandrel heating
o Resin impregnation bath heating
Cure oven
Metal mixing pot that can be heated
Mixer with mixing blades

Equipment for analysis of samples


Diamond saw
Sand paper
Microscope?
Tool for testing thread strength

12-03-2003




Expected on

/



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O.5 Introduction tests


O.5.1

Introduction test I First composite thread moulding

Objective
Gain some experience with working with the materials, the kitchen oven and the
mould.
Test the possibility to force reinforcement in the threads
Test the ease of releasing the mould
Test procedure
Thread mould waxed
150 gr Resin+36 gr curing agent prepared
Mould threads smeared with some resin and graphite
Preimpregnated hoop windings on mandrel in conical shape
Roving placed on hoop wrappings under 0
Chopped pre-impregnated fibres placed on 0 layer
Mould placed on rotating mandrel while rotation of mould is constrained.
Cure in kitchen oven, first several hours at 80C- 100C. Post cure at 180C-200C
Release by first rotating the mandrel and constraining the mould. The mandrel
releases and the thread mould stays fixed.
The thread mould is released by opening the mould
Observations
Large parts of thread not filled with matrix or reinforcement
Some parts of thread are filled and have a smooth black surface. These parts are
full of air and can easily be damaged.
Also some threads can be seen that appear to be filled with reinforcement.
Conclusions
The first experiment yielded a very low thread quality as expected
In next experiments it is important to apply the reinforcement on the mould in a
more consistent conical shape with a more consistent fibre volume fraction.
The reinforcement was forced in the threads at some locations
The mould could not be released by rotation
The oven does not provide the desired accuracy and is only suitable for initial
experiments
O.5.2

Introduction test II Second composite thread moulding

Objective
Gain some experience with working with the materials, the kitchen oven and the
mould.
Test the possibility to force reinforcement in the threads
Test the ease of releasing the mould
Test procedure
Thread mould waxed
100 gr Resin+24 gr curing agent prepared with some Carbon Black (for other test
purposes)
The mould is placed in the winding machine and the resin is applied in the rotating
mould.
The mould is rotated at high rotational speed to remove voids
0/90 fabric is applied.
The inner cavity is filled with sand and this sand is compressed to force
reinforcement in the threads.
Cure in kitchen oven, first several hours at 80C- 100C. Post cure at 180C-200C

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The thread mould is released by opening the mould

Observations
Practically all resin is absorbed by the sand
Practically no reinforcement entered the threads

Figure 48 Test result with resin absorbed by sand

Conclusions
Sand cannot be used as core material when the resin is supposed to stay in the
reinforcement and the mould
Sand can be used when is desired to investigate how much of the reinforcement
entered the threads
In this test no reinforcement actually entered the threads.
O.5.3

Introduction test III Thread casting

Objective
Make a good quality thread shape to check mould with calibration ring
Test a composition of epoxy with sand and graphite as used by Star Fiberglass
Test procedure
Thread mould waxed
100 gr Resin+24 gr curing agent
Prepare 200 gram sand with 4% graphite
Mix the sand and graphite with the resin
The mould is placed in the winding machine and the matrix compound is applied
in the rotating mould.
The mould is rotated at high rotational speed to remove voids
0/90 fabric is applied.
The inner cavity is filled with a steel mandrel
The rest of the matrix material is cast in the mould
Cure in kitchen oven, first several hours at 80C- 100C. Post cure at 180C-200C
The thread mould is released by opening the mould
Observations
A thread is obtained with a large amount of voids. The voids can originate from
evaporated moisture in the sand.
The calibration ring is screwed on the thread. The distance between the thread end
and the face of the calibration ring is larger then allowed by the API specifications.

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Input:
Max. specified Outer thread diameter

D4 := 65.8876mm

Max. measured Outer thread diameter

D4_spec := 65.72mm

Thread conicity

C := 0.0625

Length end of pipe to hand tight plane for long thread

L1_long := 1.779in

Length end of pipe to hand tight plane for normal thread

L1_short := 1.154in

Allowed standoff for short thread according to calibration certificate

P1 := 0.0005in

Measured standoff

P1_measured := 25mm

Calculations:
Difference between the specified and actual D4 value

D4 := D4 D4_spec

Cone angle of thread

:= 2 atan

Axial displacement due to deviation from specified diameter

X :=

D4

2 tan
Calculated allowed standoff for long thread

P1_long := ( L1_long L1_short) P1

Required diameter correction

minimum

D4_mincorr := 2 ( P1_measured P1_long p ) tan

medium

D4_corr := 2 ( P1_measured P1_long) tan

maximum

D4_maxcorr := 2 ( P1_measured P1_long + p ) tan

Results:
Difference between the specified and actual D4 value

D4 = 0.168mm

Cone angle of thread

= 3.58deg

Axial displacement due to deviation from specified diameter

X = 2.68mm

Calculated allowed standoff for long thread

P1_long = 15.86mm

Minimum Required diameter correction

D4_mincorr = 0.37mm

Medium correction

D4_corr = 0.57mm

Maximum Required diameter correction

D4_maxcorr = 0.77mm

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Figure 49 Dimensions of cast thread

The final thread shape checked with the bit blade. The thread shape appears to fit
exactly in the bit blade shape.

Figure 50 Bit blade in cast thread

Conclusions
The thread is not yet approved because the pipe end sticks out of the calibration
ring too far. The final mould shape needs to be adjusted.
The shape of the individual threads is in accordance with the API specifications.
When sand is applied as filler material, it needs to be completely dry to prevent
voids.

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O.6 Winding tests


O.6.1

Preparations sample production

The first concept that is tested is:


Push mould on laminate Cure while forced Apply the resin by:
Pre-impregnation
Injection
The following equipment is designed and made for the tests:
Mandrel (Figure 51c)
Female thread mould (Figure 51c)
Male thread mould (Figure 51a&b)
Male thread applicator (Figure 51d)
Injector
Drawings are added in the appendix Q. The tools are depicted in Figure 51.
b.

a.

c.

d.

Figure 51 Sample production tools

A cone shaped reinforcement is applied first on the mandrel as described in Appendix


I. The thickness of the fabric is measured and the required dimensions are determined
of the fabric shape that is necessary to obtain the cone shape on the mandrel.
O.6.2
Date:
Materials:
Shape:

Tube sample production I


27-03-2003
0/90 plain weave 280 gr/m
Shape A (Appendix I)

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Objectives
Objectives of the experiment are:
Test the tools for application of the female and male threads.
Test the method of the precut reinforcement to apply a cone shaped reinforcement
Test the new curing oven
Find out if it is possible to apply a post cure after releasing the mould in order to
obtain a higher possible production efficiency because more samples can be
postcured in one cycle.

Figure 52 Determine layer thickness and cut fabric

Test procedure and observations


The moulds and other tools are cleaned and smeared with release agent. A Zyvax two
component system is applied. First four permanent layers of a sealer material are
applied. The function of these layers is to fill the pores in the material. A water based
release agent is applied on the sealer.

Figure 53 Application of Zyvax mould release agent

500 gr of Epoxy resin is prepared with 120 gr curing agent. The precut reinforcement
band is applied on the mandrel. It is impregnated with a brush. A line on the
reinforcement helps with the right placement during winding. The final shape of the
cone is checked with a caliber. Finally a hoop layer is applied by winding roving on the
cone shaped reinforcement.

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Figure 54 Application of cone shaped reinforcement, check shape with calibre and apply hoop
layer

A paste is prepared with the following constituents:


50 gr
Epikote 827
24 PHR
Epikure 3402
100 PHR
Glass powder
2.5 PHR
Graphite powder
This paste is applied in the threads of the male thread mould. The mould is applied on
the mandrel after the threads are filled with the paste. The injector is used to inject
paste in the mould. The paste injection appears to be unsuccessful in this case
because the reinforcement is pressed out of the mould. This is because the mould
already sealed off the complete reinforcement before injection.

Figure 55 Application of the mould, Application of paste in threads and Paste injection

The female thread mould is also smeared with the paste. An unidirectional fabric is
applied on the mould with the rovings in 0 directi on. This reinforcement is
impregnated with a brush. The UD reinforcement is forced in the threads by winding a

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roving with high pretension in the threads. The tube is wrapped with 40 mm wide 0/90
plain weave band.
The sample is finally wrapped with polyethylene tape to prevent sagging during curing.
This is necessary because rotation during curing is not possible yet.
The sample is cured at 80C for approximately 3 hou rs. The male thread applicator is
removed first after the cure. Then the mandrel is released with a hydraulic press. Little
force is required for this release. The brass female thread mould can easily me
released by rotation. The male thread mould is finally removed by disassembling the
mould.

Figure 56 Mould release

The threads look relatively good. The threads are not completely filled because some
air is locked in.
A post cure at 180C is applied after the release t o test. The objective is to test if post
curing is possible after the releasing the moulds. It appears that considerable
softening of the resin causes flow.

Figure 57 Threads after postcure without mould

Conclusions
The tools for application of the female and male threads seem to work fine.
The method of the precut reinforcement to apply a cone shaped reinforcement
yields the desired conical shape relatively easy.

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Injection cannot be used when the mould completely seals off the space between
the threads and the pre-impregnated reinforcement
Relatively high pretension is necessary to force 0 in the threads.
It is not recommendable to apply a post cure after releasing the moulds.
Less resin can be prepared for the next test. 300 gr will be sufficient.

O.6.3
Date:
Materials:
Shape:

Tube sample production II


28-03-2003
0/90 plain weave 280 gr/m
Shape B (Appendix I)

Objectives
Objectives of the experiment are:
Test with larger cone reinforcement shape
Test without injection
Apply postcure before releasing the moulds
Test procedure and observations
A new layer of Zyvax water shield is applied. The mould is preheated to speed up the
dry process of the agent.
300 gr of Epoxy resin is prepared with 72 gr curing agent. The pre-cut fabric is
wrapped on the mandrel and impregnated with a brush. The shape is checked with the
calibre. It can be seen that the cone is larger compared to the cone applied during the
first test. This is correct because Shape B is supposed to be larger compared to shape
A. The conicity is found to be correct.

Figure 58 Cone shaped reinforcement with shape B.

A paste is prepared with the same formulation as used during the first winding test.
The threads of the male thread mould are filled with the paste. The mould is applied
with the thread applicator. High torque is applied to apply the mould as far as possible.
A surplus of paste is forced out of the injection hole in the thread applicator. During
tightening the mould

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Figure 59 Application of male thread mould hith high torque

The threads of the female thread mould are also filled with the paste. An UD fabric is
wrapped around the mould with the fibres perpendicular to the mould in 0 direction.
The reinforcement is impregnated with a brush.

Figure 60 Application of pase and UD fabric on the female thread mould

The fibres are forced in the threads by winding one 1200 TEX roving under high
pretension in the groove between the threads. High pretension is required. The roving
breaks twice. This problem is less likely to occur when a pretensioning unit is used
instead of a glove. The roving leaves the track of the threads once or twice. The UD
reinforcement redraws from the mould end because it enters the threads.

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Figure 61 Forcing the UD fibres in the threads with a 1200 TEX roving under high pretension

The tube is wrapped with 40 mm wide 0/90 plain weave band. The sample is finally
wrapped with polyethylene tape to prevent sagging during curing. This is necessary
because rotation during curing is not possible yet. The sample is cured at 80C for
approximately 3 hours after which the polyethylene tape is removed. Subsequently a
postcure cycle is applied in which the temperature is slowly increased up to 180C
after which this temperature is maintained for two hours.

Figure 62 Sample before and after cure

The thread transporter is first removed. Subsequently the mandrel is released with a
hydraulic press. (A considerably higher load is required to release the mandrel
compared to the previous release). The brass female thread mould can easily be
removed with the special tool by turning it out of the thread. The male thread mould is
released by demounting the two cone rings and the three mould parts.

Figure 63 Removal of the thread transporter and male thread mould release

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The threads look good. It can be clearly be seen that the paste that was smeared in
the threads was driven forward by the resin in the cone reinforcement. The resin rich
part appears to be relatively void rich. Practically no voids can be seen in the paste
area. The sample needs to be cut open to study this area.
Material at the thread end is locally sheared off due to mould sticking. This adherence
to the mould is probably caused because the release agent was locally removed by
friction with glass reinforcement.

Paste driven out of


the threads

voids can be seen

Material adhered
to the mould

Figure 64 Male thread

Thread not
completely filled

Figure 65 Female thread

Conclusions
Release agent was removed at locations with high friction. A better release agent
should be applied. Shorter reinforcement cone can be applied to prevent high
friction between mould and reinforcement outside the actual thread.
The female thread was not completely filled. The roving lost track at some
locations and high pretension was required.
Paste was forced out of the threads by resin out of the cone reinforcement. This
resin rich thread part contains many voids.

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Next steps
The following steps are proposed for the further testing. This proposal is based on the
observations from the first two sample productions.
Adjust the fabric shape. The cone can be made shorter so that no excessive
friction between the mould and the glass occurs outside the actual thread.
Apply other release agents that are less sensitive for friction contact with the
glass.
Experiment with injection strategies. For example prevent voids by injection of
paste instead of application of paste directly in the threads.
Investigate how fibres enter the threads depending on the applied laminate lay-up.
Cut open samples with water cooled diamond saw to investigate fibre and void
content in the threads
Perform some initial tensile test on the hydraulic press at Autonational. It is for
example possible to investigate the difference in strength between the female
threads (with 0 fibres entering the threads) and m ale threads.
Make new mould with improved dimensions according to the API specifications.
Incorporate shrinkage effects.
Make the test winding unit suitable for controlled winding under predefined angle
to make it possible to produce high quality test samples with roving instead of with
band.
Design and make resin bath suitable for winding the precut reinforcement bands
and the single roving
Design and make a rotation unit in the oven to enable cure and post cure in one
cycle without intermediate removal of tape.

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Patent information

Patents concerning composite threaded couplings are found from Fiber Glass
Systems Inc and from Centron. Short summaries are given below.
Patent number:
Publication date:
Applicant(s):
Title:
Abstract:

!
Remarks:

Patent number:
Publication date:
Applicant(s):
Title:
Abstract:

Remarks:

US5179140
12-01-1993
Fiber Glass Systems inc
A filled resin composition and articles made therefrom
A filled resin composition is provided which is particularly
adapted for the formation of wear resistant lubricious
surfaces. The compositions when formed into integral
threads with the bodies of plastic-reinforced pipe provide
superior thread action and extended thread life. The
compositions comprise ceramic powder, graphite and short
fibre lengths. The compositions may vary widely.
Sand is preferred to be applied as ceramic powder
An improvement of the thread lubrication minimises the
required torque necessary to couple and uncouple the pipeends.
Centrifugal force is used to eliminate any entrapped air
or other gases in the resin matrix packed into the thread.
US4154466
15-05-1979
Centron Corp
Pipe section and coupling
A pipe section is provided having means on the end for use
in assembly in the section in series in a pipe system. The
pipe section has a compressible seal mounted in a groove in
the end. A frusto-conical shaped seal surface is formed on
the interior of the female end adjacent the threads. The apex
angle of the frusto-conical sealing surface, the lead the
screw threads and the allowable diametric clearance of the
seal means are related to provide a pipe joint which allows
360 degrees or a full turn of relative rotation between
coupled sections while providing an effective seal. The
compressibility of the seal, the apex angle of the sealing
surface and lead of the screw are also related to provide a
makeup torque for interconnecting the sections which is in
the range which can be applied by an ordinary worker by
hand to the section without tools.

The connection allows at least one full turn of rotation


while providing effective sealing. This is helpful for example
when an elbow section is applied.
Composite pipe does not allow application of wrenches
because they tend to compress the pipe and damage the
composite.

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Patent number:
Publication date:
Applicant(s):
Title:
Abstract:

Remarks:

Patent number:
Publication date:
Applicant(s):
Title:
Abstract:

Remarks:

US5398975
21-03-1995
Centron Corp.
Composite threaded pipe connectors and method
A composite tubular such as a pipe joint and method of
forming the composite tubular is provided in which one of the
threaded connectors of the tubular has a composite layer of
carbon fiber reinforced plastic formed thereon. The body of
the tubular or pipe joint is preferably formed of a composite
material such as fiberglass reinforced plastic. The
connectors of tubulars may be threaded together with a
suitable thread sealant to provide a pressure tight seal in the
connection. The pressure tight seal may be formed over a
wide range of torque values, therefore, the tubular may be
made-up to position rather than torque to form a pressuretight seal and without galling the threads of the connectors.
The layer of carbon and resin also reduces or eliminates
galling of the threads and reduces thread wear, therefore,
many make-and-break cycles are possible without excessive
thread wear.
Often during make-up, pipe joints are subjected to
excessive torque, which can cause damage. This damage is
called galling of the threads
A typical composite pipe connector for a 3"pipe may be
threaded together with a torque in the range of 275 footpounds ( 372.85 Nm)
No pressure tight seal is obtained at torque that is too
low.
Too high toque results in thread damage referred to as
galling
The invention is described as a female thread with a thin
or a thick layer of carbon fibre composite. A thin layer is
more difficult to produce but is also cheaper.
The thread can either be applied directly on the tube
during the winding process or it can be produced as a
separate thread that is applied later with adhesive.
According to the patent, the male thread is preferably
produced by machining the composite body of the tubular.
US4943094
24-07-1990
Centron Corp.
Threaded pin and box construction for composite
tubulars
A fibreglass pipe joint construction having threaded pin and
box ends thereon. Tapered threaded portions are provided
with profiles to improve alignment and sealing and prevent
galling of the resinous material.

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Composite Thread Development Draft


Confidential

Drawings

Drawings are added from:


Test mandrel with female thread mould
Mould for male thread mould
Resin impregnation bath

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