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Applications Of Integrals - GATE Study

Material in PDF
In the previous article we have seen some introduction about integrals. In these free
GATE Notes we will discuss about the Applications of Integrals. Generally, integrations
are used to find the areas, volumes, and length of curves.
This study material is useful for GATE CS, GATE CE, GATE ME, GATE EC and GATE EE.
Also useful for recruitment exams like BARC, DRDO, IES, ISRO, BSNL etc. These GATE
Study Notes can be downloaded in PDF so that your GATE preparation is made easy and
you ace your paper. Before you go ahead though, make sure to read up on the basics in
Engineering Mechanics.

Recommended Reading
Types of Matrices
Properties of Matrices
Rank of a Matrix & Its Properties
Solution of a System of Linear Equations
Eigen Values & Eigen Vectors
Linear Algebra Revision Test 1
Laplace Transforms
Limits, Continuity & Differentiability
Mean Value Theorems
Differentiation
Partial Differentiation
Maxima and Minima
Methods of Integration & Standard Integrals

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Here are some of the most important Applications of Integrals.


1. Area Calculation
2. Length of Curve Calculation
3. Volume Calculation

1. Area Calculation Using Integration


b

If the curve is symmetrical about x axis then area = a y dx


b

If the curve is symmetrical about y axis then area = a x dy


Area enclosed between two curves let y1 = f(x), y2 = g(x) then
b

Area =

a (y1 y2 ) dx
b

a (y2 y1 )dx

if y1 > y2
if y2 > y1.

Example 1:
The area bounded between the parabolas y = x2 and the straight line y = x is

Solution:

Area = 0 (x x 2 )dx
x2

x3

= [2 3]

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=23=6

Example 2:
Find the area bounded between y2 = 4x and x2 = 4y is

Solution:

x2

A = 0 (4x 4 ) dx
3

x2

= 2 [ 3 ] 12 [x 3 ]40
2

= 3 [8] 3 [4]
4

=34=

16
3

Note:
The area enclosed between y 2 = 4ax and x 2 = 4by is

16ab
3

2. Length of the Curve Calculation using Integration


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From the above figure we can get


From right-angle triangle rule we have
(s)2 = (x)2 + (y)2
s 2

y 2

(x) = 1 + (x)
y 2

= 1 + (x)
x
As Q P
s

dy 2

ds

= dx = 1 + (dx)
x

x=b
dy
s = x=a 1 + (dx)

Example 3:
2 3

Find the length of the curve, y = x 2 between x = 0, x = 1


3

Solution:
dy

= 3 2 x 2 = x
dx
1

s = 0 1 + x dx
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3
2
1
= 3 (1 + x)2 |
0
3

= 3 [2]2 = 1.218

Note:
If x = f(), y = g() and = 1 , = 2 then length of arc
=

dx 2

dy 2

s = = 2 (d) + (d) d
1

Example 4:
The length of x = a( + sin ), y = a [1 cos ] , = 0 , =

is

Solution:
dx
d

= a[1 + cos ] ,

dy
d

= a sin

s = 02 a2 [1 + cos2 + 2 cos ] + a2 sin2 = 02 a2 + a2 + 2a2 cos d

= 2a 0 1 + cos d = 2a 0 2 cos 2 d

= 2a

2
2 [sin 2]
0
1

= 4a [ ] = 22a
2

3. Volume of Integration
b

The volume of solid of revolution about x axis is V = a y 2 dx

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The volume of solid of revolution about y axis is V = a x 2 dy

Example 5:
One arc of the parabola y2 = 8x and x = 2 revolved around y-axis then find the volume
of revolution.

Solution:
y2 = 8x
y2 = 8(2) = 16
y = 4
4

Then volume of revolution V = 4 (x 2 ) dy


4 y4

V = 2 0

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64

dy

= 32 5 [y 5 ]40

= 325 45 =

32
5

In the next articles we will discuss Vector Calculus & Vector Integration.

Did you like this article on Application of Integrals? Let us know in the comments? You
may also like the following articles

Vector Calculus
Vector Integration
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