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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1

Introduction of Field Trip


For the field trip, we have went to two places to make a site visit were held in Ayer

Hitam is located at Batu Pahat and Pulau Mawar is located at Mersing on 18 November 2016
until 19 November 2016. Ayer Hitam and Mersing is a programme that oriented by the
academic under Engineering Geology Subject, BFC 21303 in year 2016. This programme
focused more in career exposure in engineering field especially geology field. Geology plays
an important role in determine the stabilization for cut slope of rock at the highway. Besides
that, this trip also give the exposure to the students about the building material and raw
material that oriented by the geology material. This programme will giving the big and
effectively impact in increasing academic and career quality in a long term. This field trip
also will give exposure to the students or participants in determine cut slope stability and
recovering method. Other than that, the students will disclosure to identify the mineral/rocks
and to identify geological structure at the site.

1.2

Objective

i.

To recognize, identified and observed distinguishing minerals/rocks and its features in

ii.
iii.

fields.
To record and plot the structural geology data.
To identify the major and minor discontinuities set, plot the great circle of

iv.
v.

discontinuities and analyze the failure modes.


To identify which discontinuities that has some potential fail in fields.
To identify the rock stabilization technique applied in the fields.

1.3

Ayer Hitam Site

Figure 1.1: Rock Mass at Ayer Hitam Site.


Ayer Hitam is a mukim in Batu Pahat District, Johor, Malaysia. Located just at the
junction of route 1 and route 50 , it is known for its many outlets selling pottery and other
crafts. It also is one of the interchange for North-South Expressway. Located in the district of
Batu Pahat. Before the advent of the North-South Expressway, Ayer Hitam was a major route
intersection leading to Malacca and Kuala Lumpur going northbound, Johor Bahru and
Singapore going southbound, and Kluang and Mersing going eastbound.
The types of rock at the site visit Ayer Hitam is parent sedimentary rocks.
Sedimentary rocks originate at the earth's surface. They are created by the geological
processes of weathering and erosion, which break, wear down, and change the mineral
content of pre-existing rocks (collectively called parent rock Erosion represents processes
that transport and deposit sediment through the action of water, wind, and/or glacial ice.
Sedimentary rocks form when layers of deposited sediments become lithified (are held
together by a cement or matrix). Cement is usually silica, calcite, or iron oxide. Matrix
material is typically clay or silt. Shales generally require no cement or matrix since clay is
"sticky". The characteristic texture of sedimentary rocks is the presence of any of these
features: rounded particles, layering (stratification), or fossils - these all indicate surface
processes of the earth.
1.4

Pulau Mawar Site

Figure 2.2: Rock Mass and Slope at Pulau Mawar Site.


Pulau Mawar (Rose Island) is located about 26km from Mersing town. It is a 20 minute
walk on beach from the main land. The types of rock that we found at Pulau Mawar, Mersing
is extrusive igneous rocks. Extrusive igneous rocks form when magma reaches the Earth's
surface a volcano and cools quickly. Most extrusive (volcanic) rocks have small crystals.
Extrusive igneous rocks come from lava. Lava, at the surface, is exposed to air and water
which causes the molten rock to cool rapidly. Examples include basalt, rhyolite, andesite, and
obsidian.
Basalt, usually the first lava to form, contains a high percentage of ferromagnesian
minerals and about 25 to 50 percent silica, making it dark green, gray, or black. Basalt is an
extrusive rock that can take on many appearances. One big difference between samples of
basalt is the size of the crystals that make up the rock. For example, basalt formed from lava
cooling in cold ocean water has much smaller crystals than basalt formed by lava cooling on
the ground. In fact, basalt that formed under water has crystals so small they are difficult to
see. Rhyolite is the most silicious of the extrusive rocks, containing at least 65 percent silica
(mostly in feldspar minerals and quartz) and few ferromagnesian minerals. This chemistry
gives it a tan, pink, or cream color. Obsidian is a smooth, black rock that looks like glass. It is
formed when lava cools almost instantly. This rock is different from basalt because it cooled
so quickly that no crystals formed. Sometimes very fine air bubbles are trapped in the rock,
which give it a coloured sheen.