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# [22 points] Part 1: Multiple Choice

## Choose the most appropriate answer for each question.

1. There are three children aged 7, 8 and 9 in a room. If another 7-year-old enters the room, what
will happen to the mean and variance?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

The
The
The
The
The

mean
mean
mean
mean
mean

## and variance will both stay the same.

and variance will both decrease.
and variance will both increase.
will increase and the variance will decrease.
will decrease and the variance will increase.

2. Which of the following histograms has the smallest value of the ratio
has exactly 110 observations.

median
?
mean

Each histogram

370
360
350
340

Weight (grams)

380

390

3. Below is a boxplot of weights (in grams) of broccoli from three different growers (A, B and C).
Which of the following statements are true?

330

Grower

I. More than 75% of the broccoli in Grower A weigh more than 350g.
II. The data for Grower B is more right-skewed than the data for Grower C.
III. The IQR for Grower C is larger than the IQR for Grower B.
(a) I only
(b) II only
(c) III only
(d) None of I, II and III
(e) Two or more statements are true
4. Which of the following is false regarding correlation coefficient:
(a) A positive correlation indicates a positive linear relationship
(b) A correlation of +1 indicates a perfect linear relationship and a correlation of -1 indicates
no linear relationship
(c) Correlation has no units
(d) All of the above are true.

5. Below are side-by-side boxplots showing the distribution of the mens and womens times (in
seconds) from the heats for the 100 m Butterfly swimming competitions at the 2012 Summer
Oympic Games in London. There are 42 swimmers taking part in the heats for women, and 43
swimmers taking part in the heats for men. The times of all 85 swimmers were unique (no ties).
Approximately what proportion of the womens times are faster than the mens slowest time?

## (a) 0% or more but under 5%

(b) 5% or more but under 10%
(c) 90% or more but under 95%
(d) 95% or more but under 100%
(e) 100%
6. With respect to experimental design, which of the following statements are true?
I. Blinding controls for the effects of confounding
II. In blocking, experimental subjects are first divided into heterogeneous blocks before they are
randomly assigned to a treatment group
III. Matched pairs design is a special case of randomized block design
(a) I only
(b) II only
(c) III only
(d) I and II
(e) I and III
(f) All of I, II and III

## 7. Consider tossing a fair coin, we define the following events:

A = {Toss 3 tails in a row}, B = {Toss a head, then a tail, then a head},
C = {Toss 3 heads in a row}, D = {Getting a head on the 4th toss}.
Which of the following statements are true?
I. P (A) < P (B)
II. A and C are independent
III. According to the Law of Large Numbers, P (D) > 0.5
(a) I only
(b) II only
(c) III only
(d) None of I, II and III
(e) Two or more statements are true
8. A local animal shelter states that it currently has 24 dogs and 18 cats available for adoption.
Eight of the dogs and 6 of the cats are male. What is the probability that the pet is female,
given that it is a dog.
(a) 0.190
(b) 0.381
(c) 0.571
(d) 0.667
(e) There is insufficient information
9. In which of the following situations is the Central Limit Theorem not applicable?
(a) When the sample is small and the population is normal
(b) When the sample is large and the population is normal
(c) When the sample is large, above 30, and the population is not normal
(d) When the sample is small, below 30, and the population is not normal
(e) All of the above are applicable
10. A die is rolled 10 times. The probability that it never lands six is
(a) ( 61 )10
(b) 1 ( 16 )10
(c) ( 65 )10
(d) 1 ( 56 )10
(e) None of the above

11. Students taking a certain course receive either a pass or fail grade. Results were summarized in
a table like the one below. If it turned out that grade was independent of gender, how many of
the students were girls and passed the course?

Male
Female
Total

Pass

Fail

?
20

100

Total
66
54
120

(a) 4
(b) 7
(c) 9
(d) 10
(e) cannot be determined
12. In a large school system with 20 elementary schools, the school board wants students opinions
on implementing a standardized test. Two sampling methods are being condsidered. Method A
is to randomly select one elementary school and survey every student in that school. Method
B is to randomly select a sample of 20 students from each elementary school and survey those
students. What are the sampling techniques used in Methods A and B?
(a) Method A = simple random sample; Method B = stratified sampling
(b) Method A = one-stage cluster sampling; Method B = stratified sampling
(c) Method A = two-stage cluster sampling; Method B = stratified sampling
(d) Stratified sampling is used in both Methods A and B
(e) Cluster sampling is used in both Methods A and B
13. The weights of shetland sheepdogs follow a Normal distribution with a mean of 50 pounds and
standard deviation of 2 pounds. Calculate the probability that 5 randomly selected shetland
sheepdogs have a total weight greater than 252 pounds. Note: Z denotes the Z-score.
(a) P (Z > 0.200)
(b) P (Z > 0.447)
(c) P (Z > 2)
(d) (P (Z > 0.200))5
(e) None of the above

___
14. Suppose the random variable X represents the number of times Kermit the Frog asks Miss Piggy
out for a coffee on any given day. X has the following probability distribution:
P (X = 0) = a, P (X = 1) = 3b, P (X = 2) = a, P (X = 3) = 0, P (X = 4) = 0.25, P (X > 4) = 0.
Find E(X).
(a) 0.75
(b) 1.75
(c) 2
(d) 6
(e) Cannot be determined

___
15. Suppose the random variable X represents the number of books sold on any given day and
Var(X) = 4. If they were to sell 5 times more books each day, what is the value of the new
variance?
(a) 4
(b) 10
(c) 20
(d) 100
(e) Cannot be determined
16. Based on a random sample of 100 from a Normal distribution, a 95% confidence interval for the
mean was computed. Using the same sample, a 99% confidence interval would be
(a) narrower and the precision would decrease
(b) narrower and the precision would increase
(c) wider and the precision would decrease
(d) wider and the precision would increase
(e) impossible to determine from such a sample
17. A professor was curious about her students grade point averages (GPAs). She took a random
sample of 15 students and found a mean GPA of 3.01 with a standard deviation of 0.534. Which
of the following formulas gives a 98% confidence interval for the mean GPA of the professors
students?

## (e) 3.01 2.977(0.534/ 14)

18. Assume the heights of high school basketball players are normally distributed. For boys the
mean is 74 inches with a standard deviation of 4.5 inches. For girls the mean height is 70 inches
with standard deviation of 3 inches. Teams are formed by randomly pairing boys with girls as
teammates for a mixed 2-on-2 tournament. What will be the standard deviation of the difference
in teammates heights?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

1.5
3.4
5.4
7.5
None of the above

19. We want to predict the number of speeding tickets (y) from driver age (x). The regression
equation is y = 0.065x + 5.57. Which of the following statements is/are true?
I. the older the age of the driver, the less speeding tickets the driver is expected to get
II. we predict a twenty year old driver would get 4.27 tickets
III. we predict that an individual with 2 speeding tickets would be 54.9 years old
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)

I only
II only
III only
I and II
I and III
All of I, II and III

## The next two questions (Q20-Q21) refer to the following situation.

A company is testing one of its machines to ensure that it is producing non-defective parts more
than 97% of the time. From their test, they found a P-value of 0.122. The significance level they
use is 5%. The actual non-defective rate is 99%. We define p as the true non-defective rate.
20. Which set of hypotheses are the manufacturers testing?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

H0
H0
H0
H0
H0

: p = 0.97
: p = 0.97
: p = 0.99
: p = 0.99
: p = 0.99

and
and
and
and
and

HA
HA
HA
HA
HA

: p < 0.97
: p > 0.97
: p 6= 0.99
: p < 0.99
: p > 0.99

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

They
They
They
They
They

## correctly fail to reject H0

correctly reject H0
reject H0 , making Type I error
fail to reject H0 , making a Type I error
fail to reject H0 , making Type II error
7

22. Which of the following statements about Type I and Type II errors is/are true?
I. Type I errors are always worse than Type II errors
II. The severity of Type I and Type II errors depends on the situation being tested
III. Obtaining a larger sample size decreases the probability of Type II error, so it increases the
power, but increases the probability of Type I error
(a) I only
(b) II only
(c) III only
(d) I and III
(e) II and III
[6 points] Part 2: True or False
23. R-squared represents the amount of variability in the explanatory variable, X, that can be explained by the response variable, Y.
(a) True
(b) False
24. The Central Limit Theorem says that for large n 30, the population is approximately normal.
(a) True
(b) False
25. A 95% confidence interval for a population proportion, p, is a random interval that contains the
unknown value of p about 95% of the time and does not contain p about 5% of the time when
many samples of the same size are drawn from the population.
(a) True
(b) False
26. A researcher found that a 98% confidence interval for the mean weekly number of hours spent
studying by college students was (13, 17). Thus we can say 98% of college students study between
13 and 17 hours a week.
(a) True
(b) False
27. Even if the null hypothesis is rejected, it may still be true.
(a) True
(b) False
28. If you get a P-value of 0.14, it means that the null hypothesis is true in 14% of all samples.
(a) True
(b) False
8

## [27 points] Part 3: Short Answer

Please show all your work and define any variables you use.
29. The weights of cereal boxes for a certain cereal company are labelled as weighing 200 grams.
The manufacturer tells you that the weight is normally distributed with mean 194 grams and
standard deviation 6 grams. You draw a random sample of 45 boxes.
(a) What is the probability that the mean weight of the sample is more than 195 grams? (Check
any necessary assumptions and state the model you use). [3 marks]

(b) Find the probability that the weight of a single box exceeds 200 grams. [1 mark]

(c) Find the probability that more than 20.0% of the sampled boxes weigh more than the labelled value (hint: use part (b)). State the model that you use. [3 marks]

30. Textbook authors must be careful that the reading level of their books is appropriate for the
target audience. Some methods of assessing reading level require estimating the average word
length. Twenty words were randomly selected from a textbook and the number of letters in
each word were counted. A histogram of the data shows that the data is roughly unimodal and
symmetric. From the sample a mean of 5.5 and standard deviation of 2.685 were found.
(a) Suppose the editor was hoping that the book would have a mean word length of 6.5 letters.
Does this sample indicate that the authors failed to meet this goal? Carry out an appropriate
hypothesis test at 2% significance level and state your conclusion based on finding the Pvalue. Remember to include all appropriate steps needed for hypothesis testing. Be sure to
state any necessary assumptions and state your conclusion in the context of the question.
[5 marks]

(b) If we wish to conduct another trial, how many words would we need to be 90% sure of
estimating the mean word length to within 2 words? [3 marks]

10

31. According to a new health survey, many Americans cannot afford medical care. An organization
randomly sampled 50 Americans who make less than \$33,000 a year. They found that 20 of
these individuals reported they cannot afford medical care.
(a) Find a 98% confidence interval for the true proportion of Americans who make less than
\$33,000 a year who cannot afford medical care. (Make sure to check any necessary conditions
and to state a conclusion in the context of the problem.) [4 marks]

## (b) Explain what 98% confidence means in this context. [1 mark]

11

32. Rosencrantz is betting on the toss of a biased coin. He flips the coin many times and finds that
78 times it lands on heads and 50 times it lands on tails.
(a) Estimate the sample proportion of heads observed. [1 mark]

(b) Rosencrantz chooses a certain confidence level and finds the confidence interval to be
(0.524, 0.696) from his sample above. Approximately what confidence level did he use?
[1 mark]
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

68%
90%
95%
99.7%

(c) He wants to repeat these trials, but now would like to half the margin of error calculated
from the first set of trials. Using the same z he used for his confidence interval and p from
part (a), find how many coin tosses are necessary to decrease the margin of error by half.
[2 marks]

12

(d) Suppose it is revealed that Rosencrantzs coin was biased and the true proportion of heads
is 0.7. Approximate the probability of observing between 76 and 85 heads, in a set of 128
coin tosses. State what model you use and any necessary assumptions. [3 marks]

THE END.
Have a good holiday!
For instructor use only:

Part 3
Part 1 Part 2 Q 29 Q 30 Q 31 Q 32 Total
Out Of
Score

22

13

55

STANDARD NORMAL DISTRIBUTION: Table Values Represent AREA to the LEFT of the Z score.
Z
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9

.00
.50000
.53983
.57926
.61791
.65542
.69146
.72575
.75804
.78814
.81594
.84134
.86433
.88493
.90320
.91924
.93319
.94520
.95543
.96407
.97128
.97725
.98214
.98610
.98928
.99180
.99379
.99534
.99653
.99744
.99813
.99865
.99903
.99931
.99952
.99966
.99977
.99984
.99989
.99993
.99995

.01
.50399
.54380
.58317
.62172
.65910
.69497
.72907
.76115
.79103
.81859
.84375
.86650
.88686
.90490
.92073
.93448
.94630
.95637
.96485
.97193
.97778
.98257
.98645
.98956
.99202
.99396
.99547
.99664
.99752
.99819
.99869
.99906
.99934
.99953
.99968
.99978
.99985
.99990
.99993
.99995

.02
.50798
.54776
.58706
.62552
.66276
.69847
.73237
.76424
.79389
.82121
.84614
.86864
.88877
.90658
.92220
.93574
.94738
.95728
.96562
.97257
.97831
.98300
.98679
.98983
.99224
.99413
.99560
.99674
.99760
.99825
.99874
.99910
.99936
.99955
.99969
.99978
.99985
.99990
.99993
.99996

.03
.51197
.55172
.59095
.62930
.66640
.70194
.73565
.76730
.79673
.82381
.84849
.87076
.89065
.90824
.92364
.93699
.94845
.95818
.96638
.97320
.97882
.98341
.98713
.99010
.99245
.99430
.99573
.99683
.99767
.99831
.99878
.99913
.99938
.99957
.99970
.99979
.99986
.99990
.99994
.99996

.04
.51595
.55567
.59483
.63307
.67003
.70540
.73891
.77035
.79955
.82639
.85083
.87286
.89251
.90988
.92507
.93822
.94950
.95907
.96712
.97381
.97932
.98382
.98745
.99036
.99266
.99446
.99585
.99693
.99774
.99836
.99882
.99916
.99940
.99958
.99971
.99980
.99986
.99991
.99994
.99996

14

.05
.51994
.55962
.59871
.63683
.67364
.70884
.74215
.77337
.80234
.82894
.85314
.87493
.89435
.91149
.92647
.93943
.95053
.95994
.96784
.97441
.97982
.98422
.98778
.99061
.99286
.99461
.99598
.99702
.99781
.99841
.99886
.99918
.99942
.99960
.99972
.99981
.99987
.99991
.99994
.99996

.06
.52392
.56356
.60257
.64058
.67724
.71226
.74537
.77637
.80511
.83147
.85543
.87698
.89617
.91309
.92785
.94062
.95154
.96080
.96856
.97500
.98030
.98461
.98809
.99086
.99305
.99477
.99609
.99711
.99788
.99846
.99889
.99921
.99944
.99961
.99973
.99981
.99987
.99992
.99994
.99996

.07
.52790
.56749
.60642
.64431
.68082
.71566
.74857
.77935
.80785
.83398
.85769
.87900
.89796
.91466
.92922
.94179
.95254
.96164
.96926
.97558
.98077
.98500
.98840
.99111
.99324
.99492
.99621
.99720
.99795
.99851
.99893
.99924
.99946
.99962
.99974
.99982
.99988
.99992
.99995
.99996

.08
.53188
.57142
.61026
.64803
.68439
.71904
.75175
.78230
.81057
.83646
.85993
.88100
.89973
.91621
.93056
.94295
.95352
.96246
.96995
.97615
.98124
.98537
.98870
.99134
.99343
.99506
.99632
.99728
.99801
.99856
.99896
.99926
.99948
.99964
.99975
.99983
.99988
.99992
.99995
.99997

.09
.53586
.57535
.61409
.65173
.68793
.72240
.75490
.78524
.81327
.83891
.86214
.88298
.90147
.91774
.93189
.94408
.95449
.96327
.97062
.97670
.98169
.98574
.98899
.99158
.99361
.99520
.99643
.99736
.99807
.99861
.99900
.99929
.99950
.99965
.99976
.99983
.99989
.99992
.99995
.99997

APPENDIX B

0.20
0.10

0.10
0.05

0.05
0.025

0.02
0.01

0.01
0.005

1
2
3
4

3.078
1.886
1.638
1.533

6.314
2.920
2.353
2.132

12.706
4.303
3.182
2.776

31.821
6.965
4.541
3.747

63.657
9.925
5.841
4.604

1
2
3
4

5
6
7
8
9

1.476
1.440
1.415
1.397
1.383

2.015
1.943
1.895
1.860
1.833

2.571
2.447
2.365
2.306
2.262

3.365
3.143
2.998
2.896
2.821

4.032
3.707
3.499
3.355
3.250

5
6
7
8
9

10
11
12
13
14

1.372
1.363
1.356
1.350
1.345

1.812
1.796
1.782
1.771
1.761

2.228
2.201
2.179
2.160
2.145

2.764
2.718
2.681
2.650
2.624

3.169
3.106
3.055
3.012
2.977

10
11
12
13
14

15
16
17
18
19

1.341
1.337
1.333
1.330
1.328

1.753
1.746
1.740
1.734
1.729

2.131
2.120
2.110
2.101
2.093

2.602
2.583
2.567
2.552
2.539

2.947
2.921
2.898
2.878
2.861

15
16
17
18
19

20
21
22
23
24

1.325
1.323
1.321
1.319
1.318

1.725
1.721
1.717
1.714
1.711

2.086
2.080
2.074
2.069
2.064

2.528
2.518
2.508
2.500
2.492

2.845
2.831
2.819
2.807
2.797

20
21
22
23
24

25
26
27
28
29

1.316
1.315
1.314
1.313
1.311

1.708
1.706
1.703
1.701
1.699

2.060
2.056
2.052
2.048
2.045

2.485
2.479
2.473
2.467
2.462

2.787
2.779
2.771
2.763
2.756

25
26
27
28
29

30
32
35
40
45

1.310
1.309
1.306
1.303
1.301

1.697
1.694
1.690
1.684
1.679

2.042
2.037
2.030
2.021
2.014

2.457
2.449
2.438
2.423
2.412

2.750
2.738
2.725
2.704
2.690

30
32
35
40
45

50
60
75
100
120

1.299
1.296
1.293
1.290
1.289

1.676
1.671
1.665
1.660
1.658

2.009
2.000
1.992
1.984
1.980

2.403
2.390
2.377
2.364
2.358

2.678
2.660
2.643
2.626
2.617

50
60
75
100
120

140
180
250
400
1000

1.288
1.286
1.285
1.284
1.282

1.656
1.653
1.651
1.649
1.646

1.977
1.973
1.969
1.966
1.962

2.353
2.347
2.341
2.336
2.330

2.611
2.603
2.596
2.588
2.581

140
180
250
400
1000

1.282

1.645

1.960

2.326

2.576

80%

90%

95%

98%

99%

Two-tail probability
One-tail probability
df

Table T
Values of ta

a
2

a
2

t a/2

t a/2

Two tails

a
0

## Tables and Selected Formulas 1049

ta

One tail

Confidence levels

df

15