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The CHS Dissertation: Proposal Form 201617


Please complete this proposal by typing into the boxes and upload it to RCADE by
Friday 9 December at 4pm.
You will need your RCA username and password to sign in.
The upload link is here:

The proposal should be 800-1000 words, answering the questions below. Please
note, that one of the requirements is a continuous piece of writing (which could be
a sample chapter).
Please feel free to speculate. We understand that projects will change over the
course of the year.

Your Name: Larasati

Provisional Title: Exploiting Design : Public transport in violent city

Topic (approx. 100 words)

What topic, theme or issue you are interested in exploring?
You will find it helpful to list 4 or 5 research questions you could ask about your
topic. What specific aspects of the subject are you going to explore? Productive
questions often begin: what is the role of... / what is the relationship between /
how... / why /to what extent
What causing poor behaviour in public facility in developing country? Is it a budget
problem or mentality problem?
How can people develop sense of ownership?
How is the economy and education level affecting people sense of ownership in
public facility?

How Indonesian Culture and Inlander mentality affecting misbehaviour in public

How ownership trend in the future (such as gen zrenting generation) will affect
people using public/someone else facility?
How Designer can combat misbehaviour in public transport

Research (approx. 100 words)

Write a short statement outlining what kind of academic disciplines or other areas
of research may inform your research.
Urban ity & architecture, Public Space,
Transportation management/design/ system,
Psychology, Developing Country
Unpleasant Design, Defensive Design

600-800 word text

This provides the opportunity to write a continuous text, reflecting on one aspect
or theme of your research. It does not necessarily need to constitute an
introduction, nor does it have to be positioned in a final plan. The text should
demonstrate your ability to analyse and synthesise some of your research with
evidence of referencing (please include footnotes).

i. The Individual
what motivate the individual doing misbehaviour

Stress, Revenge, Personal Boredom, Bandwagon Effect

ii.The Public
Public Silence, Bandwagon Effect, Indonesian reluctant Culture, How society
see public space,
iii.The Goverment
budget, miss management, planning
iv.The Design can combat misbehaviour
How to use design to defend public facility, or to alter misbehaviour towards it.

-------I always wondering why most developing countries have poor public facility : dirty,
broken or neglected. and surely giving negative bad impact to the society. The
daily pedestrian, nice bus stop, public building and well-designed public space that
I use in London definity will be a luxury thing in my country Indonesia.
One day, I was on the commuter line Jour ney in Jakarta. Different from luxurious
tube in London. It was extremely hot, smelly, noisy with the local hawkers, street
musician, beggar, and one fact is its definitely overcapacitied. Then suddenly I saw
a man opening a panel near the train door, the panel was not locked so it can be
move easily, He did something with the wire and suddenly, the train door is open!
While the train is moving 90km/h.
Its shocking, Its dangerous, Its public facility, and how come that can open the
train? how if someone fall of? But theres a strange feeling : the feeling of relieve.
Because I suddenly can feel the fresh air and the wind blowing in my hair, and it
just not me, I believe those who stand near the door enjoyed it the most. The
vandalism act of that man suddenly seen as some how heroic act, From basically
destroying public transport facility.
The cost of vandalism cannot only be reckoned in monetary terms. Repairing wilful
Damage is waste of time and resources which could employ more positively, but
until repairs can be affected hardship and inconvenience may have to be endured
as vandalism can contribute to or cause an accident 1
This is just a small behaviour compared to ten years ago, while there always dark
passenger in the train roof, who risking their life just for saving cheap
transportation cost or simply avoid the crown inside the train.

Sykes, Jane. Designing against Vandalism. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co, 1980. p.69.

Electric trains linking Jakarta and its neighboring towns are packed with
passengers during rush hour. To avoid paying, many stand in between the
carriages or sit on the roof of the train. Altough there are 53 roofrider killed
between 2006-2008 and government still several failed attempts to discourage the
roof riders.2
Usually, Vandalism not only appears as revenge against something, or particular
output( politic, stress group) but also can be the result of general frustration or
boredom, where the vandal is hitting back at the environment. But in this
particular case, there are another motivation or trigger of this kind of act. Where is
This misbehaviour which not considering both other people and their own safety ,
comes from? Is it a crime ? a vandalism? A blind society or simply an instinct of

Its is normal that vandalism occurs in public space.vandalism occurs where

building design offer opportunities for such activities to take place by restricting
surveillance of public ares or reducing resident ability to develop a proprietary
attitude towards share space3
This is possible because public property is not identified as belonging to anyone
and so acts of damage are seen as less as reprehensible; the likehood of the
perpetrator being stopped or caught is less; and since public property doesnt
receive the same level of supervision as private property. (Oscar, 1972, p. 21)
But there are many cases in developing countries where, vandalism or misbehave
act happen in the public space in the crowd, with a lot of witnesses. And this act
can be done without guilt or feeling of shame. As Jane Jacob Observed, cities are
inhabitant by a stranger and there are the informal processes if social controls in
cities that cannot rely on hose sanctions that exist in small and well established
communities know one another. So, maybe in the psychological aspect, there is
no hesitate to do misbehave in front of people you dont know but why the public
spectator is silent?
The mind-set of the people has fallen into argumentum ad populum, concludes
that a proposition is true because many or most people believe it: "If many believe
so This misbehaviour phenomenon is literally become a mass bandwagon effect.
Characterized by the probability of individual adoption increasing with respect to
the proportion that have already done so. [1]4 As more people come to believe in
something, others also "hop on the bandwagon" in this case, they do it literally.

2 News : Illegal Train Riders Spray Painted in Indonesia. NTDVT. 2008


Newman, Oscar. Defensible Space: People and Design in the Violent City. London: Architectural Press,
1972. Print.

Colman, Andrew.Oxford Dictionary of Psychology. New York: Oxford University Press. 2003.p. 77

Of course, the main reason why vandalism happens in the public facility and not
their own property. People will not behave the same way with their own property
because it will become their responsibility as the owner to repair it. In the design
against vandalism explain that vandalism most developed in the community that
does not own or possess something and therefore never had a responsibility to
maintaining them. In this case, its similar that most of the misbehaviour case
happen among low or middle economy class, for example like in the lowest class in
the train, or in low economy route. The one who use public transports most likely
dont own a personal vehicle, and I was wondering how it related to their sense
and responsibility in using public transport.
But, it cannot be stated that owning a personal vehicle will hugely affecting people
responsibility in using a public facility, since according to Polda Metro Jaya, there is
768.425 traffic violations by personal motorcycle between January-September
20165. Riding without proper gear, running traffic light, speeding, illegal parking,
even riding in pedestrian or taking a wrong way is considered as acceptable
circumstances in Jakarta. So, Even though people have a sense of ownership with
their vehicle, they dont develop a sense of ownership with the road, and lack of
respect for the law and another road user.
Every time I ride a transport in Jakarta, the public transport officer is always
overwhelmed as the crowd entering the public transport wildly, there is a lot of
yelling, they try to catch one or two violators, but its just like Indonesian idiom
one die, then comes thousand its a futile act among so many violators at the
drop of the hat. Catching one and fine them can also be seen as unfair act since
they one fine few people among many of another culprit
The chain of destruction
Another cause for this misbehaviour is the lack of monitoring poor maintenance of
the public facility itself from the government or the private provider. As stated by
Jane Sykes:
Vandals rarely attack property that appears to belong to someone who cares about
it. People tend to respect an environment which is attractive and well-maintained
(Sykes, 1979, p. 7)
It means, when the facility is not maintained, it will trigger more and more
misbehaviour and vandalism. One act will invite another act and start the chain of
Design that combat misbehavior
The designer has a key role in combating vandalism, the designer can help to
create an environment on a human scale that generates respect and sense of

5 Interview with Budiyanto. Subdirectorate Head of Coaching and Law Enforcement

Traffic Directorate of Polda Metro Jaya. 2016

belonging thus discourages even thoughts of vandalism. (Sykes, 1979, p. 7) . This

case will study the comparison between defensible design in London, one of the
best transport in the world and try to find some potential application in developing
country with many aspect of consideration.

Bibliography (not included in the word count)

Please list key publications that will inform your work. This may include books,
exhibition catalogues, and periodical articles. As well as searching the RCA library
catalogue for sources you will want to explore online periodical databases. Please
format this preliminary bibliography in the MHRA referencing system (see the CHS
Dissertation Handbook) or a similar, consistent style.
Sykes, Jane. Designing against Vandalism. (London: Design Council), 1979. Print.
Newman, Oscar. Defensible Space: People and Design in the Violent City. London:
Architectural Press, 1972. Print.
Jacobs,J: The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Jonathan Cape (London.
Colman, Andrew.Oxford Dictionary of Psychology. New York: Oxford University
Press. 2003.p. 77

Non-print sources
List any non-print sources that are likely to be useful to your research. This may
include videos, interviews, visits to exhibitions, websites, etc. As above, please
format according to the MHRA referencing system (see the CHS Dissertation
Handbook) or a similar, consistent style.

Jalanan : Kisah 3 pengamen ibu kota. Daniel Ziv. 2016
( Street : Story of 3 musicians in the capital. Daniel Ziv. 2016)
Interview with Budiyanto. Subdirectorate Head of Coaching and Law Enforcement
Traffic Directorate of Polda Metro Jaya. 2016
Cheap but Extremely Crowded: Economy-Class Jakarta Trains. 2013
News. Illegal Train Riders Spray-painted in Indonesia.NTDTV.2008

Ethical issues / Intellectual Property

Are there any ethical issues which you might need to address? For instance, does
your work make use of interviews with individuals?