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You are on page 1of 14

RAMANUJAN

GEORGE BOROS AND VICTOR H. MOLL

sums.

1. Introduction

The evaluation of arctangent sums of the form

(1.1)

tan1 h(k)

k=1

for a rational function h reappear in the literature from time to time. For instance

the evaluation of

X

2

3

(1.2)

tan1 2 =

k

4

k=1

classical problem that appears in [7, 9, 13], among other places. The evaluation of

X

1 1

1 tan(/ 2) tanh(/ 2)

tan

(1.3)

= tan

k2

tan(/ 2) + tanh(/ 2)

k=1

is somewhat less elementary. R.J. Chapman [6] proposed in 1990 to evaluate this

sum in closed form (in terms of a finite number of trigonometric and hyperbolic

functions). This was solved by A. Sarkar [15] using the techniques described in

Section 3.

The goal of this paper is to discuss the evaluation of these sums and the related

rational sums

n

X

(1.4)

S(n) =

R(k)

k=1

(

x+y

tan1 1xy

1

1

(1.5)

tan x + tan y =

x+y

tan1 1xy

+ sign x

Date: March 23, 2001.

1991 Mathematics Subject Classification. Primary 33.

Key words and phrases. Arctangent, Series.

1

if xy < 1

if xy > 1

and

tan1 x + tan1

(1.6)

1

x

sign x.

2

The closed-form evaluation of a finite sum

n

X

S(n) :=

ak

k=1

ak

= bk bk1 .

S(n) :=

n

X

ak =

k=1

n

X

bk bk1 = bn b0 .

k=1

hidden by a function.

Theorem 2.1. Let f (x) be of fixed sign and define h by

h(x)

(2.1)

f (x + 1) f (x)

.

1 + f (x + 1)f (x)

Then

n

X

(2.2)

tan1 h(k) =

k=1

(2.3)

tan1 h(k) =

k=1

Proof. Since

tan1 h(k)

Note. The hypothesis on the sign of f is included in order to avoid the case xy > 1

in (1.5). In general, (2.2) has to be replaced by

(2.4)

n

X

k=1

tan1 h(k)

sign f (k),

where the sum is taken over all k between 1 and n for which f (k)f (k + 1) < 1.

Thus (2.2) is always correct up to an integral multiple of . The restrictions on

the parameters in the examples described in this paper have the intent of keeping

f (k), k N of fixed sign.

Example 2.1. Let f (x) = ax + b, where a, b are such that f (x) 0 for x 1.

Then

a

h(x) =

(2.5)

a2 x2 + a(a + 2b)x + (1 + ab + b2 )

(2.6)

tan1

k=1

a

a2 k 2 + a(a + 2b)k + (1 + ab + b2 )

tan1 (a + b).

2

Special cases: a = 1 and b = 0 give f (x) = x and h(x) = 1/(x2 + x + 1), and the

sum is

1

(2.7)

=

.

tan1 2

k +k+1

4

k=1

(2.8)

tan1

k=0

2

(2k + 1)2

.

2

X

pa,b (k)

(2.9)

k=1

qa,b (k)

1

,

1 + (a + b)2

where

= a2 k 2 + a2 k (1 + b2 )

pa,b (k)

and

qa,b (k)

2a(a + 2b)(1 + ab + b2 )k + (1 + b2 )(1 + a2 + 2ab + b2 ).

X

k2 + k 1

4

k + 2k 3 + 3k 2 + 2k + 2

k=1

1

.

2

k=1

81k 4

9k 2 + 9k 40

+ 1269k 2 + 1932k + 2440

378k 3

1

.

61

X

4b2 k 2 (1 + b2 )

1

=

.

16b4 k 4 + 8b2 (1 b2 )k 2 + (1 + b2 )2

2(1 + b2 )

k=1

Example 2.2. This example considers the quadratic function f (x) = ax2 + bx + c

under the assumption that f (k), k N has fixed sign. For instance this happens if

b2 4ac 0. Define

1 + ac + bc + c2

ab + b2 + 2ac + 2bc

a2 + 3ab + b2 + 2ac

2a(a + b)

a0

a1

a2

a3

:=

:=

:=

:=

a4

:= a2

Then

(2.10)

h(x)

and thus

tan1

k=1

2ax + a + b

a4 x4 + a3 x3 + a2 x2 + a1 x + a0

2ak + a + b

a4 k 4 + a3 k 3 + a2 k 2 + a1 k + a0

tan1 (a + b + c).

2

tan1

k=1

8ak

4a2 k 4 + (a2 + 4)

a

tan1 .

2

2

(2.11)

tan1

k=1

8k

4k 4 + 5

1

tan1 .

2

2

(2.12)

tan1

k=1

a2 k 4

2ak

a2 k 2 + 1

,

2

which is independent of a.

Additional examples can be given by telescoping twice (or even more).

Corollary 2.2. Let f and h be related by

h(x)

(2.13)

Then

n

X

tan1 h(k)

f (x + 1) f (x 1)

.

1 + f (x + 1)f (x 1)

k=1

In particular,

(2.14)

tan1 h(k)

k=1

tan1 h(k)

tan1 h(k)

Thus

n

X

k=1

=

=

n

X

1

tan f (k + 1) tan1 f (k 1)

k=1

n

n

X

1

X

1

tan f (k + 1) tan1 f (k) +

tan f (k) tan1 f (k 1)

k=1

1

tan

k=1

X

2

(2.15)

tan1 2

k

3

4

k=1

Anglesio [1].

Example 2.4. Take f (k) = 2/k 2 so that h(k) = 8k/(k 4 2k 2 + 5). It follows

that

X

1

8k

= tan1 .

tan1 4

k 2k 2 + 5

2

k=1

Example 2.5. Take f (k) = a/(k 2 + 1). Then h(k) = 4ak/(k 4 + a2 + 4), so that

X

4ak

a

(2.16)

tan1 4

= tan1 + tan1 a.

k + a2 + 4

2

k=1

X

(2.17)

tan1

k=1

a=

4k

+5

k4

2 gives

(2.18)

tan

k=1

1

+ tan1 .

4

2

4 2k

k4 + 6

.

2

X

4k(k 4 + 4 a2 )

8

2

k + 2(a + 4)k 4 + 16a2 k 2 + (a4 + 8a2 + 16)

k=1

(a2

3(a2 + 2)

.

+ 1)(a2 + 4)

(2.19)

k=1

k

k4 + 4

3

8

and a = 2 gives

(2.20)

k=1

k5

k 8 + 16k 4 + 64k 2 + 64

9

.

80

The examples described above are rather artficial. The interesting question is

to find f (x) given the function h. In general it is not possible to find f in closed

form. In the case of Example 2.3, we need to solve the functional equation

(2.21)

A polynomial solution of (2.21) must have degree at most 2 and trying f (x) =

ax2 + bx + c yields f (x) = x.

A different technique for the evaluation of arctangent sums is based on the factorization of the product

(3.1)

pn

n

Y

:=

(ak + ibk )

k=1

Arg(pn )

n

X

tan1

k=1

bk

.

ak

(3.2)

pn (z)

n

Y

(z zk )

k=1

(3.3)

Arg(pn (z))

n

X

tan1

k=1

x xk

.

y yk

obtain

n

X

x cos(2k/n)

Arg(z n 1) =

tan1

(3.4)

.

y sin(2k/n)

k=1

(3.5)

sin z

= z

Y

k=1

z2

k2

(3.6)

tan1

k=1

2xy

k 2 x2 + y 2

= tan1

y

tanh y

tan1

.

x

tan x

(3.7)

tan1

k=1

2x2

k2

x = y = 1/ 2 gives

(3.8)

tan1

k=1

1

k2

tanh x

tan1

.

4

tan x

tanh (/ 2)

,

tan1

4

tan(/ 2)

x = y = 1/2 yields

(3.9)

k=1

tan1

1

2k 2

.

4

X

k2

(3.10)

4

k + 4x4

sin 2x sinh 2x

.

4x cos 2x cosh 2x

k=1

In particular, x = 1 yields

(3.11)

k=1

k2

+4

coth .

4

k4

X

k2

sinh x 3 3 sin x

(3.12)

=

k 4 + x2 k 2 + x4

2x 3 cosh x 3 cos x

k=1

Glasser and Klamkin [10] present other examples of this technique.

4. A functional equation

The table of sums and integrals [11] contains a small number of examples of

finite sums that involve trigonometric functions of multiple angles. In Section 1.36

we find

n

X

x

x

(4.1)

22k sin4 k = 22n sin2 n sin2 x

2

2

k=1

n

X

(4.2)

k=1

x

1

sec2 k

2k

2

2

cosec2 x

1

x

cosec2 n

2n

2

2

n

X

1

x

1

x

(4.3)

tan k =

cot n 2 cot 2x

2k

2

2n

2

k=0

(4.4)

n

X

1

x

tan2 k

22k

2

k=0

22n+2 1

1

x

+ 4 cot2 2x 2n cot2 n .

3 22n1

2

2

Theorem 4.1. Let

(4.5)

F (x) =

f (x, k)

and

G(x) =

k=1

k=1

(4.6)

F (x)

(2) F (

(n)

(x))

n1

X

j=0

F (x) + G(x) = 2

f (x, 2k) = 2

k=1

k=1

f ((x), k) = 2F ((x)).

Example 4.1. Let f (x, k) = 1/(x2 + k 2 ), so that = 1/4 and (x) = x/2. Since

F (x) =

k=1

x2

1

x coth x 1

=

2

+k

2x2

and

X

(1)k

x csch x 1

G(x) =

=

,

x2 + k 2

2x2

k=1

(4.7)

j=0

x

2j

sinh 2j x

x

.

tanh x

X

2j coth 2j

2j sinh 2j

j=0

(4.8)

1 + 4e2 e4

.

1 2e2 + e4

differentiate with respect to a, and set a = e to produce

(4.9)

X

2 22j + csch2 2j sech2 2j

22j sinh21j

j=0

.

e12 3e8 + 3e4 1

(4.10)

F (x) =

x

X

f

k

and

G(x) =

k=1

(1)k f

k=1

x

k

(4.11)

F (x)

= 2n F (2n x) +

n

X

2k G(2k x).

k=1

(4.12)

F (x)

2k G(2k x).

k=1

Proof. The function f (x/k) satisfies the conditions of Theorem 4.1 with = 1 and

(x) = x/2. Thus

F (x) = 2n F (x/2n )

n1

X

2j G(x/2j ).

j=1

The key to the proof of Theorem 4.1 is the identity F (x) + G(x) = 2F ((x)).

We now present an extension of this result.

(4.13)

F (x)

= r1 F (m1 x) + r2 G(m2 x)

(4.14)

r2

n

X

r1k1 G(mk1

m2 x) = F (x) r1n F (mn1 x).

1

k=1

F (m1 x)

F (x)

We now present two examples that illustrate Theorem 4.3. These sums appear

as entries in Ramanujans Notebooks.

Example 4.2. The identity

(4.15)

cot x =

1

x 1

x

cot tan

2

2 2

2

shows that F (x) = cot x, G(x) = tan x satisfy (4.13) with r1 = 1/2, r2 = 1/2 and

m1 = m2 = 1/2. We conclude that

(4.16)

n

X

2k tan

k=1

x

2k

1

x

cot n cot x.

2n

2

This is (4.3). It also appears as Entry 24, p. 364, of Ramanujans Third Notebook

as described in Berndt [4], p. 396. Similarly, the identity

(4.17)

sin2 (2x) =

4 sin2 x 4 sin4 x

yields (4.1). The reader is invited to produce proofs of (4.2) and (4.4) in the style

presented here.

cot x =

(4.18)

cot

x

csc x

2

1, m1 = 1/2, m2 = 1. We obtain

(4.19)

n

X

k=1

csc

x

2k1

cot

x

cot x.

2n

[4], p. 398.

10

Example 4.4. The application of Theorem 4.1, or Corollary 4.2, requires an analytic expression for F and G. A source of such expressions is Jolley [12]. Indeed,

entries 578 and 579 are

tan1

2x2

k2

(1)k1 tan1

2x2

k2

(4.20)

k=1

(4.21)

k=1

tanh x

tan1

4

tan x

sinh x

+ tan1

.

4

sin x

These results also appear in [5], page 314. Applying one step of Proposition 4.2 we

conclude that

tanh x

tanh 2x

sinh 2x

(4.22)

2 tan1

= tan1

+ tan1

.

tan x

tan 2x

sin 2x

We also obtain

n

n

X

sinh 2k x

1 tanh x

n

1 tanh 2 x

(4.23)

2k tan1

=

tan

,

2

tan

sin 2k x

tan x

tan 2n x

k=1

X

sinh 2k x

tanh x

(4.24)

= tan1

.

2k tan1

k

sin 2 x

tan x

k=1

2

n

X

cos 2k x sinh 2k x cosh 2k x sin 2k x

k=1

sin 2x sinh 2x

sin 2n+1 x sinh 2n+1 x

+

.

cos 2x cosh 2x cos 2n+1 x cosh 2n+1 x

Letting n and using the identity

=

(4.25)

cos 2k+1 x cosh 2k+1 x = 2 sin2 2k x + sinh2 2k x

yields

X

cosh 2k x sin 2k x sinh 2k x cos 2k x

k=1

sin2 2k x + sinh2 2k x

+ sign x.

tan2 x + tanh2 x

(4.26)

csch 2k

coth 1.

k=1

5. Reduction to telescoping

The sum

(5.1)

S(f )

n

X

f (k, t),

k=1

in the form

(5.2)

f (k, t) = f1 (k, t) f1 (k + m, t)

11

if the sum S telescopes.

We first consider the case of a function f (k, t) that is rational in k. Then the

question of telescoping is decided by examining the partial fraction decomposition

of f . For simplicity, we assume that the poles of f are simple and we omit the

parameter t.

Proposition 5.1. Let

f (k)

(5.3)

r

X

j=1

aj

k kj

can be written as

s

X

bj

bj

(5.4)

f (k) =

k kj

k kj mj

j=1

where mj Z.

We now observe that if (5.1) telescopes, then so do the sums

n

X

f (k, t)

k

(5.5)

and

k=1

n

X

f (k, t).

t

k=1

n

X

(5.6)

tan1 R(k)

S(n) =

k=1

n

X

1

R

(5.7)

S1 (n) =

,

1 + R2 (k) k

k=1

rational function with poles at

p

p

p

1

1

1

(1 1 4i/a), (1 + 1 4i/a), (1 1 + 4i/a),

2

2

2

and these can be paired as required in Proposition 5.1.

(2.12) produces a

p

1

(1 + 1 + 4i/a),

2

X

2k 1

2k 2 2k + 1

2

1

S =

k tan1 4

(k

+

1)tan

.

k 2k 3 + k 2 1

k 4 2k 3 + k 2 + 1

k=1

To evaluate S we introduce

2k 2 2k + 1

2k 1

A(k) = k tan1 4

(k 2 + 1)tan1 4

3

2

k 2k + k 1

k 2k 3 + k 2 + 1

and observe that

d3

(5.8)

A(k) = B(k) B(k 1),

dk 3

where

6

8(3k 3 5k 8) 64(k 3 k 1)

(5.9)

B(k) = 4

+

.

k +1

(k 4 + 1)2

(k 4 + 1)3

12

(5.10)

C(k)

= (k 2 + k + 1)tan1 k 2 + P2 (k)

Integrating backwards we obtain

N

X

2k 2 2k + 1

2k 1

1

2

1

k tan

(k + 1) tan

k 4 2k 3 + k 2 1

k 4 2k 3 + k 2 + 1

k=2

= C(N ) C(1)

= (N 2 + N + 1)tan1 N 2 + Q2 (N ),

where Q2 (N ) = P2 (N ) C(1) is another polynomial of degree 2.We have started

the sum at k = 2 because k 4 2k 3 + k 2 1 has a zero at k = 12 ( 5 + 1) 1.618.

The polynomial Q2 (N ) = aN 2 + bN + c can be determined from

aN 2 + bN + c =

(5.11)

N

X

A(k) + (N 2 + N + 1)tan1 N 2

k=2

(5.12)

Q2 (N ) =

2N 2 + 2N 1 .

4

Thus

N

X

k tan1

k=2

2k 2 2k + 1

2k 1

(k 2 + 1) tan1 4

4

k 2k 3 + k 2 1

k 2k 3 + k 2 + 1

= (N 2 + N + 1)tan1 N 2 +

so that

X

k tan1

k=1

(2N 2 + 2N 1),

4

2k 2 2k + 1

2k 1

3

2

1

(k + 1) tan

=1

.

4

3

2

4

3

2

k 2k + k 1

k 2k + k + 1

2

Note. Naturally this idea applies to a more general class of sums. For instance,

sums of the form

(5.13)

L(n)

n

X

p(k) ln R(k)

k=1

and

(5.14)

A(n) =

n

X

k=1

differentiation.

13

6. A dynamical system

In this section we describe a dynamical system that appears in the evaluation of

arctangent sums. Define

n

n

X

X

1

tan1 .

tan1 k and yn = tan

xn = tan

k

k=1

k=1

Then x1 = y1 = 1 and

xn =

nyn1 + 1

xn1 + n

and yn =

.

1 nxn1

n yn1

(

yn

(6.1)

xn =

1/yn

if n is even

if n is odd

that is

(6.2)

tan

n

X

tan1 k

= tan

k=1

n

X

tan1

k=1

1

k

if n is even and

(6.3)

tan

n

X

tan1 k

cotg

k=1

n

X

tan1

k=1

1

k

if n is odd.

Proof. The recurrence formulas for xn and yn can be used to prove the result

directly. A pure trigonometric proof is presented next. If n is even then

tan

2m

X

k=1

tan1 k + tan

2m

X

k=1

tan1

1

k

tan

2m

X

tan1 k + tan

k=1

tan

2m

X

/2 tan1 k

k=1

1

tan

k=1

2m

X

k + tan m

2m

X

tan

k=1

0.

This dynamical system suggests many interesting questions. We conclude by

proposing one of them: Observe that x3 = 0. Does this ever happen again?

References

[1] ANGLESIO, J.: Elementary problem 10292. Amer. Math. Monthly 100, 1993, 291. Solution

by several authors Amer. Math. Monthly, 103, 270-272.

[2] BERNDT, B.C.: Ramanujans Notebooks, Part I. Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985.

[3] BERNDT, B.C.: Ramanujans Notebooks, Part II. Springer-Verlag, New York, 1989.

[4] BERNDT, B.C.: Ramanujans Notebooks, Part IV. Springer-Verlag, New York, 1994.

[5] BROMWICH, T.J.: An introduction to the theory of infinite series. 1926.

[6] CHAPMAN, R.J.: Elementary problem 3375. Amer. Math. Monthly 97, 1990, 239-240.

[7] CHRYSTAL, G.: Algebra, Part II, 2nd. ed., A. and C. Black, London, 1922, p. 357.

[8] DARLING, D.: Telescoping series of arctangents. Amer. Math. Monthly 103, 1996, 270-272.

[9] GLAISHER, J.W.L.: A theorem in trigonometry, Quart. J. Math. 15, 1878, 151-157.

[10] GLASSER, M.L. - KLAMKIN, M.S.: On some inverse tangent summations. Fibonacci Quarterly, 14, 1976, 385-388.

14

[11] GRADSHTEYN, I.S. - RYZHIK, I.M.: Table of Integrals, Series and Products. Sixth Edition,

ed. Alan Jeffrey, assoc. ed. D. Zwillinger. Academic Press, 2000.

[12] JOLLEY, L.B.W.: Summation of series, 1961

[13] LONEY, S.L.: Plane Trigonometry, Part II, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1893,

p. 206.

[14] MILLER, A. - SRIVASTAVA, H.M.: On Glaishers infinite sums involving the inverse tangent function. Fibonacci Quart., 1992, 290-294.

[15] SARKAR, A.: The sum of arctangents of reciprocal squares. Amer. Math. Monthly, 98, 1990,

652-653.

[16] SCHAUMBERGER, N.: An old arctangent series reappears. The College Math. J. Problem

399. May 1990, vol. 21, 253-254.

Department of Mathematics, Xavier University, New Orleans, LA 70125

E-mail address: gboros@xula.edu

Department of Mathematics, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118

E-mail address: vhm@math.tulane.edu

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