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-3 -6 -4 -8 -10 -12

Scales
-------Diatonic Scale
5 tones + 2 semitones in ANY order
Major Scale
T T S T T T S
Natural Minor Scale
T S T T S T T
Scale Degrees
-- 1st degree
-- 2nd degree
-- 4th degree
-- 5th degree
-- 6th degree
-- 7th degree

=
=
=
=
=
=

Tonic
Supertonic
Subdominant
Dominant
Submediant
Leading Note

Modes
------Ionian Mode => 1st degree
C D E F G A B C
T T S T T T S
Dorian Mode => 2nd degree
D E F G A B C D
T S T T T S T
Phyrgian Mode => 3rd degree
E F G A B C D E
S T T T S T T
Lydian Mode => 4th degree
F G A B C D E F
T T T S T T S
Mixolydian Mode => 5th degree
G A B C D E F G
T T S T T S T
Aeolion Mode => A => 6th degree (Natural Minor)
A B C D E F G A
T S T T S T T
Locrian Mode => 7th degree
B C D E F G A B
S T T S T T T
Intervals
----------Major intervals appear in major scales => C E (Major third)
Minor intervals when any major interval is taken down semitone => C Eb (Minor th
ird)
Perfect Unison = C C
Major 2nd = 2 semitones =>

C D

Minor 2nd = 1 semitone =>


C Db
Augmented 2nd = 3 semitones => C D#
Diminished 2nd = 0 semitones => C C
Major 3rd = 4 semitones =>
Minor 3rd = 3 semitones =>
Augmented 3rd = 5 semitones =>
Diminished 3rd = 2 semitones =>

C
C
C
C

E
Eb
E#(F)
D

Diminished 4th = 4 semitones => C E


Perfect 4th = 5 semitones =>
C F
Augmented 4th = 6 semitones => C F#
Diminished 5th = 6 semitones => C Gb
Perfect 5th = 7 semitones =>
C G
Augmented 5th = 8 semitones => C G#
Major 6th = 9 semitones =>
C
Minor 6th = 8 semitones =>
C
Augmented 6th = 10 semitones => C
Diminished 6th = 7 semitones => C

A
Ab
A#
G

Major 7th = 11 semitones =>


C
Minor 7th = 10 semitones =>
C
Augmented 7th = 12 semitones => C
Diminished 7th = 9 semitones => C

B
Bb
B# (C)
A

Diminished Octave = 11 semitones => C Cb`


Perfect Octave = 12 semitones =>
C C`
Augmented Octave = 13 semitones => C C#`
Chords
-------Major Triad = Tonic + Major 3rd + Perfect 5th => C E G
Minor Triad = Tonic + Minor 3rd + Perfect 5th => C Eb G
Dominant Triad = Perfect 5th + Major 7th + Major 2nd => G B D
Dominant 7th Triad = Perfect 5th + Major 7th + Major 2nd + Perfect 4th => G B D
F
Diminished Triad = Diminished 5th + Minor 3rd => B D F
Augmented Triad = Major 3rd + Augmented 5th
Major
I
major
i.e.,
C

key triad degrees


ii
ii
IV
V
IV
VII
minor minor major major minor diminished
key of C:
Dm
Em
F
G
Am
Bdim

Minor key triad degrees


I
ii
iii
IV
V
VI
VII
minor diminished augmented minor major major diminished
i.e., key of Am:
Am
Bdim
Caug
Dm
E
F
G#dim
Chord Progressions
-------------------Three Chord Trick
C G F -> Tonic Dominate Subdominate -> I V IV

Keys
-----Major
Natural/Relative Minor
-- Built off the 6th degree of the same major scale
-- D E F# G A B C# D
-- B is 6th degree, and thus relative minor to D
-- B C# D E F# G A B
Harmonic
-- Raise
-- 7th
--

Minor
7th degree a semitone
degree is the leading note -> leads back to tonic
B C# D E F# G A# B

Melodic Minor
-- Ascending -> Raise 6th degree a semitone (Natural minor with raised 6th and 7
th)
-- B C# D E F# G# A# B
--Descending -> Revert 6th and 7th degree (same as Natural minor)
-- B A G F# E D C# B
1/4 + 1/8
1/8 + 1/16 + 1/8 + 1/16
Cadences
---------Imperfect cadence
-- hanging around in the dominant chord
Perfect cadence
-- fully resolves to tonic chord