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MARESFIELD

LIBRARY

M. MASUD

R. K H A N

The Privacy

o f the

Self

ARNAC

THE PRIVACY OF

THE SELF

By the same author


Alienation in Perversions

H i d d e n Selves

THE PRIVACY OF

THE SELF

Papers on Psychoanalytic Theory


and Technique

M. Masud R. Khan

MARESFIELD LIBRARY
London

K A R N A C BOOKS

First published in 1974


by The Hogarth Press Ltd.
This edition reprinted in 1996
with their permission by
H . Karnac (Books) Ltd,
118 Finchley Road,
London N W 3 5HT

All rights reserved. N o part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a


retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of
the publisher.

Executors of the Estate of M . Masud R. Khan 1974

British L i b r a r y C a t a l o g u i n g in publication data

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.
ISBN 9 7 8 1 8 5 5 7 5 1 3 5 4

Printed in Great Britain by BPC Wheatons Ltd, Exeter

For

SVETLANA
BERIOZOVA
whose discipline and genius

taught me the true measure of effort,

with love and gratitude

CONTENTS
Preface
Acknowledgements

page 9

11

Theoretical Papers
1. Clinical aspects of the schizoid personality: affects and

technique (1960)
13
2. Dream psychology and the evolution of the psycho

analytic situation (1962)


27
3. The concept of cumulative trauma (1963)
42
4. Ego-distortion, cumulative trauma and the role of recon

struction in the analytic situation (1964)


59
5. Role of phobic and counterphobic mechanisms and

separation anxiety in schizoid character formation

(1966)

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

69

O n symbiotic omnipotence (1969)


Towards an epistemology of the process of cure (1970)
Montaigne, Rousseau and Freud (1970)
The becoming of a psycho-analyst (1972)
O n Freud's provision of the therapeutic frame (1972)

82
93
99
112
129

Clinical Papers
11. Regression and integration in the analytic setting. A clinical

essay on the transference and counter-transference

aspects of these phenomena (1960)


136
12. Silence as communication (1963)
168
13. Ego-ideal, excitement and the threat of annihilation (1963) 181

14. Vicissitudes of being, knowing and experiencing in the

therapeutic situation (1969)


203
15. Infantile neurosis as a false-self organization (1971)
219
16. 'To hear with eyes*: clinical notes on body as subject and

object (1971)
234
17. The role of illusion in the analytic space and process (1971) 251

THE PRIVACY OF THE

SELF

18. Dread of surrender to resourceless dependence in the


analytic situation (1972)
19. Exorcism of the intrusive ego-alien factors in the analytic
situation and process (1972)
20. Thefindingand becoming of self (1972)

270

The use and abuse of dream in psychic experience (1972)

306

21.

280
294

Bibliography

316

Index

335

PREFACE
Psycho-analysis is an extremely private discipline of sensibility and
skill. The practice of psycho-analysis multiplies this privacy into a
specialized relationship between two persons, who through the very
nature of their exclusivity w i t h each other change each other. The
first thing I wish to say about my work reported i n these papers is
that my patients have helped me become and personalize my
potential thought, affectivity and effort into a way of life that I find
deeply satisfying. H a d I followed another career perhaps my life
would have been more dramatic and varied, but certainly not
fuller. M y relation with my patients has taught me the humility
and the necessity of the need of the other for one to be and become
oneself.
M.

MASUD

R.

K H A N

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
N o n e o f the w o r k p r e s e n t e d h e r e w o u l d h a v e b e e n possible for m e
b u t for m y three t e a c h e r s : D r . J o h n R i c k m a n , M i s s A n n a F r e u d
a n d D r . D o n a l d W i n n i c o t t , w h o tutored a n d nurtured m e w i t h
c o m p a s s i o n a n d generosity. A n d little o f i t w o u l d h a v e r e a c h e d the
p r i n t e d p a g e b u t for the f a c i l i t a t i n g c a r e a n d c o n c e r n o f t w o
editors. D r . J . D . S u t h e r l a n d , E d i t o r o f t h e International Journal
of
Psycho-Analysis,
g e n t l y c o a x e d m e to s t a r t p u b l i s h i n g m y w o r k a n d i n
fact w a s the first to p u b l i s h it. A n d J . - B . P o n t a l i s w h o w i t h his
b u l l y i n g affection e n a b l e d m e to present m y w o r k to the F r e n c h
p u b l i c t h r o u g h the Nouvelle Revue de Psychanalyse. T o b o t h o f t h e m
m y d e b t is i n d e e d g r e a t .
T o m y g o o d f r i e n d D r . V i c t o r S m i r n o f f I o w e a s p e c i a l d e b t for
the patient a n d sympathetic criticism of m y w o r k w h i c h has always
b e e n a n e n o r m o u s i n c r e m e n t to m y efforts.
I w i s h to t h a n k t h e editors o f t h e f o l l o w i n g j o u r n a l s a n d p u b l i s h i n g
houses for t h e i r k i n d p e r m i s s i o n to r e p r i n t m y w o r k : International
Journal
of Psycho-Analysis,
Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic,
Psycho
analytic Quarterly, Journal
of the Hillside Hospital, Nouvelle Revue de
Psychanalyse, Dynamische Psychiatrie, I n t e r n a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t i e s P r e s s ,
S c i e n c e H o u s e , B a s i c B o o k s , Q u a d r a n g l e , British Journal of Medical
Psychology, a n d the International Journal of Psycho-Analytic
Psychotherapy.

II

Clinical Aspects of the Schizoid Personality:

Affects and Technique

H E h i s t o r y o f p s y c h o - a n a l y s i s is the s u m - t o t a l o f the c o m p l e x
a n d c i r c u l a r i n t e r p l a y o f three factors: (a) the c h a n g i n g c l i n i c a l

picture of our patients;

(b)

the g r o w i n g

w h i c h we call metapsychology;

conceptual

knowledge

a n d (c) t h e a n a l y t i c process w h i c h

is r e g u l a t e d b y t h e a n a l y t i c t e c h n i q u e (cf. K r i s , 1951a).
I n this p a p e r I s h a l l discuss a n e w t y p e o f p a t i e n t t h a t h a s c o m e
i n t o p r o m i n e n c e i n t h e last t w o d e c a d e s , w i t h t h e a i m o f a s k i n g
w h e t h e r , i f w e a p p l y the r e c e n t r e s e a r c h e s i n t o i n f a n t - c a r e t e c h
n i q u e s a n d the h y p o t h e s e s a b o u t t h e e a r l y stages o f e g o - i d differentia
t i o n , w e c a n n o t p e r h a p s fruitfully s t u d y a p a r t i c u l a r sort o f c l i n i c a l
task t h a t this t y p e o f p a t i e n t sets us i n the a n a l y t i c s i t u a t i o n .
H i s t o r i c a l l y s p e a k i n g this t y p e o f p a t i e n t h a s g r a d u a l l y a r t i c u l a t e d
h i m s e l f i n t o c l i n i c a l focus f r o m the diffuse m a s s o f s y n d r o m e s t h a t
w e r e a n d are designated by

the t e r m ' b o r d e r l i n e cases' (cf.

Leo

S t o n e , 1954; S t e r n , 1938). I t is i m p o r t a n t , h o w e v e r , e v e n a t t h e risk


o f a c e r t a i n a m o u n t o f a r t i f i c i a l i t y , to isolate this n e w t y p e o f c a s e
a n d g i v e it the c l i n i c a l status o f e x i s t i n g i n its o w n r i g h t a n d setting
us tasks j u s t as specific as t h e h y s t e r i a s , obsessional neuroses, affective
disorders, a n d character-cases h a v e done earlier on.
I n o u r l i t e r a t u r e t h e first c o g e n t s t a t e m e n t a b o u t

the m e n t a l

processes o f this t y p e o f c a s e is b y F a i r b a i r n i n his p a p e r ' S c h i z o i d


Factors

i n the

Personality*

(1940).

Though

it is b a s i c a l l y

the

d e f i n i t i o n o f the s c h i z o i d processes w i t h w h i c h F a i r b a i r n is c o n
cerned, in many

respects h i s sensitive d e l i n e a t i o n o f the

theme

deserves o u r a t t e n t i o n h e r e . F a i r b a i r n s t a t e d :
(i) . . . s c h i z o i d c o n d i t i o n s c o n s t i t u t e t h e most deep-seated o f a l l
p s y c h o - p a t h o l o g i c a l states. . . . (ii) T h e t h e r a p e u t i c a n a l y s i s o f
the s c h i z o i d p r o v i d e s a n o p p o r t u n i t y for the s t u d y o f the w i d e s t
r a n g e o f p s y c h o - p a t h o l o g i c a l processes i n a single i n d i v i d u a l ;
Read at the 21st Congress of the International Psycho-Analytical Association,
July 1959. First published in The International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 41, 1960.

*3

THE PRIVACY OF THE SELF


for in such cases it is usual for the final state to be reached
only after all available methods of defending the personality
have been exploited, (iii) Contrary to common belief, schizoid
individuals who have not regressed too far are capable of
greater psychological insight than any other class of person,
normal or abnormal, (iv) Again contrary to common belief,
schizoid individuals show themselves capable of transference to
a remarkable degree, and present unexpectedly favourable
therapeutic possibilities.
Fairbairn noted the fact that psychoneurotic symptoms were com
patible with this condition. He went on to show the presence and
importance of depersonalization, derealization, disturbances of
reality-sense, e.g. feelings of artificiality, experiences such as the
'plate-glass feeling', feelings of unfamiliarity with familiar persons
or environmental settings and feelings of familiarity with the
unfamiliar ones; dejd vu also features significantly in their experience.
I n their social extension of behaviour such persons become fanatics,
agitators, criminals, revolutionaries, etc. Fairbairn singled out three
prominent characteristics of individuals in the schizoid category:
(i) an attitude of omnipotence; (ii) an attitude of isolation and
detachment; (iii) a preoccupation with inner reality.
To Fairbairn's way of thinking, 'everybody without exception
must be regarded as schizoid'. The fundamental schizoid pheno
menon is the presence of splits in the ego. Since there is a very close
connexion, for Fairbairn, between a splitting of the ego and a libidinal
attitude of oral incorporation, a fixation in the early oral phase
plays a prominent part in determining the pattern of schizoid
attitudes, and, in particular, promotes the schizoid tendency to treat
other persons as less than persons with an inherent value of their
own. This is a regressive phenomenon determined
by unsatisfactory emotional relationship with their parents,
and particularly with their mothers . . . the type of mother who
is specially prone to provoke such a regression is the mother
who fails to convince her child by spontaneous and genuine
expressions of affection that she herself loves him as a person.
Both possessive mothers and indifferent mothers fall in this
category. . . .
Fairbairn describes this process as the 'depersonalization of the object
and de-emotionalization of the object-relationship*.
14

ASPECTS

OF T H E SCHIZOID PERSONALITY

O t h e r v a l u a b l e features o f F a i r b a i r n ' s a n a l y s i s o f the s c h i z o i d


p e r s o n a l i t y a r e : (i) the c o n s i d e r a b l e difficulty these p a t i e n t s e x p e r i
e n c e o v e r g i v i n g i n t h e e m o t i o n a l sense. T h e y d e a l w i t h this b y
t w o b a s i c t e c h n i q u e s : (a) t h e t e c h n i q u e o f p l a y i n g r o l e s ; (b)

the

technique o f exhibitionism. ' T h e significance o f the exploitation of


e x h i b i t i o n i s m as defence lies i n t h e fact t h a t i t represents a t e c h n i q u e
for g i v i n g w i t h o u t g i v i n g , b y m e a n s o f a substitute o f " s h o w i n g " for
"giving".'

(ii) S e n s e

of inner superiority

based

on

(a)

general

secret o v e r - v a l u a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l contents, m e n t a l as w e l l as p h y s i c a l ;
(b) a n a r c i s s i s t i c i n f l a t i o n o f the ego a r i s i n g o u t o f secret possession
of, a n d c o n s i d e r a b l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h , i n t e r n a l i z e d l i b i d i n a l o b
j e c t s . . . . ' H e r e it w o u l d b e difficult to e x a g g e r a t e t h e i m p o r t a n c e
o f t h e e l e m e n t o f secrecy? says F a i r b a i r n . ( i i i ) T h e o p e r a t i o n o f the
i n t e l l e c t u a l defence.
E n q u i r i n g i n t o the sources o f t h a t sense o f difference f r o m others
w h i c h characterizes individuals w i t h a schizoid element i n their
p e r s o n a l i t y , F a i r b a i r n s i n g l e d o u t the f o l l o w i n g :
(i) I n e a r l y life t h e y g a i n e d t h e c o n v i c t i o n , w h e t h e r t h r o u g h
a p p a r e n t i n d i f f e r e n c e o r t h r o u g h a p p a r e n t possessiveness

on

the p a r t o f t h e i r m o t h e r , t h a t t h e i r m o t h e r d i d n o t love a n d
v a l u e t h e m as persons i n t h e i r o w n r i g h t .
(ii) T h a t i n f l u e n c e d b y a r e s u l t a n t sense o f d e p r i v a t i o n a n d
inferiority, they r e m a i n e d fixated u p o n their mothers.
(iii) T h a t the l i b i d i n a l a t t i t u d e a c c o m p a n y i n g this

fixation

w a s o n e n o t o n l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y e x t r e m e d e p e n d e n c e , b u t also
r e n d e r e d h i g h l y self-preservative

a n d narcissistic b y

anxiety

o v e r a s i t u a t i o n w h i c h p r e s e n t e d itself as i n v o l v i n g a t h r e a t to
the ego.
( i v ) T h a t , t h r o u g h a regression to the a t t i t u d e o f t h e o r a l
phase, not only d i d the l i b i d i n a l cathexis of a n a l r e a d y i n t e r n a l
i z e d ' b r e a s t - m o t h e r ' b e c o m e i n t e n s i f i e d , b u t also t h e process
o f i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n b e c a m e u n d u l y e x t e n d e d to r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h
other objects; a n d
(v) T h a t

there resulted a general

over-valuation

of

the

i n t e r n a l a t t h e e x p e n s e o f the e x t e r n a l w o r l d .
F a i r b a i r n e n d s his s t a t e m e n t b y s a y i n g t h a t s u c h a p e r s o n m u s t
n e i t h e r l o v e n o r b e l o v e d a n d m u s t k e e p his l i b i d i n a l objects a t a
distance.
I h a v e here reviewed F a i r b a i r n ' s account i n some detail because
i t is n o t o n l y t h e first b u t p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l l y the m o s t p e n e t r a t i n g
*5

THE PRIVACY OF THE SELF


d e f i n i t i o n o f the processes t h a t p l a y s u c h a v i t a l r o l e i n the p e r s o n a l i t y
of our new 'model patient'.
In

1942

D e u t s c h p u b l i s h e d the first c l i n i c a l studies o f patients

suffering f r o m w h a t she c a l l e d 'as i f personalities i n h e r p a p e r ' S o m e


F o r m s o f E m o t i o n a l D i s t u r b a n c e a n d t h e i r R e l a t i o n s h i p to S c h i z o
p h r e n i a ' . S h e d e s c r i b e d cases i n w h i c h the i n d i v i d u a l ' s e m o t i o n a l
r e l a t i o n s h i p to the outside w o r l d a n d to his o w n ego

appeared

i m p o v e r i s h e d o r absent. S h e significantly defined the expression o f


this d i s t u r b a n c e i n b e h a v i o u r as follows: ' t h e r e a r e the i n d i v i d u a l s
who

a r e not a w a r e o f t h e i r l a c k o f n o r m a l affective b o n d s

responses,

but

whose

e m o t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e is e i t h e r

and

perceived

o n l y b y those a r o u n d t h e m o r is first detected i n a n a l y t i c t r e a t


ment'.
D e u t s c h discussed the r e l a t i o n o f this to d e p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n a n d l i k e
F a i r b a i r n n o t e d t h a t ' t h e first i m p r e s s i o n these p e o p l e m a k e is o f
c o m p l e t e n o r m a l i t y ' . S h e also n o t e d t h e ' s t a g e d ' q u a l i t y o f t h e i r
e x p e r i e n c e s . S h e s i n g l e d o u t one specific c o n s e q u e n c e o f s u c h a
r e l a t i o n to life as b e i n g : ' a c o m p l e t e l y passive a t t i t u d e to the e n v i r o n
m e n t w i t h a h i g h l y p l a s t i c readiness to p i c k u p signals f r o m t h e
o u t e r w o r l d a n d to m o u l d oneself a n d one's b e h a v i o u r a c c o r d i n g l y ' .
Deutsch
extreme

noted

the

suggestibility

weakness
(which

of
I

their m o r a l

think

attitudes,

Fairbairn

mistakes

their
for

t r a n s f e r e n c e - r e a d i n e s s ) , a n d the m a s k i n g o f aggressive tendencies


b y passivity. A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t feature, i n c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n to the
hysterics, D e u t s c h n o t e d , w a s t h a t i n ' a s i f patients a n e a r l y defici
e n c y i n the d e v e l o p m e n t o f affects r e d u c e s t h e i n n e r conflict. T h e r e
is little c o n t a c t b e t w e e n ego a n d s u p e r e g o a n d t h e scene o f a l l
conflicts r e m a i n s e x t e r n a l . D e u t s c h states t h a t ' a n a l y s i s o f these cases
r e v e a l e d a g e n u i n e i n f a n t i l i s m , a n d t h e i r families w e r e o v e r r u n
w i t h p s y c h o t i c s a n d i n v a l i d p s y c h o p a t h s ' . S h e m e n t i o n s i n o n e case
t h e t r a u m a t i c effect o f d i s a p p o i n t m e n t s h a t t e r i n g t h e s t r o n g a t t a c h
m e n t to m o t h e r . ' C o m m o n to a l l cases w a s a d e e p d i s t u r b a n c e o f
the process o f s u b l i m a t i o n w h i c h results b o t h i n a failure to synthesize
t h e v a r i o u s i n f a n t i l e identifications i n t o a single, i n t e g r a t e d p e r s o n
ality, a n d i n a n imperfect, one-sided, purely intellectual sublimation
o f the i n s t i n c t u a l s t r i v i n g s . '
O n t h e a e t i o l o g i c a l side D e u t s c h p o i n t e d o u t : ' A n o t h e r c a u s e o f
this k i n d o f e m o t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e is insufficient s t i m u l u s for the
s u b l i m a t i o n o f the e m o t i o n s , as the result e i t h e r o f b e i n g g i v e n too
little tenderness o r too m u c h ' .
I t is m y c l i n i c a l i m p r e s s i o n , h o w e v e r , t h a t this ' p a s s i v i t y o f the

16

ASPECTS OF T H E SCHIZOID
ego'

PERSONALITY

i n these p a t i e n t s c h a r a c t e r i z e s e s s e n t i a l l y t h e

intra-psychic

r e l a t i o n s o f t h e ego. I t does n o t i n h i b i t o t h e r ego-functions, s u c h as


p e r c e p t i o n o r e v e n a c t i o n . P a s s i v i t y t h u s seems a w a y o f s i d e - t r a c k i n g
strong

affects.

maintaining

This

passivity

has another function,

inherently contradictory

and

conflictual

namely,

of

contents

affective as w e l l as p s y c h i c - i n a b e n i g n e g o - s y n t o n i c state.
Deutsch makes no

comments

o n the technical aspect

of

the

t r e a t m e n t o f these p a t i e n t s , a n d m e r e l y suggested t h a t ' a s t r o n g


i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e a n a l y s t c a n b e u t i l i z e d as a n a c t i v e
constructive

influence'.

Her

cautious

statement

'While

and

psycho

a n a l y s i s s e l d o m s u c c e e d s , t h e p r a c t i c a l results o f t r e a t m e n t c a n b e
far-reaching'

is

in

sharp

contrast

to

Fairbairn's

therapeutic

optimism.
In

Winnicott

1945

published a

paper,

'Primitive Emotional

D e v e l o p m e n t ' , i n w h i c h h e t r i e d to i n t e g r a t e his r e s e a r c h e s i n t o
infant care a n d infant development w i t h his clinical experience i n
the treatment o f psychotic patients. S i n c e then he has published
m a n y p a p e r s g i v i n g us i n d e t a i l his r e s e a r c h e s i n t o b o t h the t h e o r e t i c a l
a n d c l i n i c a l a s p e c t o f this w o r k . H e r e I s h a l l q u o t e f r o m his

1955

p a p e r ' C l i n i c a l V a r i e t i e s o f T r a n s f e r e n c e ' w h e r e w o r k i n g along his


lines he has a r r i v e d at a theoretical statement of'false s e l f personali
ties w h i c h is o n v e r y m u c h the s a m e lines o f r e s e a r c h as those o f
Fairbairn and Deutsch.
T h e r e m a y b e e x t r e m e cases i n w h i c h t h e r e is n o m o r e t h a n
this c o l l e c t i o n o f r e a c t i o n s to e n v i r o n m e n t a l failures o f a d a p t a
t i o n a t t h e c r i t i c a l stage o f e m e r g e n c e f r o m p r i m a r y i d e n t i f i c a
tion. I

a m s u r e this c o n d i t i o n is c o m p a t i b l e w i t h life, a n d

p h y s i c a l h e a l t h . I n t h e cases o n w h i c h m y w o r k is b a s e d t h e r e
h a s b e e n a t r u e s e l f h i d d e n , p r o t e c t e d b y a 'false s e l f . T h i s false
self is n o d o u b t a n a s p e c t o f the t r u e self. I t h i d e s a n d protects
i t , a n d i t r e a c t s to the a d a p t a t i o n failures a n d develops a p a t t e r n
c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the p a t t e r n o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a i l u r e . I n this
w a y the t r u e s e l f is n o t i n v o l v e d i n t h e r e a c t i n g , a n d so preserves
a c o n t i n u i t y o f b e i n g . T h i s h i d d e n t r u e s e l f suffers a n i m p o v e r i s h
m e n t , h o w e v e r , t h a t results f r o m l a c k o f e x p e r i e n c e . T h e false
self m a y a c h i e v e a d e c e p t i v e false i n t e g r i t y , t h a t is to s a y

false ego-strength, g a t h e r e d f r o m a n e n v i r o n m e n t a l p a t t e r n , a n d
from

a g o o d a n d r e l i a b l e e n v i r o n m e n t ; for it b y n o

means

follows t h a t e a r l y m a t e r n a l f a i l u r e m u s t l e a d to a g e n e r a l f a i l u r e
o f c h i l d - c a r e . T h e false self c a n n o t , h o w e v e r , e x p e r i e n c e life, a n d

17

THE

PRIVACY O FT H E

SELF

feel r e a l . I n t h e f a v o u r a b l e case t h e false self develops a

fixed

m a t e r n a l a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s t h e t r u e self, a n d is p e r m a n e n t l y i n
a state o f h o l d i n g the t r u e self as a m o t h e r h o l d s a b a b y a t t h e
very

beginning

o f differentiation

a n d o f emergence

from

p r i m a r y identification.
I s h a l l discuss the t h e o r e t i c a l v a l u e a n d c l i n i c a l use o f W i n n i c o t t ' s
researches l a t e r . H e r e i t is sufficient to a d d t h a t h e is the first a n a l y s t
w h o sees i n t h e t r e a t m e n t o f these cases a n e w c l i n i c a l task t h a t i s
r e s o l v a b l e i n t h e c l a s s i c a l t e c h n i q u e a n d setting o f a n a l y s i s . M o r e
o v e r , h e p r o v i d e s a n a e t i o l o g i c a l s t a t e m e n t i n terms o f d i s t u r b a n c e
o f t h e p r i m a r y i n t e g r a t i o n processes i n i n f a n c y t h r o u g h e n v i r o n
m e n t a l failure o f provision o f phase-adequate mothering.
I n 1946 E r i k s o n p u b l i s h e d a n i n t e r e s t i n g p a p e r ' E g o D e v e l o p m e n t
a n d H i s t o r i c a l C h a n g e ' w h i c h t r i e d to e x p l a i n this t y p e o f d i s o r d e r
i n t e r m s o f crises o f ego-identity f o r m a t i o n r e s u l t i n g f r o m processes
o f h i s t o r i c a l c h a n g e i n the s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t .
A n n a F r e u d (1952a), i n d i s c u s s i n g the specific p r o b l e m o f n e g a t i v
i s m a n d i n a b i l i t y to s u r r e n d e r i n c e r t a i n cases, is also d e a l i n g w i t h
t h e c e n t r a l p r o b l e m s o f this t y p e o f case.
T h e n e x t a n d last p a p e r o n this t y p e o f p a t i e n t t h a t I s h a l l
m e n t i o n is b y G r e e n s o n (1958), w h o h a s a t t e m p t e d a v e r y c o g e n t
c l i n i c a l d e f i n i t i o n o f these cases i n h i s p a p e r o n ' S c r e e n D e f e n c e s ,
S c r e e n H u n g e r a n d S c r e e n I d e n t i t y ' . H e finds t h e m suffering b a s i c
a l l y f r o m a defective f o r m a t i o n o f t h e self-image, a n d designates
t h e m as a n i d e n t i t y d i s o r d e r . H i s c l i n i c a l p i c t u r e is g e n e r a l l y i n
accord

with

features

those

of Fairbairn, Deutsch, a n d Winnicott. T w o

o f Greenson's picture I shall quote, however.

H e states

t h e eagerness o f these patients to m a k e c o n t a c t a n d to c o m m u n i c a t e ,


and

t h e i r o p t i m i s m . I n t h e i r histories h e f o u n d

t h a t they h a d

i m p o r t a n t g r a t i f y i n g e x p e r i e n c e s a t c r u c i a l times o f t h e i r lives, a n d
this G r e e n s o n t h i n k s a c c o u n t s for t h e i r c h o i c e o f illness.
T h e i r hunger

a n d o p t i m i s m comes from

their history o f

u n r e l i a b l e b u t nevertheless o c c u r r i n g gratifications. T h e y c l i n g
to o b j e c t - r e l a t i o n s a n d to t h e i r i n s t i n c t u a l d r i v e s b e c a u s e they
expect eventually
Their

uncertainty

to b e gratified

b y t h e u n r e l i a b l e objects.

a n d the memory

o f d i s a p p o i n t m e n t s is

h a n d l e d b y their screen experiences w h i c h deny


failures.

t h e i r past

T h e i r s u p e r e g o is as c o r r u p t i b l e as t h e i r

T h e y feel l u c k y to a v o i d feeling depressed.

18

parents.

ASPECTS

OF T H E SCHIZOID

PERSONALITY

I h a v e deliberately borrowed heavily from the writings of other


a n a l y s t s to e s t a b l i s h t h e c l i n i c a l i d e n t i t y o f this t y p e o f case, b e c a u s e
o n e c a n b e a l l too e a s i l y p e r s u a d e d i n t o s e e i n g a s i m i l a r i t y i n o n e ' s
p e r s o n a l r u n o f cases i f o n e h a s a t h e o r e t i c a l b i a s .
I

shall now

s c h e m a t i c a l l y state a few

o f the m o r e

significant

features o f the b e h a v i o u r o f these p a t i e n t s i n the a n a l y t i c s i t u a t i o n ,


t h e i r t r a n s f e r e n c e to the a n a l y s t , a n d t h e i r needs a n d d e m a n d s f r o m
the analyst, w h i c h I have abstracted from m y clinical w o r k w i t h
t h e m over the past decade.
(i) I n s t e a d o f t r a n s f e r e n c e - r e a d i n e s s t h e y t e n d to p r o v o k e

or

s e d u c e the a n a l y s t i n t o a t a n t a l i z i n g r e l a t i o n to t h e i r m a t e r i a l , e.g.
past

history

or

internal

reality.

Hence

the

danger

of

over

interpretation.
(ii) I n s t e a d o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n t h e r e is e x h i b i t i o n - o f p s y c h i c
c o n t e n t s . T h e p a t i e n t f r o m the outside i n c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h the
a n a l y s t is h a v i n g a g o o d p e e p a t himself. T h i s f o r m o f p s y c h i c
e x h i b i t i o n i s m , b a s e d o n a s t r o n g i n t e l l e c t u a l defence, i n these cases
can

b e for l o n g p e r i o d s o f w o r k

m i s t a k e n for free

associations.

F u r t h e r m o r e , i n s t e a d o f affectively m o b i l e free associations t h e r e is


a n i n t e n s i v e self-engrossment

i n r e l a t i o n to w h i c h t h e a n a l y s t is

m e r e l y a s p e c t a t o r . W e see i n this aspect o f t h e i r b e h a v i o u r i n t h e


transference w h a t A n n a F r e u d has described i n discussing a patient
o f h e r s a s : ' w h a t s h o u l d h a v e b e e n a n object tie h a d b e e n t u r n e d i n t o
a n ego i n t e r e s t ' (1954). I t is v e r y i m p o r t a n t n o t to confuse this ego
i n t e r e s t i n t h e a n a l y s t w i t h a n affective ( l i b i d i n a l o r aggressive)
c a t h e x i s o f h i m . T h e p s e u d o - e n t h u s i a s m o f these p a t i e n t s m a s k s a
r e a l d r e a d o f t h e i r b a s i c sense o f emptiness b e i n g f o u n d o u t .
(iii) A l l affects h a v e a d i s c h a r g e u r g e n c y a b o u t t h e m . T h e ego
o f t h e p a t i e n t e i t h e r i n h i b i t s o r facilitates this d i s c h a r g e b u t is n o t
r e l a t e d to it. C o n t r a r i w i s e t h e r e is a d e t e r m i n e d a t t e m p t to i n v o l v e
t h e a n a l y s t w i t h these affective outbursts. T h i s c a p a c i t y to c r e a t e
a n i n n e r d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e i r ego-functions a n d affects e n a b l e s
these

patients

to

indulge

in varied

sublimatory

activities

and

interests, w h i c h c a n b e o f c o n s i d e r a b l e v a l u e to t h e m as m e m b e r s
o f society b u t h a v e little o r n o p e r s o n a l m e a n i n g for t h e m .

The

i n c a p a c i t y to b i n d affective cathexes i n t r a p s y c h i c a l l y c a n b e o v e r l a i d
w i t h a profuse p r o d u c t i o n o f m a t e r i a l o r b y a c t i n g out. O n c e they
h a v e f o u n d s o m e o n e i n t h e outside e n v i r o n m e n t , a n a l y t i c o r s o c i a l ,
t h e i r ego

can

control a n d manipulate

the s i t u a t i o n . A s

G r e e n a c r e , W i n n i c o t t h a v e p o i n t e d o u t , these p a t i e n t s d o

Stone,
need

new objects a n d n e w e x p e r i e n c e s to e n a b l e t h e m r e a l l y to e x p e r i e n c e

19

T H E

P R I V A C Y O FT H E

themselves personally. T h e m a n a g e m e n t

SELF

a n a l y t i c a l l y o f this t y p e

o f a c t i n g o u t is o n e o f the h a r d e s t tasks these p a t i e n t s set o n e i n


analysis.
( i v ) T h e i r n a r c i s s i s m h a s a p a t e n t l y deficient q u a l i t y a b o u t i t
a n d is defensively o v e r l a i d w i t h p s e u d o - a g g r e s s i v e s e l f - c o m p e n s a t o r y
t e c h n i q u e s . T h e fact t h a t t h e i r a u t o - e r o t i c
imaginatively

a n d affectively

activities, instead o f

enriching their object-relationships

o r f a n t a s y life, a r e l a r g e l y c o m p u l s i v e a n d h a v e a d e p l e t i n g effect o n
t h e m , is reflected i n t h e a n a l y t i c s i t u a t i o n b y t h e i r excessive use o f
w o r d s a n d / o r m a s s i v e p r o d u c t i o n o f fantasies a n d p s y c h i c c o n t e n t .
I n fact, as A n n a F r e u d (1952a) h a s d e s c r i b e d , these a r e p a t i e n t s w h o
a r e v e r y n e g a t i v i s t i c a n d c a n n o t s u r r e n d e r to a n y r e l a t i o n s h i p , a n d
t h e a n a l y t i c s i t u a t i o n c o m e s t o signify for t h e m the u l t i m a t e o f this
predicament.
(v) I n s t e a d o f s h o w i n g i n i t i a t i v e , these p a t i e n t s l e a n h e a v i l y
o n t h e hopefulness i n others w h i c h t h e y c a n a l w a y s m o b i l i z e a n d
a r o u n d w h i c h t h e y c a n i n t e g r a t e for short p e r i o d s o f v i t a l e g o
f u n c t i o n i n g o r i d - e x p e r i e n c e s . I n t h e e n d t h e y r e d u c e a l l this to
futility a n d t h e persons i n v o l v e d feel defeated, d e m o r a l i z e d , a n d
r e n d e r e d i n a n e a n d useless. T h e y r e p e a t this w i t h excessive c o m
p u l s i o n i n t h e a n a l y t i c s i t u a t i o n a n d this forms a v e r y l a r g e p a r t
o f t h e i r b a s i c testing-out t e c h n i q u e s . T h e b u r d e n this p u t s o n t h e
analyst's counter-transference

is e n o r m o u s

a n d exhausting. (See

W i n n i c o t t (1947); K h a n ( p p . 136-67 b e l o w ) .
( v i ) F r o m t h e v e r y start these p a t i e n t s s e e m t o b e i n a g r e a t
urgency to exteriorize a n d ' a c t out' a l l their past experiences a n d
current

tensions i n t h e a n a l y t i c s i t u a t i o n . I n a sense t h e y a r e

o v e r - r e s p o n s i v e a n d y e t i t does n o t e s t a b l i s h a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n
the analyst a n d them. A n n a
experience

F r e u d ' s description o f the infant's

i n its earliest b e g i n n i n g s

is v e r y a p t l y

a p p l i c a b l e to

these p a t i e n t s : ' W h a t e v e r h a p p e n s c a l l s forth a response a n d w h a t


seems t o b e m i s s i n g is a p u l l i n g together o f e x p e r i e n c e ' .
( v i i ) T h e s e p a t i e n t s e x p l o i t p a r t i a l regressions i n t h e i d a n d t h e
ego, a s w e l l a s superego, w i t h g r e a t d e x t e r i t y . T h i s l e n d s s o m e o f
their behaviour

a n d m a t e r i a l a p s y c h o t i c q u a l i t y a t times. B u t

b a s i c a l l y t h e y a r e b o t h terrified o f ego-regression to its d e p e n d e n c y


n e e d stage, a s A n n a F r e u d a n d W i n n i c o t t h a v e p o i n t e d o u t , a n d
i n s t e a d m a k e a h a b i t o f m a n i p u l a t i n g d i s s o c i a t e d states, a n d i n v o l v
i n g others w i t h t h e m ( c f K r i s

1951a; K h a n , p p . 136-67 b e l o w ) .

A n y a t t e m p t t o r e d u c e this f o r m o f p s y c h i c m a n i p u l a t i o n creates
real panic i n them.
20

ASPECTS
(viii) T h e

OF T H E SCHIZOID PERSONALITY

overall and

overwhelming

general

impression

that

o n e gets f r o m w o r k w i t h these p a t i e n t s is t h a t t h e y need t h e a n a l y s t ' s


r e a d i n e s s to c o - o p e r a t e i n a c o n t r o l l e d a n d l i m i t e d i n v o l v e m e n t .
T h e y h a v e not a whole experience w h i c h they c a n project.

The

gaps i n their experiences are not through repression. T h e y

have

o n l y p i e c e s o f a v a r i e t y o f i n c o m p l e t e e x p e r i e n c e s f r o m a l l stages
of development, w h i c h they have magically congealed into o p e r a
tional unities. T h e y have, however, a strong notion of w h a t

the

w h o l e c o u l d o r w o u l d b e l i k e . H e n c e t h e i r d e m a n d for the a n a l y s t
to c o m p l e t e i t for t h e m a n d to h o l d t h e i r f r a g m e n t a l affective states
i n e x p e r i e n t i a l u n i t y o v e r t i m e . I t is t h e a n a l y s t w h o m t h e y make to feel
t h e a n g e r , r a g e , n e e d i n e s s , d e s p a i r , l o v e , a n d tenderness, d e s t r u c t i v e
v i o l e n c e , a n d p a n i c w h i c h is i n s i d e t h e m , for v e r y l o n g p e r i o d s o f
t i m e before t h e i r ego c a n b u i l d u p to a u n i t y w h e r e t h r o u g h i d e n t i
fication

t h e y c a n e x p e r i e n c e i t for t h e m s e l v e s a n d i n t h e m s e l v e s . T h e

s a m e is t r u e o f t h e i r affective states.
( i x ) T h e u t t e r i n a b i l i t y o f these p a t i e n t s to tolerate

anxiety

c r e a t e s a c l i n i c a l i m p a s s e for t h e m , as t h e a n a l y t i c s i t u a t i o n t h r o u g h
its v e r y n a t u r e m o b i l i z e s l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f affects a n d a i m s a t t h e i r
c o n t a i n m e n t a n d a s s i m i l a t i o n . T w o t e c h n i q u e s t h e y use to

combat

anxiety-states from emerging a r e v e r y significant i n the diagnosis


o f t h e i r c o n d i t i o n as w e l l as i n its c l i n i c a l h a n d l i n g . T h e first is t h e
translation of anxiety into psychic p a i n . T h e y are almost addicts
to s u c h p a i n . B u t this a c u t e suffering h a s a s c r e e n a n d
value

against

anxiety,

and

against

true

defensive

realization of

their

d e p e n d e n c e a n d d e p r i v a t i o n . T h e s e c o n d t e c h n i q u e t h e y use is the
t r a n s l a t i o n o f a n x i e t y i n t o diffuse a n d excessive t e n s i o n states. T h i s
t e n s i o n state b e c o m e s

a s o u r c e o f r e a l r e s i s t a n c e to t h e a n a l y t i c

p r o c e s s , b e c a u s e t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l defence is l a r g e l y fed f r o m this


s o u r c e . I t a l s o o p e r a t e s as a d e f e n c e a g a i n s t a p s y c h i c r e a l i z a t i o n o f
their instinct-tension a n d needs.
G e n e t i c a l l y s p e a k i n g , a n x i e t y i n these p a t i e n t s is n o t so m u c h a
r e a c t i o n to s t r o n g a n d p o w e r f u l l i b i d i n a l i m p u l s e s o r to a p r i m i t i v e
a n d s a d i s t i c s u p e r e g o as f r o m a sense o f a c u t e t h r e a t to the i n t a c t n e s s
a n d s u r v i v a l o f t h e i r ego. A n x i e t y is v e r y often a r e a c t i o n to t h e i r
i n n e r experience o f total emptiness a n d desolation. A n y means of
p r o d u c i n g a n d m a i n t a i n i n g p s y c h i c t e n s i o n t h u s reassures

them

a g a i n s t this a n x i e t y a b o u t e m p t i n e s s . P s y c h i c p a i n a n d m a s o c h i s m
a r e u s e d as a defence a g a i n s t this p r i m a r y i n n e r p r e d i c a m e n t . M a s o
c h i s t i c p a i n raises t h e t h r e s h o l d o f c a t h e x e s a n d so sponsors a sense
of self i n t h e m .
21

THE PRIVACY O F T H E SELF


( x ) C l o s e l y r e l a t e d to t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to tolerate a n x i e t y
t h e i r c r a v i n g for

tension-states

is t h e i r r a n d o m

use o f

and

defence

m e c h a n i s m s . I t is r a n d o m i n t h e sense t h a t t h e r e is n o specificity
of a

defence

m e c h a n i s m i n r e l a t i o n to consistently

identifiable

affective states o r conflicts. M o s t p r o m i n e n t a m o n g the v a r i e t y o f


defences t h e y use a r e : (a) s p l i t t i n g , (A) d e v a l u a t i o n o f objects as
w e l l as o f e m o t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s , (c) p r o j e c t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s ,
i d e a l i z a t i o n . I t is t h e d e t a i l e d s t u d y o f t h e i r defence

(d)

mechanisms

a n d t h e v a s t a n d v a r i e d m e d l e y o f uses t h e y p u t t h e m to t h a t gives
t h e a n a l y s t a n o p p o r t u n i t y to d i s c o v e r a n d establish the p r i m i t i v e
i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s w i t h p r i m a r y objects i n these p a t i e n t s . I t is i n this
a r e a o f w o r k t h a t o n e is a b l e to ' r e c o n s t r u c t

the reality o f t h e i r

e a r l i e s t objects a n d its effects o n the d e v e l o p m e n t a l a n d i n t e g r a t i v e


process. T h e i r defence m e c h a n i s m s c a r r y w i t h i n t h e m a v e r y t r u e
p i c t u r e o f t h e i r i n f a n t i l e a n d c h i l d h o o d r e a l i t y . A s is to be e x p e c t e d ,
later

superimpositions complicate

and

confuse

the issues. I t

p a r t i a l l y for this r e a s o n t h a t a c t i n g o u t , i f i t c a n be

is

controlled

c l i n i c a l l y , b u t n o t totally i n h i b i t e d , y i e l d s s o m e o f the m o s t definitive


c l u e s to the actuality

a n d reality

of their infancy

and

childhood

e n v i r o n m e n t a n d objects. O n e c o u l d a l m o s t s a y t h a t t h e i r defence
m e c h a n i s m s c a r r y ossified w i t h i n t h e m m e m o r i e s o f a c t u a l e x p e r i
ences a n d t r a u m a t a w h i c h the i n f a n t i l e ego h a d n o o t h e r m e a n s a t
t h e t i m e o f r e g i s t e r i n g p s y c h i c a l l y . I t is for this r e a s o n t h a t i n t h e
c l i n i c a l e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i r defence m e c h a n i s m s one s h o u l d a l w a y s
b e o n the a l e r t to d i s c r i m i n a t e the defensive f u n c t i o n o f the m e c h a n
i s m f r o m its ' c o m m u n i c a t i v e
negative,

aspect. T o o g r e a t a n e m p h a s i s o n t h e

i . e . r e s i s t a n c e , a s p e c t o f defence

c a n only paralyse

the

c l i n i c a l process. W h a t h a v e to be r e l e a s e d f r o m these r i g i d s t r u c t u r e s
a r e t h e m e m o r i e s o f p r i m i t i v e o b j e c t - r e l a t i o n s a n d the s t r a n g u l a t e d
affects a n d p s y c h i c processes t h a t w e r e a t the t i m e o f t h e

first

i n c i d e n c e d y n a m i c a l l y free a n d c r e a t i v e .
( x i ) I h a v e m e n t i o n e d t h e use b y these p a t i e n t s o f i d e a l i z a t i o n
a s a defence m e c h a n i s m . T h e r e is o n e specific a s p e c t o f i t t h a t I
w o u l d l i k e to discuss, n a m e l y , its r e l a t i o n to e g o - i d e a l f o r m a t i o n .
Q u i t e often these p a t i e n t s c a n g i v e the i m p r e s s i o n o f b e i n g p s y c h o
p a t h i c o r a m o r a l , a n d o n e is often t e m p t e d to r e l a t e i t to e i t h e r
defective s u p e r e g o f o r m a t i o n o r to a n o v e r - s t r i c t p r i m i t i v e l y s a d i s t i c
s u p e r e g o f r o m w h i c h the ego h a s to dissociate i t s e l f to s u r v i v e a n d
operate. A

close s c r u t i n y o f t h e i r i n t r a - p s y c h i c f u n c t i o n i n g ,

how

e v e r , r e v e a l s q u i t e a different p i c t u r e . O n e finds t h a t t h e y h a v e a
very

highly

organized

ego-ideal
22

and

all their attempts

are

to

ASPECTS OF T H E SCHIZOID
approximate

PERSONALITY

to its d e m a n d s , e v e n to t h e e x t e n t o f a n t i s o c i a l o r

a s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r . W h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s this e g o - i d e a l is t h a t i t is
not built from introjection o f idealized p r i m a r y parental objects;
q u i t e t h e r e v e r s e . T h e e g o - i d e a l is a p s y c h i c f o r m a t i o n i n l i e u o f
satisfactory p r i m a r y figures. T h e i d e a l i z a t i o n h e r e is a w a y o f d e a l i n g
w i t h d e p r i v a t i o n f r o m t h e p r i m a r y o b j e c t . T h e p a t i e n t h a s first
m a d e g o o d b y m a g i c o r p r i m i t i v e i m a g i n a t i v e a c t i v i t y t h e deficient
p r i m a r y object a n d then progressively idealized it. T h i s idealized
i n t e r n a l o b j e c t ( i . e . t h e ego-ideal) is t h e n u s e d to f e n d o f f a l l sense
o f hopelessness, e m p t i n e s s , a n d futility. I n t h e t r a n s f e r e n c e r e l a t i o n
s h i p t h e y i d e a l i z e t h e a n a l y s t a n d t h e a n a l y t i c process. I t is t h e i r
way

o f w a r d i n g off d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t a n d hopelessness w h i c h t h e y

feel c e r t a i n w i l l b e t h e i r p r e d i c a m e n t i n a r e a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h i s
i d e a l i z a t i o n is n e i t h e r o n a n a r c i s s i s t i c basis n o r is i t b a s e d o n a n
i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e o b j e c t . I t is a m e a n s o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a defensive
psychic structure against the emotional reality of a n interpersonal
r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h e a t t r i b u t e s i d e a l i z e d consist o f p a r t s o f s e l f a n d
o b j e c t a n d t h r o u g h t h e i d e a l i z a t i o n process a r e w e l d e d i n t o a u n i t y
w h i c h t h e n operates as t h e v e h i c l e o f t h e a n a l y t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p a n d
becomes i n time the source o f negative therapeutic reaction i n their
t r e a t m e n t (see p p . 181-202 b e l o w ) .
T h e q u e s t i o n t h a t a l l this l e a d s u p to i s : H a v e w e t h e m e a n s i n
o u r t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c e p t s a n d o u r c l i n i c a l setting to c o p e w i t h t h e
n e e d s o f these p a t i e n t s ? C a n w e e x p l a i n t h e h o w a n d w h y o f t h e i r
b e h a v i o u r a n d c a n w e h e l p t h e m to w o r k i t t h r o u g h to i n t e g r a t i v e
w h o l e n e s s f r o m w i t h i n t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e a n a l y t i c setting ?
T h e researches into infant care a n d ego-psychology c a n equip us
w i t h t h e n e c e s s a r y m e a n s a t least to t a c k l e c r e a t i v e l y t h e c l i n i c a l
p r o b l e m s m e t w i t h i n these p a t i e n t s . T h e s e r e s e a r c h e s h a v e s u p p l e
m e n t e d the classical theory basically i n three dimensions:
(a) N o l o n g e r d o w e c o n s i d e r t h e s t r u c t u r a l d i v i s i o n i n t o s u p e r e g o ,
ego, a n d i d as b e i n g o u r c h i e f m o d e l o f t h i n k i n g . T h e earliest stages
o f i n f a n t d e v e l o p m e n t w h e r e ego a n d i d themselves e m e r g e f r o m
an

undifferentiated

become

very

matrix

significant

of energic

for

potential structures

the understanding

of

have

personality

development. A s the work o f Brierley a n d Winnicott i n E n g l a n d


a n d ego-psychology research workers i n general has shown, the
e m p h a s i s is o n c e a g a i n

o n metapsychology

as a process

theory

(cf. H a r t m a n n , 1956a).
(b) T h i s h a s i n t u r n c h a n g e d o u r e m p h a s i s o n t h e c o n f l i c t u a l
d y n a m i c s o f e a r l y processes. H a r t m a n n ' s c o n c e p t s o f conflict-free

23

THE PRIVACY OF T H E SELF


a r e a s o f t h e ego h a v e r e i n f o r c e d W i n n i c o t t ' s w o r k w i t h i n f a n t s ,
w h i c h s t a t e d t h a t i n spite o f gross d i s t u r b a n c e s o f t h e total p e r s o n a l i t y
t h e r e c o u l d be v e r y effective ego-capacities.

F u r t h e r m o r e , it has

b e c o m e possible to e v a l u a t e c e r t a i n s e e m i n g l y effective ego-functions


as

being

symptomatic

of primitive

defences

experiences of very early infancy. W e

against

disruptive

c a n now evaluate

certain

p r e c o c i o u s e g o - d e v e l o p m e n t s as p a t h o g e n i c a n d defensive.
(c) T h i s c o r r e c t i o n o f o u r e v a l u a t i o n o f e m e r g e n c e o f the ego a n d
i d f r o m a n u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d m a t r i x h a s also e n r i c h e d a n d e n l a r g e d
o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e r o l e a n d f u n c t i o n o f the e n v i r o n m e n t for
the c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n o f t h e first self-feelings i n the p a t i e n t . B y ' e n v i r o n
m e n t ' h e r e I m e a n the s u m - t o t a l o f the m o t h e r ' s c a r e - t a k i n g , feeding,
a n d affective r e l a t i o n to t h e infant.
I t is o u r c r e d i t i n g the t r u e significance o f these factors t h a t m a k e s
a n a c c u r a t e ' r e c o n s t r u c t i o n ' i n the a n a l y t i c setting o f the e x a c t
n a t u r e a n d a c t u a l i t y o f this m o t h e r i n g e n v i r o n m e n t for the p a t i e n t ' s
development

c l i n i c a l l y a n d t h e r a p e u t i c a l l y so i m p o r t a n t for

us.

B e c a u s e o n l y t h u s c a n t h e y be h e l p e d to sort o u t t h e p e r s o n a l
imaginative

primitive psychic

fantasy

i n their experience

from

w h a t was pathogenic external reality. T h i s alone c a n enable them


to a c h i e v e a t r u e c a p a c i t y for r e a l i t y - t e s t i n g a n d a p e r s o n a l i n n e r
life. O t h e r w i s e t h e y l i v e i n a p e r s o n a l m a d w o r l d w i t h a

very

elaborate facade of normality a n d socialization.


(rf) T h e i m p o r t a n c e c l i n i c a l l y a n d g e n e t i c a l l y o f this d e p e n d e n c e
of the infant o n the m a t e r n a l care has been defined w i t h great
sensitivity a n d exactness b y W i n n i c o t t a n d m a n y o t h e r w o r k e r s .
I n t e r m s o f the r e s e a r c h e s i n t o the total a n a l y t i c s i t u a t i o n , t h e
role o f the a n a l y s t h a s g a i n e d i n i m p o r t a n c e p a r a l l e l to the u n d e r
s t a n d i n g o f t h e r o l e o f the m o t h e r . T h i s h a s i n t u r n p u t a n e w v a l u e
o n t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e a n a l y t i c setting a n d its m e a n i n g for

the

patient.
A l l this h a s a d i r e c t b e a r i n g o n w o r k w i t h o u r t y p e o f p a t i e n t .
W i t h t h e m i t is the ego-regression i n the a n a l y t i c s i t u a t i o n to t h e
p r i m i t i v e stages o f d e p e n d e n c e a n d u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d

unintegrated

affectivity t h a t they a r e c r u c i a l l y seeking, a n d i t is also t h e s o u r c e


o f t h e i r m o s t a d a m a n t resistance a n d n e g a t i v i t y . I t is h e r e t h a t the
evaluation o f the patient's need (unconscious) puts s u c h a b u r d e n o n
t h e i m a g i n a t i v e sensitivity o f the a n a l y s t . T h e patients c o m p e l t h e
a n a l y s t i n t o the r o l e o f t h e p r i m a r y e n v i r o n m e n t . T h e y

utterly

d e p e n d u p o n h i s a b i l i t y to e m p a t h i z e a n d c r y s t a l l i z e this i n t o a n
affective e g o - e x p e r i e n c e . Q u i t e often this need i n t h e m is m i s t a k e n

24

ASPECTS O F T H E SCHIZOID

PERSONALITY

for a n i n v i t a t i o n to i n t e r v e n e a n d d i r e c t , g u i d e a n d c o r r e c t . T h a t is
n o t w h a t t h e p a t i e n t is s e e k i n g . I n this w a y t h e a n a l y s t m a n a g e s
m e r e l y to r e p l a c e o n e set o f i m p i n g e m e n t s b y a n o t h e r , p e r h a p s m o r e
b e n i g n ones. T h e r e a l task is to e n a b l e t h e p a t i e n t to e x p e r i e n c e
regressively a n d affectively

i n t h e a n a l y t i c setting t h e t o t a l

frag

m e n t e d r e a l i t y t h a t h e is c a r r y i n g a r o u n d u n d e r m a g i c a l c o n t r o l ,
a n d work through it from w i t h i n b y experiencing the n e w emergent
r e l a t i o n s h i p to h i m s e l f , t h e a n a l y s t , a n d t h e a n a l y t i c s i t u a t i o n . T h i s
m e a n s t h a t t h e r e a l i t y a n d l i m i t a t i o n s o f the a n a l y s t as a p e r s o n a r e
b o u n d to b e c o m e m o r e v i s i b l e i n t h e process. B u t o n l y i n so f a r as
t h e y a r e r e l a t e d to t h e n e e d s o f t h e p a t i e n t a n d t h e c l i n i c a l s i t u a t i o n
a r e t h e y o f v a l u e (cf. W i n n i c o t t , 1954ft; K h a n , p p . 136-67 b e l o w ) .
M a n y a n a l y s t s h a v e p o i n t e d o u t t h e n e e d o f these p a t i e n t s for n e w
experiences a n d object-relationships, o f w h i c h the analyst becomes
a v e r y i m p o r t a n t p a r t . B u t t h e newness o f this e x p e r i e n c e lies i n t h e
p a t i e n t ' s g r a d u a l r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e r e a l i t y o f h i s o w n processes
through their emergence a n d evolution i n the a n a l y t i c situation
a n d w i t h t h e a n a l y s t . T h e r e a l difference

between

this a n a l y t i c

e x p e r i e n c e a n d t h e s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e s for t h e p a t i e n t is t h a t i n t h e
a n a l y t i c e x p e r i e n c e t h e p a t i e n t is a b l e to e x t e r i o r i z e a n d express
a l l t h e facets a n d e l e m e n t s o f his c u r r e n t a n d d e v e l o p m e n t a l e x
periences without magically

seducing the analyst into collusion

o r r e j e c t i o n . T h i s a b i l i t y to b e i n v o l v e d w i t h o u t i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h
t h e i n n e r l o g i c o f t h e p a t i e n t ' s g r o w i n g r e a l i t y is t h e m o s t d e l i c a t e
task.
I n a d e t a i l e d c a s e - h i s t o r y o f a f e m a l e p a t i e n t (see b e l o w , p p . 136
67),

I s h a l l discuss these aspects o f t h e t o t a l t r e a t m e n t s i t u a t i o n .

H e r e I d o n o t p r o p o s e to p r e s e n t c o r r o b o r a t i v e c l i n i c a l m a t e r i a l . I
do, however,

w i s h to state e m p h a t i c a l l y t h a t I a m n o t p u t t i n g

forward a n e w v a r i a n t o f the therapy through so-called 'corrective


emotional experiences'.
T o c o n c l u d e , I s h a l l r e c a l l t h a t F e r e n c z i (1909) q u o t e d F r e u d to
t h e effect: ' H o w e v e r w e treat o u r p a t i e n t s , t h e y t r e a t themselves
t h e r a p e u t i c a l l y , i . e . w i t h transferences'. T h e r e a l g e n i u s o f F r e u d
c a n p e r h a p s b e best d e f i n e d b y h i s invention o f the a n a l y t i c s i t u a t i o n
as t h e v e h i c l e for t h e r a p e u t i c w o r k

(cf. K r i s ,

1956a). W i t h the

g r o w i n g a n d v a r y i n g needs o f different types o f p a t i e n t s f r o m h y s


terias to c h a r a c t e r d i s o r d e r s w e h a v e f o u n d this v e h i c l e b o t h resilient
and

effective

enough

to m e e t

the self-therapeutic

needs o f the

patients. I believe w i t h the n e w type o f case w i t h their disturbed


p r i m a r y affective i n t e g r a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e i r p r i m a r y

25

THE PRIVACY OF T H E SELF


maternal

environment

we

c a n also

find

the m e a n s w i t h i n

c l a s s i c a l a n a l y t i c setting to release t h e ' h a r m o n i z i n g f u n c t i o n


t h e ego* ( H a r t m a n n , 1956a) t h r o u g h

enabling

them

to

the
of

achieve

p r i m a r y affective i n t e g r a t i o n i n terms o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e
analytic situation.

26

Dream Psychology and the Evolution of the Psycho-

Analytic Situation

I. Freud's Self-Analysis and the Discovery of the Analytic

Situation

O N E S (1953) *

h i s b i o g r a p h y o f F r e u d tells u s : ' T w o i m p o r t a n t

parts o f F r e u d ' s researches a r e intimately connected w i t h his

self-analysis: the interpretation of dreams, a n d his growing apprecia


t i o n o f i n f a n t i l e s e x u a l i t y ' ( p . 320). K r i s also stressed this i n h i s
i n t r o d u c t i o n to t h e F l i e s s L e t t e r s ( F r e u d , 1950a, p . 33). W h a t h a s
n o t b e e n sufficiently p o i n t e d o u t is t h a t t h e u n i q u e g a i n to t h e
science

of psycho-analysis

from

Freud's

self-analysis,

which

he

u n d e r t o o k i n t h e s u m m e r o f 1897 a n d k e p t u p for a lifetime, w a s t h e


i n v e n t i o n o f t h e a n a l y t i c s i t u a t i o n as t h e t h e r a p e u t i c a n d r e s e a r c h
instrument towards the understanding a n d resolution o f another
p e r s o n ' s i n t r a - p s y c h i c u n c o n s c i o u s conflicts, w h i c h a r e s y m b o l i z e d
a n d e p i t o m i z e d i n h i s s y m p t o m s a n d illness. F r e u d ' s self-analysis
w a s c o n d u c t e d o n t w o p a r a l l e l l i n e s : (a) t h r o u g h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f
his d r e a m s , a n d (b) t h r o u g h e m p a t h y a n d i n s i g h t i n t o h i s c l i n i c a l
experience w i t h patients. T h i s latter w a s a n o l d bias o f F r e u d ' s
t e m p e r a m e n t . A s e a r l y a s 29 O c t o b e r 1882 h e h a d w r i t t e n t o h i s
fiancee:

' I a l w a y s find i t u n c a n n y w h e n I c a n ' t u n d e r s t a n d s o m e o n e

i n t e r m s o f m y s e l f ( J o n e s , op. cit., p . 320).


F r e u d ' s self-analysis n o t o n l y g a v e u s h i s m o n u m e n t a l w o r k o n
d r e a m s a n d t h e theories o f i n f a n t i l e s e x u a l i t y as w e l l as h y p o t h e s e s
o n t h e a e t i o l o g y o f neuroses i n i n f a n t i l e p s y c h i c life, b u t i t essentially
a n d irreversibly c h a n g e d the a i m o f therapeutic endeavours. T h e
invention o f the analytic situation changed

the goal o f a n a l y t i c

process. A s S z a s z (1957) p e r t i n e n t l y states: ' T h e g o a l o f h e l p i n g t h e


p a t i e n t b e c a m e s u b s i d i a r y to t h e g o a l o f scientific u n d e r s t a n d i n g ' .
I t w a s this shift i n t h e d i r e c t i o n a n d i n t e n t i o n o f F r e u d ' s t h e r a p e u t i c
Enlarged version of the paper read in the Symposium 'The Psycho-analytic
Situation; The Setting and the Process of Cure* at the 22nd Congress of the
International Psycho-Analytical Association, Edinburgh, August 1961. First
published in The International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 43, 1962.

27

THE PRIVACY OF T H E SELF


p r o c e d u r e t h a t w a s i n t i m e g o i n g to e a r n h i m a s m u c h hostility a n d
c r i t i c i s m from h i s o w n disciples as e a r l i e r o n h i s theories o f d r e a m
m e c h a n i s m s a n d infantile s e x u a l i t y h a d l a i d h i m o p e n to f r o m society
a t l a r g e . M o s t , i f n o t a l l , o f the l a t e r defections a m o n g s t h i s disciples
( J u n g , A d l e r , R a n k , R e i c h , R e i k , etc.) i n o n e w a y o r a n o t h e r c e n t r e d
r o u n d t h e t h e r a p i s t ' s eagerness to h e l p t h e p a t i e n t a t t h e cost o f
sponsoring

insight a n d understanding.

F r e u d himself w a s most

a c u t e l y a w a r e o f this resistance a m o n g h i s followers, a n d w i t h this


i n v i e w , i n h i s a d d r e s s to t h e F i f t h I n t e r n a t i o n a l P s y c h o - A n a l y t i c
C o n g r e s s a t B u d a p e s t i n 1919, h e e x p l i c i t l y f o r m u l a t e d t h e b a s i c
task o f t h e a n a l y t i c s i t u a t i o n as b e i n g
to b r i n g to t h e p a t i e n t ' s k n o w l e d g e t h e u n c o n s c i o u s , r e p r e s s e d
i m p u l s e s existing i n h i m , a n d for t h a t p u r p o s e to u n c o v e r t h e
resistances t h a t oppose this e x t e n s i o n o f his k n o w l e d g e

about

h i m s e l f . . . o u r h o p e is to a c h i e v e this b y e x p l o i t i n g t h e p a t i e n t ' s
transference to t h e p e r s o n o f the p h y s i c i a n , so as to i n d u c e h i m
to a d o p t o u r c o n v i c t i o n o f t h e i n e x p e d i e n c y o f t h e repressive
process e s t a b l i s h e d i n c h i l d h o o d a n d o f t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f
c o n d u c t i n g life o n t h e p l e a s u r e p r i n c i p l e . . . A n a l y t i c process
s h o u l d b e c a r r i e d t h r o u g h , as f a r as is possible, u n d e r p r i v a t i o n
- i n a state o f a b s t i n e n c e . . . . A s far as h i s r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e
p h y s i c i a n s a r e c o n c e r n e d , t h e p a t i e n t m u s t b e left w i t h u n f u l
filled wishes i n a b u n d a n c e . I t is e x p e d i e n t to d e n y h i m p r e c i s e l y
those satisfactions w h i c h h e desires m o s t i n t e n s e l y a n d expresses
most importunately (19195).
F o r a c o m p a r i s o n o f the t h e r a p e u t i c a i m s o n e h a s o n l y to g l a n c e a t
t h e c o n c l u d i n g p a r a g r a p h of Studies on Hysteria (1895^) w h e r e F r e u d
promises the patient 'help or improvement b y means o f a cathartic
treatment' towards transforming 'hysterical misery into

common

u n h a p p i n e s s ' ( p . 305).
I f i t is t r u e t h a t i t w a s F r e u d ' s self-analysis t h a t l e d h i m to t h e
i n v e n t i o n o f the a n a l y t i c s i t u a t i o n , t h e n w e s h o u l d l o o k m o r e c a r e
fully for clues i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n for a c l e a r e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e
a n a l y t i c s i t u a t i o n . I h a s t e n to a d d t h a t I a m n o t p r o p o s i n g a r e
analysis of F r e u d ' s subjective data. T h a t w o u l d b e not only i m p e r
t i n e n t b u t u t t e r l y futile. F r e u d h a s d o n e t h a t for u s , a n d i n J o n e s ' s
a p t p h r a s e ' o n c e d o n e i t is d o n e forever'.
H o w h a r d F r e u d h a d to struggle to m a i n t a i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n
to u n d e r s t a n d t h e m y s t e r i o u s w o r k i n g s o f his o w n p s y c h e h a s b e e n
m o s t v i v i d l y d e s c r i b e d b y E i s s l e r (1951):

28

D R E A M S AND T H E A N A L Y T I C

SITUATION

F r e u d w a s a b l e to lift h i s o w n repressions solely b y his o w n


efforts, . . . I t is therefore t r u e o f F r e u d ' s self-analysis t h a t as a
type o f psychological

a n d historical event

it c a n n e v e r

be

d u p l i c a t e d ; it is a t y p e o f e v e n t w h i c h is r e p r e s e n t e d o n l y b y a
s i n g l e o c c u r r e n c e u n i q u e i n its k i n d , a n d i n c a p a b l e o f b e i n g
r e p e a t e d b y a n y o t h e r p e r s o n . . . . T h e process o f self-analysis,
a t t h e p o i n t o f h u m a n h i s t o r y w h e n F r e u d c o n d u c t e d i t , w a s , so
to s p e a k , a g a i n s t h u m a n n a t u r e . . .
W h a t e n a b l e d F r e u d to t r a n s f o r m this h e r o i c s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e
o f self-analysis ('this a n a l y s i s is h a r d e r t h a n a n y o t h e r ' (1950a) i n t o
a t h e r a p e u t i c p r o c e d u r e w a s h i s g e n i u s for a b s t r a c t i o n , w h i c h l e d
h i m to r e - c r e a t e a l l t h e v i t a l e l e m e n t s o f t h e d r e a m e r ' s s i t u a t i o n i n
t h e a n a l y t i c setting, so t h a t i n a w a k e f u l c o n s c i o u s state t h e p e r s o n
i n a n a l y s i s c a n p s y c h i c a l l y re-experience t h r o u g h t r a n s f e r e n c e - n e u r o s i s
t h e u n c o n s c i o u s p s y c h i c d i s t u r b a n c e s a n d states o f a r r e s t t h a t a r e
d i s t o r t i n g his e g o - f u n c t i o n i n g a n d affective f r e e d o m .
F u r t h e r m o r e , i t w a s F r e u d ' s m o s t fateful d i s c o v e r y f r o m h i s o w n
e x p e r i e n c e o f self-analysis, a n d f r o m h i s i n s i g h t i n t o the use h e h a d
m a d e o f h i s r e l a t i o n w i t h F l i e s s d u r i n g this p e r i o d , t h a t this r e
e x p e r i e n c e t h r o u g h t r a n s f e r e n c e - n e u r o s i s is o n l y possible i f t h e r e is
a n o t h e r p e r s o n a v a i l a b l e w h o b y l e n d i n g h i m s e l f as a n o b j e c t a n d
h i s e g o - s u p p o r t c a n h e l p t h e p a t i e n t to express a n d w o r k t h r o u g h
p e r s o n a l conflicts to a t h e r a p e u t i c p o i n t o f s e l f - i n t e g r a t i o n . O n e c o u l d
a l m o s t p u t it t h a t F r e u d ' s self-analysis r e v e a l e d to h i m the i m p o s s i
b i l i t y o f s u c h a self-analysis for m o s t h u m a n beings a n d c o m p e l l e d
h i m to c r e a t e a s e t t i n g a n d the m e a n s o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p w h e r e this
could be achieved.
T h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t I a m offering t o w a r d s the g e n e t i c sources o f
t h e a n a l y t i c s e t t i n g i n t e r m s o f F r e u d ' s self-analysis is t h a t t h r o u g h
t h e a n a l y s i s o f his o w n

dreams and empathy

w i t h the

clinical

e x p e r i e n c e s o f his p a t i e n t s i n the h y p n o t i c a n d c a t h a r t i c s i t u a t i o n s
o f treatment F r e u d intuitively re-created a physical a n d

psychic

a m b i e n c e i n t h e a n a l y t i c s e t t i n g w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d s s i g n i f i c a n d y to
t h a t i n t r a - p s y c h i c state i n t h e d r e a m e r w h i c h is c o n d u c i v e to a ' g o o d
d r e a m ' . I s h a l l l a t e r d e t a i l t h e ego-aspects o f this i n t r a - p s y c h i c state.

II. Hypnotic Situation, Dream Psychology and the Analytic


Situation
T h e regressive i n c e n t i v e o f t h e a n a l y t i c s i t u a t i o n a n d its r e l a t i o n
to t h e h y p n o t i c s i t u a t i o n a n d sleep states h a s b e e n discussed often

29

THE PRIVACY OF T H E SELF


(cf.

L e w i n , Fisher, Gill a n d Brenman, Macalpine,

Fliess, etc.).

L e w i n , i n p a r t i c u l a r , i n a series o f s t i m u l a t i n g a n d p r o v o c a t i v e p a p e r s
h a s discussed t h e b e a r i n g o f t h e d e r i v a t i o n o f the a n a l y t i c s i t u a t i o n
f r o m t h e h y p n o t i c o n e . H e h a s a t t e m p t e d (1955) *

t o

project upon

t h e c o u c h a n d t h e a n a l y t i c s i t u a t i o n t h e i d e a t h a t t h e p a t i e n t is a s i f
somewhat asleep' a n d elaborated:
genetically,

the analytic

situation

is a n a l t e r e d

hypnotic

s i t u a t i o n . . . sleep, e x c l u d e d b y a g r e e m e n t f r o m t h e a n a l y t i c
s i t u a t i o n , g a i n e d access to i t i n a n o t h e r f o r m - t h e m e t h o d o f
free associations . . . t h e w i s h t o b e p u t to sleep, w h i c h t h e
patient brought to the hypnotic situation, has been supplanted
b y t h e w i s h to associate freely i n t h e a n a l y t i c s i t u a t i o n . T h e
p a t i e n t lies d o w n , n o t to sleep, b u t to associate . . . T h e n a r c i s
s i s m o f sleep . . . c o i n c i d e s w i t h n a r c i s s i s m o n t h e c o u c h . T h e
manifest

dream

text

coincides

with

the manifest

analytic

m a t e r i a l . . . . D r e a m - f o r m a t i o n is to b e c o m p a r e d w i t h ' a n a l y t i c
situation' formation. . . .
Lewin,

following

Rank

( b u t j u d i c i o u s l y ) sees i n this

regressive

r e p e t i t i o n ' t h e d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e o f the b a b y i n the n u r s i n g s i t u a t i o n ' .


L e w i n p o i n t e d o u t , h o w e v e r (as h a d K r i s ) , t h a t ' a t t e n t i o n to t h e
i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f contents a n d t h e d r e a m w o r l d h a s d i s t r a c t e d u s ,
h e r e too, f r o m t h e p r o b l e m o f sleep a n d f r o m a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the
a n a l y t i c s u b j e c t a s a f r a c t i o n a l d r e a m e r o r sleeper. . . . T h e p a t i e n t
o n t h e c o u c h w a s prima facie a n e u r o t i c p e r s o n a n d o n l y i n c i d e n t a l l y
a dreamer.'
I n p s y c h o - a n a l y t i c l i t e r a t u r e t h r e e aspects o f sleep h a v e

been

often d i s c u s s e d :
(i) S l e e p as a b i o l o g i c a l n e e d ( F r e u d , 1900a, 1917^) a n d t h e
d r e a m ' s f u n c t i o n o f m a i n t a i n i n g sleep.
(ii) S l e e p as a regressive defence r e a c t i o n i n the a n a l y t i c s i t u a t i o n
a g a i n s t aggressive, m a s o c h i s t i c a n d passive i m p u l s e s w h i c h t h r e a t e n
t h e ego's e q u i l i b r i u m o f defences (cf. B i r d , 1954; F e r e n c z i , 1914;
S t o n e , 1947, e t c . ) .
( i i i ) R e g r e s s i o n i n sleep as r e c a p t u r i n g t h e o n t o l o g i c a l p h a s e s o f
i n f a n c y d e v e l o p m e n t a n d t h e infant's p r i m a r y r e l a t i o n to t h e b r e a s t
( I s a k o w e r , 1938; L e w i n , 1955; S p i t z , 1955, e t c . ) .
T h e r e l a t i o n o f the s l e e p - w i s h a n d its regressive defence d e r i v a t i v e s
to t h e w i s h for c u r e a n d ego's c a t h e x i s

o f consciousness

(self

a w a r e n e s s ) h a v e b e e n r e l a t i v e l y n e g l e c t e d . L e w i n (1955), d i s c u s s i n g

30

DREAMS

AND T H EANALYTIC

SITUATION

the evolution o f the a n a l y t i c situation from the h y p n o t i c treatment,


p e r t i n e n t l y states:
I t w a s d u r i n g t h e t r a n s i t i o n f r o m h y p n o t i c t r e a t m e n t to
catharsis

a n d analysis

that

the neurotic

patient

changed

from being a h y p n o t i c subject to being a confider, a n d the


t h e r a p i s t pari passu b e c a m e a p s y c h o - a n a l y s t . . . T h e m a g i c a l
sleep-maker became

a confidant, a n d the analytic situation

a r r i v e d i n h i s t o r y . . . . T h e i n f e r e n c e is t h a t t h e a n a l y s t is a
waker.
I t is m y i m p r e s s i o n t h a t w e h a v e n o t , a s y e t , d o n e f u l l j u s t i c e to
the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f this m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e i n t h e t h e r a p i s t ' s r o l e ,
from

hypnotizer

to ' t h e a r o u s e r '

(Lewin,

1955).

When

respected the patient's resistances, r a t h e r t h a n m a g i c a l l y

Freud
getting

t h e m o u t o f the w a y through h y p n o t i c sleep, h e w a s starting a n e w


process i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f h u m a n consciousness, a process w h i c h
bridged the split between the conscious a n d the unconscious. B y
c r e d i t i n g t h a t i n t h e p a t i e n t ' s ego t h e r e w a s m o r e

co-operativeness

a v a i l a b l e for c u r e besides t h e w i s h to b e h y p n o t i z e d , a n d g u i d e d b y
his observations i n self-analysis, h e created the a n a l y t i c situation
w h e r e the patient through the analyst's help could become j u s t as
r e c e p t i v e a s i n h i s sleep to d r e a m s o r as i n t h e h y p n o t i c state to t h e
r e p r e s s e d c o n t e n t . T o express i t c r y p t i c a l l y , w h e r e a s t h e r a t i o n a l e o f
the h y p n o t i c t h e r a p y h a d b e e n to i n d u c e 'dream-states' w h i c h the
patient could then be confronted with, i.e. w h e r e the patient w a s
p u t to sleep i n o r d e r to ' d r e a m * a n d i n t h e final stages to b e w o k e n
u p a n d be e n a b l e d to r e c a l l a n d r e m e m b e r 'the d r e a m ' o f the h y p
n o t i c state, i n t h e a l t e r e d a n d n e w a n a l y t i c s i t u a t i o n t h e a n a l y s t
h e l p e d t h e p a t i e n t ' s c o n s c i o u s e g o i n its task o f r e c l a i m i n g t h e
repressed a n d the unconscious. O n c e F r e u d h a d c h a n g e d the basic
tool o f t h e t h e r a p e u t i c p r o c e s s f r o m h y p n o t i c sleep t o c o n s c i o u s
r e c a l l , w i t h a l l t h e a t t e n d a n t resistances i n t h e e g o a g a i n s t r e l a x i n g
its r e p r e s s i o n s , t h e v e r y

nature o f the therapeutic situation a n d

the analyst's role c h a n g e d . N e w areas o f psychic activity

became

a v a i l a b l e to t h e t h e r a p e u t i c process. F o r e x a m p l e , w h a t h a d so
far been seen o n l y as the restricting influence o f the censor i n
d r e a m f o r m a t i o n ( F r e u d , 1900a) n o w b e c a m e c l i n i c a l l y a c c e s s i b l e
as t h e r e s i s t a n c e i n t h e p a t i e n t to t h e a n a l y t i c process. I n d u e c o u r s e
this w a s to y i e l d u s p r o f o u n d i n s i g h t i n t o t h e p a t h o g e n i c f u n c t i o n s
o f the a r c h a i c a n d sadistic superego i n severely disturbed c h a r a c t e r
neuroses (see p p . 129-135 b e l o w ) .
3i

THE PRIVACY OF T H E SELF


XXL W a k e f u l n e s s , S l e e p asadl tike A s & s l y t i c Situ&t&omL
D r e a m p s y c h o l o g y , w h i c h h a s t a u g h t u s so m u c h a b o u t t h e u n c o n
s c i o u s processes a n d p r i m i t i v e i d c o n t e n t s o f the h u m a n p s y c h e , h a s ,
h o w e v e r , left u s r e l a t i v e l y i n t h e d a r k a b o u t t h e n a t u r e o f sleep i t s e l f
a n d its p s y c h o l o g i c a l m e a n i n g for t h e h u m a n b e i n g . T h e w i s h to go
to sleep a n d t h e w i s h t o w a k e u p h a v e b e e n s o m e w h a t t a k e n for
g r a n t e d as m a n ' s n a t u r a l necessities, b o t h b y t h e p s y c h o - a n a l y s t s a n d
by

t h e biologists. H e r e I c a n o n l y briefly refer to t h e v a l u a b l e

researches o f a few analysts w h o h a v e g i v e n

this c o m p l e x a n d

m y s t e r i o u s p r o b l e m t h e i r a t t e n t i o n , n a m e l y those o f J e k e l s

(1945),

F e d e r n (1934), G r o t j a h n (1942) a n d S c o t t (1956). F o r u s w h a t is


s i g n i f i c a n t to p o i n t o u t h e r e is t h e c l i n i c a l fact t h a t o b s e r v a t i o n s o f
t h e o s c i l l a t i o n s o f sleep a n d w a k e f u l n e s s i n t h e a n a l y t i c s i t u a t i o n
have

t h r o w n s o m e v a l u a b l e l i g h t o n t h e w i s h for c u r e a n d t h e

w i l l i n g n e s s to k e e p a w a k e a n d free-associate i n t h e a n a l y t i c s i t u a t i o n .
Clifford

Scott's contributions

(1952a,

1960)

towards

the u n d e r

s t a n d i n g o f this p r o b l e m a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l u a b l e , s i n c e h e h a s
e x t e n d e d t h e h y p o t h e s e s o f J e k e l s , I s a k o w e r , a n d F e d e r n to t h e
d i r e c t e x a m i n a t i o n o f r h y t h m s o f sleep a n d w a k e f u l n e s s

i n the

a n a l y t i c situation. Scott's hypothesis i s : ' T h e total satisfaction o f


sleep is w a k i n g o r the a c t o f w a k i n g u p ' (1952a). H e f u r t h e r p o s t u l a t e s
the existence o f a ' w a k e - w i s h ' i n the psyche w h i c h operates as the
m o t i v a t i o n for t h e a c t o f w a k i n g - u p .
It

is i n t e r e s t i n g t o c o m p a r e

Scott's researches w i t h

those o f

L e w i n (1954) a n d J e k e l s (1945). J e k e l s h a s p o s t u l a t e d : ' I a s s u m e


t h a t t h e a w a k e n i n g f u n c t i o n is i n h e r e n t i n a l l d r e a m s a n d t h a t i t
constitutes t h e i r q u i n t e s s e n c e , t h e i r f u n d a m e n t a l t a s k ' . L e w i n h a s
a s c r i b e d t h e r o l e o f ' a w a k e r ' to t h e a n a l y s t . F r o m this i t w o u l d
follow t h a t o n e f u n c t i o n o f t h e d r e a m h a s b e e n t a k e n o v e r b y t h e
analyst i n the analytic situation, that of a n awakener. Jekels, i n his
m o s t i n t e r e s t i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f s c h i z o p h r e n i c states, e g o - a c t i v i t y i n
d r e a m s a n d processes o f f a l l i n g asleep a r r i v e d a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n :
' T h e r e s t i t u t i o n o f t h e ego, i d e n t i c a l w i t h a w a k e n i n g , is s t a r t e d
b y t h e m e n t a l e g o ; i t is c a r r i e d o u t j u s t as i n s c h i z o p h r e n i a b y m e a n s
o f h a l l u c i n o s i s , t h a t i s , b y m e a n s o f t h e d r e a m ' . I f m y i n f e r e n c e is
c o r r e c t , t h e n t h e a n a l y s t ' s ego takes o n this ' r c s t i t u t i v e ' r o l e i n
r e l a t i o n to t h e m o r e regressive states o f s e v e r e l y i l l p a t i e n t s (cf.
W i n n i c o t t , 1954ft a n d c; B i o n , 1958, 1959). O n l y i n t h e a n a l y t i c
s i t u a t i o n t h e a n a l y s t does n o t w o r k t h r o u g h h a l l u c i n o s i s b u t w i t h
i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . H i s c a p a c i t y to i n t e r p r e t relies v e r y m u c h o n h i s

32

DREAMS AND T H E ANALYTIC


ego-strength

SITUATION

w h i c h involves controlled experimental preconscious

a c t i v i t y i n t h e s e r v i c e o f t h e p a t i e n t . T h i s is w h a t w e n o r m a l l y
describe as e m p a t h y a n d intuition. Therefore i f the narcissism of
sleep is r e p l a c e d b y t h e n a r c i s s i s m o f t h e c o u c h

(Lewin,

t h e n t h e a w a k i n g f u n c t i o n o f t h e d r e a m is a p p o r t i o n e d

1955),
to t h e

a n a l y s t . I t is h e w h o keeps a w a k e a n d g u i d e s t h e regressive drift o f


t h e p a t i e n t ' s affective processes a n d gives t h e m m e a n i n g a n d s h a p e
t h r o u g h h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . I t is o u r f r e q u e n t c l i n i c a l

experience

t h a t d u r i n g t h e a c u t e regressive states o f s e v e r e l y d i s t u r b e d cases, i t


is t h e a n a l y s t ' s w a k e f u l n e s s a n d e g o - a c t i v i t y , e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h h i s
body-aliveness

a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , t h a t keeps t h e p a t i e n t

going

a n d stops i r r e v e r s i b l e s u r r e n d e r to p r i m a r y process a c t i v i t y .
I w o u l d l i k e briefly to d r a w a t t e n t i o n h e r e t o t h e m o r e severe a n d
profound

disturbances o f the quality

a n d subjective

experience

o f b o t h sleep a n d consciousness i n a c e r t a i n t y p e o f s c h i z o i d regressive


p a t i e n t . W i t h these p a t i e n t s , w h o p r e s e n t i n t h e i r o v e r t b e h a v i o u r
m a n i c over-elated hyperactivity

o r e x t r e m e forms o f i n e r t i a a n d

a p a t h y , i t often t r a n s p i r e s t h a t o n l y w h e n t h e y c a n g r a d u a l l y b e g i n
to r e l y a n d d e p e n d o n t h e a n a l y s t ' s w a k e f u l a n d e m b o d i e d p r e s e n c e
a n d functioning; i n t h e a n a l y t i c setting a r e t h e y a b l e to get t o sleep
w i t h o u t a n x i e t y . A n d o n l y t h e n c a n t h e y w a k e u p i n a n affective
state t h a t does n o t c o m p e l p r i m i t i v e s p l i t t i n g m e c h a n i s m s i n t h e
ego. I n these p a t i e n t s i t is o n l y w h e n this v e r y p r i m i t i v e r h y t h m o f
sleep a n d w a k e f u l n e s s h a s b e e n r e - e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t o n e c a n see t h e
c a p a c i t y for a g o o d d r e a m a n d free a s s o c i a t i o n c o m i n g i n t o o p e r a
tion.
I h a v e m a d e this l o n g d i g r e s s i o n to s h o w h o w t h e a n a l y t i c s i t u a
tion, o n c e i t w a s e s t a b l i s h e d , h a s m a d e i t possible to o b s e r v e t h e v e r y
processes f r o m w h i c h i t h a s d e r i v e d : n a m e l y t h e w i s h to sleep a n d
the w i s h t o w a k e u p a n d t h e c a p a c i t y to d r e a m .
By

r e j e c t i n g h y p n o t i c sleep a s t h e t h e r a p e u t i c a g e n t a n d r e

d i s t r i b u t i n g t h e t o t a l p s y c h i c forces o p e r a t i n g i n t h e d r e a m e r i n t h e
a n a l y t i c s i t u a t i o n , F r e u d m a d e i t possible to e v a l u a t e t h e r o l e a n d
f u n c t i o n o f sleep a n d w a k e f u l n e s s b o t h i n t h e t h e r a p e u t i c s i t u a t i o n
a n d i n ontological development
Lewin,

(cf. F l i e s s , 1953; I s a k o w e r , 1938;

1954; F e d e r n , 1934; G i f f o r d ,

1960; H o f f e r ,

1952; S p i t z ,

955*> S c o t t , 1950; W i n n i c o t t , 19546 a n d c ) .

I V . H y p o H k e s i s off ' T k e G o o d D r e a m

A vast a m o u n t o f our literature, myths, social customs, rituals, a n d


intellectual discoveries a r e either based o n o r derived from the

33

THE PRIVACY OF THE SELF


c a p a c i t y to d r e a m (cf. S h a r p e , 1937; L e w i n , 1958; R o h e i m , 1952).
I n this sense d r e a m i n g is p r o t o t y p i c o f a l l p s y c h i c c r e a t i v i t y i n t h e
h u m a n adult. I a m here proposing the concept o f a 'good d r e a m

o n t h e l i n e s o f K r i s ' s (1956a) c o n c e p t o f t h e ' g o o d a n a l y t i c h o u r . I


5

s h a l l n o w s c h e m a t i c a l l y state s o m e s a l i e n t features o f t h e sleeper's


i n t r a - p y s c h i c s i t u a t i o n w h i c h e n a b l e s a ' g o o d d r e a m ' to m a t e r i a l i z e .
(i) A s e c u r e a n d restful p h y s i c a l a m b i e n c e w h e r e t h e ego c a n
w i t h d r a w safely its c a t h e x e s o f the e x t e r n a l w o r l d a n d reinforce t h e
sleep-wish.
(ii) A state o f trust i n t h e ego t h a t this e x t e r n a l w o r l d w i l l b e
t h e r e to r e t u r n to after t h e satisfaction o f s l e e p - w i s h .
(iii) E g o ' s c a p a c i t y to b e i n t o u c h w i t h t h e w i s h to sleep.
( i v ) A n u n c o n s c i o u s i n t e r n a l s o u r c e o f d i s t u r b a n c e w h i c h is
the motive

force o f t h e d r e a m

a n d is a r t i c u l a t e d t h r o u g h t h e

dream-work.
(v) A v a i l a b i l i t y

to t h e ego o f t h e d a y - r e s i d u e s

for f o r m a l

s t r u c t u r i n g o f the l a t e n t ' d r e a m w i s h ' .


( v i ) C a p a c i t y to tolerate t h e regressive process i n t h e p s y c h i c
a p p a r a t u s : a w a y f r o m m o t i l i t y to h a l l u c i n a t i o n ( K r i s , 1952).
(vii) R e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e i n t e g r a t i v e processes i n t h e ego. T h i s
reliability
integration

presupposes

that

i n the nascent

t h e earliest

stages

ego ( W i n n i c o t t ,

of

psyche-soma

19496)

have

been

established firmly.
(viii) E g o ' s n a r c i s s i s t i c c a p a c i t y

for g r a t i f i c a t i o n

from

dream

w o r l d i n l i e u o f e i t h e r t h e p u r e n a r c i s s i s m o f sleep o r t h e c o n c r e t e
satisfaction o f r e a l i t y . T h i s i m p l i e s a c a p a c i t y i n t h e ego to tolerate
f r u s t r a t i o n a n d a c c e p t s y m b o l i c satisfactions.
( i x ) A c a p a c i t y i n t h e ego for s y m b o l i z a t i o n a n d d r e a m - w o r k ,
in

which

sufficient

counter-cathexis

against

primary

process is

s u s t a i n e d for t h e d r e a m to b e c o m e a n e x p e r i e n c e o f i n t r a - p s y c h i c
communication.
(x) A c a p a c i t y for b e n i g n d i s t a n c i n g f r o m p r i m i t i v e a n d s a d i s t i c
s u p e r e g o e l e m e n t s so as to a l l o w for r e l a x i n g o f the r e p r e s s i o n - b a r r i e r .
(xi) A c a p a c i t y i n t h e ego for receptiveness a n d s u r r e n d e r to t h e
i d - w i s h e s w i t h a c o r r e s p o n d i n g c o n f i d e n c e i n b e i n g a b l e to ' r e s i s t '
t h e i r c h a o t i c a n d excessive influx.
(xii) A r e l i a b l e t i m e - s p a c e u n i t o f e x p e r i e n c e i n w h i c h a l l this
c a n b e u n d e r t a k e n a n d r e p e a t e d a t fairly p r e d i c t a b l e i n t e r v a l s .
( x i i i ) A v a i l a b i l i t y to the ego o f e n o u g h n e u t r a l i z e d e n e r g y to b e a b l e
to h a r n e s s a n d h a r m o n i z e t h e i n t r u d i n g i d - i m p u l s e s : b o t h l i b i d i n a l
a n d aggressive ( H a r t m a n n , 1954).

34

DREAMS AND T H E ANALYTIC


(xiv)

SITUATION

T h e c a p a c i t y to r e t a i n a n ' a f t e r - i m a g e '

of the d r e a m i n

w a k i n g state s h o u l d this b e felt necessary.


G i v e n s o m e s u c h i n t r a - p s y c h i c state a p e r s o n c a n h a v e a ' g o o d
d r e a m ' . B y a 'good d r e a m ' I m e a n a d r e a m w h i c h

incorporates

t h r o u g h successful d r e a m - w o r k a n u n c o n s c i o u s w i s h a n d c a n t h u s
e n a b l e sleep to b e s u s t a i n e d o n t h e o n e h a n d a n d c a n b e a v a i l
a b l e for p s y c h i c e x p e r i e n c e to t h e ego w h e n t h e p e r s o n w a k e s u p .
In

this c o n t e x t

i t is i n t e r e s t i n g to c o m p a r e

the ego-activity o f

the sleeper i n r e l a t i o n to t h e ' g o o d d r e a m ' w i t h w h a t

Winnicott

(1951) h a s d e s c r i b e d as t h e p r i m i t i v e p s y c h i c functions u t i l i z e d b y
the i n f a n t i n r e l a t i o n to t r a n s i t i o n a l o b j e c t (also cf. M i l n e r , 1952,

1957).
T h e c a p a c i t y for a ' g o o d d r e a m ' , t h o u g h a p r e r e q u i s i t e for p s y c h i c
h e a l t h , i s , h o w e v e r , n o t a g u a r a n t e e o f it. I t is a m e a s u r e o f a p s y c h i c
c a p a c i t y i n a n i n d i v i d u a l ; i t is t h e d r e a m i n c r e m e n t o f ego-strength.

V. The Classical Analytic Situation andl its Functions


L e t us n o w e x a m i n e b r i e f l y t h e c o n c e p t :

'the analytic situation'.

T h e total analytic situation c a n be somewhat arbitrarily divided


i n t o t h r e e c o m p o n e n t p a r t s : (a) t h e p a t i e n t ; (b) t h e a n a l y s t ; (c)
t h e a n a l y t i c setting. T h e i n t e r p l a y b e t w e e n these t h r e e constitutes
the a n a l y t i c process a n d p r o c e d u r e .
The patient b r i n g s to i t a w i s h for c u r e , w h i c h forms t h e basis o f
t h e r a p e u t i c a l l i a n c e . I n t e r m s o f d r e a m p s y c h o l o g y , h i s c a p a c i t y to
s u r r e n d e r t o t h e c o u c h - s i t u a t i o n is a d e r i v a t i v e o f t h e n a r c i s s i s t i c
sleep-wish ( L e w i n ,

1955). H i s s y m p t o m is t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e

' l a t e n t d r e a m - w i s h ' , i . e . t h e u n c o n s c i o u s r e p r e s s e d conflicts a n d


wishes. H e also b r i n g s a c a p a c i t y for a n a l y t i c w o r k w h i c h is i n t i
mately

dependent

o n his capacity

for d r e a m - w o r k

i n sleep (cf.

K r i s , 1956a). W h e r e a p a t i e n t ' s ' d r e a m - w o r k ' c a p a c i t i e s a r e grossly


disturbed

b y ego-distortions,

p r i m i t i v e defence

mechanisms,

or

p s y c h o t i c a n x i e t i e s (cf. B i o n , 1958, 1959), w e i n v a r i a b l y find they


c a n n o t c o m p l y w i t h t h e f u n d a m e n t a l r u l e a n d free-associate. I n
s u c h cases a c u t e defensive o r regressive u s e o f sleep a n d s i l e n c e is a
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c feature o f t h e i r b e h a v i o u r i n t h e a n a l y t i c s i t u a t i o n .
C o n v e r s e l y , h y p o m a n i c states o f e l a t i o n a n d a c t i n g o u t c a n d i s r u p t
the transference w o r k i n g t h r o u g h (cf. K l e i n , 1946 a n d W i n n i c o t t ,
1935, o n m a n i c d e f e n c e ) .
The

analyst i n h i s p e r s o n p r o v i d e s a r e c e p t i v e n e s s t o w a r d s t h e

m a t e r i a l o f t h e p a t i e n t , i . e . h i s free a s s o c i a t i o n s . I n this w a y h e

35