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CECW-ED

Department of the Army

EM 1110-2-2502

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers


Engineer Manual
1110-2-2502

Washington, DC 20314-1000

Engineering and Design


RETAINING AND FLOOD WALLS

Distribution Restriction Statement


Approved for public release; distribution is
unlimited.

29 September 1989

EM 1110-2-2502
29 Sept 1989

US Army Corps
of Engineers

ENGINEERING AND DESIGN

Retaining and Flood Walls

ENGINEER MANUAL

CECW-ED
CECW-EG

DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY


U. S. Army Corps of Engineers
Washington, D. C. 20314-1000

Engineer Manual
No. 1110-2-2502

EM 1110-2-2502

29 September 1989

Engineering and Design


RETAINING AND FLOOD WALLS
1. Purpose. This manual provides guidance for the safe design and economical
construction of retaining and flood walls. This manual is intended primarily
for retaining walls which will be subjected to hydraulic loadings such as
flowing water, submergence, wave action, and spray, exposure to chemically
contaminated atmosphere, and/or severe climatic conditions. For the design of
retaining walls which will not be subjected to hydraulic loadings or severe
environmental conditions as described above, TM 5-818-1 may be used for
computing the loadings and evaluating the stability of the structure.
2. Applicability. This manual applies to all HQUSACE/OCE elements and field
operating activities having responsibilities for the design of civil works
projects.
FOR THE COMMANDER:

Albert J. Genetti, Jr.


Colonel, Corps of Engineers
Chief of Staff

_______________
This manual supersedes EM 1110-2-2501 dated January 1948 and EM 1110-2-2502
dated 29 May 1961.

CECW-ED
CECW-EG

DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY


U. S. Army Corps of Engineers
Washington, D. C. 20314-1000

Engineer Manual
No. 1110-2-2502

EM 1110-2-2502

29 September 1989

Engineering and Design


RETAINING AND FLOOD WALLS

Table of Contents

Subject
CHAPTER 1.

Paragraph

INTRODUCTION
Purpose
Applicability
References and Bibliography
Terms
Scope

CHAPTER 2.

GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

Section I.

Types of Retaining Walls


Common Types of Retaining Walls
Gravity Concrete Wall
Cantilever Reinforced Concrete Wall
Alternate Types of Retaining Walls
Types of Flood Walls
Common Types of Flood Walls
Cantilever T-Type Wall
Cantilever I-Type Wall
Other Types of Flood Walls
Differences Between Retaining and Flood Walls
Purpose of Walls
Seepage and Leakage Control Requirements
Wall Stability
Special Flood Wall Monoliths
Design Philosophy
Stability Considerations
Coordination Between Disciplines
Engineering Team
Geotechnical Investigations
Planning the Investigation
Foundation Exploration and Site
Characterization
Testing of Foundation Materials
In Situ Testing of Foundation Materials
Backfill Materials
Design Strength Selection

Section II.

Section III.

Section IV.
Section V.

Page

1-1
1-2
1-3
1-4
1-5

1-1
1-1
1-1
1-1
1-1

2-1
2-2
2-3
2-4

2-1
2-1
2-1
2-1

2-5
2-6
2-7
2-8

2-1
2-4
2-4
2-4

2-9
2-10
2-11
2-12
2-13
2-14

2-4
2-4
2-6
2-6
2-6
2-6

2-15

2-6

2-16

2-7

2-17
2-18
2-19
2-20
2-21

2-7
2-8
2-10
2-15
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EM 1110-2-2502
29 Sep 89
Subject

Paragraph

CHAPTER 3.

FORCES ON WALLS

Section I.

Introduction
General
Limit-Equilibrium Analysis
Relationship of Forces to Sliding Analysis
Earth Pressures and Forces
Cohesionless Materials
Cohesive Materials
Pressures in Soil-Water Systems
Design Earth Pressures and Forces, Driving
Side
Design Earth Pressures and Forces, Resisting
Side
Design Earth Pressures and Forces on the
Base
At-Rest Earth Pressure Equations
Strength Mobilization Factor
Earth Force Calculation, Coulombs Equations
Earth Force Calculation, General Wedge
Method
Earth Pressure Calculations Including Wall
Friction
Distribution of Horizontal Earth Pressure
Surcharge Effects
Earth Pressures Due to Compaction
Water Pressures
Pressure Calculations
Seepage Analysis by Line-of-Creep Method
Seepage Analysis by Method of Fragments
Seepage Analysis by the Finite Element
Method
Uplift Calculations for Rock Foundations
Effect of Drains
Surge and Wave Loads
Supplemental Forces
Wind Load
Earthquake Forces

Section II.

Section III.

Section IV.

CHAPTER 4.

Section I.

Section II.

Page

3-1
3-2
3-3

3-1
3-1
3-1

3-4
3-5
3-6

3-2
3-5
3-6

3-7

3-6

3-8

3-8

3-9
3-10
3-11
3-12

3-9
3-11
3-13
3-17

3-13

3-23

3-14
3-15
3-16
3-17

3-37
3-38
3-45
3-47

3-18
3-19
3-20

3-53
3-55
3-55

3-21
3-22
3-23
3-24

3-58
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3-59
3-59

3-25
3-26

3-61
3-61

4-1

4-1

4-2
4-3
4-4
4-5

4-1
4-1
4-1
4-2

4-6
4-7

4-3
4-3

STRUCTURE STABILITY
Scope
Loading Conditions
Representative Loading Conditions
Retaining Walls
Inland Flood Walls
Coastal Flood Walls
Stability Considerations
General Requirements
Stability Criteria

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EM 1110-2-2502
29 Sep 89
Subject
Section III.

Section IV.

Section V.

Section VI.

Paragraph

Overturning Stability
Resultant Location
Overturning Stability Criteria
Structure Sliding Stability
Overview of Sliding Stability Analysis
Sliding Factor of Safety
Assumptions and Simplifications
General Wedge Equation
Slip-Plane Angle
Single Wedge Analysis
Multiple Wedge Analysis
Sliding Stability Criteria
Design Considerations
Bearing Capacity Analysis
General Computations
Inadequate Bearing Capacity
Bearing Capacity Criteria
Summary of Design Procedures
Design Procedures

CHAPTER 5.

FOUNDATION ANALYSES

Section I.

Bearing Capacity of Wall Foundations


Analysis Principles and Methods
General Bearing Capacity Equation
Bearing Capacity Factors
Embedment Factors
Inclination Factors
Base Tilt Factors
Ground Slope Factors
Effective Overburden Pressure
Combination of Factors
Example
Other Considerations
Settlement
Deep-Seated Sliding
Liquefaction Susceptibility

Section II.

CHAPTER 6.

Page

4-8
4-9

4-3
4-15

4-10
4-11
4-12
4-13
4-14
4-15
4-16
4-17
4-18

4-15
4-17
4-18
4-20
4-23
4-24
4-25
4-27
4-27

4-19
4-20
4-21

4-28
4-28
4-28

4-22

4-28

5-1
5-2
5-3
5-4
5-5
5-6
5-7
5-8
5-9
5-10

5-1
5-1
5-2
5-4
5-4
5-7
5-7
5-7
5-8
5-8

5-11
5-12
5-13

5-8
5-8
5-11

6-1
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6-5
6-6
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6-1
6-1
6-1
6-1
6-3
6-4
6-15

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION DETAILS AND CAUSES


OF UNSATISFACTORY PERFORMANCE
Foundation Preparation
Concrete Mixture Proportions
Constructability
Joints
Soil Backfill
Drainage
Causes of Unsatisfactory Performance

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EM 1110-2-2502
29 Sep 89
Subject

Paragraph

CHAPTER 7.

SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR FLOOD WALLS

Section I.

General Characteristics
Introduction
Rationale for Loading Cases
Seepage Control
General Considerations
Underseepage Control
Foundation Considerations
Base Types
Horizontal Water and Earth Loads on Keys
Unsuitable Foundation Material and Bank
Stability
Scour Protection
Types of Monoliths
Change-of-Alignment Monoliths
Closure and Abutment Monoliths
Drainage Structure Monoliths
Transition Sections Between Flood Walls and
Levees
Water Stops and Joints
Water Stops
Contraction and Expansion Joints
Site Considerations
Adjacent Structures and Rights-of-Way
Architectural and Landscaping Considerations
Instrumentation
General and Specific Considerations
Types of Instrumentation
Operation and Maintenance Manual Requirements
General Coverage
Review of Existing Flood Walls
Inspection
Repair Measures

Section II.

Section III.

Section IV.

Section V.

Section VI.

Section VII.

Section VIII.
Section IX.

CHAPTER 8.

7-1
7-2

7-1
7-1

7-3
7-4

7-3
7-3

7-5
7-6

7-10
7-10

7-7
7-8

7-10
7-13

7-9
7-10
7-11

7-13
7-13
7-13

7-12

7-13

7-13
7-14

7-17
7-17

7-15
7-16

7-21
7-22

7-17
7-18

7-22
7-23

7-19

7-24

7-20
7-21

7-24
7-26

8-1
8-2
8-3
8-4

8-1
8-1
8-1
8-1

9-1
9-2
9-3
9-4

9-1
9-1
9-1
9-1

CONCRETE GRAVITY WALLS


General Factors
Foundation Investigation
Materials
Design

CHAPTER 9.

Page

CANTILEVER REINFORCED CONCRETE WALLS


General Characteristics
Foundation Investigation
Materials
Reinforcement Cover

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EM 1110-2-2502
29 Sep 89
Subject
Load Cases
Structural
Structural
Reinforced
Foundation

Paragraph

Stability
Design
Concrete Design
Analyses

CHAPTER 10.

ALTERNATE TYPES OF RETAINING WALLS

Section I.

Introduction
Classes of Retaining Walls
Alternate Types of Retaining Walls
Mechanically Stabilized Backfill Systems
General Background
Available Systems
Advantages and Disadvantages
Cost Considerations
Mechanisms and Behavior
Materials
Design Considerations
Construction Considerations
Instrumentation and Monitoring
Maintenance and Repair
Precast Concrete Modular Systems
Background
Basic Components
Advantages and Disadvantages
Design Considerations
Construction Considerations
Instrumentation and Monitoring
Maintenance and Repair

Section II.

Section III.

Page

9-5
9-6
9-7
9-8
9-9

9-1
9-1
9-1
9-3
9-11

10-1
10-2

10-1
10-1

10-3
10-4
10-5
10-6
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10-13
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10-20

APPENDIX A.

REFERENCES

A-1

APPENDIX B.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

B-1

APPENDIX C.

NOTATION FOR CHAPTERS 3, 4, and 5

C-1

APPENDIX D.

NOTATION FOR CHAPTER 9

D-1

APPENDIX E.

COMPARISON OF DANISH CODE AND JAKY EQUATIONS


FOR AT-REST COEFFICIENT WITH COULOMB
COEFFICIENT FOUND USING REDUCED SHEAR
STRENGTH PARAMETER
d

APPENDIX F.

DERIVATION OF GENERAL WEDGE EQUATION FOR


SINGLE WEDGE ANALYSIS (EQUATION 3-23)

E-1

F-1

EM 1110-2-2502
29 Sep 89
Subject
APPENDIX G.

APPENDIX H.

APPENDIX I.

Paragraph

Page

DERIVATION OF EQUATIONS FOR CRITICAL SLIPPLANE ANGLE () FOR DRIVING AND


RESISTING WEDGES

G-1

DERIVATION OF PRESSURE COEFFICIENTS FOR


SOLUTION OF LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE
PROBLEMS

H-1

DERIVATION OF EQUATION FOR DEPTH OF CRACK


d
IN COHESIVE SOIL
c

I-1

APPENDIX J.

LATERAL PRESSURES DUE TO COMPACTION

J-1

APPENDIX K.

DERIVATION OF VERTICAL SHEAR FORCE FOR


UPWARD SLOPING BACKFILL

K-1

DERIVATION OF GENERAL WEDGE EQUATION FOR


MULTIPLE WEDGE ANALYSIS

L-1

LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE COMPUTATIONS,


EXAMPLES

M-1

STABILITY, BEARING CAPACITY, AND


REINFORCEMENT COMPUTATIONS, EXAMPLES

N-1

COMPUTER PROGRAM ABSTRACTS FOR REFERENCED


PROGRAMS

O-1

APPENDIX L.

APPENDIX M.

APPENDIX N.

APPENDIX O.

GLOSSARY

Glossary

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