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RESERVOIR

-.

ENGINEERING

A Material-Balance Technique for Undersaturated,


Partially Water-Driven Reservoirs
COLOMSIAN PETROLEUM CO.
BOGOTA, COLOMBIA

RICHARD A. BARRY
JUNIOR MEMBER AIME
.

Abstract

A ntwiificaticm aj the wndard


(imt for undersaturated

reservoirs

P
~=l.

nraterial-bahutce eqauis presented. The efiect

Vp,,
of water influx is acwan ted for by the Ierl(l

Ap c,,.

Hence,
i -.
N,
N

, ?vhich

[1Vp. ,
i~ the ratio of the aquifer to reservoir pore volumes.

For cm appruxim~itely circular reservoir, values c)f *


HVp,, (
may be obtained quite easily by reiteration from the
internal-cylinder solution of the dillUSMY ewation. Titc
technique has been applied to a Colombian fielc[, with
acceptable results.

p
1[i
[ %1
1}+[i

[+
Vp.

-sp

S,r] [i +3p c,,].


+ Ap C,c
[
Sorting into a rhore conventional form,
N = N,, [1 .%] [1+AP co]/AP [:. +CI +S,.
(Cw+-c,)l
J .
(cmc.)+(vp./vp.),
Evaluation of W~,,/vPJ

Introduction
Weak water drivesthat might have a negligible effect
below the bubble pointmay exert a very appreciable influence above tbe bubble point, Under these conditions,
use of the standard material-balance equation (as presented by Hawkins/ and by Hobsonand Mrosovsky2) may
lead to considerable error. This paper presents a modification to the standard equation; a field example indicates
that the technique yields acceptable resuks. The method is
quite straight-forward, its solution requiring only a desk
calculator and a book of six-figure tables.

s,

, c,]

fl)

Ritchie and Sakakura$ have presented a soiution to the


diffusivity equation for a uniform system of infinite extent,
bounded internally by a cylinder of radius r,,. h seems
iikely that the majority of field engineers may be unable
to obtain copies of Ref, 3. However, Mortada4 offers
quite a thorough discussion of this solution and its modification for nonuniform aquifers.
In oiifieid units (and ignoring third- and higher-order
terms), the solution reduces to

Derivation of the Moditkd Equation


Let the reservoir pore volume be Vp,,. At any time r,
let the effective pore volume of the aquifer that has been
influenced by the pressure drop in the reservoir be Vp,,.
At a pressure drop Ap, the. total pore space will be
c,) + VPO(i-APC,
).
reduced
to Vp. (1 -Ap.
The initial water volume of the reservoir is increased from
(VP.. s,. + VP.) to [VP.S,.+VP.1 [1+APs c.]. Hence,
(NN.) ~ = [Vp. -t-Vp.] [1 Ap , c,] [~p,,S,, + VP.]
[1 +AP C,.].
-.

N/.@vpo(I-s,
J

- -

Manuscdpt received in Society of Petroleum Ems[neers ol%e June 4,


1962. Approved for Dub[lcatlon March 11, 1068.
preferences 81ven at md of paper.
,\PRIL,

6.323X iO kt
+ p,. c r,.=
--Nthoigh the influx over i-- (i.e., q$; ) is Uniikely to be - strictly constant, it may-for
the sake of expediency
prove possible in many ctises to consider the average
influx rate:
(,, =

Originaliy,

and

391

1963

. . ----- ... . . . .
,-.

. . .. .

. . . . .. . . .

. ..

.. . .. ..- .

. . . .. . .

... . . .

. -. .. .. . .. . .. . . .

...- ..-

.,
I .,.

buitttive

Vp.

TABLE

W. = VP, ~

infhsx

(c. -f-cjl AP .

2-ISUfAfAARY

Days

at

S,oo:$:; $s.

from

[1

594
685
739

()

Vpa ,
Vpo

984

72PR+C)P[%I(%)
TASLE

3-3UMMARY

323.6
25S,6

2.464

2.002
3.597
5.523
8,012

4169
0990
3806

S66

to;

uli$%1~

S1S)

1 #222

.4354
4252
3316

423

Substituting f?q. 3 into Eq. 2, and letting the exponential

011 Praductlon
(Mllllon

Inception

Vp.
(C,o+c,)+.
7 = Vp. ~

.1
m-

SURVEY6
APPormt
011
Orlelnally
In Place

Pr*swrO

Hence,

term be expressed as /

OF PRESSURE

(3)

OF MATERlAl:8AtANCE

375.4
079.s
367.0
305.4

CALCULATIONS

APRar.

.Now

Fras.
sure
(psi]

N/3,

= Vp.

1-s.

(ms~!

.($$$n

Xii

:1.223

4252
4216
4169

1.464
!2.003
3.597

332,6
858.5
275.4
979,8

Time
ddoys)
_

423
594
6S5
739

to

vp*/vpo

8.223
11.547
13,316
14.266

1!31B
1.s99
2,1s2
2.457

Mean value!

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . (4)
Substituting for 1/N from Eq, 1 and simplifying,
70,62N,,[1 +AP c.] /.Lw ~. ~, .
vPm
Vp.
Ap kht

[1Vp
[1
.-K

f(t.,~

Er&
as $% of
Mean

-xi221,s
220.1
011.4

+5,27
+0.05
c-o .7.2
-4.65

The basic seismic map provided a value of r,. = 3,060


ft, so that for this field
.
tD= 0.01944 f
and
Vpi
0,0305 Nn ~ Vp.
~
Apt
[wd(t;%k
(~)
For reasons made clear in due course, the pressure
points at t = 866 and t = 984 days have not been considered in the following calculations.
For the four values of the dimensionless time (corresponding to 423, 594, 685 and 739 days), the exponential
function was calculated over the possible range of values
anticipated. Although in fact the work graphs must be
large in scale, a condensation is shown on Fig, 1.
With the graphs of the exponential function, Eq. 5 may
be rapidly solved; usually, only three attempts are required
to obtain consistent values of [Vp./Vp.]. Table 3 shows
the calculated values of the oil in place.
The distribution of errors (&5 per cent) suggests that
there is a small systematic mis-assumption, probably the
value of r~ or the value of (M), In the latter case,
because there was no other information, the values of net
thickness and permeability of the aquifer were assumed
to be the same as those measured in the oil welis.
The mean value of 221,7 million STB compares favorably with the value of 220 million STB subsequently
obtained by material balance below the bubble point, and ,
by further drilling and drill-stem testing.

Co+c,+s. (ct.-co)
Cw+c,

[1

But /3, = /3/1 -t-Apc. above the bubble point, and letting

A(p) =

[mjl$n

Co+cf+s. (G-c,,)
c.+ c,

Hence;

Vp.

[1 702$f~tN[%1(%)-Ap)
Vp.

(5)
,.
Now, providing that the physical properties of the aquifer
are known, or can be reasonably estimated, Eq, 5 may be
!..

Vp.
at any lime t.
Vp.

solved for a value of

The solution of Eq~ 5 is- obtained by reiteration; under


some conditions the ,process may be divergent, in which
case a graphical solutlon is required.

Vp

obtained from Eq. 5


Substitution of values of ~
11
-.
into Eq. 1 will give the stock-tank oil in place.
Field

Example

Application of Eqs, 1 and 5 is best illustrated by a


field example. The field under consideration was discovered by seismic methods in 1956. The more pertinent
field data are presented in Table 1. The results of the six
pressure surveys made above the bubble point are summarized in Table 2, together with the apparent oil-in-place
vaiues obtained from the unmodified material-balance
equation.

TABLE 1-PERTINENT

Fig. 2 shows the values of

Vpa
calculated on the
Vpo

[1

basis of 220 milliois STB of oil in piace at discovery. It


is, clear that at about 800 days the aquifer boundaries were
reached; under these conditions the theory just presented
is invaiid,
.,
HELD

AND

RESERVOIR

DATA
PVT c)afaz

DePth:
Farmattont

Net Pw.
Pemsfty:
--- .Watnr 8aturuf16m

Matrix FermeabllIty*
Total PermoabIllty
**!
Well Spaelng,
*From core data.
build.ups
and Pi fssft.
**From fwetwro
kern fha II foraf we,

--

592

011Gravltyl

8,2W ft (S,000 ft wbma)


Fractvrad
Ilmwfona,
with same Mndi

.-, {*.
trer

7/.

16
Cenf
28.2 fmr. ccm
. . ..
About 1: md
11.5md
360 acra$/well

Initial
Reswre,
Bubble.Paint
Prcwure:
Res@NOlr TOmpOrafure&
I
Pkan 011 Comrnos$lbllffy
:011 FVF at Bubble. Palnft
%
Pore Comprewlblllfy*
1
Water Compressiblllfy***
011 VI$cosify at SHPt

74 iAPI
.i,4m) PSnat 8,000ft SS.
3,710
188P
24.91
wrmvpd
, .. x IO-O
1,780 .: )x lo.@ vOl/pvjpil
1,4x 100vOl/vOl/pll
0.165 CP

JOURNAL

OF PETROLEUMTECEENOLOQY

.,

..

2.

T
..

- ...

2$

T---

...
.

2.500

t()

-t

/
,,=-

!0 ;~

2.0

2rm -

>
!

~&

--..

Lo

...

Illfmle

aqdfsr

-------4L----t cloys

Fig.

---+----

Fig. lExponential

ZComparison

%
%

~
%
[1

--..

.-.
.
SL

between actual
performance.

and

theoretical

Vp. = aquifer

pore volume effected by the


pressure drop in the reservoir,

Vp.
= an exponential function defined by Eq. 2
f t.;=

()

function for selected times,

A(p) = ratio of total oil reservoir compressibility


to aquifer compressibility

The maximum

Vpa
value of ~
[,

aquifer contains
2.32 N~,
W=l$
,0

is 2,32,

so that the

The author is grateful to the managements of Texaco,


In c., and the Socony-Mobil Oil Co., Inc., for permission
to publish this paper.

= 1.336 X 10 bbl.

This indicates that the aquifer contains only about 6 bbl


of water/bbI of oil originally in place, Clearly, one would
not expect a very effective water drive below the bubble
poin~ in fact, it is proving to be just about negligible
(Elliott factor = 0.0004).
Conclusion
Admittedly on the basis of only a single field example,
it appears that the method outlined will give acceptable
results. It is perhaps significant that during the period
under consideration (O to 800 days) the mtmber of
wells increased from 1 to 14, and the oil off-take rate
increased from 400 to 21,000 BOPD. It appears that the
use of the mean water-influx rate, may be quite generally
acceptable.
Nomenclature*
-.

VP. = reservoir pore volume --

-.

--

$For other symbols datlrdtions, see AIME Symbols Llsh Trws.,


(1968) 207, S68,

.APRIL,

1968

Acknowledgment

AIIKE

References

L Hawkins, M. F.: Materitrl Balances in Ex arrsion Type Reser.


voira Above the Bubble Point, Trans., AI~E (1955)204,267.
Hohson; G. I), and IUrosovsky,1.: Material Balance Above
tbe Bubble Point, Trans.,AIME (1956) 207, 347,
3. Ritchie. R. H. and Sakak&a, A, Y.: Jour. APP1.PhYs. (1956)
27, No; 12, 1453.
in Aquifers of Nonuni.
4. Morteda, M.: OiIfield Interference
form Properties, 1rarrs., AIhfE ( 1960) 219, 412.
5. Elliott, G. R.: Behavior and Control of Natural Water. flrive
**
Reservoirs, Trans., AIME (1946) 16S, 206,

RICHARD BARRY gruduated from the


Royal School of Mines, London, [n
1958 with a first class BSCdegree in oil
technology. He worked jog Texaco, Inc.
from-19S8 to-1961whenheresigned
to assume his present job as reservoir
engineer in the Bogota ofice of the
Colombian Petroleum Co.
s9rr