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CHAPTER-2

KINEMATICS
FILL IN THE BLANKS
1. A particle moves in a circle of radius R. In half the period of revolution its displacement is ...... and distance covered
is ...........
(1983; 2M)
2. Four persons K, L, M, N are initially at the four corners of a square of side d. Each persons now moves with a
uniform speed v in such a way that K always moves directly towards L, L directly towards M, M directly towards
N and N directly towards K. The four persons will meet at a time .....
(1984; 2M)
3. Spotlight S rotates in a horizontal plane with constant angular velocity of 0.1 rad/s. The spot of light P moves along
the wall at a distance of 3m. The velocity of the spot P when = 45 (see Fig.) is .... m/s
(1987; 2M)
S

3m

4. The trajectory of a projectile in a vertical plane is y = ax bx2, where a, b are constants, and x and y are respectively
the horizontal and vertical distances of the projectile from the point of projection. The maximum height attained is
............. and the angle of projection from the horizontal is .........
(1997C; 1M)

TRUE/FALSE
1. Two balls of different masses are thrown vertically upwards with the same speed. They pass through the point of
projection in their downward motion with the same speed (Neglect air resistance).
(1983; 2M)
2. A projectile fired from the ground follows a parabolic path. The speed of the projectile is minimum at the top of
its path.
(1984; 2M)

OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
Only One option is correct :
1. In the arrangement shown in the figure the ends P and
Q of an unstretchable string move downwards with
uniform speed U. Pulleys A and B are fixed. Mass
M moves upwards with a speed :
(1982; 3M)

the average acceleration in this time is : (1982; 3M)


(a) zero
(b) 1/ 2 m/s 2 towards north-east
(c)

(d)

1
2

m/s 2 towards north-west

1
m/s 2 towards north
2

3.

Q
M

(a) 2Ucos
(c) 2U/cos

(b) U/cos
(d) U cos

2. A particle is moving eastwards with a velocity of


5 m/s. In 10 s the velocity changes to 5 m/s northwards.
8

A river is flowing from west to east at a speed of


5 m/min. A man on the south bank of the river, capable
of swimmng at 10 m/min in still water, wants to swim
across the river in the shortest time. He should swim
in a direction :
(1983; 1M)
(a) due north
(b) 30 east of north
(c) 30 west of north (d) 60 east of north

4.

(c) 4
5.

8.

A boat which has a speed of 5 km/hr in still water


crosses a river of width 1 km along the shortest
possible path in 15 minutes. The velocity of the river
water in km/hr is :
(1988; 2M)
(a) 1
(b) 3
(d)

a
10 m/s2

41

A particle P is sliding down a frictionless hemispherical


bowl. It passes the point A at t = 0. At this instant of
time, the horizontal component of its velocity is v. A
bead Q of the same mass as P is ejected from A at t
= 0 along the horizontal string AB, with the speed v.
Friction between the bead and the string may be
neglected. Let tp and tQ be the respective time taken by
P and Q to reach the point B. Then : (1993; 2M)
(a) tp < tQ
Q
(b) tp = tQ
A
B
(c) tp > tQ
lengthofarc ACB
(d) t = lengthof chord AB
Q

t(s)

11

(a) 110 m/s


(c) 550 m/s
9.

tp

6.

A particle starts from rest. Its acceleration (a) versus


time (t) is as shown in the figure. The maximum speed
of the particle will be :
(2004; 2M)

(b) 55 m/s
(d) 660 m/s

A small block slides without friction down an inclined


plane starting from rest. Let S n be the distance travelled
Sn
is :
Sn+1

from t = n 1 to t = n. Then
C

(2004; 2M)

In 1.0 s, a particle goes from point A to point B, moving


in a semicircle (see figure). The magnitude of the
average velocity is :
(1999; 2M)

(a)

2n 1
2n

(b)

2n + 1
2n 1

(c)

2n 1
2n + 1

(d)

2n
2n + 1

10. The given graphs shows the variation of velocity with


displacement. Which one of the graph given below
correctly respresents the variation of acceleration with
displacement :
(2005; 2M)

1.0
m

v
v0

B
(a) 3.14 m/s
(c) 1.0 m/s
7.

(b) 2.0 m/s


(d) zero

A ball is dropped vertically from a height d above the


ground. It hits the ground and bounces up vertically
to a height d/2. Neglecting subsequent motion and air
resistance, its velocity v varies with height h above the
ground as :
(2000; 2M)
V

V
d

(a)

x0

(a)

(b)

(b)
x

V
d

(c)

(d)

(c)

(d)

OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS

3.

More than one options are correct?


1. A particle of mass m moves on the x-axis as follows
: it starts from rest at t = 0 from the point x = 0, and
comes to rest at t = 1 at the point x = 1. No other
information is available about its motion at intermediate
times (0 < t < 1). If denotes the instantaneous
acceleration of the particle, then :
(1993; 2M)
(a) cannot remain positive for all t in the interval
0 t 1.
(b) || cannot exceed 2 at any point in its path
(c) || must be 4 at some point or points in its path
(d) must change sign during the motion, but no other
assertion can be made with the information given
2.

The coordinates of a particle moving in a plane are


given by x (t) = a cos (pt) and y (t) = b sin (pt) where,
a, b (< a) and p are positive constants of appropriate
dimensions. Then :
(1999; 3M)
(a) the path of the particle is an ellipse
(b) the velocity and acceleration of the particle are
normal to each other at t = /2p.
(c) the accleration of the particle is always directed
towards a focus
(d) the distance travelled by the particle in time interval
t = 0 to t = /2p is a

Two guns situated on the top of a hill of height 10 m


fire one shot each with the same speed 5 3 m/s at
some interval of time. One gun fires horizontally and
other fires upwards at an angle of 60 with the
horizontal. The shots collide in air at point P find :
(a) the time interval between the firings and
(b) The coordinates of the point P. Take origin of the
coordinate system at the foot of the hill right
below the muzzle and trajectories in x-y plane.
(g = 10 m/s 2)

4.

A particle of mass 102 kg is moving along the positive


x-axis under the influence of a force F (x) = k/2x2
where k = 102 Nm2. At time t = 0 it is at x = 1.0 m and
its velocity, v = 0.
(1998; 8M)
(a) Find its velocity when it reaches x = 0.5 m
(b) find the time at which it raches x = 0.25 m.

5.

A large heavy box is sliding without friction down a


smooth plane of inclination . From a point P on the
bottom of the box, a particle is projected inside the
box. The initial speed of the particle with respect to the
box is u and the direction of projection makes an angle
with the bottom as shown in the figure.

Q
P

SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
1.

Particle P and Q of mass 20 g and 40 g respectively are


simultaneously projected from points A and B on the
ground. The initial velocities of P and Q makes 45 and
135 angles respectively with the horizontal AB as
shown in the figure. Each particle has an initial speed
of 49 m/s. The separation AB is 245 m.
P

45
A

(1998; 8M)
(a) Find the distance along the bottom of the box
between the point of projection P and the point Q
where the particle lands (Assume that the particle
does not hit any other surface of the box. Neglect
air resistance).
(b) If the horizontal displacement of the particle as
seen by an observer on the ground is zero, find
the speed of the box with respect to the ground
at the instant when the particle was projected.

135
B

Both particle travel in the same vertical plane and


undergo a collision. After the collision, P retraces its
path. Determine the position Q where it hits the ground.
How much time after the collision does the particle Q
take to reach the ground? (Take g = 9.8 m/s 2).
(1982; 8M)

6.

An object A is kept fixed at the point x = 3 m and


y = 1.25 m on a plank P raised above the ground. At time
t = 0, the plank starts moving along the + x direction
with an acceleration 1.5 m/s 2. At the same instant a stone
r

is projected from the origin with a velocity u as shown.


y

2.

A body falling freely from a given height H hits an


inclined plane in its path at a height h. As a result of this
impact the direction of the velocity of the body becomes
horizontal. For what value of (h/H) the body will take
maximum time to reach the ground?
(1986; 6M)

1.25m

10

3.0m

A stationary person on the ground observes the stone


hitting the object during its downwards motion at an
angle of 45 to the horizontal. All the motions are in

(a) The motion of the ball is observed from the frame


of the trolley. Calculate the angle made by the
velocity vector of the ball with the x-axis in this
frame.
(b) Find the speed of the ball with respect to the
surface if = 4/3.
(2002; 5M)

x-y plane. Find u and the time after which the stone
hits the object. Take g = 10 m/s 2.
(2000; 10M)
7.

On a frictionless horizontal surface, assumed to be the


x-y plane. a small trolley A is moving along a straight
line parallel to the y-axis (see figure) with a constant
velocity of ( 3 1) m/s. At a particular instant when
the line OA makes an angle of 45 with the x-axis, a ball
is thrown along the surface from the origin O. Its
velocitymakesananglewith the x-axis and it hits the
trolley.

ASSERTION AND REASON


1. Statement I : For an observer looking out through the
window of a fast moving train, the nearby objects
appear to move in the opposite direction to the train,
while the distant objects appear to be stationary.
Because
Statement II : If the observer and the object are
r
r
moving at velocities v1 and v2 respectively with
reference to a laboratory frame, the velocity of the
r r
object with respect to the observer is v2 v1.

y
A

45

(2008; 3M)
(a) If Statement I is true, Statement II is true; Statement
II is the correct explanation for Statement I.
(b) If Statement I is true, Statement II is true; Statement
II is not a correct explanation for Statement I.
(c) If Statement I is true; Statement II is false.
(d) If Statement I is false; Statement II is true.

ANSWERS
FILL IN THE BLANKS
1. 2R, R

2. d/v

3.

4. a 2/4b, tan1(a)

0.6

TRUE/FALSE
1.

2. T

OBJECTIVE QUESTION (ONLY ONE OPTION)


1.
8.

(b)
(b)

2. (c)
9. (c)

3. (a)
10. (a)

4. (b)

5. (a)

6. (b)

OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (MORE THAN ONE OPTION)


1.

(a, c)

2. (a, b, c)

SUBJECTIV QUESTIONS
1
2

1. Just midway between A and B, 3.54 s

2.

3.

4. (a)1.0 m/s (b) 1.48s

5.

(a)

r
6. u = ( 3. 75i + 6.25 j) m/s; 1 s

7.

(a) 45 (b) 2 m/s

u 2 sin2
u cos( + )
(b)
(down the plane)
g cos
cos

ASSERTION AND REASON


1.

(a) 1 s (b) (5 3 m, 5 m)

(b)
11

7. (a)

SOLUTIONS
FILL IN THE BLANKS

2.
B

1.

Displacement = AC = 2R
Distance = ABC = R
C

2.

2.
By relative velocity of
approach

OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (ONLY ONE OPTION)


1.

r
dr = v dt

(True) From conservation of mechanical energy at


highest point potential energy is maximum. Therefore,
kinetic energy and hence speed should be minimum.

In the right angle PQR


l 2 = c2 + y2
Differentiating this equation with respect to time, we get
P
dl
dy
c Q
2l

45
v

or,

= v dt
d = vt

ALT :

d
v

dt

dy = l dl
dt y dt

R
M

x = 3 tan

Since string remains taut all the time.

2.
3

or

vm =

(b)

U
cos

r
r r
r
v v f vi
a avg =
=
t
t

vf =5 m/s
5 2 m/s

dx
d
= 3sec 2 = 3 sec2
dt
dt

4.

a 2bx = 0 x =

a
2b

r
5 2
1
a avg =
=
m/s 2 (in north west direction)
10
2
r
r
v f vi
r
a avg =
ALT :
t

(i)

ymax = a (a/2b) b (a/2b)2 = a 2/4b

(ii)

dy
dx
( x =0) = a = tan

= tan 1 ( a)

1
1
= i + j
2
2

TRUE FALSE
1.

45

vi =5 m/s

r
v = 5 2 m/s in north-west direction.

y = ax bx2
For height (or y) to be maximum
dy
=0
dx

= 0.6 m/s

(True) Acceleration due to gravity is independent of


the mass of the body.

12

c= constant, l and y are variable

U = v m cos

x
= tan
3

3.

=0+2y

U
vm =
cos

t=

dt

5 j 5i
10

r
1
| aavg | =
m/s 2 and = 135
2
(c)

3.

d = ( vBR cos ) t

V
VBR

d
t=
vBR cos

VR

Time taken to cross the river is minimum if cos = 1 that


means = 0
For minimum time, he should swim periodicular to
river flow.
4.

For shortest possible path, drift = 0

v
sin = R
v BR

t=

cos =

Hence, v max =

9.

6.

= 37

&

3 v
sin 37 = = R
5 5

For particle P, motion between AC will be an accelerated


one while between CB a retarded one. But in any case
horizontal component of its velocity will be greater
than or equal to V. Horizontal displacement for both
the particles are equal. Therefore, tP < tQ.

(a)
|Average velocity| =

a =v

v 2
x 0

x0

Thus a-x graph is a straight line with positive slope


and negative intercept.

(a).

(i) For uniformly accelerated/decelerated motion


i.e., v - h graph will be a parabola (because equation
is quadratic).
(ii) Initially velocity is downwards (-ve) and then after
collision it reverses its direction with lesser magnitude,
i.e, velocity is upwards (+ve). Graph (a) satisfies both
these conditions.
Note that time t = 0 coresponds to the point on the
graph where h = d

dv
dx

v
v v
= 0 x + v0 0 = 0
x0
x0 x0

AB 2
= = 2m / s
time 1

(c)

v
v = 0 x + v0
x0

displacement
time

v = u 2 gh

1
a(2n 1)
Sn
2n 1
= 2
S n+1 1 a{2( n + 1) 1} = 2n + 1
2

10. The v-x equation from the given graph can be written
as

(b)

1
a( 2n 1)
2

Given : u = 0

7.

(b)

Sn = u +

4
5

1
10 11 = 55 m/s
2

Distance travelled in n th second is,

v R = 3 km/hr
5.

Area under acceleration-time graph gives the change


in velocity.

15
1 km
=
60 5 cos

1 2 : v increases
downwards
At 2 velocity changes
its directions
2 3 v decrease upwards

Next time collision takes place at 3.

(a)
8.

VBR

collision takes
2
place here

VR

d
vBR cos

at t = 0, h = d

OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (MORE THAN ONE OPTION)


1.

Since, the body is at rest at x = 0 and x = 1. Hence,


cannot be positive for all time in the interval 0 t 1.
Therefore, first the particle is accelerated and then
retarded. Now,
t = 1s, s = 1m
s = Area under v - t graph

13

v max = 2 s = 2 m/s is also fixed.


t

vmax = 2 m/s

a x and vy becomes zero (because cos /2 = 0)


only vx and a y are left.
or we can say that velocity is along negative x-axis
and acceleraion along y-axis.
Hence, a t = /2p velocity and acceleration of the
particle are normal to each other. So, option (b) is also
correct.

If height and base is fixed, area is also fixed


In case 2 : Acceleration = Retardation = 4 m/s 2
In case 1 : Acceleration > 4 m/s 2 while
Retardation < 4 m/s 2
While in case 3 : Acceleration < 4m/s 2 and
Retardation > 4 m/s 2
Hence, 4 at some point or points in its path.

(a, c)
2.

x = a cos (pt) cos (pt) =


y = b sin (pt) sin (pt) =

x
a

t= 2p
a

ax

...(1)

y
b

vy

t=0
y = 0 =vx = ay
x =a
vy = bp and
ax = ap 2

...(2)

Squaring and adding Eqs. (1) and (2), we get


x2
2

y2

A t = t, position of the particle

=1

r
r(t ) = xi$ + y $j = a cos p t $i + b sin pt $j

Therefore, path of the particle is ellipse. Hence, option


(a) is correct.
From the given equations we can find :

and accleration of the particle is


r
a(t ) = a x $i + a y $j

= p 2 [a cos pt $i + b sin pt $j ]

dx
= vx = ap sin pt
dt
2

d x
dt 2

= ax

dy
= vy
dt

d2y
dt 2

= p 2 [x $i + y $j ] = p 2 (t)
Therefore, acceleration of the particle is always directed
towards origin.
Hence, option (c) is also correct.
At t = 0, particle is at (a, 0) and at t = /2p
particle is at (0, b). Therefore, the distance covered is
one-fourth of the elliptical path not a.
Hence, option (d) is wrong.

= ap 2 cos pt
= bp cos pt and

= ay = bp 2 sin pt

At time t = /2p or pt = /2

SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS

1.

2 49
2

= 49 2 m / sec

(u P ,Q ) y = 0

t=t

aP,Q = 0

( u P, Q ) x = 2u cos 45 =

Q
P 49 m/sec

45
A

14

49 m/sec

45
B

P will hit Q, if xP, Q = 245= (uP, Q ) x t

245 = 49 2 t

u = 5 3 m/s


u cos 60 = (5 3) m/s = 2.5 3 m/s
2

and

u sin 60 = (5 3) m/s = 7.5 m/s


2

t=

3.

, which is half of time of flight of whole


2
motion
Both these particles actually collide at maximum
height of whole motion.
By conservation of line or momentum at maximum
height,
20 49 cos 45 40 49 cos 45

y
2

u
Q

60U

= 20 49 cos 45 + 40VQ

1
h

V =0
Q particle after collision falls freely. So time taken
by Q particle to reach ground,

10m

1
H = gt 2
2

2.

t=

P
(x, y)
y = 10 h
x

u 2 sin 2 1 2
= gt
2g
2

Since, the horizontal displacement of both the shots


are equal the second should be fired early because its
horizontal component of velocity u cos 60 is less then
the others which is u.
Now let first shot takes t 1 time to reach the point P and
the second t2. Then,
x = (u cos 60) t2 = ut 1

u sin
5
=
sec = 3.53 sec
g
2

Let t1 be the time from A to B and t2 the time from B


to C. Then,

or,
or,

x = 25 3 t2 = 5 3 t1
t2 = 2t1

and

h = (u sin60)t2 +

Taking

g = 10 /s 2

....(1)
...(2)

Hh

y = 5t 22 7. 5t2 = 5t12
...(3)
Substituting t2 = 2t1in Eq. (3), we get

5 (2t1)2 75 (2t1) = 5t12

B
h

or,

t1 =

2( H h)
g

and

t2 =

2h
g

and

1
h

2 1
1
+
=0
g 2 H h 2 h
1
h
1
=
2h = H
H 2
H h

(From Eq. 3)
h = 5t12 = 5(1)2 = 5m
y = 10 h = (10 5) = 5m

Hence,
(a) Time interval between the firings = t 2 t 1 = (2 1)s
t = 1 s

dt
=0
dh

15t12 15t1 = 0
t1 = 0 and t2 = 2 s
x = 5 3t1 = 5 3 m (From eq. 1)

t = t1 + t2 = g [ H h + h ]
For t to be maximum
Now,

1 2 1 2
gt2 = gt1
2
2

(b) Coordinates of point P (x, y) = (5 3 m, 5m)

4.

15

(a)

ma =

k
2x2

a =

k 1

m 2x2

vdv =

k
2m

vdv
k
=
dx
2mx 2

dx

v2
k 1
k 1
=
1 v 2 = 1

2 2m x
mx

(b) v =
0 .25

s = ut +

102 10
1 = 1 m/ sec
102 5

v = 1 m/ sec

It is in x direction

dx
1 x
=
dt
x
t

x
dx = dt
1 x

Let x = sin 2 , dx = 2 sin cos d


/ 6

/ 2

(1 cos 2) d = t

/ 2

u 2 sin 2
Vu sin
u 2 sin 2 sin
= 2
2
g cos
g cos
g cos2

2u 2 sin 2 sin 2u 2 sin cos


2Vu sin

=
2
g cos
g cos
g cos

6.

r
r
1r
sP, B = xi + yj = u P, Bt + aP, Bt 2
2

Let t be the time taken after which the stone hits the
r
object and be the angle which the velocity vector u
makes with horizontal.
(a) For vertical displacement

1.25 = (u sin ) t

gt 2
2

...(1)
u sin t = 1.25 + 5t 2
(b) Horizontal displacement of stone = 3 +
displacment of object

1
xi + yj = (u cos tj + u sin tj) g cos t 2 j
2

( u cos t) = 3 +

1
y = 0 = u sin t g cos t 2
2
t=

u cos( + )
cos

r
a P, B = g cos j

V=

(a) In the frame of box,


r
u P, B = u cos i + u sin j

r
a B = g sin i
r
aP = g sin i g cosj

2u sin 1
2u sin
u 2 sin 2
= V
g sin

g cos
g cos 2
g cos

2u 2 sin cos( + ) 2Vu sin


=
g cos
g cos2

3
t = +
sec
3
4

5.

sin sin cos cos


2Vu sin
2u2 sin
=
2
g cos
g cos

/ 6

2 sin d = t

1 2
at
2

sin 2 sin sin cos cos


2Vu sin
2u2
=
2
g cos
g cos

u 2 sin 2
g cos

(b) For the observer (on ground) to see the horizontal


displacement to be zero, the distance travelled by
the box should be equal to the range of the
particle inside the box. So

v2
k 1
=

2
2m x 1

v x =0.5 =

2u sin
x = u cos t = u cos

g cos

1 2
at
2

u cos t = 3 + 0.75t 2

2u sin
g cos

(c)
16

tan 45 =

u cos
(u sin gt)

...(2)

(Q stone is moving downward)


u cos = gt u sin

Using Lemi's theorem

...(3)

VB
V
= T VB = 2 m/sec
sin 135 sin 15

Multiplying (3) with t, we get


u cos t = gt 2 u sin t

...(4)

u = 2 m/s

From (1), (2) and (4), we get

3t 0. 75t 2 = 9t 2 (1. 25 + 5t 2 )

ASSERTION AND REASON

3 + 0.75t 2 = 5t 2 1. 25
v1

4.25 = 4.25t 2

t 2 = 1sec
From (1) u sin = 6.25 m/sec
u cos = 3.75 m/sec
r
v = 3. 75i + 6.25 j

v2

1.
2
1

7.

(a) Let A stands for trolley and B for ball.

2 > 2 2 > 1
Statement-II, is formula of relative velocity. But it does
not explain statement-I correctly. The correct
explanation of statement-I is due to visual perception
of motion. The object appears to be moving faster,
when its angular velocity is greater w.r.t. observer.

(b)

Relative velocity of B with respect to A ( v BA ) should


r
be along OA for the ball to hit the trolly. Hence, v BA
will make an angle of 45 with positive x-axis.
= 45
(b)

4
= 60
3
VT
135

VB

15

45
VB,T

45

17