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ITIL 2011 FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION ELEARNING COURSE

ITIL Foundation Training Offered by Simplilearn.com


ITIL is a Registered Trade Mark of The Cabinet Office in the United Kingdom and other countries.
"The Swirl logo is a Trade Mark of The Cabinet Office ".

Ver. 2.2

ITIL 2011 Foundation Course Objectives


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At the end of the course, you should be able to

Discuss the ITIL 2011 qualification scheme


Explain the practice of Service Management
Describe Service Lifecycle
Identify key principles and models of ITIL 2011
Define generic concepts in ITIL 2011
Discuss the processes, roles and functions in ITIL 2011
Summarise the use of technology with ITIL 2011
Successfully clear your ITIL 2011 foundation exam.

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ITIL 2011 Foundation Course Agenda


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Module 1: Introduction to Service Management Lifecycle
Principles of Service Management, Processes, The ITIL Service Lifecycle
Module 2: Service Strategy
Concepts and Models, Processes
Module 3: Service Design
Concepts and Models, Key Principles, Processes
Module 4: Service Transition
Concepts and Models, Key Principles, Processes
Module 5: Service Operations
Concepts and Models, Key Principles, Processes and Functions
Module 6: Continual Service Improvement
Concepts and Models, Key Principles, Processes
Module 7 : Summary and Exam Preparation
Review of Key Concepts and Practice Exam

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Module 1
4

Introduction
To Service
Management
Lifecycle

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Lesson 1.0: What is ITIL ?


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What is ITIL ?
A set of publications for good practices in IT service Management.
Why ITIL ?
Focuses on descriptive guidance on IT Service Management thats
easily adapted.
Emphasizes Quality Management approach, standards
ITIL goals
Consistent, comprehensive, hygienic set of Best-Practice guidance
Platform independent discussion of processes
Common Language, Standardized vocabulary
Flexible framework, adaptable to different IT environments.

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Lesson 1.1: ITIL 2011 Components


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Lesson 1.2: ITIL Core Publications


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Each lifecycle phase of ITIL 2011 Core


is represented by a Volume in the
Library
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

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Service Strategy
Service Design
Service Transition
Service Operation
Continual Service Improvement

Lesson 1.3: ITIL 2011 Qualification


Scheme: Credits System
8

Lifecycle Modules
Service Strategy
Service Design
Service Transition
Service Operation
Continual Service Improvement
Capability Modules
Operational Support and Analysis (OSA)
Planning Protection & Optimization (PPO)
Release Control and Validation (RCV)
Service Offerings & Agreements (SOA)
http://www.itil-officialsite.com/Qualifications/ITILV3QualificationScheme.asp

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Lesson 1.4: ITIL 2011 Foundation Exam Format


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Type

Online, Multiple choice, 40 questions. The questions are selected from


the full ITIL Foundation in IT Service Management examination
question bank.

Duration

Maximum 60 minutes. Candidates sitting the examination in a language


other than their native language have a maximum of 75 minutes

Supervised

Yes

Open Book

No

Pass Score

65% (26 out of 40)

Where ?

AEC Authorized Examination Centers

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Lesson 2.0: Principles of IT Service


Management
Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:
Explain the concept of good practice
Define the concepts of service, Service
Management, Functions, Roles &Processes, and
RACI
The role of IT Governance across the Service
Lifecycle

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Lesson 2.1: ITIL is presented as


Good Practice. What are good Practices?
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Good Practices are generally commoditized, generally accepted, proven effective ways of
doing things which were previously considered best practices of the pioneering
organizations.

Successful Innovations applied diligently become Best


Practices

Best practice accepted and adopted by others become


common, Good Practices

Good Practices are Commoditized, generally accepted


principles, or regulatory requirements
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Lesson 2.2: Why Choose Good


practices over Proprietary ones?
12

Good Practices, Public Standards


and frameworks

Proprietary knowledge

Wide Community Distribution


Public Training and Certification

Difficult to adopt
Difficult to replicate and transfer
Hard to document

Valid in Different applications


Peer Reviewed
Used by different parties

Highly customized
Specific to business needs
Hard to adapt or reuse

Free and publicly available


Labor market skills easy to find

Owners expect compensation

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Lesson 2.3: What is a Service?


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A means of delivering value to customers by facilitating outcomes customer want to


achieve, without the ownership of specific costs or risks.

Costs and Risks are transferred to service provider.


Customers focus on outcomes versus means.

Customer
Transfer costs and Risks
Retains focus and accountability for
outcomes

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Service Provider
Takes on Costs and Risks
Responsible for the means of achieving
outcomes

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Lesson 2.4: What is a Service Management?


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Business Outcomes

Value
Customer Assets
Service Management

Performance

Services
Capabilities

Service Assets

Capabilities

Resources

A5 Management

Financial Capital

A4 Organization

Infrastructure

A3 Processes

Applications

A2 Knowledge

Information

A1
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Resources

People
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Lesson 2.5: Process, Functions and Roles


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Process
- A set of activities designed to accomplish a specific
objective. A process takes defined inputs and turns them
into defined outputs. A process may include roles,
responsibilities, tools and management controls required
to deliver the outputs

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Lesson 2.6: A Basic Process


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Data, Information
and Knowledge

Desired
Outcome

Process

Suppliers

Activity 1

Customer

Activity 2

Activity 3

Service Control & Quality


Trigger
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Lesson 2.7: Process Characteristics


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It is measurable
It delivers specific result
Primary result are delivered to customers or stakeholders
It responds to specific events (triggers)

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Lesson 2.8: Functions


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Function
- A team or group of people and the tools they use to carry
out one or more processes or activities

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Lesson 2.9: Processes across the organization


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CIO

Operations

Development

Project
Management

Service desk

Website

Project 1

Mainframe

HR
Applications

Project 2

Application

Finance
Applications

Project 3

Architecture
Enterprise
Architecture

Networks

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Lesson 2.10: Service Management Roles :


Service Owner
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Service Owner :
The person who is accountable for the delivery of a specific IT Service. They are
responsible for continual improvement and management of change affecting Services
under their care. Example: The owner of the Payroll Service

Responsibilities:
To act as prime Customer contact for all Service related enquiries and issues
To ensure that the ongoing Service delivery and support meet agreed Customer
requirements
To identify opportunities for Service Improvements, discuss with the customer
and to initiate changes for improvements if appropriate.
To liaise with the appropriate Process Owners throughout the Service
Management lifecycle
To solicit required data, statistics and reports for analysis and to facilitate effective
Service monitoring and performance
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Lesson 2.11: Service Management Roles :


Process Owner
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Process Owner :
The person responsible for ensuring that the process is fit for the desired
purpose and is accountable for the outputs of that process. Example: The
owner for the Availability Management Process

Responsibilities:
Assisting with process design
Documenting the process
Make sure the process is being performed as documented
Making sure process meetings it aims
Monitoring and improving the process over time
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Lesson 2.12: Connecting with


Processes and Functions: RACI
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RACI is an acronym for the four main roles of:


Responsible the person or people responsible for getting the job done
Accountable only one person can be accountable for each task
Consulted the people who are consulted and whose opinions are sought
Informed the people who are kept up-to-date on progress.
Service
owner

Process
Owner

Security
Manager

IT
Head

Chief
Architect

Process
Manager

Create a framework for defining IT services

A/R

Build an IT service catalogue

A/R

Define SLA for critical IT services

Monitor and report SL performance

A/R

Review SLAs, OLAs and UCs

Review and Update IT service catalogue

A/R

Create service improvement Plan

A/R

Activities

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Example RACI matrix

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Lesson 2.13: Key Terminology: Service Provider


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Service Provider :

An Organization supplying Services to one or more Internal Customers or


External Customers. Service provider is often used as an short form for IT
Service provider.
There are three types of business models service providers:
Type I
Internal Service Provider

Type II
Shared Services Provider

Type III
External Service Provider

An internal service provider that


is embedded within a business
unit e.g. one IT organization
within each of the business
units. The key factor is that the
IT Services provide a source of
competitive advantage in the
market space the business
exists in.

An internal service provider that


provides shared IT service to
more than one business unit
e.g. one IT organization to
service all businesses in an
umbrella organization. IT
Services typically dont provide
a source of competitive
advantage, but instead support
effective and efficient business
processes.

Service provider that provides IT


services to external customers
i.e. outsourcing

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Lesson 2.14: Key Terminology: Supplier


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Supplier:
A Third party responsible for supplying goods or Services that are required
to deliver IT services. Examples of suppliers include commodity hardware
and software vendors, network and telecom providers, and outsourcing
Organizations.
Business

Contract:
A legally binding agreement between two or more
parties to supply goods or services

Service Provider

Supplier
Fig: A Basic value Chain
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Lesson 3.0: The Service Lifecycle


Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:
Understand the value of the Service Lifecycle
How the processes integrate with each other,
throughout
the Lifecycle
Explain the relationship between Governance
and IT Service Management

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Lesson 3.2: The Lifecycle Interactions


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The Business / Customers

Service Knowledge Management Systems


(SKMS) Including the Service Portfolio &
Service Catalog

Requirements
Service Strategy

SLPs from
Requirements

Resources &
Constraints

Policies
Strategy

SDPs

Service Design

Standards

Architectures

Solution
Design

SKMS Updated

Service Transition

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Tested Solutions
Transition plans

Service Operation

Operations Plan

Continual Service
Improvement

Operational
Services

Improvement
Plans & Actions
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Lesson 3.3: Relationship between


Governance and ITSM
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Relationship between Governance and ITSM


Corporate Governance
Ensures the provision strategy and business
plans. Establishes the Corporate policies and
enables strategic direction, objectives, critical
success factors and key result areas.

Establishes IT policy, Standards and Principles,


Assures alignment of IT strategy to corporate
business strategy

IT Governance
Corporate Compliance
Assures adherence to Legal, Industrial and regulatory
requirements.
Assures the design and
operability of IT
policies , processes
and key controls

IT Compliance

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Establishes, enables and executes the IT


strategy. Establishes Operations to assure
high-quality, compliant IT service
provisioning. Ensures effective key result
Areas.

IT Service Management
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End of Module 1
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Covered so far

What it ITIL

Process, Function, Technology

Life Cycle of Service i.e. SS,


SD, ST, SO and CSI

We are covering hereon

Lifecycle Phases

Processes and Functions

Tools used for ITSM

But before that a quiz !


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Module 1: Quiz
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Sample question 1:
Which of the following is NOT one of the ITIL 2011 core
publications?
a) Service Operation
b) Service Transition
c) Service Derivation
d) Service Strategy

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Module 1: Quiz
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Sample question 2:
What is the RACI model used for?
a) Documenting the roles and relationships of stakeholders in a
process or activity
b) Defining requirements for a new service or process
c) Analyzing the business impact of an incident
d) Creating a balanced scorecard showing the overall status of
Service Management
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Module 1: Quiz
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Sample question 3:
A service owner is responsible for which of the following?
a) Designing and documenting a Service

b) Carrying out the Service Operations activities needed to


support a Service
c) Producing a balanced scorecard showing the overall status of
all Services
d) Recommending improvements
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Module 1: Quiz
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Sample question 4:
Which of the following statements is CORRECT?
1. Only one person can be responsible for an activity
2. Only one person can be accountable for an activity
a) All of the above
b) 1 only
c) 2 only
d) None of the above
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Module 1: Quiz
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Sample question 5:
Which of the following statements are CORRECT about Functions?
1. They provide structure and stability to organizations
2. They are self-contained units with their own capabilities and resources
3. They rely on processes for cross-functional coordination and control
4. They are costlier to implement compared to processes
a) 1, 2 and 3 only

b) 1, 2 and 4 only
c) All of the above
d) None of the above
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Module 1: Quiz
34

Sample question 6:
Which of the following is a characteristic of every process?
1. It is measurable
2. It is timely
3. It delivers a specific result
4. It responds to a specific event
5. It delivers its primary result to a customer or stakeholder
a) 1, 2, 3 and 4 only

b) 1, 2, 4 and 5 only
c) 1, 3, 4 and 5 only
d) All of the above
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End of Module 1

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Module 2
36

Service
Strategy

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Lesson 1: Service Strategy

Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

Understand the Goals and Objectives of Service


Strategy

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Lesson 1.1: Service Strategy Objectives


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Shows organization how to transform Service Management into a strategic


asset and then think and act in a strategic manner
Helps clarify the relationship between various services, systems or processes
and the business models, strategies or objectives they support

KEY ROLE: To stop and think about WHY something has to be done, before
thinking HOW.

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Lesson 1.2: Key Strategy Questions


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The objectives of service Strategy are to answer questions such as :

What services should we offer and to whom?


How do we differentiate ourselves from competing alternatives?
How do we truly create value for our customers?
How do we capture value for our stakeholders?

Process in Service Strategy:


Demand management
Service portfolio Management, and
Financial management
Business Relationship Management

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Lesson 2.0: Key concepts of service


strategy
Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

Describe basics of Value Creation through


Services
Explain Business Case

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Lesson 2.1 Key Principles and Models


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Service Value Creation : Utility & Warranty


Performance Supported ?

Fit for Purpose ?

OR
Constraints removed ?

Utility

Value
Available enough ?
Capacity enough ?
Continuous enough ?

AND

Fit for Use ?

Secure Enough ?

Warranty
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Lesson 2.2: Service Value creation:


Utility & Warranty

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Utility

Warranty

Functionality offered by
product /service as the
customer views it

Promise that the product/service will meet agreed requirements

What the customer gets

How it is delivered

Fitness for purpose

Fitness for use


Three Characteristics of warranty
>Provided in terms of availability/capacity of services
>Ensures customer assets continue to receive utility, even if
degraded, through major disruptions
> Ensures Security for value-creating potential of customer
assets

Increases performance
average

Reduces performance variation

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Lesson 2.3: Basics of Value Creation:


Service Assets

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Service Assets Resources and capabilities available to an organization.

Resources the IT infrastructure. People, money and others which


might help to deliver an IT service; the assets of an organization.
Capabilities ability to co-ordinate, control, deploy resources; the
intangible assets of an organization.
Resources

Capabilities

Financial Capital

Management

Infrastructure

Organization

Applications

Processes

Information

Knowledge
People

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Lesson 2.4: Service Packages


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Supporting Services
Package
(Enables or Enhances the
value proposition )

Core Services Package


(Basic outcomes desired
by the customer.)

Service Level Packages


(Defines level of utility and warranty provided by Service Package)
Availability Levels

Capacity Levels

Security Levels

Continuity
Service Features
Service Support

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Lesson 2.5: Business Case


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A decision support and planning tool that projects the likely


consequences of a business action
Justification for a significant item of expenditure.
Includes Information about costs, benefits, options, issues, risks and
possible problems
Uses qualitative and quantitative terms
Type Business case structure
1. Introduction business objectives addressed
2. Methods and assumptions- boundaries of the business case
3. Business Impacts Financial and non financial
4. Risks and Contingencies
5. Recommendations Specific Actions

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Lesson 2.6: Risk


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Risk
Risk is defined as uncertainty of outcome, whether positive opportunity
or negative threat.
There are two distinct phases. Risk Analysis and Risk Management.
Risk analysis is concerned with gathering information about exposure to
risk so that the organization can make appropriate decisions and
manage risk appropriately.
Risk management supports critical decision making process, in terms of
evaluating and selecting controls.

Management of risk covers a wide range of topics, including business


continuity management (BCM), security, program/Project risk
management and operational service management.

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Lesson 2.9: Service Management


Technology & Automation
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Automation (Tools) are extremely useful to improve utility and warranty of


services:

Real time and historical data for analysis

Correlation of data from multiple devices

Service Impact analysis for prioritization

Service Performance optimization

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Lesson 2.9: Service Management


Technology & Automation
48

Automation of service processes helps improve the quality of service,


reduce costs and reduce risks by reducing complexity and uncertainty, and
by efficiently resolving trade-offs.

Some of the areas where service management can benefit from automation
Design and modeling
Service catalogue
Pattern recognition and analysis
Classification, prioritization and routing
Detection and monitoring
Optimization.

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Lesson 2.9: Service Management


Technology & Automation

Service Management Tools functionality include:

Self Help: a web front-end offering a menu-driven range of Self-Help and


Service Requests with a direct interface into the back-end processhandling software.

Workflow or Process Engine: should allow responsibilities, activities,


timescales, escalation paths and alerting to be pre-defined and then
automatically managed.

Integrated CMS: CIs, Relationships, Records related to incidents,


problems, KE & Change

Discovery/Deployment technology: populate or verify CMS data, assist


in license management, ability to deploy new software at target locations

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Lesson 2.9: Service Management


Technology & Automation
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Service Management tools functionality include (contd.)

Remote Control: allow relevant support groups to take control of the user
desktops
Diagnostic scripts & utilities
Reporting & Dashboards

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Lesson 3.0: Service Strategy


Process

Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able Objectives
and basic concepts of the four processes in Service
Strategy:
Demand Management,
Service Portfolio Management
Financial Management
Business Relationship Management
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Lesson 3.1: Demand Management: Objectives


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The primary objective of Demand Management is to assist the IT


Service Provider in understanding and influencing Customer demand
for services and the provision of Capacity to meet these demands.

Other objectives include:


Identification and analysis of Patterns of Business Activity (PBA) and
user profiles (UP) that generate demand.
Utilizing techniques to influence and manage demand in such a way
that excess capacity is reduced but the business and customer
requirements are still satisfied.

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Lesson 3.2: Managing Demand for Services


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Demand Pattern

Service
Process
Service Belt
Patterns of
Business Activity

Capacity
Management
Plan

Delivery Schedule

Demand
Management
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Lesson 3.3: PBA and UP


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Pattern of Business Activity (PBA)

Workload profile of one or more business activities

Varies over time

Represents changing business demands

User Profile

Pattern of user demand for IT services

Each user profile includes one or more PBAs

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Lesson 3.4: What is a Service Portfolio?


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Service Portfolio
The Service Portfolio
represents the
commitments and
investments made by a
service provider across
all customers and market
spaces.
It also includes the
ongoing service
improvement plans and
third party services.

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Customer
3

Customer
2

Customer
1

Service
Improve
-ment
Plan

Service
Portfolio

Third
Party
Services

Market
Space 1

Market
Space 2

Market
Space 3

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Lesson 3.5: Components of Service Portfolio


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Service Portfolio

Components of
Service
Portfolio

Service Catalog
Service Pipeline

Market
Spaces

Continual service
Improvement

Third
Party
Catalog

Service
Transition

Customers

Service
Design
Resources
Engaged

Service
Operations

Return on Assets
earned during Service
Operations

Retired
Services

Resources
Released

Common Pool of resources


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Lesson 3.6: Financial Management:


Goals
and
Objectives
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Business
Opportunities

Business
Technology
Capabilities

Financial
Management

IT

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Lesson 3.7: Financial Management: Activities


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Activities
Budgeting

Predicting the expected future requirements for


funds to deliver the agreed upon services and
monitoring adherence to the defined budgets.

Accounting

Enables the IT organization to account fully for the


way its money is spent.

Chargeback

Charging customers for their use of IT Services.

Demand
Modeling
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Working with the process of Demand Management


to anticipate usage of services by the business and
the associated financial implications of future
service demand.
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Lesson 3.8: Financial Management: Benefits


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Benefits
Enhanced decision making.
Increased speed of change.

Improved Service Portfolio Management.


Financial compliance and control.
Improved operational control.
Greater insight and communication of the value created by IT
services.
Increased visibility of IT leading to increased perception of IT
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Lesson 3.9: Business Relationship


Management: Purpose
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The purpose of Business Relationship Management are


To establish and maintain relationship between the service
provider and customer
To identify customer needs and ensure that the service provider is
able to meet these needs

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Lesson 4.0: Business Relationship Activities


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Following are the two key activities

Being the voice of the service provider to the customer

Being the voice of the customer to the service provider

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Lesson 4.1:Business Relationship Mgmt:


Role Business Relationship Manager
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Responsible for the interaction and the communication with


customers

Could easily combine with the Service level Manager to create


seamless conduit from customer to service provider capabilities
used to ensure value

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End of Service Strategy Module


Objectives and Key concepts of Service Strategy
Service Strategy processes.

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Module 2: Quiz
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Question 1:
Which ITIL process is responsible for drawing up a charging
system ?
a) Availability Management
b) Capacity Management
c) Financial Management for IT Services
d) Service Level Management
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Module 2: Quiz
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Question 2:
A Service Level Package is best described as?
a) A description of customer requirements used to negotiate a
Service Level Agreement

b) A defined level of utility and warranty associated with a core


service package
c) A description of the value that the customer wants and for
which they are willing to pay
d) A document showing the Service Levels achieved during an
agreed reporting period
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Module 2: Quiz
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Question 3:
The utility of a service is best described as:
a) Fit for design
b) Fit for purpose
c) Fit for function
d) Fit for use

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Module 2: Quiz
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Question 4:
The contents of a service package include:
a) Base Service Package, Supporting Service Package, Service
Level Package
b) Core Service Package, Supporting Process Package, Service
Level Package

c) Core Service Package, Base Service Package, Service


Support Package
d) Core Service Package, Supporting Services Package, Service
Level Packages
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Module 2: Quiz
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Question 5:
Setting policies and objectives is the primary concern of which of
the following elements of the Service Lifecycle?
a) Service Strategy
b) Service Strategy and Continual Service Improvement
c) Service Strategy, Service Transition and Service Operation
d) Service Strategy, Service Design, Service Transition, Service
Operation and Continual Service Improvement
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Module 2: Quiz
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Question 6:
Which of the following questions does guidance in Service Strategy
help answer?
1: What services should we offer and to whom?
2: How do we differentiate ourselves from competing alternatives?
3: How do we truly create value for our customers?
a) 1 only

b) 2 only
c) 3 only
d) All of the above
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Module 3
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Service
Design

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Lesson 1.0 Service Design


Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

Understand the Goals and Objectives of


Service Design
Understand the Value Service Design
provides to the Business.

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Lesson 1.1: Service Design Objectives


72

To convert the strategic objectives defined during Service Strategy


into Services and Service Portfolios.

To use a holistic approach for design to ensure integrated end-toend business related functionality and quality.

To ensure consistent design standards and conventions are


followed in all services and processes being designed.

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Lesson 1.2: Value to Business


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Reduced Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)


Improved quality of service
Improved consistency of service
Easier implementation of new or changed services
Improved service alignment
More effective service performance

Improved IT governance
More effective Service Management and IT processes
Improved information and decision-making
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Lesson 2.0: Service Design Key


Concepts
Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

Understand the importance of People, Processes,


Products and Partners for Service Management.

Understand the five major aspects of Service


Design.

Explain Service Design Package

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Lesson 2.1: 4 Ps in Service Management


75

Skills
Organisation
Experience

People

Products

Services
Technology
Tools

IT Service Management
Suppliers
Manufacturers
Vendor

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Partners

Processes

Activities
RACI
Dependencies

75

Lesson 2.2: Major Aspects of Service Design


76

New or Changed Service Solutions Design


Service Management systems and tools design
Technology and Management architectures design

Processes design
Measurement systems design

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76

Lesson 2.3: Service Design Package


77

Defines all aspects of an IT Service and its requirements through each


stage of its lifecycle. A service Design package is produced for every
new IT service, a major change or for retiring a service.

Service Acceptance
Criteria

Business requirements
Service Applicability
Service Contacts
Service Functional
Requirements
Service Level
Requirements
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Contents of a
Service Design
Package

Service Operational
Acceptance Plan
Service Transition
Plan
Service Program

Service Design &


Topology

Organisational
Readiness
77

78

Lesson 3.0: Service Design


Processes
Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

State the Objectives and basic concepts of the following processes

Service Catalog Management

Service Level Management

Supplier Management

Capacity Management

Availability Management

IT Service Continuity Management

Information Security Management

Design Coordination

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Lesson 3.1: Service Catalogue


Management: Objectives
79

Objectives

To provide a single source of consistent


information on all of the agreed services, and
ensure that it is widely available to those who
are approved to access it.
To ensure that a Service Catalog is produced,
maintained, and kept current, containing accurate
information on all operational services and those
being prepared to be run operationally.

Key terms

Business Service Catalog


Technical Service Catalog

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79

Lesson 3.2: Service Catalogue


Management: Key Terms
80

Business Service Catalog

Details of all the IT services delivered to the customer,


together with relationships to the business units and the
business process that rely on the IT services. This is the
customer view of the Service Catalogue.

Technical Service Catalog

Contains the details of all the IT services delivered to


the customer, together with relationships to the
supporting services, shared services, components and
CIs necessary to support the provision of the service to
the business.

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80

Lesson 3.3: Service Level Management:


Objectives

81

Objectives

To ensure an agreed level of IT service is


provided for all current IT services, and future
services have an achievable target.
To define , document, agree on, monitor
measure, report and review the level of IT
services provided.
To provide and improve the relationship and
communication with the business and customers.
Proactive measures to improve the levels of
service delivered are implemented in a costjustified manner.

Key terms

Service Level requirements (SLRs), Service


Catalog, Service Level Agreement (SLA),
Operational Level Agreement (OLA),
Underpinning contract (UPC)

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81

Lesson 3.4: Service Level Management:


Process Activities

82

Design and
Plan SLAs

Determine
and Document
Requirements

Service Design

SLA
Improvement
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Monitor
Service
Performance

Negotiate
& Continual Service
Negotiate &
Agree
Improvement

Produce
Service
Reports

Conduct Service
review and
Instigate Service
Improvement
82

Lesson 3.5: Service Level Management:


Terminology
83

Service Level
requirements (SLR)

Detailed recording of the Customers needs, forming the


basis for design criteria for a new or modified service.

Service Catalog

A written statement of available IT services, default


levels, options, prices and identification of which
business processes or customers use them.

Service Level
Agreement (SLA)

An Agreement between an IT Service Provider and a


Customer. The SLA describes the IT Service, documents
Service Level targets, and specifies the responsibilities
of the IT Service Provider and the Customer.

Operational Level
Agreement (OLA)

Internal agreement with another function of the same


organization which supports the IT service provider in
their delivery of services.

Underpinning
Contract (UPC)

Contract with an external supplier that supports the IT


organization in their delivery of services.

SLAM Chart

A Service Level Agreement Monitoring(SLAM) Chart is


used to help monitor and report achievements against
Service Level Targets.

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Lesson 3.6: Service Level Management:


Key Terms Illustrated
84
Business
Process

Business
Process

Payroll

Network
Services

Email
Services

Storage
Services

Business Process
S
L
A
Storage
Services

OLA
OLA
OLA
OLA
Service Desk
Hardware
Software
Applications
IT Infrastructure

U
P
C

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External

U
P
C

Supplier

Storage

U
P
C
84

Lesson 3.7: Service Level Management:


Designing SLA Structures
85

Multi Level SLAs

Customer Based vs. Service Based SLAs


Customer A

Customer B

Customer C
Service Based

Service Y
(Coffee)

Corporate Level SLA

Customer A

Customer Based

Service X
(Tea)

Corporate

Service Z
(Juice)

Customer B

Customer Level SLA


Service X
(Tea)

Service Y
(Coffee)

Service Z
(Juice)

Service Level SLA


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85

Lesson 3.8: Service Level Management:


SLA Content

86

Service Level Agreement


for Service XYZ

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Introduction to the SLA.


Service description
Mutual Responsibilities
Scope of SLA
Applicable Service Hours
Service Availability
Reliability
Customer Support Agreements
Relationship and Escalation contacts
Service Performance Metrics
Security
Costs and Charging Mechanisms.

86

Lesson 3.9: Supplier Management: Objectives


87

Objectives

To manage suppliers and the services they supply, to


provide seamless quality of IT service to the
business and ensure that value for money is
obtained.
Ensure that underpinning contracts and agreements
with suppliers are aligned to business needs.
Manage relationships with suppliers.
Negotiate and agree contracts with suppliers.
Manage supplier performance.
Maintain a supplier policy and a supporting
Supplier and Contract Database (SCD).

Key terms

Supplier and Contract Database (SCD)

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87

Lesson 3.10: Supplier Management:


Supplier and Contract Database
88

Supplier
Strategy
& Policy

Supplier categorization and


Maintenance of the SCD

Supplier and
Contracts
Evaluation

Supplier
&
Contract
Database
(SCD)

Establish new
suppliers and
Contracts

Supplier & Contract


Management &
performance

Contract
Renewal And/or
termination

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88

Lesson 3.11: Supplier Management:


Relationship with Service Level Management
89

Supplier Management

Service Level
Management

Supplier
Management

Service Level
Agreements (SLA)

Underpinning
Contracts (UCs)

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To ensure the UCs are aligned with


SLRs and SLAs by managing
relationships with Supplier.

External
Suppliers

89

Lesson 3.12: Capacity Management:


Objectives
90

Objectives

To ensure that cost-justifiable IT capacity in all


areas of IT always exists and is matched to the
current and future agreed needs of the business, in
a timely manner.
Produce and maintain an appropriate and up-todate Capacity Plan.
Provide advice and guidance to the business and IT
on all capacity and performance-related issues
Ensure that service performance achievements meet
or exceed all of their agreed performance targets.

Key terms

Capacity plan/ CMIS


Business capacity management
Service capacity management
Resource/Component capacity management

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90

Lesson 3.13: Capacity Management:


A Balancing Act
91

Supply
Capacity

Resources
Components

Demand
Performance

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Cost

91

Lesson 3.14: Capacity Management:


Process Activities
92

Review Current Capacity


and Performance
Capacity Management
Information System (CMIS)

Capacity
performance reports
& data

Improve Current service


and component capacity

Forecasts

Plan new Capacity


Capacity Plans

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Assess, Agree &


Document new
Requirements & Capacity

92

Lesson 3.15: Capacity Management:


Sub Process

93

Business
Capacity
Management

Translates business needs and plans into


requirements for service and IT infrastructure,
ensuring that the future business requirements for IT
services are quantified, designed, planned and
implemented in a timely fashion.

Service Capacity
Management

Management, control and prediction of the end-toend performance and capacity of the live,
operational IT services usage and workloads.
Ensure that the performance of all services, as
detailed in service targets within SLAs and SLRs, is
monitored and measured, and that the collected
data is recorded, analyzed and reported.

Component
Capacity
Management

Management, control and prediction of the


performance, utilization and capacity of individual
IT technology components.

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93

Lesson 3.16: Availability Management


Process: Objectives

94

Objectives

To ensure that the level of Service Availability


delivered in all services is matched to or exceeds
the current and future business requirements, in a
cost-effective manner.
To provide a point of focus and management for all
availability-related issues.
Produce and maintain an appropriate and up-todate Availability Plan.
Ensure that proactive measures to improve the
availability of services are implemented wherever it
is cost-justifiable to do so.

Key terms

Availability, Reliability, Maintainability,


Serviceability
Vital business Functions (VBF)
Expanded Incident Lifecycle & MTRS, MTBF, MTBSI

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94

Lesson 3.17: Availability Management:


Key Terms explained
95

Availability

Reliability

Maintainability

Serviceability

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The percent time of agreed service hours the


component or service is available.
A measure of how long a component or IT
Service can perform its agreed operation
without interruption.

A measure of how quickly and effectively a


component or IT Service can be restored to
normal working after a Failure.
The ability of a Third-Party Supplier to meet
the terms of its Contract. This Contract will
include agreed levels of Reliability,
Maintainability or Availability for an IT service
or component.
95

Lesson 3.18: Availability Management:

Key Terms explained..contd.

96

Vital business
Functions
(VBFs)

The business critical elements of the business


process supported by an IT Service.
Typically this will be where more effort and
investments will be spent to protect these vital
business functions.

Service
Availability

All aspects of service availability and


unavailability and the impact of component
availability, or the potential impact of
component unavailability on service
availability.

Component
Availability

All aspects of component availability and


unavailability.

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96

Lesson 3.19: Availability Management:


Expanded Incident Lifecycle

Time to
detect

Time to
Record

Time to
Diagnose

Time to
Repair

Time to
Recover

Time to
Restore

Mean Time to Restore Service (MTRS)

Downtime

Incident 2

Uptime

Restored

Recovered

Repaired

Diagnose

Record

Detect

Incident 1

Uptime

97

Mean Time
Between
Failures
(MTBF)

Mean Time to between system incidents (MTBSI)


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97

Lesson 3.20: IT Service Continuity


Management: Objectives
98

Objectives

To support the overall Business Continuity


Management (BCM) process by ensuring that the
required IT technical and service facilities (including
computer systems, networks, applications, data
repositories, telecommunications, environment,
technical support and Service Desk) can be resumed
within required, and agreed, business timescales.
Maintain a set of IT Service Continuity Plans and IT
recovery plans that support the overall Business
Continuity Plans (BCPs) of the organization.

Key terms

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Business Continuity Planning (BCP)


Business Impact Analysis (BIA)
Business Continuity Management (BCM)
Risk Analysis

98

Lesson 3.21: IT Service Continuity


Management: Key Terms Explained
99

Business
Continuity
Management
(BCM)

Strategies and actions to take place to continue


Business Processes in the case of a disaster.
It is essential that the ITSCM strategy is
integrated into and a subset of the BCM
strategy.

Business Impact
Analysis (BIA)

Quantifies the impact loss of IT service would


have on the business.
Identifies the most important services to the
organisation and is therefore critical input to
Strategy

Vital Business
Functions (VBFs)

The business critical elements of the business


process supported by an IT Service.
Typically this will be where more effort and
investments will be spent to protect these vital
business functions.

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99

Lesson 3.22: IT Service Continuity


Management: Key Terms Explained..contd
100

Risk

Possibility of an event occurring that could cause


harm or loss, or affect the ability to achieve
Objectives.
A Risk is measured by the probability of a
Threat, the Vulnerability of the Asset to that
Threat, and the Impact it would have if it
occurred.

Risk
Assessment

Identification & Evaluation of Assets, Threats


and Vulnerabilities that exist to business
processes, IT services, IT infrastructure and other
assets.

Risk
Management
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Identifying appropriate risk responses or costjustifiable countermeasures to combating


identified risks.
100

Lesson 3.23: IT Service Continuity


Management: Lifecycle Activities
101

Initiation

Invocation

Requirements
& Strategy

On Going
Operations

Business Continuity
Strategy

Implementation

Business Continuity
Plans

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101

Lesson 3.24: Information Security


Management: Objectives
102

Objectives

To align IT security with business security and ensure


that information security is effectively managed in
all service and IT Service Management activities.
To protect the interests of those relying on
information, and the systems and communications
that deliver the information, from harm resulting
from failures of availability, confidentiality and
integrity.

Key terms

Availability, Confidentiality, Integrity


Information Security policy
Information Security Management System (ISMS)

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102

Lesson 3.25: Information Security


Management: Key Terminology
103

Confidentiality

Integrity

Availability

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Protecting information against unauthorized


access and use.
Examples: Passwords, swipe cards, firewalls
Accuracy, completeness and timeliness of services,
data information, systems and physical locations.
Examples: Rollback mechanisms, test procedures,
audits.
The information should be accessible at any
agreed time. This depends on the continuity
provided by the information processing systems.
Examples: UPS, resilient systems, Service desk
hours

103

Lesson 3.26: Information Security


Management: Security Framework
104

Information Security Framework

Information
Security
Strategy

Information Security Management System


Information
Security Policy

Information
Security
Organisation

Information
Security Controls

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Information Security Processes


Management of Security Risks

> Communications Strategy


> Training & Awareness
Strategy

104

Lesson 3.27: Information Security


Management: Security Policy
105

Audience for
Security Policy
These policies
should be widely
available to all
customers and
users, and their
compliance should
be referred to in
all SLRs, SLAs,
contracts and
agreements.

Simplilearn Solutions Pvt. Ltd. 2011

Security Policy Contains.

An overall Information Security Policy


Use and misuse of IT assets policy
Access control policy
Password control policy
E-mail policy
internet policy
Anti-virus policy
Information classification policy
Document classification policy
Remote access policy
Policy for supplier access of IT service, information
and components
Asset disposal policy.
105

Lesson 3.28: Information Security Mgmt:


Information Security Management System (ISMS)
106

Interested
Parties
(Customers,
Suppliers
etc.)

Service level
Agreements (SLAs)
Underpinning
Contracts (UCs)
Operational level
agreements (OLAs)
Policy Statements

Information
Security
Requirements &
Expectations

Learn
Improve
Plan
Implement

Simplilearn Solutions Pvt. Ltd. 2011

Plan

Implement

Awareness,
Classification
Personnel Security
Physical Security
Systems Security
Security Incident
Procedures

Control

Managed
Information
Security

Organize
Establish framework
Allocate responsibilities

Maintain

Evaluate

Interested
Parties
(Customers,
Suppliers
etc.)

Internal audit
External audit
Self assessments
Security Incidents

106

Lesson 3.29: Design Coordination - Objectives


107

Design Coordination main objectives are


Ensuring consistent design of services
Coordination of all design activities across projects
Maintaining Governance

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107

Lesson 3.30: Design Coordination - Governance


108

Some aspects of the governance that Design Coordination can bring


includes
Assisting and supporting each project through all the activities and
processes
Maintaining policies and guidelines for service design activities
Planning and forecasting of the resources for future demand
Ensuring that all the requirements are appropriately addressed in
service designs

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108

Lesson 3.31: Design Coordination - Keywords


109

Service Design Package


Service Design Policy

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109

110

End of Module 3

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111

Service Design :Quiz

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Module 3 : Quiz
112

Question 1:
Which of the following is NOT one of the five individual aspects of
Service Design?
A. The design of the Service Portfolio, including the Service
Catalogue
B. The design of new or changed services
C. The design of Market Spaces
D. The design of the technology architecture and management
systems
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112

Module 3 : Quiz
113

Question 2:
Which of the following is MOST concerned with the design of new
or changed services?
A. Change Management
B. Service Transition
C. Service Strategy
D. Service Design

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113

Module 3 : Quiz
114

Question 3:
Implementation of ITIL Service Management requires preparing
and planning the effective and efficient use of:
A. People, Process, Partners, Suppliers
B. People, Process, Products, Technology
C. People, Process, Products, Partners
D. People, Products, Technology, Partners

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114

Module 3 : Quiz
115

Question 4:
What is the MAIN goal of Availability Management?
A. To monitor and report availability of components
B. To ensure that all targets in the Service Level Agreements
(SLAs) are met
C. To guarantee availability levels for services and components
D. To ensure that service availability matches or exceeds the
agreed needs of the business
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115

Module 3 : Quiz
116

Question 5 :
The Information Security Policy should be available to which
groups of people?

A. Senior business managers and all IT staff only


B. Senior business managers, IT executives and the Information
Security Manager only
C. All customers, users and IT staff
D. Information Security Management staff only
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116

Module 3 : Quiz
117

Question 6 :
Which of the following are activities that would be carried out by
Supplier Management?
1: Management and review of Organisational Level Agreements (OLAs)
2: Evaluation and selection of suppliers
3: Ongoing management of suppliers
A. 1 and 2 only
B. 1 and 3 only
C. 2 and 3 only
D. All of the above
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117

Module 4
118

Service
Transition

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118

Lesson 1.0: Service Transition


Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

Understand the Goals and Objectives of


Service Transition
Explain What value Service Transition
provides to the Business

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Lesson 1.1: Service Transition Goals


120

Assure proposed changes in the Service Design package are realized.


Plan for and Implement the Deployment of Releases for New or Changed
Services.
Test Releases so as to minimize the possibility of undesirable impact to
the Production environment.
Retire or Archive Services.

KEY ROLE: To move Services from Design to Operations, without impacting


the ongoing Services

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Lesson 1.2: Service Transition Objectives


121

Plan and manage the resources to establish successfully a new or


changed service into production within the predicted cost, quality and time
estimates.
Ensure there is minimal unpredicted impact on the production services,
operations and support organization.
Increase the customer, user and Service Management staff satisfaction
with the Service Transition practices including deployment of the new or
changed service, communications, release documentation, training and
knowledge transfer.
Increase proper use of the services and underlying applications and
technology solutions.

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Lesson 1.3: Value to Business


122

The capacity of the business to respond quickly and adequately


to changes in the market improves.
Changes in the business as a result of takeovers, contracting,
etc. are well managed.
More successful changes and releases for the business.
Better compliance of business and governing rules.
Less deviation between planned budgets and the actual costs
Better insight into the possible risks during and after the input of
a service into production.
Higher productivity of customer staff
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122

Lesson 2.0: Service Transition: Key


Principles and Models
Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

Understand Configuration Item


Understand Configuration Management System

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Lesson 2.2: Configuration Item (CI)


124
124

Anything that needs to be managed in order to deliver an IT Service.


CI information is recorded in the Configuration Management System.
CI information is maintained throughout its lifecycle by Configuration

Management.
All CIs are subject to Change Management control.

CIs typically include


IT Services, hardware, software, buildings, people, and formal
documentation such as Process documentation and SLAs
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Lesson 2.3: Configuration Management


System (CMS)

125
125 Information about all Configuration Items

CI may be entire service, or any component

Stored in 1 or more databases (CMDBs)


CMS stores attributes
Any information about the CI that might be needed
CMS stores relationships
Between CIs
With incident, problem, change records etc.
CMS has multiple layers
Data sources and tools, information integration, knowledge processing
(scorecards, dashboards etc.), presentation
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126

Lesson 3.0: Service Transition


Processes

Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to understand
Objectives and basic concepts of the four processes in
Service Transition:

Transition, Planning and Support


Change Management
Service Asset and Configuration Management
Release and Deployment management, And
Knowledge Management

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127

Lesson 3.0.1: Transition, Planning and


Support
Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

State the Goals, Objectives and basic


concepts of Transition, Planning and Support

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Lesson 3.0.2:Transition, Planning and


Support- Goals and Objectives
128

The Objectives of Transition, Planning and Support are


Successful Planning and coordination of resources
Ensuring common framework
Proper planning for aligning customer and business change projects with
Service Transition plans

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128

Lesson 3.0.3:Transition, Planning and


Support Activities- Purpose
129

The purpose of the Transition, Planning and Support activities are:


Planning appropriate capacity and resources
Provide support for the Service Transition teams and people
Integrity of changes with all other Service Transition processes
Coordination of activities across projects, suppliers and service teams

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129

130

Lesson 3.1: Change Management


Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

State the Goals, Objectives and basic


concepts of Change Management

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Lesson 3.2: Change Management :


Goals and Objectives
131

Goals and Objectives:


Respond to changing business requirements
Respond to Business and IT requests to align Services with business
needs.
Ensuring Changes are introduced in a controlled manner.
Optimize business risk
Implement changes successfully
Implement changes in times that meet business needs
Use standard processes
Record all changes

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131

Lesson 3.3: Change Management : Scope


132

Scope
Addition, Modification or Removal of
Any Service or Configuration Item or associated documentation
Including
Strategic, Tactical and Operational changes
Excluding
Business strategy and process
Anything documented as out of scope

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132

Lesson 3.4: Change Management :


Change Types
133

Change Types

Normal changes

Types are specific to the organization

Type determines what assessment is required

Standard changes

Pre-authorized with an established procedure

Tasks are well known, documented and low risk (usually)

E.g replacement of faulty printer, upgrade PC etc.

Emergency changes

Business criticality means there is insufficient time for normal handling

Should use normal process but speeded up

Impact can be high, more prone to failure, Should be kept to minimum

Remediation planning
Backout Plans
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133

Lesson 3.5: Change Management :


Change Flow
134

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134

Lesson 3.7: Change Management :


Roles in Change Management
135

Change Manager
Ensures

that process is followed


Usually authorizes minor changes
Coordinates and runs CAB meetings
Produces change schedule
Coordinates change/built/test/implementation
Reviews/Closes Changes

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135

Lesson 3.8: Change Management :


Change Advisory Board (CAB)
136

Change Advisory Board (CAB)

Supports the change manager

Consulted on significant changes

Business, users, application/technical support, operations, service


desk, capacity, service continuity, third parties

people who have clear understanding of business needs

Technical specialists / consultants

Emergency CAB (ECAB)

Subset of the standard CAB

Membership depends on the specific change

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Lesson 3.9: Change Management :


Change Metrics
137

Change Metrics
Compliance
Reduction in unauthorized changes
Reduction in emergency changes
Effectiveness
Percentage of changes which met requirements
Reduction in disruptions, defects and re-work
Reduction in changes failed/backed out
Number of incidents attributable to changes
Efficiency
Benefits (value compared to cost)
Average time to implement (by urgency/priority/type)
Percentage accuracy in change estimates
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137

Lesson 3.10: Change Management :


Key Challenges
138
Business pressure to just do it

Inaccurate and incomplete Configuration Management System


Soiled Technical Function areas
Misunderstanding of Emergency changes
Scalability across large organizations
Vendor/Contract Compliance

Adhoc nature of people

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138

139

Lesson 3.11: Service Asset and


Configuration Management
Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

State the goals, objectives and basic concepts of


Service Asset and Configuration Management

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Lesson 3.12: Service Asset and


Configuration Management: Goals and Objectives
140

The goal of SACM is to provide a logical model of the IT infrastructure


correlating IT services and different IT components (physical, logical etc)
needed to deliver these services
The objective of SACM is to define and control the components of
services and infrastructure and maintain accurate configuration records.
This enables an organization to comply with corporate governance
requirements, control its asset base, optimize its costs, manage change
and release effectively, and resolve incidents and problems faster.

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140

Lesson 3.13: Service Asset and


Configuration Management: Basic Concepts
141

Basic Concepts
What is a Configuration Item (CI) ?
Anything that needs to be managed in order to deliver an IT Service

CI information is recorded in the Configuration Management System

CI information is maintained throughout its lifecycle by Configuration Management

All CIs are subject to Change Management control

CI Types :
CIs typically include
IT Services, hardware, software, buildings, people, and formal documentation such as
Process documentation and SLAs
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Lesson 3.13: Service Asset and


Configuration Management: Basic Concepts
142

Basic Concepts

Configuration baseline
Configuration details captured at a specific point in time. This
captures both the structure and details of a configuration Item.
It is used as a reference point for future Builds, Releases and
Changes. (e.g. After major changes, disaster recovery etc).
Typically managed through the Change Management process.

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Lesson 3.13: Service Asset and


Configuration Management: Basic Concepts: Contd..
143

Basic Concepts
What is a Configuration Management System (CMS) ?
Information about all Configuration Items
CI may be an entire service, or any component
Stored in 1 or more databases (CMDBs)

CMS stores attributes


Any information about the CI that might be needed
CMS stores relationships
Between CIs
With incident, problem, change records etc.
CMS has multiple layers
Data sources and tools, information integration, knowledge processing (scorecards,
dashboards etc.), presentation

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Lesson 3.13: Service Asset and


Configuration Management: Basic Concepts: Contd..
144

Basic Concepts
What is a Definitive Media Library (DML) ?
The only source for build and distribution
Master copies of all software assets
In house, external software houses
Scripts as well as code
Management tools as well as applications
Including licenses

Quality checked
Complete, correct, virus scanned ..

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Lesson 3.14: Service Asset and


Configuration Mgmt..: Basic Concepts: CMDB & DML
145

Basic Concepts
DML and CMDB

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Lesson 3.16: Service Asset and Configuration Mgmt.:


Basic Concepts: Relationship between CMDB, CMS and SKMS
146

SKMS

Informed Decision

CMS

CMDB

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147

Lesson 3.17: Release and Deployment


Management
Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

State the goals, objectives and basic concepts of


Release and Deployment Management

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Lesson 3.18: Release and Deployment


Management: Goals
148

Release management is responsible for planning, scheduling, and


controlling the movement of new or changed services, in the form
of a release package, to both the testing and the live production
environments
Deployment management is responsible for the movement of new
or changed hardware, software, documentation, or other
configuration items into the live production environment.

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Lesson 3.19: Release and Deployment


Management: Objectives
149

Planned Release and Deployment in line to the business needs


Build, Install, Test and Integrate releases

Efficiently, successfully and on schedule.


With minimal impact on production services, operations, and support teams
Enabling new or changed services to deliver agreed service requirements

Control and minimize the impact of releases to the ongoing


services
Transfer knowledge and skills to end users and support teams,
leading to an effective use and support

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Lesson 3.20: Release and Deployment


Management: Basic Concepts: Release Policy
150
Release Policy: The overarching strategy for Releases and was derived
from the Service Design phase of the Service Lifecycle and typically
includes:
Release Description with the unique identification, numbering and naming
conventions.
The roles and responsibilities at each stage in process.
The expected frequency for each type of release
The approach for accepting and grouping changes into a release.
The mechanism to automate the build, installation and release distribution
processes to improve re-use, repeatability and efficiency
How the configuration baseline for the release is captured and verified against
the actual release contents, e.g. hardware, software, documentation and
knowledge
Exit and entry criteria and authority for acceptance of the release into each
Service Transition stage and into the controlled test, training, disaster recovery
and production environments
Criteria and authorization to exit early life support and handover to Service
Operations.
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Lesson 3.21: Release and Deployment


Management: Basic Concepts: Release Unit
151

Release unit

- Cls that are normally released together


- Typically includes sufficient components to perform a useful
function. For example - Fully configured desktop PC, payroll
applications

Release package
- Single release or many related releases

- Can include hardware, software, utility, warranty,


documentation, training

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Lesson 3.21: Release and Deployment


Management: Basic Concepts: Release Types
152

Release Types
Major Release:

Containing large proportions of new functionalities. Also known


as a Major Upgrade, generally supersedes all preceding minor
upgrades.

Minor Release:
Contains small enhancements and fixes. A Minor Upgrade or
release generally supersedes previous emergency fixes.

Emergency Release:
Normally linked to an Emergency change.
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Lesson 3.22: Release and Deployment Mgmt.


Basic Concepts: Release and Deployment Approaches
153

Release and Deployment Approaches

Big bang versus phased approach

Phased approach can be users, locations, functionality ..

Push versus Pull deployment


Automated versus manual deployment

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154

Lesson 3.23: Knowledge Management


Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

State the goals, objectives and basic concepts of


Knowledge Management

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Lesson 3.24: Knowledge Management:


Goals and Objectives
155

The goal of Knowledge Management is to Improve quality of


management decision making by ensuring that reliable and secure
information and data is available throughout the service lifecycle
The objective of Knowledge Management is to ensure that the right
information is delivered to the appropriate place or person at the right
time to enable informed decisions.

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Lesson 3.25: Knowledge Management:


Purpose
156

Knowledge Management is The process responsible for gathering,


analyzing, storing and sharing knowledge and information within an
organization.
The primary purpose of knowledge Management is to improve
efficiency and effectiveness by reducing the need to rediscover
knowledge.

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Lesson 3.26: Knowledge Management:


Basic Concepts: DIKW
157

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Lesson 3.27: Knowledge Management:


Service Knowledge Management System
158

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Lesson 3.28: Knowledge Management: SKMS


159

A set of tools for managing knowledge and information.


SKMS includes CMS.
SKMS contains all the information needed to manage the lifecycle
of IT Services.

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160

Service Transition : Summary


Goals and Objectives
Service Transition processes:
Transition, Planning and Support
Change Management
Service Asset and Configuration Management
Release and Deployment Management
Knowledge Management

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Service Transition : Quiz

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Module 4: Quiz
162

Question 1:
Which of the following statements about a standard change is
INCORECT ?
a) A Standard change is a low risk change
b) Standard changes are pre-authorized changes
c) Standard changes are authorized by E-CAB
d) Standard changes are only raised by Incident Management
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Module 4: Quiz
163

Question 2:
Which statement is the CORRECT statement about the relationship
between CMS and SKMS ?
a) The SKMS is a part of the CMS
b) The CMS is a part of the SKMS
c) There is no relationship between the CMS and SKMS
d) The CMS and the SKMS are the same

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Module 4: Quiz
164

Question 3:
Whish of the following is an activity of SACM ?
a) Account for all the Financial assets of an organization
b) Specify the relevant attributes of CI
c) Implement ITIL across the organization
d) Design Service models to justify ITIL implementations

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Module 4: Quiz
165

Question 4:
Which of the following does Service Transition provide guidance
on:
1. Moving New and Changed Services to production
2. Testing and Validation
3. Transfer of services to and from external service provider
a) All of the above
b) None of the above
c) Only 1 and 2
d) Only 1
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Module 4: Quiz
166

Question 5:
Which of the following is an INCORRECT Release and
Deployment approach?
a) Propagate and Consolidate
b) Push and Pull
c) Big bang and Phased
d) Automated and Manual

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Module 4: Quiz
167

Question 6:
Which of the following would be stored in the DML?
1. Copies of Purchased software
2. Copies of Internally developed software
3. Relevant License documentation
4. The Change schedule
a) All of the above

b) 1 and 2 only
c) 3 and 4 only
d) 1, 2 and 3 only
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Module 5
168

Service
Operations

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169

Lesson 1.0: Service Operations


Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

Understand the Goals and Objectives of Service


Operations
Briefly Explain What Value Service Operations provide
to business
Understand Key Concepts & definitions
Understand the Role of Communication in Service
Operations

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Lesson 1.1: Service Operations: Objectives


170

To coordinate and carry out the activities and processes required to


deliver and manage services at agreed levels to business users and
customers.
Responsible for the ongoing management of the technology that is
used to deliver and support services.
Carrying out activities and Processes required to deliver and manage
Services at agreed levels.

KEY ROLE: How to achieve effectiveness & efficiency in Service Delivery


so as to ensure value to business and the service provider
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Lesson 1.2: Value to Business


171

Service Operations is where the plans, designs and optimizations


from other ITIL lifecycle phases are executed and measured.
Service value is modeled in Service Strategy
The cost of the service is designed, predicted and validated in
Service Design and Service Transition
Measures for optimization are identified in Continual Service
Improvement

From a customer viewpoint, Service Operation is where actual


value is seen.

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Lesson 1.3: Role of Communication


172

Good communication is important across all phases of the service lifecycle


but particularly so in Service Operation

Good communication is needed between all IT Service Management staff


and with users/ customers / partners.
Issues can often be mitigated or avoided through good communication .
All communication should have:
- Intended purpose and/ or resultant action
- Clear audience, who should be involved in deciding the
need/format
Examples of Communications in Service Operations
Routine operational communication
Communication between shifts
Performance reporting
-Communication related to emergencies
Training on new or customized processes and service designs
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Lesson 1.4: Events


173
An expected or unexpected change of state of a an IT component that could negatively
impact delivery of IT services.
Events are typically notifications created by an IT service, Configuration Item (CI) or a
monitoring tool.
Event Type

Description

Informational

An event that does not require any action, regular operation


Example: Notification that a scheduled workload has completed

Warning

An Event that is unusual but not an exception, requires closer


monitoring.
Example: A servers CPU utilization is approaching maximum
performance threshold.

Exception

An Event signifying a service or a device is operating abnormally


Example: A PC scan reveals the installation of unauthorized
software.

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Lesson 1.5: Alerts & Incidents


174

Incident

Alert

A warning that a threshold has been


reached, something has changed, or
a Failure has occurred.
Alerts are often created and
managed by System Management
tools.
Alerts are managed by the Event
Management Process.
Objective is to notify the concerned
Stakeholders

An unplanned interruption to an IT
service.
A reduction in the quality of an IT
service.
Failure of an IT component that has
not yet affected service, but could
likely disrupt service if left
unchecked. This can be raised by IT
support teams.
Example: Failure of a server in a
clustered mode.

Relationship between Events, Alerts and Incident


All Alerts are Events, but not all Events trigger Alerts

All Incidents are Events, but all Events are not Incidents
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Lesson 1.6: Service Request


175

Service Request

A generic description for many varying types of demands that are placed upon the
IT Department by the users.

Many of these requests are actually small changes low risk, frequently occurring,
low cost, etc.

Their scale and frequency, low-risk nature means that they are better handled by a
separate process, rather than being allowed to congest and obstruct the normal
Incident and Change Management processes.

Examples:
A request to change a password,
A request to install an additional software application onto a particular PC,
A request to relocate some items of desktop equipment

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Lesson 1.7: Problem & Workaround


176

Problem

The cause of one or more incidents.

The cause is not usually known at the


time a Problem Record is created,
and the Problem Management
Process is responsible for further
investigation.

Prioritized in the same way and for


same reasons as Incidents.

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Workaround

A temporary way to restore service


failures to a usable level. For example;
rebooting a server hang.

Used for reducing or eliminating the


Impact of an Incident or Problem for which
a full Resolution is not yet available.

Workarounds for Incidents that do not


have associated Problem Records are
documented in the Incident Record.

Workarounds for Problems are


documented in Known Error Records.

176

Lesson 1.8: Known Error (KE) and Known


Error Database (KEDB)
177

Known Error (KE)

Known Error Database (KEDB)

A storage of previous knowledge of


incidents and problems
exact details of the fault and the
symptoms that occurred
how they were overcome

Allows quicker diagnosis and resolution


if Incidents/Problems recur.

A Problem that has a documented Root


cause and a Workaround.
A known error might be raised for
a problem whose root cause is not
yet known but a workaround has
been identified.

Known Errors are created and


managed throughout their Lifecycle by
Problem Management.

Known Errors may also be identified by


Development or Suppliers. For
example; Application incompatibility
reports for Windows by Microsoft

.
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Lesson 1.9: Impact, Urgency & Priority


178

Impact

A measure of the effect of an Incident, Problem or Change on


Business Processes.
Based on how Service levels will be affected.

Urgency

A measure of how long it will be until an Incident, Problem or


Change has a significant Impact on the Business.

Priority

The relative importance of an Incident, Problem or Change.


Priority is based on Impact and Urgency, and is used to identify
required times for actions to be taken.
For example, the SLA may state that Priority 2 Incidents must
be resolved within 12 hours.

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179

Lesson 2.0: Service Operations Process


Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

State the objectives and basic concepts for Event


Management

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Lesson 2.1: Event Management: Objectives


180
180

Definition
The process responsible for monitoring Events throughout their
Lifecycle.
Objectives
To detect events, make sense of them and determine the appropriate control
action.

Can be used as a basis for automating many routine Operations


Management activities,
For example
- executing scripts on remote devices, or
- submitting jobs for processing
It provides a way of comparing actual performance and behavior against
design standards and SLAs.
Provide the basis for Operational Monitoring and Control
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Lesson 2.2: Event Management: Process


Activities
181

Process Activities
Event occurs
Event Detection , Filtering & Notification
Event Significance (Type of Event)
(Information, Warning or Exception)
Event correlation.
Event Response
Event Review & Closure

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Lesson 2.3: Event Management:


Event Logging & Filtering
182

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Lesson 2.4: Event Management:


Managing Exceptional Events
183

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183

Lesson 2.5: Event Management:


Managing Information & Warning Events
184

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Lesson 2.6: Incident Management: Objectives


185

Definition
The process for dealing with all incidents; this can include failures, questions or
queries reported by the users (usually via a telephone call to the Service Desk),
by technical staff, or automatically detected and reported by event monitoring
tools.

Objectives
To restore normal service operation as quickly as possible and minimize the
adverse impact on business operations
To ensure that the best possible levels of service quality and availability are
maintained, i.e. restore service within SLAs

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Lesson 2.7: Incident Management:


Scope and Value to Business
186

Scope

Value to Business

Managing any disruption or


potential disruption to live IT services

Lower downtime to the business,


which in turn means higher
availability of the service.

Incidents identified
Directly by users through the
service Desk
Through an interface from Event
Management to incident
Management tools

The capability to identify business


priorities and dynamically allocate
resources as necessary.

The ability to identify potential


improvements to services.

Reported and/or logged by


technical staff

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Lesson 2.8: Incident Management:


Basic Concepts
187

Time Scales

Timescales must be agreed for all incident handling stages.


- Depending on Priority & SLAs
- Documented in OLAs & UCs
All support groups should be made fully aware of these
timescales.

Incident Models

An Incident model is predefined steps to handle a particular


Incident.
The incident model should include:

The steps that should be taken to handle the incident

The order in which these steps should be taken in.

Major Incident

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Responsibilities; who should do what

An Incident Model to handle Incidents of Major Impacts and great


Urgency.

187

Lesson 2.9: Incident Management:


Process Flow & Activities
188

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188

Lesson 2.10: Incident Management:


Process Interfaces
189

Performance
incidents
Incident
Workarounds

SLAs, OLAs, UCs

Service
Level
Manage
ment

Capacity
Manage
ment
Incident
Management

Availabil
ity
Manage
ment

Availability
incidents

CI data
Maintain faulty CI
Status

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Event
Manage
ment

Problem
Manage
ment

Change
Manage
ment

Service break/ degrading


Events

Potential problems

RFC for resolving Incidents


Incidents from Failed
Changes

SACM*
*SACM: Service Asset & Configuration Management

189

Lesson 2.11: Problem Management: Objectives


190

Definition
The process responsible for managing the lifecycle of all problems.
Problem Management seeks to identify and remove the root-cause of Incidents
in the IT Infrastructure.

Objectives
To prevent problems and resulting incidents from happening and to
eliminate recurring incidents
To minimize the impact of incidents that cannot be prevented.

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Lesson 2.12: Problem Management:


Scope and Value to Business
191

Scope

Value to Business

Together with Incident and Change


Management increases IT service
availability and quality.

Reduction in downtimes and


disruptions of Business critical
systems.

Reduced expenditure on
workarounds or fixes that do not
work

Reduction in cost of effort in firefighting or resolving repeat


incidents.

Activities required to diagnose the


root cause of incidents and to
determine the resolution to those
problems.
Responsible for ensuring that the
resolution is implemented through the
appropriate control procedures,
especially Change Management and
Release Management.
Maintain information about
problems and the appropriate
workarounds and resolutions

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Lesson 2.13: Problem Management:


Basic Concepts
192

Reactive Problem
Management

Resolution of underlying cause (s)

The activities are similar to those of Incident


Management for the logging, categorization and
classification for Problems. The subsequent activities are
different as this is where the actual root-cause analysis
is performed and the Known Error corrected.
Covered in Service Operation

Proactive Problem
Management

Prevention of future problems by analyzing Incident


Records, and using data collected by other IT Service
Management processes and external sources to identify
trends or significant problems.
Generally undertaken as part of Continual Service
Improvement (CSI)

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Lesson 2.14: Problem Management:


Process Flow: Reactive Problem Management
193

Problem
detection &
Logging

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Problem
Categorization
& Prioritization

Problem
Investigation &
Diagnosis

Problem
Resolution &
Closure

Workarounds &
raising Known
Error Records

Major Problem
Reviews

Errors from
Development /
Suppliers

Known
Error
Database

193

Lesson 2.15: Problem Management:


Process Flow: Interfaces with Other Processes
194

Availability Management
Change Management

Capacity Management
Configuration Management

Problem
Management
Release & Deployment
Management

Service Level Management

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IT Service Continuity
Management

Financial Management

194

Lesson 2.16: Request Fulfillment Process


195

Definition
The processes of dealing with Service Requests from the users.

Objectives
To provide pre-defined pre-approved standard services to users.
To provide users with information on available services and procedures for
obtaining them.
Deliver requested standard services.
Assist IT users with general information, comments and complaints

Basic Concepts
Request models Specific procedures for handling certain types of requests
For example; IMACS, Password resets, etc.
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Lesson 2.17: Access Management: Objectives


196

Definition
The process of granting authorized users the right to use a service, while
preventing access to non-authorized users.
Also referred to as Rights Management or Identity Management.
In practice, Access Management is the operational enforcement of the
policies defined by Information Security Management.

Objectives
To grant authorized users the right to use a Service and deny access to
unauthorized users
To Execute policies and actions defined in Security and Availability
Management

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Lesson 2.18: Access Management:


Basic Concepts
197

Basic Concepts
Access

Access refers to the level and extent of a services functionality


or data that a user is entitled to use.

Identity

The information about the user that distinguishes them as an


individual, and which verifies their status within the
organization.

By definition, the identity of a user is unique to that user.

Rights

Also called privileges, refer to the actual settings whereby a


user is provided access to a service or group of services.
Typical rights or levels of access include read, write, execute,
change, delete.

Service/ Service
Groups

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Granting users/User groups access to similar set of services

197

198

Lesson 3.0: Service Operations:


Functions
Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

Explain the role, objectives and


organizational structures of Service desk

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Lesson 3.1: Service Desk


199

Definition
A Service Desk is a functional unit made up of a dedicated number of staff
responsible for dealing with a variety of service events, often made via
telephone calls, web interface, or automatically reported infrastructure events.
Acts as daily Single point of contact for IT users

Objectives
To restore the normal service to the users as quickly as possible.
Operate as Level 1 for Incident Management and Request Fulfillment i.e.
Log calls, do initial diagnosis and investigation and if possible resolve and
close.

Manage Incidents throughout its lifecycle, which also includes user


communication and Technical & hierarchical escalations.
Conducting customer/user satisfaction survey.
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Lesson 3.1: Purpose of Service Desk


200

Purpose of Service Desk


Improved customer service, perception of IT and satisfaction with IT services
Increase accessibility to IT services through a single point of contact,
communication and information.
Better quality and faster turnaround of customer or user IT requests
Enhanced focus and a proactive approach to IT service provisioning.
More meaningful management information for decision support
Improved teamwork and communication amongst IT staff.
A reduced negative business impact.
Improved usage of IT Support resources and increased productivity of
business personnel.

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Lesson 3.2: Organization Structures


201

Type

Description

1. Local

Located physically close to the user community it serves.

2. Centralized

Service desk is deployed at one central physical location.

3. Virtual

Impression of single, centralized Service desk, through the


use of technology and tools to create a virtual Service
desk.

4. Follow-The-Sun

Multiple Service desks across time zones to provide 24x7


service.

5. Specialized

specialist groups within the overall Service Desk structure,


so that incidents relating to a particular IT service can be
routed directly (normally via telephony selection or IVR or
a web-based interface) to the specialist group.

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Lesson 3.3: Service Desk Function:


Organization Structures - Local
202

Local

Aids communication and gives a


clearly visible presence

Can often be inefficient and


expensive to resource due to low call
volumes

Reasons for a Local service desk


Language and cultural or
political differences
Different time zones
Specialized groups of users
VIP/criticality status of users.

Local Users

Service Desk
(local)

Third Party
Support

Application
Support

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Infrastructure
Support
202

Lesson 3.4: Service Desk Function:


Organization Structures- Centralized
203

Centralized
Customer
Site 1

Customer
Site 2

Customer
Site 3

Service Desk
(centralized)

Local Service Desks merged into one


or few locations.

more efficient and cost-effective,


allowing fewer overall staff to deal
with a higher volume of calls.

local presence to handle physical


support requirements, but controlled
and deployed from the central desk.

Second-Line Support
Third party
Support

Application
Support

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Infrastructure
Support

203

Lesson 3.5: Service Desk Function:


Organization Structures- Virtual
204

Virtual

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Single Visible Service Desk which


may actually be run by staff in
multiple locations.

Allows for homeworking, secondary


support group, off-shoring or
outsourcing or any combination
necessary to meet user demand.

Safeguards are needed to ensure


consistency and uniformity in service
quality and cultural terms

204

Lesson 3.6: Service Desk: Service Desk Staffing


205

Service Desk Staffing


Correct number and qualification at any given time, considering
Customer expectations and business requirements

e.g. call response time (SLA) , Budget


Number of users to support, their language and skills
Coverage period, out-of-hours, time zones/locations, travel time
Processes and procedures in place, Infrastructure for short breaks

Minimum qualifications
Interpersonal skills, Business and underlying IT understanding
Skill sets
Customer and Technical emphasis, Expert
Typing skills
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Lesson 3.7: Service Desk: Service Desk Metrics


206

Service Desk Metrics


Periodic evaluations of health, maturity, efficiency, effectiveness and any
opportunity to improve
Realistic and carefully chosen total number of call is not itself good or
bad
Some examples:
First-line resolution rate
Average time to resolve and/or escalate an incident
Total costs for the period divided by total call duration minutes

The number of calls broken by time of day and day of week, combined with the
average call-time
Customer/User Satisfaction surveys

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Lesson 3.8: Technical Management


207

Role of Technical Management Function


The groups, departments or teams that provide technical expertise and overall
management of the IT Infrastructure
Custodian of technical knowledge and expertise related to managing the IT
Infrastructure.
Provides the actual resources to support the ITSM Lifecycle.
- Ensures that resources are effectively trained and deployed to design,
build, transition, operate and improve the technology required to deliver and support IT
services.

Objectives
To help plan, implement and maintain a stable technical infrastructure to
support the organizations business Processes
-Well designed and highly resilient, cost-effective infrastructure configuration
- Use of adequate technical skills to maintain the technical infrastructure and to
speedily diagnose and resolve any technical failures that do occur.
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Lesson 3.9: Application Management


208

Role of Application Management Function


Responsible for managing applications throughout their lifecycle.
Custodian of technical Knowledge and expertise related to managing
application, whether purchased or developed in-house.
It provides the actual resources to support the ITSM Lifecycle
Providing guidance to IT Operations about how best to carry out the
ongoing operational management of applications.
The integration of the Application Management Lifecycle into the ITSM
Lifecycle

Objectives
To helping to identify functional and manageability requirements for
application software so as to support the organizations business Processes.
Assist in design and deployment of applications.

Assist in ongoing support/maintenance/improvement of applications.


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Lesson 3.10: IT Operations Management


Function
209

Role of IT Operations Management Function


The function responsible for the ongoing management and maintenance of
an organization s IT Infrastructure to ensure delivery of the agreed level of
IT services to the business.
Operations Control - oversees the execution and monitoring of the
operational activities and events in the IT Infrastructure.
Includes Console Management, Job Scheduling, Backup & restore,
Print & output Management and Maintenance activities on behalf
of Technical or Application Management teams.
Facilities Management - The management of the physical IT
environment, typically a Data Centre or computer rooms and recovery
sites together with all the power and cooling equipment.
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Lesson 3.11: IT Operations Management


Objectives
210

Objectives
Maintenance of the as- is infrastructure and procedures to achieve stability
of the organizations day-to-day processes and activities.
Regular scrutiny and improvements to achieve improved service at reduced
costs, while maintaining stability.
Swift application of operational skills to diagnose and resolve any IT
operations failures that occur.

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211

Service Operations : Quiz

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Module 5
212

Question 1:
Major Incidents require:
A. Separate procedures
B. Less urgency
C. Longer timescales
D. Less documentation

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Module 5
213

Question 2:
Which of the following should be done when closing an Incident?

1: Check the Incident categorization and correct it if necessary


2: Decide whether a Problem needs to be logged
A. 1 only
B. Both of the above
C. 2 only
D. None of the above
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Module 5
214

Question 3:
Which of the following is NOT a valid objective of Request
Fulfillment?
A. To provide information to users about what services are
available and how to request them
B. To update the Service Catalogue with services that may be
requested through the Service Desk

C. To provide a channel for users to request and receive standard


services
D. To source and deliver the components of standard services that
have been requested
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Module 5
215

Question 4:
Which Functions are included in IT Operations Management?
A. Network Management and Application Management
B. Technical Management and Application Management
C. IT Operations Control and Facilities Management
D. Facilities Management and Technical Management

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Module 5
216

Question 5:
What is the BEST description of the purpose of Service
Operation?
A. To decide how IT will engage with suppliers during the Service
Management Lifecycle
B. To proactively prevent all outages to IT Services
C. To design and build processes that will meet business needs
D. To deliver and manage IT Services at agreed levels to
business users and customers
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Module 5
217

Question 6:
Which of these activities would you expect to be performed by a
Service Desk?
1: Logging details of Incidents and service requests
2: Providing first-line investigation and diagnosis
3: Restoring service
4: Diagnosing the root-cause of problems
A. All of the above
B. 1, 2 and 3 only
C. 1, 2 and 4 only
D. 2, 3 and 4 only
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218

End of Module 5

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Module 6
219

Continual
Service
Improvement

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Lesson 1.0: Continual Service Improvement

At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

Understand the Goals and Objectives of


Continual Service Improvement

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Lesson 1.1: Continual Service Improvement:


Goals
221

To continually align IT Services to the changing Business needs by


identifying and implementing improvements.
Continually be on the lookout for improvements related to process
effectiveness and efficiency.
To implement improvement plans in a cost-effective manner.

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Lesson 1.2: Continual Service Improvement:


Objectives
222

Review analyze and recommend improvement opportunities in all the life


cycle phases
To make CSI activities, fact based, CSI Reviews and analyze Service level
achievement results
Identify and implement activities for improve service efficiency and
effectiveness to improve service quality
Improve cost effectiveness
Ensure appropriate quality management methods are used to support CSI
activities

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Lesson 1.3: Continual Service Improvement:


Scope

223

Scope of CSI:
Overall health of ITSM. It takes care of entire ITSM as well as all
dependent services.
Alignment of the service portfolio with business needs
After implementing and operating processes, CSI help Maturing the
processes.
Organization need to:
Review management information and trends of service delivery
Ensure outputs of enabling ITSM are achieving results
Conduct audits to access maturity of process, compliance of
processes.
Conduct customer satisfaction surveys.
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Lesson 2.0: CSI Key Principles and


Models
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

Understand the Basic Concepts and Key Principles of


Continual Service Improvement
John Kotters eight steps for Organization
Transformation

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Lesson 2.1: CSI and Organizational Change


225
225

Successful CSI requires organizational change

Organizational change presents challenges


Use formal approaches to address people-related issues:
John Kotters Eight steps to transforming your organization
Project Management

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Lesson 2.2: John Kotters 8 steps to


Organizational Transformation
226

226

Steps

Quotes

Creating Sense of
urgency

50% of transformations fail in this stage.


Without motivation, people wont help and efforts goes nowhere
76% of companys management should be convinced of the need

Forming a guiding
coalition

Understand difficulties and producing change.

Lack of effective, Strong leadership


Not a powerful coalition. Opposition eventually stops the change initiatives.

Creating a Vision

Without a sensible vision transformation effort can easily dissolve into a list
of confusing, incompatible projects.
An explanation of 5 minutes should obtain reaction of understanding and
Interest.

Communicating Vision

Without credible communication, and lot of it, the hearts and minds of the
troops are never captured.
Make use of all communication channels.

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Reference: Crown copyright OGC.

Lesson 2.3: John Kotters 8 steps to


Organizational Transformationcontd

227
227

Steps

Quotes

Empowering others to
act on vision

Structures to underpin the vision.. And removal of barriers to change.


More people involved, the better the outcome.
Reward initiatives.

Planning for and


creating quick wins

Real transformation takes time. Without quick wins too many people give up
or join the ranks of those opposing change.
Actively look for performance improvements and establish clear goals.
Communicate success.

Consolidating
improvements and
producing more
change

Until changes sink deeply into the culture new approaches are fragile and
subject to regressions.
In many cases worker revert to old practices.
Use credibility of quick wins to tackle even bigger problems.

Institutionalize the
change

Show how new approaches, behavior and attitude have helped improve
performance. Ensure selection and promotion criteria underpin the new
approach.

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Reference: Crown copyright OGC.

Lesson 2.4: Service Measurement


228
228

The ability to predict and report service performance against targets of an


end-to-end service is known as Service Measurement.
Will require someone to take the individual measurements and
combine them to provide a view of the customer experience.
This data can be analyzed over a period of time to produce a trend.
This data can be collected at multiple levels, (for example, CIs,
processes, services).

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Lesson 2.5: Reasons to Monitor & Measure


229
229

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Lesson 2.5: Types of Metrics


230
230

Technology metrics: typically components and applications For


example
Performance
Availability
Process metrics: Critical Success Factors (CSFs), Key Performance
Indicators (KPIs), activity metrics for ITSM processes
Service metrics: end-to-end service metrics (often Service metrics are
a sum of process and technology metrics)

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Lesson 2.6: Key Definitions


231
231

Improvement Favorable Outcome showing a measurable increase in a


desirable metric or a decrease in undesirable metric.
Benefit Gain achieved from Improvement. This is generally associated with
ROI or VOI.
Return on Investment (ROI) Quantifiable monetary benefit achieved by
expending a certain amount of money, usually expressed as a percentage.
Value on Investment (VOI) Non monetary benefit, such as branding,
achieved by expending a certain amount of money.
Baseline Benchmark used as a reference point for later comparison.

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Deming Cycle
232
232

Plan:
Establish the objectives and
processes necessary to deliver
results in accordance with customer
requirements and the organization's
policies.
Do:
Implement the processes.
Check:
Monitor and measure processes and
product against policies, objectives
and requirements for the product
and report the results.
Act:
Take actions to continually improve
process performance.

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P
A

D
C

Lesson 2.7: Seven Step Improvement


Process- PDCA Cycle
233

233

7 Step Improvement Process PDCA cycle


CHECK
DEFINE WHAT YOU
SHOULD MEASURE

ANALYZE THE
DATA

PLAN
DEFINE WHAT YOU
CAN MEASURE

PRESENT AND USE


THE DATA

DO

PROCESS THE
DATA

IMPLEMENT
CORRECTIVE
ACTION
GATHER THE
DATA WHO,
HOW, WHEN

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ACT

Lesson 2.8: Continual Service


Improvement Model

234
234

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CSI : Quiz

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Module 6: Quiz
236

Question 1:
Which of the following does CSI provide guidance on?
1. How to improve process efficiency and effectiveness
2. How to improve services
3. Improvement of all phases of service lifecycle
4. Measurement of processes and services
a) 1 and 2 only

b) All of the above


c) 2 only

d) 1, 3 and 4 only
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Module 6: Quiz
237

Question 2:
Which is the first activity of the CSI model?
a) Carry out a baseline assessment to understand the current
situation
b) Understand the Business Vision and Objectives
c) Agree on priorities for Improvement
d) Create and verify a plan

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Module 6: Quiz
238

Question 3:
Which of the following is NOT a metric described in CSI?
a) Process Metric
b) Personnel Metric
c) Service Metrics
d) Technology Metrics

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Module 6: Quiz
239

Question 4:
Which of the following are objectives of CSI?
1. To improve process efficiency and effectiveness
2. To improve services
3. To improve all phases of service lifecycle except Strategy
4. To improve International standard such as ISO 20000
a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 4 only
c) 1, 2 and 3 only

d) All of the above


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Module 6: Quiz
240

Question 5:
Learning and Improvement is the PRIMARY concern of which of
the following phases of service lifecycle?
a) Continual Service Improvement
b) Service Strategy and Service Design
c) Service Strategy, Service Transition and Service Operation
d) Service Strategy, Service Design, Service Transition and
Service Operation
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241

CSI : Summary
Goals and Objectives of CSI
John Kotters 8 steps of Organizational Transformation
Service Measurement and Metrics
7 Step Improvement process
CSI Improvement Model

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ITIL 2011 Foundation Certification Exam


Practical Tips
242
Read the question CAREFULLY
At this level of exam the obvious answer is often the correct answer (if you have
read the question carefully!)
Beware of being misled by the preliminary text for the question
If you think there should be another choice that would be the right answer, then
you have to choose the most right
Use strategies such as What comes first? or What doesnt belong? to help
with the more difficult questions

Where there are questions that involve multiple statements (i.e. 1, 2, 3, 4), then
try to eliminate combinations that are immediately incorrect (based on something
you can remember) so that the question is broken into smaller, and more
manageable pieces.

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ITIL 2011 Foundation Certification Exam


Practical Tips
243
Lets see with an example how to answer the questions.
Sample Question
Which of the following statements is CORRECT for ALL processes?

a) They define functions as part of their design


b) They should deliver value for stakeholders
c) They are carried out by an external service provider in support of a customer

d) They are units of organizations responsible for specific outcomes

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ITIL 2011 Foundation Certification Exam


Practical Tips
244
Let us look at another example.
Sample Question
Which of the following statements about a Definitive Media Library (DML) are
CORRECT?
1. The DML can include a physical store
2. The DML holds definitive hardware spares
3. The DML includes master copies of controlled documentation
a) All of the above
b) 1 and 2 only
c) 2 and 3 only
d) 1 and 3 only
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