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# MR.

THIYAKU MARUTHA
CHAPTER 2 GRAPHS OF FUNCTIONS II
Important Notes:
For Paper 1 (Objective Questions), the questions asked are usually related to the shapes and
positions of basic graphs of LINEAR, QUADRATIC, CUBIC and RECIPROCAL
FUNCTIONS.
Students are expected to be able to identify:
a) the shape of graph given a type of function
b) the type of function given a graph
c) the graph given a function and vice versa.
The different types of functions for Paper 1, SPM Mathematics:
Linear
y = mx + c
c = y-intercept

y = ax2 + bx + c

Cubic
y = ax3 +bx2 +cx + d

y = ax2 + c

## Note : Paper 1 limits to

y = ax3 + c

Reciprocal
y=

a
x

y
y
O
O

x
x

Note : This module concentrates on graph sketching, the skills needed for Paper 1. For details on how
to plot graphs please refer to the other related modules (eg. Chapter 12 The Straight Line on how to
draw / plot straight lines)
19.0 Back to Basic
I. Linear Graphs : can be represented by the equation y = mx + c.
c the y-intercept, ie, the place where the straight line cuts the y-axis.
II. The general form of a Quadratic Function is f(x) = ax2 + bx + c; a, b, c are constants and a 0.
Involves one variable only,
The highest power of the variable is 2.
III. The general form of a Cubic Function is f(x) = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d ; a, b, c and d are constants and
a 0.
Characteristics of a cubic function:
Involves one variable only,
The highest power of the variable is 3.

Graphs of Functions II

## MR. THIYAKU MARUTHA

a
, where a is a constant.
x

## 19.1 To Identify The Type Of Function Given Its Equation

Example 1
No.
Linear

2

y = mx + c

y = ax + bx + c

Cubic
3

Reciprocal

y = ax + bx + cx + d

y=

a
x

3
x

1.

y =x

y = x2 + 2x -3

y = x3 + 2x2 + 3x 4

y=

2.

y = 2x + 3

y = x2 + 2

y = x3 3

y=

3.

y = 3x 4

y = 4 3x2

y = 4 3x3

xy = 4

4.

y = 5

y = 3x2

y = 2x3

y=

5.

x+ y = 4

y = 3 4x + 5x2

y = 1 2x + 5x3

1
x

1
2x
6
y=
x

Exercise 1
Below is a list of various functions. Try to identify the type of function and state whether it is a linear,
quafratic , cubic or reciprocal function. Hence complete the table given by writing the correct
functions in the respective columns.
1.

y =x+1

2.

y = x3 2

3. y = x2 + 2x 4

4. y = -x3

5.

y = 2x2 + 3

6.

y= x

7. y = x3 3

8. y = 1 + x2

9.

y=

10.

y = 6 3x2

11. y =

13. y = 2 x +
5x2

14.

y=

17. x 3 y = 4

18.

xy = 3

2
x

Linear

Graphs of Functions II

## MR. THIYAKU MARUTHA

3
x

1
x

12. y = 20

1
2x

15. y = 2x3

16. y =

19. y = 4 + x3

20. y = 3x1

Cubic

Reciprocal

Exercise 2 : State whether the following are linear, quadratic, cubic or reciprocal functions.

No.

Functions

1.

y = 2x 3

2.

y =

Type

No.

Functions

Linear

1.

y = x2 5

Reciprocal

2.

y =

y = x3

Cubic

y = 10 x

4.

y = x2 + x

4.

y = x2 + 5

5.

y=

5.

y = 2 + 2x

6.

y = (x 1)2

6.

y=

7.

y = x ( x 2)

7.

x + 2y = 1

8.

y = 3 + x3

8.

y= 3

9.

y = x2 + 2

9.

y = 4 x2

10.

10.

11.

y= 2

11.

12.

y = (x+2) (x 3)

12.

xy = 3

3
x

1
x

= 5 4 x2

1
x

10
x

6
x

= 36x

1 3
x
2

c = y-intercept

EXAMPLE
1.

y= x
y =x+3
y= x-2

## FOR YOU TO TRY...

(a) y = x + 5
(b) y = x 1
(c) y = x + 2

yy
y=x+3
y=x
y=x2

-3

O
O

x
x

-2

Graphs of Functions II

Type

1.

Example
y= x
y = x+3
y = x 2 yy

(a) y = x + 2
(b) y = x 1
(c) y = x + 4

-2

x
x

O
O

y= x+
3

-2

y = x
y=x2

1.

Example
y= x+2

(a)

y= x+3

(b)

## For You To Try...

y= x1

(a)

y= x+3

(b)

y= x

yy

xx x

-O2 O O

2.

y= x +1
y yy

1
O
O
O

xx x

(c) y = x 2

(d) y = x + 5

(e) x + y = 4

yy y

O
OO

xx x

Graphs of Functions II

## 19.3 To sketch graphs of quadratic functions of the form y = ax2 + c

Case 1 : y = ax2 + c , a > 0
No.

1.

Function

## Your turn to try !

(a) y = x2 + 2

(b) y = x2 3

(a) y = x2 + 4

(b) y = x2 1

(a) y = 2x2 1

(b) y = 2x2 + 3

y = x2 y y

OO

2.

(Sketched) Graph

xx

y = x2 + 3
y

3O
x

y = 2xy2

x
O

Graphs of Functions II

(a) y = 2 + 2x2

(b) y = 3+2x2

y = 1 + 2x2
y

1
O

## Sketch the given quadratic functions :

No.

y = x2 4
y

y = x2 2

y = x2 + 2

y = 3 + x2

y = 1 + x2

y = 2x2 + 1

y = 3 x2 + 1

y
y

1.

x
x

-4

y = 3 + x2
yyy

2.
xxx

OOO

y = x2 + 1
yy

3.
y
xx

OO

1
O

Graphs of Functions II

y = x2 3

y = 2x2 3

y = 3 x2 3

4.

xx

-3

No.

Function

(Sketched) Graph

## Your turn to try !

(a) y = x2 + 2

(b) y = x2 3

(a) y = x2 + 4

(b) y = x2

yy
O
O

1.

y = x2

y y

2.

22+2
y = x
O
O

x
x

(a) y =

yy

+3
3

O
O1

y =

x2

Graphs of Functions II

xx

1 2
x 1
2

(b) y =

1 2
x
2

(a) y = 2 2x2

(b) y = 3 2x2

y
y
O

y = 1 12x2
x

## More challenges for you .

Sketch the given quadratic functions :
No.

y = x2 + 4

y = x2 2

y = x2 + 2

y = 3 x2

y = 1 x2

y = 2x2 + 1

y = 3 x2 + 1

yy y
4

1.
xx x

O
O
O

y = 3 x2
y yy
O

2.

xx

OO

y = x2 + 1
y
yy
1

3.

x
OO

xx

Graphs of Functions II

y = x2 3

y = 2x2 3

y = 3 x2 3

y
y
O
O

4.

xxx

-3

No.

Function

1.

(Sketched) Graph

## Your turn to try !

(a) y = x3 + 2

(b) y = x3 3

(a) y = x3 + 4

(b) y = x3 2

(a) y = x3 + 2

(b) y = x3 3

y = x3

O
O

2.

y = x3 + 3
y

3
O

y = x3
x

O
O

Graphs of Functions II

(a) y = 2 x3

(b) y = 3 x3

y = 1 x3
y

1
x

No.

Function
y =

1
x

y =

1
x

y =

y
y

2.

xy = 2

2
x

y =

## Your turn to try !

1.

( can be written as y =

y y

2
)
x

xy = 3

3
O O

Graphs of Functions II

## MR. THIYAKU MARUTHA

a
.
x

x x

10

4
x

xy + 2 = 0 ( can be written as y =

4
O

2
)
x

xy + 5 = 0

## More challenges for you .

EXERCISE A : Match each graph with the correct equation of function :

y = x2 1

1.

y = x3 1

y = 2x 1

x+y = 2

y = x2 2

y = 2 x2

y = x3 +2

y = 2 + x3

xy = 4

y
O

O
O

x
x

2.

y = x 2

yy
y

3.

O
OO

xx

3
x

Graphs of Functions II

11

y
y

O
O

x
x

Exercise B :

## Sketch the given functions :

y = x2 + 1

y = 2x + 1

y = x3 + 1

y = 3+ x

x+ y = 4

xy = 2

xy = 1

yy y

1.

O
O
O

xx x

y = x + 3
yyy

2.
OOO

y =

xxx

3
x

y
yy

3.
OO

xx
x

Graphs of Functions II

12

y = x3 3

y = 3 + x3

y = x2 + 2

y
y

4.

xxx

O
O

## Questions Base On Examination Format

1. Which of the following graphs represents y = x2 2 ?
A.

B.

y
x

O
2

C.

D.

y
O

y
x

## 2. Which of the following equations represents the graph of a quadratic function?

A. y = 2 + x2

B. xy = 2

C. x y = 2

y
3. The diagram below shows a sketch of a function.
x

O
5
Graphs of Functions II

13

D. y = 2x 2

A.
y = x2 5
B.
y = x2 5
C.
y = x3 5
D.
y = x3 5

A.

4
?
x
y

B.

C.

D.

y
O

## 5. Which of the following graphs represents

A

y 5 x3 ?

Graphs of Functions II

14

-5

(1, k)

Diagram 1

A. n = 1, k =16

B.

n = 3, k =17

C. n = 3, k =16

D. n = 3, k =15

Diagram 2

( h, 0)

A. 2

8.

B. 3

C. 2

D. 3

## Which of the following equations represents a linear graph ?

A. y = 1 + x2

Graphs of Functions II

B. xy = 4

C. x y = 2

15

D. y = 3x 1

9.

A. y = 1 + 2x

10.

B. y x = 4

D. y = 3x3

A

B
y

y
O

O
O

11.

C. x y + 2 = 0

A

B
y
y

O
O
O

10
?
x

y
x x
x

12.

y = 2x2

## The graph labelled G most likely represents

A. y = 2x2

13.

Graphs of Functions II

B. y = 2x2 2

C. x y + 2 = 0

y=x+2

16

D. y = 2x3

A. y = x 2

B. y = x 2

14.

C. y = x + 2

D. y = - 2x

y=x

G
x

A. y =

1
x
2

B. y = x

C. y = x + 2

15.

yy
y
OO

y
xxx

O
O

16.

D. y = 2x

## Which of the following represents the graph of

Graphs of Functions II

17

y 2 x2 ?

y y

y y
O

xx

OO

17.

y
Diagram 3

A. 2

B. 3

C. 1

D. 2

18.
y

x
O

## The above graph represents

A.

y=-x+2

B.

6
x

Graphs of Functions II

18

C.

y=2x2

D.

6
x

19.
y

16

-4

20.

A.

y = x2 + 16

C.

y = (x + 4)2

B.

y = x2 + 16

D.

y = 16 (x+4)2

A. y = x

B. x = 2y

C. xy = 2

## Past-Year Questions on Graphs of Functions II

1 Nov 2003, Q12
Which of the following graphs represents y = x2 3 ?
A.

B.

D.

Graphs of Functions II

19

D. y = 2

## 2 Nov 2004, Q29

Which of the following graphs represents
A.

2
?
x

B.

O
C.

D.

## 3 July 2005, Q28

Diagram 12 shows a sketch of a function.
y

## What is the equation of the function?

A. y = x2 3
B. y = x2 3

Graphs of Functions II

## MR. THIYAKU MARUTHA

20

C. y = x3 3
D. y = x3 3
4 Nov 2005, Q28
Which of the following graphs represents y = x2 4 ?
A.

B.

y
x

O
4

C.

D.

y
O

## 5 July 2006, Q27

Which of the following graphs represents y =
A.

B.

C.

D.

Graphs of Functions II

1
4

21

## 6 Nov 2006, Q28

Which of the following graphs represents y = 10 2x3?
A.

B.

C.

D.

Jun 2007, Q 30
Which of the following graphs represents y = 5x3 ?
A.

D
y

Graphs of Functions II

## MR. THIYAKU MARUTHA

22

x
0

8 Nov 2007, Q 28
Which of the following graphs represents

y x2 5 ?

y
5

## Which graph represents

9 Jun 2008, Q 29
y

1
x 3?
2
B

6
0
3

y
C

D
3

x
23

Graphs of Functions II

## MR. THIYAKU MARUTHA

10 Nov 2008, Q 27
Which graph represents

y x2 x 2 ?

y
C

y
D

1 0

1 0

2
2

x
x

Questions Base On Examination Format
1. A

2. A

3. B

4. D

5. C

6. D

7. C

8. C

9. C

10. D

11. C

12. B

13. C

14. A

15. B

16. D

17. C

18. B

19. A

20. C

Past-Year Questions
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Graphs of Functions II
MR. THIYAKU MARUTHA

B
D
D
A
C
B
B
B
B
C

PREPARED BY

## MR. THIYAKU MARUTHA

Bsc. Actuarial Science & Statistics
(Hons) University Malaya

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