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MR.

THIYAKU MARUTHA
CHAPTER 2 GRAPHS OF FUNCTIONS II
Important Notes:
For Paper 1 (Objective Questions), the questions asked are usually related to the shapes and
positions of basic graphs of LINEAR, QUADRATIC, CUBIC and RECIPROCAL
FUNCTIONS.
Students are expected to be able to identify:
a) the shape of graph given a type of function
b) the type of function given a graph
c) the graph given a function and vice versa.
The different types of functions for Paper 1, SPM Mathematics:
Linear
y = mx + c
m = gradient
c = y-intercept

Quadratic
y = ax2 + bx + c

Cubic
y = ax3 +bx2 +cx + d

Note : Paper 1 limits to


y = ax2 + c

Note : Paper 1 limits to


y = ax3 + c

Reciprocal
y=

a
x

y
y
O
O

x
x

Note : This module concentrates on graph sketching, the skills needed for Paper 1. For details on how
to plot graphs please refer to the other related modules (eg. Chapter 12 The Straight Line on how to
draw / plot straight lines)
19.0 Back to Basic
I. Linear Graphs : can be represented by the equation y = mx + c.
m is the gradient
c the y-intercept, ie, the place where the straight line cuts the y-axis.
II. The general form of a Quadratic Function is f(x) = ax2 + bx + c; a, b, c are constants and a 0.
Characteristics of a quadratic function:
Involves one variable only,
The highest power of the variable is 2.
III. The general form of a Cubic Function is f(x) = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d ; a, b, c and d are constants and
a 0.
Characteristics of a cubic function:
Involves one variable only,
The highest power of the variable is 3.

Graphs of Functions II

MR. THIYAKU MARUTHA

a
, where a is a constant.
x

IV. The simple Reciprocal Function is of the form y =

19.1 To Identify The Type Of Function Given Its Equation


Example 1
No.
Linear

Quadratic
2

y = mx + c

y = ax + bx + c

Cubic
3

Reciprocal

y = ax + bx + cx + d

y=

a
x

3
x

1.

y =x

y = x2 + 2x -3

y = x3 + 2x2 + 3x 4

y=

2.

y = 2x + 3

y = x2 + 2

y = x3 3

y=

3.

y = 3x 4

y = 4 3x2

y = 4 3x3

xy = 4

4.

y = 5

y = 3x2

y = 2x3

y=

5.

x+ y = 4

y = 3 4x + 5x2

y = 1 2x + 5x3

1
x

1
2x
6
y=
x

Exercise 1
Below is a list of various functions. Try to identify the type of function and state whether it is a linear,
quafratic , cubic or reciprocal function. Hence complete the table given by writing the correct
functions in the respective columns.
1.

y =x+1

2.

y = x3 2

3. y = x2 + 2x 4

4. y = -x3

5.

y = 2x2 + 3

6.

y= x

7. y = x3 3

8. y = 1 + x2

9.

y=

10.

y = 6 3x2

11. y =

13. y = 2 x +
5x2

14.

y=

17. x 3 y = 4

18.

xy = 3

2
x

Linear

Graphs of Functions II

MR. THIYAKU MARUTHA

3
x

1
x

12. y = 20

1
2x

15. y = 2x3

16. y =

19. y = 4 + x3

20. y = 3x1

Quadratic

Cubic

Reciprocal

Exercise 2 : State whether the following are linear, quadratic, cubic or reciprocal functions.

No.

Functions

1.

y = 2x 3

2.

y =

Type

No.

Functions

Linear

1.

y = x2 5

Reciprocal

2.

y =

y = x3

Cubic

y = 10 x

4.

y = x2 + x

Quadratic

4.

y = x2 + 5

5.

y=

5.

y = 2 + 2x

6.

y = (x 1)2

6.

y=

7.

y = x ( x 2)

7.

x + 2y = 1

8.

y = 3 + x3

8.

y= 3

9.

y = x2 + 2

9.

y = 4 x2

10.

10.

11.

y= 2

11.

12.

y = (x+2) (x 3)

12.

xy = 3

3
x

1
x

= 5 4 x2

1
x

10
x

6
x

= 36x

1 3
x
2

19.2. To sketch graphs of linear functions : y = mx + c


Remember : m = gradient

c = y-intercept

EXAMPLE
1.

y= x
y =x+3
y= x-2

FOR YOU TO TRY...


(a) y = x + 5
(b) y = x 1
(c) y = x + 2

yy
y=x+3
y=x
y=x2

-3

O
O

x
x

-2

Graphs of Functions II

MR. THIYAKU MARUTHA

Type

1.

Example
y= x
y = x+3
y = x 2 yy

For You To Try...


(a) y = x + 2
(b) y = x 1
(c) y = x + 4

-2

x
x

O
O

y= x+
3

-2

y = x
y=x2

1.

Example
y= x+2

(a)

For You To Try...


y= x+3

(b)

For You To Try...


y= x1

(a)

y= x+3

(b)

y= x

yy

xx x

-O2 O O

2.

y= x +1
y yy

1
O
O
O

xx x

(c) y = x 2

(d) y = x + 5

(e) x + y = 4

yy y

O
OO

xx x

Graphs of Functions II

MR. THIYAKU MARUTHA

19.3 To sketch graphs of quadratic functions of the form y = ax2 + c


Case 1 : y = ax2 + c , a > 0
No.

1.

Function

Your turn to try !


(a) y = x2 + 2

(b) y = x2 3

(a) y = x2 + 4

(b) y = x2 1

(a) y = 2x2 1

(b) y = 2x2 + 3

y = x2 y y

OO

2.

(Sketched) Graph

xx

y = x2 + 3
y

3O
x

y = 2xy2

x
O

Graphs of Functions II

MR. THIYAKU MARUTHA

(a) y = 2 + 2x2

(b) y = 3+2x2

y = 1 + 2x2
y

1
O

More challenges for you .

Sketch the given quadratic functions :


No.

Quadratic Function
y = x2 4
y

Quadratic Function

Quadratic Function

y = x2 2

y = x2 + 2

y = 3 + x2

y = 1 + x2

y = 2x2 + 1

y = 3 x2 + 1

y
y

1.

x
x

-4

y = 3 + x2
yyy

2.
xxx

OOO

y = x2 + 1
yy

3.
y
xx

OO

1
O

Graphs of Functions II

MR. THIYAKU MARUTHA

y = x2 3

y = 2x2 3

y = 3 x2 3

4.

xx

Case 2 : y = ax2 + c , a < 0


-3

No.

Function

(Sketched) Graph

Your turn to try !


(a) y = x2 + 2

(b) y = x2 3

(a) y = x2 + 4

(b) y = x2

yy
O
O

1.

y = x2

y y

2.

22+2
y = x
O
O

x
x

(a) y =

yy

+3
3

O
O1

y =

x2

Graphs of Functions II

MR. THIYAKU MARUTHA

xx

1 2
x 1
2

(b) y =

1 2
x
2

(a) y = 2 2x2

(b) y = 3 2x2

y
y
O

y = 1 12x2
x

More challenges for you .


Sketch the given quadratic functions :
No.

Quadratic Function
y = x2 + 4

Quadratic Function

Quadratic Function

y = x2 2

y = x2 + 2

y = 3 x2

y = 1 x2

y = 2x2 + 1

y = 3 x2 + 1

yy y
4

1.
xx x

O
O
O

y = 3 x2
y yy
O

2.

xx

OO

y = x2 + 1
y
yy
1

3.

x
OO

xx

Graphs of Functions II

MR. THIYAKU MARUTHA

y = x2 3

y = 2x2 3

y = 3 x2 3

y
y
O
O

4.

xxx

-3

19.4 To sketch graphs of cubic functions of the form y = ax3 + c

No.

Function

1.

(Sketched) Graph

Your turn to try !


(a) y = x3 + 2

(b) y = x3 3

(a) y = x3 + 4

(b) y = x3 2

(a) y = x3 + 2

(b) y = x3 3

y = x3

O
O

2.

y = x3 + 3
y

3
O

y = x3
x

O
O

Graphs of Functions II

MR. THIYAKU MARUTHA

(a) y = 2 x3

(b) y = 3 x3

y = 1 x3
y

1
x

19.5 To sketch graphs of reciprocal functions of the form y


No.

Function
y =

1
x

y =

1
x

y =

y
y

2.

xy = 2

2
x

y =

Your turn to try !

1.

( can be written as y =

y y

2
)
x

xy = 3

3
O O

Graphs of Functions II

MR. THIYAKU MARUTHA

a
.
x

x x

10

4
x

xy + 2 = 0 ( can be written as y =

4
O

2
)
x

xy + 5 = 0

More challenges for you .


EXERCISE A : Match each graph with the correct equation of function :

y = x2 1

1.

y = x3 1

y = 2x 1

x+y = 2

y = x2 2

y = 2 x2

y = x3 +2

y = 2 + x3

xy = 4

y
O

O
O

x
x

2.

y = x 2

yy
y

3.

O
OO

xx

3
x

Graphs of Functions II

MR. THIYAKU MARUTHA

11

y
y

O
O

x
x

Exercise B :

Sketch the given functions :

y = x2 + 1

y = 2x + 1

y = x3 + 1

y = 3+ x

x+ y = 4

xy = 2

xy = 1

yy y

1.

O
O
O

xx x

y = x + 3
yyy

2.
OOO

y =

xxx

3
x

y
yy

3.
OO

xx
x

Graphs of Functions II

MR. THIYAKU MARUTHA

12

y = x3 3

y = 3 + x3

y = x2 + 2

y
y

4.

xxx

O
O

Questions Base On Examination Format


1. Which of the following graphs represents y = x2 2 ?
A.

B.

y
x

O
2

C.

D.

y
O

y
x

2. Which of the following equations represents the graph of a quadratic function?


A. y = 2 + x2

B. xy = 2

C. x y = 2

y
3. The diagram below shows a sketch of a function.
x

O
5
Graphs of Functions II

MR. THIYAKU MARUTHA

13

D. y = 2x 2

What is the equation of the function?


A.
y = x2 5
B.
y = x2 5
C.
y = x3 5
D.
y = x3 5

4. Which of the following graphs represents

A.

4
?
x
y

B.

C.

D.

y
O

5. Which of the following graphs represents


A

y 5 x3 ?

Graphs of Functions II

MR. THIYAKU MARUTHA

14

-5

(1, k)

Diagram 1

Diagram 1 shows the graph of y x n 16 . State the value of n and k.


A. n = 1, k =16

B.

n = 3, k =17

C. n = 3, k =16

D. n = 3, k =15

Diagram 2

Diagram 2 shows the graph of y = x3 + k. Find thex value of h.


( h, 0)

A. 2

8.

B. 3

C. 2

D. 3

Which of the following equations represents a linear graph ?


A. y = 1 + x2

Graphs of Functions II

MR. THIYAKU MARUTHA

B. xy = 4

C. x y = 2

15

D. y = 3x 1

9.

Which of the following equations represents the graph of a reciprocal function?


A. y = 1 + 2x

10.

B. y x = 4

D. y = 3x3

Which of the following represents the graph of y = x 3 1 ?


A

B
y

y
O

O
O

11.

C. x y + 2 = 0

Which of the following represents the graph of


A

B
y
y

O
O
O

10
?
x

y
x x
x

12.

y = 2x2

The graph labelled G most likely represents


A. y = 2x2

13.

Graphs of Functions II

MR. THIYAKU MARUTHA

B. y = 2x2 2

C. x y + 2 = 0

y=x+2

16

D. y = 2x3

The graph labelled G most likely represents


A. y = x 2

B. y = x 2

14.

C. y = x + 2

D. y = - 2x

y=x

G
x

The graph labelled G most likely represents


A. y =

1
x
2

B. y = x

C. y = x + 2

Which of the following represents the graph of y 1 x 3 ?

15.

yy
y
OO

y
xxx

O
O

16.

D. y = 2x

Which of the following represents the graph of

Graphs of Functions II

MR. THIYAKU MARUTHA

17

y 2 x2 ?

y y

y y
O

xx

OO

17.

y
Diagram 3

Diagram 3 shows the graph of y = - 4xn. Find the value of n


A. 2

B. 3

C. 1

D. 2

18.
y

x
O

The above graph represents


A.

y=-x+2

B.

6
x

Graphs of Functions II

MR. THIYAKU MARUTHA

18

C.

y=2x2

D.

6
x

19.
y

16

-4

The above graph represents

20.

A.

y = x2 + 16

C.

y = (x + 4)2

B.

y = x2 + 16

D.

y = 16 (x+4)2

Which of the following does NOT represent a linear graph ?


A. y = x

B. x = 2y

C. xy = 2

Past-Year Questions on Graphs of Functions II


1 Nov 2003, Q12
Which of the following graphs represents y = x2 3 ?
A.

B.

D.

Graphs of Functions II

MR. THIYAKU MARUTHA

19

D. y = 2

2 Nov 2004, Q29


Which of the following graphs represents
A.

2
?
x

B.

O
C.

D.

3 July 2005, Q28


Diagram 12 shows a sketch of a function.
y

What is the equation of the function?


A. y = x2 3
B. y = x2 3

Graphs of Functions II

MR. THIYAKU MARUTHA

20

C. y = x3 3
D. y = x3 3
4 Nov 2005, Q28
Which of the following graphs represents y = x2 4 ?
A.

B.

y
x

O
4

C.

D.

y
O

5 July 2006, Q27


Which of the following graphs represents y =
A.

B.

C.

D.

Graphs of Functions II

MR. THIYAKU MARUTHA

1
4

21

6 Nov 2006, Q28


Which of the following graphs represents y = 10 2x3?
A.

B.

C.

D.

Jun 2007, Q 30
Which of the following graphs represents y = 5x3 ?
A.

D
y

Graphs of Functions II

MR. THIYAKU MARUTHA

22

x
0

8 Nov 2007, Q 28
Which of the following graphs represents

y x2 5 ?

y
5

Which graph represents

9 Jun 2008, Q 29
y

1
x 3?
2
B

6
0
3

y
C

D
3

x
23

Graphs of Functions II

MR. THIYAKU MARUTHA

10 Nov 2008, Q 27
Which graph represents

y x2 x 2 ?

y
C

y
D

1 0

1 0

2
2

x
x

ANSWERS
Questions Base On Examination Format
1. A

2. A

3. B

4. D

5. C

6. D

7. C

8. C

9. C

10. D

11. C

12. B

13. C

14. A

15. B

16. D

17. C

18. B

19. A

20. C

Past-Year Questions
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Graphs of Functions II
MR. THIYAKU MARUTHA

B
D
D
A
C
B
B
B
B
C

PREPARED BY

MR. THIYAKU MARUTHA


Bsc. Actuarial Science & Statistics
(Hons) University Malaya

24