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Track engineering rules

Section 2/Page 1-2

2 Track alignment 2.01 Alignment

Date 01.09.2011

Section 2/Page 2 deleted

Section 2 “Track alignment” is valid for V 250 km/h and axle load A 25

2.01.0

ton in according to the following relationship between V and A:

 

Application

V

100 km/h and A 25 ton

 

conditions

V

< 250 km/h and A 22,5 ton

 

V

= 250 km/h and A 18 ton

There may be other factors than track alignment, which puts restrictions on speed and the use of axle load on the infrastructure managed by Rail Net Denmark.

 

The horizontal alignment

of the track means the location of the track on the

2.01.1

horizontal level, also denominated the track alignment. Geometrically the horizontal track alignment is composed of the following elements

Horizontal track

alignment

– straight lines – circular curves – transition curves
– straight lines
– circular curves
– transition curves

The vertical alignment

of the track means the location of the track on the

2.01.2

vertical level, also denominated longitudinal profile. Geometrically the vertical track alignment is composed of the following elements

Vertical track

alignment

– straight lines
– straight lines

– circular curves

Circular curves used in connection with vertical alignments are denominated vertical curves.

 

The difference between the interrelated height locations of the 2 rails of the

2.01.3

track is denominated cant of the track.

Where adjustment of the cant is

Interrelation between heights of rails

required, a superelevation connecting ramp is applied, which has the purpose of providing an even variation of the cant.

During running in curves the rolling stock is affected by the horizontal

During running in curves the rolling stock is affected by the horizontal

outward centrifugal force

During running in curves the rolling stock is affected by the horizontal outward centrifugal force

– the size of which is depending on current train

speed and curve radius – and on the vertical, downward gravity.

If the resultant of the centrifugal force and the gravity is coincident with the

2.01.4

median plane of the coach a full balancing of the centrifugal force is achieved, cf. annex 2A. If the resultant of the centrifugal force and the gravity are not in the median plane of the coach it will cause either under- or over-balancing, resulting in unbalanced lateral acceleration, cf. section 2.03.2.

Running in curves

Running from straight lined track to curve or vice versa, or between 2 curves, will change the unbalanced side acceleration. The speed at which the unbalanced side acceleration is changed is denominated the rate of change of cant deficiency as function of time.

Running in superelevation connecting ramp will change the cant. The speed at which this occurs is denominated rate of change of cant as function of time.

The parameters determining how running in curves is conducted are

– curve radius

 

– speed

 

– cant

 

– rate of change of cant deficiency as function of time

– rate of change of cant as function of time.

 

Concurrent causes for the size of the two last-mentioned parameters are

– length of transition curve

– length of transition curve – length of superelevation connecting ramp
– length of superelevation connecting ramp

– length of superelevation connecting ramp

Rev. nr. 203

Track engineering rules

Section 2/Page 3-6

2 Track alignment

2.02 Circular curves

Circular curves are used for changing the track direction on the

Circular curves are used for changing the track direction on the

horizontal level.

Circular curves are used for changing the track direction on the horizontal level.

2.02.1

Date 01.09.2011

Purpose and application

At determination of the curve radius of a circular curve it generally applies that it should be made as large as possible, however normally not exceeding 25,000 m. Speed, cant possibility, track denomination and superstructure type will normally be determining for the curve radius of the current circular curve.

Depending on track denomination the following requested regulations are established

main tracks and through tracks

 

R

700 m

 

other train routes

 
 

R

500 m

 

siding

R 190 m

2.02.2

Requested regulations

For safety reason special regulations apply to long-welded rails, cf. section 4.11.5.

Depending on track denomination the following standard regulation are established for jointed tracks

main tracks and through tracks

R 300 m

– other train routes

R 190 m

– company tracks and harbour tracks

R 150 m

As for track gauge widening, see section 2.12.

– other sidings

R 190 m

2.02.3

Standard
Standard

regulations

Rev. nr. 204

Section 2/Page 4-6

Track engineering rules

Date 01.09.2011

 

2

Track alignment

2.02

Circular curves

2.02.4

Exeptional regulations

For jointed tracks, technical system administrators of the Railway Agency may grant permission to deviate from the standard regulations until

R 150 m

As for track gauge widening, see section 2.12.

There are still, by historical reasons, sidings with radius less than 150 m, which are owned or managed by Rail Net Danmark. These tracks are allowed kept in operation including maintenance and if necessary for track renewal projects with the radius the track was original planned with. Requirements for track expansion indicated in section 2.12 must be obtained.

For tracks with R < 150 m, the local ranger instructions with restrictions on equipment use must be in SIN.

2.02.5

In connection with new constructions and where the conditions allow for it, for comfort reasons, a circular curve part as long as possible should be aimed at, corresponding to

Requested
Requested

regulations for

curve length

For V 200 km/h:

L k 0,40*V, minimum of 20 meters

(1a)
(1a)

For 200 < V 250 km/h: L k 0,67*V

(1aa)

2.02.6

For comfort reasons, the circular curve part shall fulfil the following condition

Standard
Standard

regulations for

curve length

 

For V 200 km/h:

L k 0,25*V, minimum of 20 meters (1b)

For 200 < V 250 km/h: L k 0,67*V

(1bb)

2.02.7

The technical system administrators of the Railway Agency may grant permission to deviate from the comfort requirements of the standard regulations up to

Exeptional
Exeptional

regulations for

curve length

For V 200 km/h:

L k 0,20*V

(1c)

For 200 < V 250 km/h: L k 0,40*V

(1cc)

If the change of the cant deficiency (I) is smaller than 40 mm in relation to one of the closest curves/straight tracks, L k is allowed reduced to 0,10 V.

Rev. nr. 205

Track engineering rules

Section 2/Page 5-6

2

2.03

Track alignment Cant

The intended height difference between the two rails of the track

is denominated the cant of the track. Cant is made by elevating the

outer rails in relation to the inner rails.

Date 01.09.2011

2.03.1

Purpose and application

Curves on main tracks and through tracks are normally given cant

to

counteract the centrifugal force.

On other relief tracks used by

passenger trains with speed V 50 km/h, curves may be given cant. On all other tracks curves are normally not given cant.

On part sections, where the theoretical section speed cannot be achieved, the speed that can be achieved in reality by the fastest trains shall be taken into consideration when establishing cant height. The information needed for this shall be collected through the technical system administrators of the Railway Agency.

Further the distribution between fast and slow trains shall be taken

Further the distribution between fast and slow trains shall be taken

into account when establishing the cant.

Further the distribution between fast and slow trains shall be taken into account when establishing the

A complete balancing of the centrifugal force corresponds to a

cant h a determined by 2 V = 11,8 h a R
cant h a determined by
2
V
= 11,8
h a
R

(1)

2.03.2 Balancing cant
2.03.2
Balancing cant

When the current cant h is smaller than the balancing cant h a a positive size I results, denominated cant deficiency

2 V I = 11,8 − h R
2
V
I
=
11,8
− h
R

(2)

If the current cant on the other hand is larger than the balancing

cant, a positive size E results, denominated cant deficiency

2 V E = h ÷11,8 R
2
V
E
=
h
÷11,8
R

(3)

Since not all trains run with the section speed the cant is normally not determined from formula (1), corresponding to full balancing, but from

h = 8

V

2

R

, maximum 115 mm

(4)

corresponding to a cant deficiency of

I = 3,8

V

2

R

2.03.3

regulationscorresponding to a cant deficiency of I = 3,8 V 2 R 2.03.3 Owing to risk

Owing to risk of derailment in curves with small radii the following shall always be observed:

÷ 50 (4a) h ≤ R 1,5
÷ 50
(4a)
h ≤ R
1,5

On sections that are trafficked by trains with approximately the same speed, as for instance some S-train sections, it may be required to determine the cant of formula (1) from the current speed, thus balancing the centrifugal force completely.

The regulations in section 2.03.4 on the maximum allowed I shall be ensured to be observed for the fastest running trains.

Rev 206

Section 2/Page 6-6

Track engineering rules

Date 01.09.2011

 

2

Track alignment

2.03

Cant

2.03.4

For passenger traffic railway the cant is normally determined from

regulationstraffic railway the cant is normally determined from h = 11,8 V 2 ÷ I (5)

h =

11,8

V

2

÷ I

(5)

 

R

 

where the cant deficiency is limited to

I ≤ 100 mm
I ≤ 100 mm
 

At determination of cant from formula (5) the following supplementary regulations apply

switches and crossings on stone ballast railways

 

h

100 mm

 

(6)

tracks on stone ballast railways

 
h ≤ 150 mm
h
≤ 150 mm
 

(7a)

tracks and switches and crossings on gravel ballast railways

h

80 mm

 

(7b)

tracks and switches and crossings along platforms

for V <

250 km/h

 
h ≤ 60 mm
h
≤ 60 mm
 

(8)

However, owing to risk of derailment in curves with small radii the requirement in formula (4a) shall always be observed.

For freight railways and passenger traffic railways where the section frequently is trafficked with slowly running freight trains, the maximum cant is determined to

h =

11,8

2

V

g

R

+ E

(9)

where V

g

in the present context is the lowest speed the

section is frequently trafficked with

maximum cant excess E allowed is limited to

For new lines, track renewal or upgrades must the regulations (9) also include sections which are frequently trafficked with slowly running passengers trains.

E ≤ 110mm
E ≤ 110mm

Further the supplementary regulations in (6), (7a), (7b) and (8) shall be observed.

2.03.5

regulationsin (6), (7a), (7b) and (8) shall be observed. 2.03.5 At determination of cant from formula

At determination of cant from formula (5), Rail Net Denmarks technical system administrators of passengers and freight trains can grant permission up to:

for A 22,5 tons and rail profiles UIC60 and DSB60:

 

- for all trains, where V 140 km/h: I = 130 mm

 

- for all trains, where 140 km/h < V 250 km/h: I = 150 mm

a)

-

for special trains: I = 160 mm

for A 22,5 tons and rail profile DSB45:

 

- for all trains: I = 130 mm

a) For sections that are included in category II of HS TSI INF applies that I = 140 mm in speed range 200 < V 230 km/h and I = 130 mm in speed range 230 < V 250 km/h.

Rail Net Denmarks technical system administrators can for cant in tracks and switches and crossings on stone ballast railways grant permission up to

h ≤ 160 mm
h ≤ 160 mm

Rev 207

Track engineering rules

Section 2/Page 7-5

2

2.03

Track alignment Cant

Rail Net Denmarks technical system administrators can for V <

250 km/h grant permission to deviate form the regulations in up to

(8)
(8)
h = 110 mm
h
= 110 mm

Date 01.09.2011

Section 2/Page 8 deleted

However, owing to risk of derailment in curves with small radii the requirement in formula (4a) shall always be observed.

Switches and crossings are allowed located on straight tracks and

if necessary in curves, where the speed is V 200 km/h, while

switches and crossings shall be located on straight tracks without cant, where the speed is 200 < V 250 km/h.

2.03.6

Cant in switches and

crossings

In inside curved switches and crossings the same cant may be

used as in that curve which includes the main track.

Refer to

requirements of 2.03.4 and 2.03.5.

For switches and crossings with contraflexure curves

with

common crossings, the cant may be determined from formula (5) in section 2.03.4, as the allowed cant, depending on the speed, is limited to

I = 100 mm
I
= 100 mm

for the speed in the main track V 100 km/h and

I = 80 mm
I
= 80 mm

for the speed in the main track 100 < V 200 km/h.

In the

diverted track in

 

switches and crossings with contraflexure

curve

with common crossings with cant, a so-called

“negative”

 

cant will appear. („false“ cant).

This negative cant is allowed if

2 V v h ≤ I −11,8 R u
2
V
v
h
I
−11,8
R
u

(10)

as I, depending on the speed, is limited to

I = 100 mm

for the speed in the diverted track V v 100 km/h and

I = 80 mm

for the speed in the diverted track 100 < V v 200 km/h.

Formula (10) includes radius Ru, which is radius in the diverted track after the curvature.

For switches and crossings with

applies, that the same I-values on general tracks can be used in accordance with the rules of section 2.03.4 and 2.03.5.

movable frog

for V 200 km/h

I appendix 2B an example is given of calculation of cant and

running speed in switches and crossings with contraflexure curve.

With a view to adjustment of a level crossing longitudinal road profile it may be required to give straight track cant. On the grounds of this up to 40 mm cant may be allowed on straight tracks through level crossings, provided that the cant is counterbalanced through superelevation connecting ramps of sufficient length, in accordance with the rules in section 2.06.2.

2.03.7

Cant in level crossings

Rev. nr. 208

Section 2/Page 9/10-4

Track engineering rules

Date 01.09.2011

2

Track alignment

2.04

Speed in curves

Derived from the cant formula for balancing of the centrifugal force, formula (1) in section 2.03.2, the following balanced speed is produced

V a =

hR 11,8
hR
11,8

(11)

Determined from the formula for required cant, formula (4) in section 2.03.3, the following regulations for required speed are produced

V =

hR 8
hR
8

(12)

For passenger traffic railways, derived from formula (5) in section

For passenger traffic railways, derived from formula (5) in section

2.03.4, the following regulations for standard speed are produced

traffic railways, derived from formula (5) in section 2.03.4, the following regulations for standard speed are
( h + I ) R V = 11,8 where the cant deficiency appears
(
h
+ I
)
R
V =
11,8
where the
cant
deficiency appears
(13)
(13)

from section 2.03.4.

2.04.1

Balanced speed

2.04.2

Requested regulations

2.04.3

regulations2.04.1 Balanced speed 2.04.2 Requested regulations 2.04.3 For freight railways, where the section frequently is

For freight railways, where the section frequently is trafficked by slow running freight trains, the minimum freight trains speed in curves is determined, derived from formula (9) in section 2.03.4 to

( h − E R ) = V g 11,8
(
h
E R
)
=
V g
11,8

(14)

where V g and the maximum allowed cant excess E appears from section 2.03.04.

For new constructions, major renovations or upgrades must the regulation (14) also include the sections, which are frequently trafficked with slowly running passenger trains.

In connection with the establishment of the exeptional regulations

In connection with the establishment of the exeptional regulations

for maximum cant and cant deficiency, cf. section 2.03.5, absolute

with the establishment of the exeptional regulations for maximum cant and cant deficiency, cf. section 2.03.5,

maximum speed in curves for passenger traffic railways can be

determined from

formula (13)
formula (13)

in section 2.04.3.

can be determined from formula (13) in section 2.04.3. For maximum speed through main tracks as

For maximum speed through main tracks as well as diverted

For maximum speed through main tracks as well as diverted tracks with inside curved switches and

tracks with inside curved switches and crossings the standard

with inside curved switches and crossings the standard regulations for allowed speed in curves apply. 2.04.4

regulations for allowed speed in curves apply.

2.04.4

regulationsregulations for allowed speed in curves apply. 2.04.4 2.04.5 Speed in switches and crossings If the

2.04.5

Speed in switches and

crossings

If the switches and crossings are with contraflexure curve the

 

maximum possible speed in the main track will be limited by the

cant in the main track taken into considering radius and speed in

the diverted track, i.e. maximum allowed “negative” cant in this

track, cf. section 2.03.6

and appendix 2B.

The maximum speed that may be allowed through the diverted

The maximum speed that may be allowed through the diverted

The maximum speed that may be allowed through the diverted track in switches and crossings with

track in switches and crossings with contraflexure curve is as

mentioned limited by the maximum allowed ”negative” cant in

this,

and appendix 2B.

cf. section 2.03.6

At entry into and exit from switches and crossing curves no fictive ”rate of change of cant deficiency as function of time” dI/dt larger than stated in appendix 2C figure 2 may occur.

Rev. nr. 210

Section 2/Page 9/10-4

Track engineering rules

Date 01.09.2011

2 Track alignment

2.04 Speed in curves

Maximum allowed speed when running through diverted track in switches and crossings with straight main track without cant appears from figure 1.

Slope

 

Radius (m)

Speed (km/h)

1:5,45 symmetrical

 

215

 

40

 

1:7,5

 

190

40

1:9

 

190

40

1:9

300

50

1:11

 

330

50

1:12

500

60

1:14

500

60

1:19

1.200

 

100

1)

1:19 symmetrical

 

2.400

 

120

1:26,5

 

2.500

130

1)

1)

For comfort reasons it may be necessary to reduce the speed in relation to the maximum speed stated in the table (e.g. if the diverted track is located in a through track).

Figure 1

Maximum allowed speed through diverted tracks

in switches and crossings with straight main

 

track.

 

For maximum speed through the main track at an inside curved switches and crossings, Rail Net Denmarks technical system administrators can allow the use of exeptional regulations for speeding in curves, cf. section 2.04.4.

2.04.6

Exeptional regulation for speed in switches and crossings

At entry into and exit from switches and crossing curves, Rail Net Denmarks technical system administrators can allow the fictive ”rate of change of cant deficiency as function of time” dI/dt = 150 mm/s, when the following requirement for I are met.

I 120 mm: 30 km/h V 70 km/h

I 105 mm: 70 km/h < V 170 km/h

I 85 mm: 170 km/h < V 200 km/h

Rev. nr. 210

Track engineering rules

Section 2/Page 11-2

2

Track alignment

 

Date 01.09.2011

2.05

Transition curves

 

To achieve an even variation of the curvature and thus smooth

 

2.05.1

running, at transition from straight line tracks to circular curves or

Purpose and use

from circular curve to circular curve, transition curves are

 

normally installed.

 

For clothoids with straight lined superelevation connecting ramp applies that rate of change of cant deficiency as function of time and rate of change of cant as function of time are constant throughout the entire transition curve and that they arise and decrease suddenly at its ends. At short transition curves and superelevation connecting ramps this may cause some discomfort.

 

For 4 th degree parabolas with s-shaped superelevation connecting ramp apply that rate of change of cant deficiency as function of time and rate of change of cant as function of time increase gradually from 0 through first half of the transition curve, reaches maximum at the centre and then decreases gradually to 0 through the other half. The values of these sizes will in the centre be double as high as in a clothoids of the same length.

A disadvantage of the 4 th degree parabola is that the control of the location of the connected s-shaped superelevation connecting ramp will be more difficult, but where the condition of the track otherwise is good, the 4 th degree parabola may provide a smoother run at short transition curve lengths.

Regarding the design of transitions curves, reference is made to appendix 2D.

 

Transition curves are to be used in main tracks and through train

 

2.05.2

routes.

 
Standard
Standard

regulations

For other through tracks and sidings transition curves are usually omitted, unless the transition curves is required by formula (17).

must be designed in

the form of a clothoid, which with sufficient approximation can be

As a standard regulation, the

transition curves

can be As a standard regulation, the transition curves replaced by a 3 r d degree

replaced by a 3 rd degree parabola. For clothoids, straight lined superelevation connecting ramps shall be used, cf. section 2.06.1.

Using clothoids as transition curves, the following standard regulations applies

For V 200 km/h:

I*V / (3,6*L) 55 mm/s

(15a)

For 200 < V 250 km/h:

I*V / (3,6*L) 50 mm/s

(15b)

Further, the length of the transition curves shall be a minimum of 20 meters.

Consideration for the largest rate of change of cant as function of

time allowed may require a longer transitions curve length

 

though, cf. formula (25) in section 2.06.3.

 

Rev. nr. 211

Section 2/Page 12-2

Track engineering rules

Date 01.09.2011

2 Track alignment

2.05 Transition curves

For other through tracks and sidings, where transition curves are

For other through tracks and sidings, where transition curves are

For other through tracks and sidings, where transition curves are omitted formula (17) must be observed

omitted formula (17) must be observed between.

straight line and curve

 

two circular curves pointing in the same direction

two circular curves pointing in opposite direction

   

I*V/(3,6*20) 65 mm/s

(17)

The regulations in formula 17 do not apply for entry into and exit

from switches and crossing curves, where the regulation in section

2.04.5 applies.

It should be noticed that for safety reasons it may be necessary to install a straight line track section between circular curves pointing in opposite directions with small radii, cf. section 2.08.

2.05.3

Exeptional
Exeptional

regulations

As an exceptional regulations Rail Net Denmarks technical system administrators can allow the use of a 4 th degree parabola as a transition curve with a s-shaped superelevation connecting ramp for V200 km/h, cf. section 2.06.1.

When applying the clothoids as transition curve, Rail Net Denmarks technical system administrators, may grant permission to deviate from the standard regulations up to

For V 200 km/h:

I*V / (3,6*L) 90 mm/s

(18)

For 200 < V 250 km/h:

I*V / (3,6*L) 75 mm/s

(19)

Consideration for larger rate of change of cant as function of time, will often require a longer transition curve length, cf. formula (26), (26a) and (26b) in section 2.06.4.

As an exception transition curves between

straight line and curve

two circular curves pointing in the same direction

two circular curves pointing in opposite direction

can be omitted if

For V 200 km/h:

For 200 < V 250 km/h: I*V / (3,6*20) 75 mm/s

I*V / (3,6*20) 135 mm/s (20)

(21)

The regulations in formula 20 do not apply for entry into and exit

from switches and crossing curves, where the regulation in section

2.04.6 applies.

It should be noticed that for safety reasons it may be necessary to install a straight line track section between circular curves pointing in opposite directions with small radii, cf. section 2.08.

Rail Net Denmarks technical system administrators may grant permission to use a 4 th degree parabola as a transition curve up to

For V 200 km/h:

For 200 < V 250 km/h: 4 th degree parabola is not allowed

2*I*V / (3,6*L) 100 mm/s

(22)

Consideration for larger rate of change of cant as function of time, will often require a longer transition curve length, cf. formula (27) in section 2.06.4.

Rev. nr. 212

Track engineering rules

Section 2/Page 13-4

Date 01.09.2011

2

Track alignment

2.06

Superelevation connecting ramp

Superelevation connecting ramps are used for levelling a given

 

2.06.1

difference in cant between 2 track sections and provide an even

Purpose and use

transition between two cants.

 

In connection with use of the clothoid as transition curve, a

 

straight superelevation connecting ramp

is required.

Superelevation connecting ramp and transition curve shall be abutting if possible. If observance of this rule is not possible, the regulations in section 2.06.5 apply.

 

For the 4 th degree parabola an s-shaped superelevation connecting ramp is required. In this case superelevation connecting ramp and transition curve shall always be abutting. Regarding the design of superelevation connecting ramps, reference is made to appendix 2E

For straight lined superelevation connecting ramps the following requested regulation applies

2.06.2

Requested
Requested

regulations

dh/dt=hV/(3,6L)28

(24)

For straight lined ramps the standard regulation is

dh/dt=

hV/(3,6L)50

(25)
(25)

2.06.3

regulationsregulation is dh/dt= ∆ hV/(3,6L) ≤ 50 (25) 2.06.3 the superelevation connecting ramp shall have a

the superelevation connecting ramp shall have a lengthis dh/dt= ∆ hV/(3,6L) ≤ 50 (25) 2.06.3 regulations producing a rate of change of cant

producing a

rate of change of cant as function of lenght of

maximum s = 2.0 ‰.

 

In consideration for rate of change of cant deficiency as function

of time, the length of the ramp may not be shorter than the length

of the corresponding transition curve, determined by formula (15)

 

and (16)

in section 2.05.2.

 

If the straight lined superelevation connecting ramp and transition curve are abutting, the Railway Agency, Technical Systems, may grant permission to deviate from the above-mentioned regulation up to

for V 200 km/h:

dh/dt=hV/(3,6L)70

(26)

If cant deficiency I 150 mm and rate of change of cant deficiency dI/dt 70 mm/s:

dh/dt=hV/(3,6L)85

(26a)

2.06.4

Exeptional
Exeptional

regulations

Rev. nr. 213

Section 2/Page 14-4

Track engineering rules

Date 01.09.2011

2 Track alignment

2.06 Superelevation connecting ramp

for 200 < V 250 km/h:

dh/dt=hV/(3,6L)60

(26b)

For s-shaped superelevation connecting ramps the Railway Agency, Technical Systems, may grant permission to deviate from the above- mentioned regulation up to

For V 200 km/h:

dh/dt=2hV/(3,6L)70

(27)

For 200 < V 250 km/h s-shaped superelevation connecting ramps are not allowed.

Use of the exeptional regulation is provided that the rate of change of cant

Use of the exeptional regulation is provided that the rate of change of cant

as function of lenght s 2.5‰.

Use of the exeptional regulation is provided that the rate of change of cant as function

In consideration for the rate of change of cant deficiency as function of time the ramp length determined based on formula (26) may not be smaller than the corresponding transition curve, cf. formula (20) in section 2.05.3.

2.06.5

If it is not possible within the exeptional regulations to observe the requirement for maximum allowed rate of change of cant as function of time and rate of change of cant as function of lenght, the Railway Agency; Technical Services, ,ay grant permission to the ramp being extended by b meters out on straight track or c meters into the circular curve.

Non-abutting transition

curve and

 

superelevation

 

connecting ramp

 

The following conditions shall then be fulfilled

- the rate of change of cant as function of lenght

minimum ramp length

L r

hV

125

or

dh/dt=hV/(3,6L)35

s

125

V

‰ is equal to the

(28)

- for special train units though

s

180

V

‰ is equal to minimum ramp length

L r

h V

180

or

dh/dt=hV/(3,6L)50

(28a)

- cant, on straight track h 40 mm is equal to

b 40

L

r

h

(29)

- the cant deficiency I 100 mm is equal to

c

(

100 ÷ I

)

L

r

h

(30)

- the rate of change of cant deficiency as function of time dI/dt 75 mm/s is equal to

L

V

3

33.4 R

- the maximum value of L

L

r

L H

h

+

I

÷140

 

(31)

r

b

+

c

+

L is equal to

 

(32)

In appendix “F the above-mentioned formulas are derived and provided with a calculation example.

Rev. nr. 214

Section 2/Page 15-3

Track engineering rules

Date 01.09.2011

Section 2/ Page 16 deleted

2 Track alignment 2.07 Abutting curves Abutting curves are circular curves touching each other or
2
Track alignment
2.07
Abutting curves
Abutting curves are circular curves touching each other or circular
curves lying so closely that special attention should be paid to this
2.07.1
Definition
in the geometrical design.
Abutting curves may be pointing in the same or opposite
directions.
Curves pointing in the same direction shall to the extent possible
2.07.2
be connected with one, common transition curve and the cant
Curves pointing in the
difference, if any, between the 2 curves shall normally be levelled
same direction
by use of a superelevation connecting ramp abutting on the
transition curve.
Usually a clothoid including a straight lined superelevation
connecting ramp is used as transition curve between curves
pointing in the same direction.
As an exception the transitions curve may be designed as a 4 th
degree parabola including an s-shaped superelevation connecting
ramp.
If it is impossible to connect 2 curves pointing in the same
direction with one shared transition curve, each curve shall be
equipped with a separate transition curve and superelevation
connecting ramp. The consequent discomfort shall be neutralized
by inserting an intermediate piece between the starting points of
the 2 transition curves in accordance with the rules in section
2.08.
Regarding curves pointing in the same direction without transition
curves in between, reference is made to section 2.05.2 and 2.05.3.
Transition curves between curves pointing in opposite directions
2.07.3
should to the extent possible reach each other, if necessary by
Curves pointing in
increase of their lengths besides the calculated required length, cf.
opposite directions

2.05.2.

Normally clothoids shall be used as transition curves including

Normally clothoids shall be used as transition curves including

straight, crossing superelevation connecting ramps.

Normally clothoids shall be used as transition curves including straight, crossing superelevation connecting ramps.

As an exception the 4 th degree parabola may be designed as a transitions curve including an s-shaped superelevation connecting ramp.

If it is not possible to get the 2 transition curves to reach each

 

other, the consequent discomfort shall be neutralized by inserting

an intermediate piece between the starting points of the 2

 

transition curves in accordance with the rules in section 2.08.

This

case is illustrated in appendix 2E (figure 11).

Regarding curves pointing in opposite directions without transition curve(s) in between, reference is made to section 2.05.2, 2.05.3 and 2.08.

Rev. nr. 215

Track engineering rules

Section 2/Page 17-5

2 Track alignment

2.08

Straight track section between

 
 

curves

 

For comfort reasons 2 separate transitions curves separated by a

 

straight intermediate piece shall be inserted between two abutting

curves, if the abutting curves cannot as described in section 2.07

 

Date 01.09.2011

2.08.1

Application of straight track section

be connected with a common transitions curve, cf. section 2.08.2,

2.08.3 and 2.08.4.

For safety reasons straight track section shall be applied between

curves pointing in opposite directions with small radii without

 

transition curves, cf. section 2.08.5 and 2.08.6.

 

Likewise straight track section shall for safety reasons be applied between switches and crossings turning the switch tongues against each other and being part of the same train route, cf. section

2.08.8 and 2.08.9.

At new construction and where the conditions in general allow it, as long a straight intermediate piece as possible should for comfort reasons be aimed at, corresponding to

For V 200 km/h:

L S 0,40*V, minimum of 20 meters

For 200 < V 250 km/h: L S 0,67*V

(33)
(33)

(33a)

2.08.2

Requested
Requested

regulations

for straight track section between curves

This regulation applies to curves pointing in the same as well as opposite directions. For straight track sections between curves with small radii reference is also made to section 2.08.5.

For comfort reasons the straight intermediate piece shall fulfil the following condition

For V 200 km/h:

L S 0,25*V, minimum of 20 meters (34)

For 200 < V 250 km/h: L S 0,67*V

(34a)

2.08.3

regulations for200 < V ≤ 250 km/h: L S ≥ 0,67*V (34a) 2.08.3 straight track sections between

straight track sections between curves

This regulation applies to curves pointing in the same as well as opposite directions. For straight track sections between curves with small radii reference is also made to section 2.08.5.

The Railway Agency’s technical system administrators may grant permission to deviate form the comfort requirements of the standard regulation until

2.08.4

Exeptional
Exeptional

regulations

for straight track section between curves

For V 200 km/h:

L S 0,20*V

(34b)

For 200 < V 250 km/h: L S 0,40*V

(34c)

If the change of the cant deficiency (I) is smaller than 40 mm in

relation to one of the nearest curves,

0.10V. For straight track sections between curves with small radii reference is also made to section 2.08.5.

L

s

is allowed reduced to

At new lines, track renewal and other changes in relation to the track alignment the following must be observed

- When radius in both curves is R 220m straight intermediate piece may be omitted.

2.08.5

Standard regulations for

straight track section

 

between curves pointing

in opposite directions

 

with small radii

 

- When radius in just one of the curves is 150m R < 220m , a

straight intermediate piece is required in accordance with figure

2a.

For curves with radius R < 150 m reference is also made to section 2.02.4. When radius in just one of the curves is R < 150 m, the use of regulations is required according to section 2.08.6.

Rev. nr. 216

Section 2/Page 18-5

Track engineering rules

Date 01.09.2011

2

Track alignment

2.08

Straight track section between curves

Minimum requirements for the length of a straight track between curves pointing in opposite directions without transition curves.

Mindstekrav for længden af retlinede sporstykker mellem modvendte kurver (S-kurver)

 

Radius

 

i den

 

Radius i den ene kurve i meter

 

anden

 

kurve i

 

meter

150

160

170

180

190

200

210

220

150

11,50

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

160

11,00

10,50

-

-

-

-

-

-

170

10,50

10,00

9,00

-

-

-

-

-

180

10,00

9,50

9,00

8,00

-

-

-

-

190

9,50

9,00

8,50

8,00

7,00

-

-

-

200

9,00

8,50

8,00

7,50

7,00

6,00

-

-

210

8,50

8,00

7,50

7,00

6,50

5,50

5,00

-

220

8,50

7,50

7,00

6,50

6,00

5,00

4,00

0

230

8,00

7,50

6,50

6,00

5,00

4,50

0,50

0

240

8,00

7,00

6,50

5,50

4,50

1,50

0

0

250

7,50

6,50

6,00

5,00

3,50

0

0

0

260

7,00

6,50

5,50

4,50

0,50

0

0

0

270

7,00

6,00

5,00

3,00

0

0

0

0

280

6,50

6,00

5,00

1,00

0

0

0

0

290

6,50

5,50

4,00

0

0

0

0

0

300

6,00

5,00

2,50

0

0

0

0

0

310

6,00

5,00

0,50

0

0

0

0

0

320

5,50

4,50

0

0

0

0

0

0

330

5,50

3,50

0

0

0

0

0

0

340

5,00

2,00

0

0

0

0

0

0

350

5,00

0,50

0

0

0

0

0

0

360

5,00

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

370

4,50

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

380

3.50

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

390

2,50

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

400

1,50

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

410

0,50

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Figure 2a

Minimum requirements for the length of a straight track between curves

 

pointing in opposite directions without transition curves

 

2.08.6

Regulations

for

For track put into service before 01.09.2011, which does not fulfill the requirements in section 2.08.5, it´s allowed to continue in service if the requiremetns in figure 2b is fulfilled.

straight track

between curves

with

small radii
small radii
 

pointing in opposite directions

For safety reasons for such tracks the following absolute requirements must always be fulfilled.

- When radius in both curves is R 200m, straight intermediate piece may be omitted.

- When radius in just one of the curves is 120m R < 200m, a straight intermediate piece is required in accordance with figure 2b.

- When radius in just one of the curves is R<120m, a straight intermediate piece of minimum 30 m is required.

Rev. nr. 217

Track engineering rules

Section 2/Page 19-4

Date 01.09.2011

2

Track alignment

2.08

Straight track section between curves

Minimum requirements for the length of a straight track between curves pointing in opposite directions without transition curves for existing tracks per 01.09.2011.

Bestemmelser for eksisterende spor per 01.09.2011 for mindste retlinede sporstykke mellem modvendte kurver (S-kurver)

 

Radius

 

i den

 

Radius i den ene kurve [m]

 

anden

 

kurve

120

130

140

150

160

170

180

190

 

200

[m]

120

20,00

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

130

20,00

20,00

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

140

19,00

18,00

16,00

-

-

-

-

-

-

150

19,00

18,00

12,00

7,00

-

-

-

-

-

160

19,00

17,00

10,00

6,00

6,00

-

-

-

-

170

19,00

16,00

10,00

6,00

6,00

5,50

-

-

-

180

19,00

15,00

10,00

6,00

5,50

5,00

4,50

-

-

190

19,00

15,00

9,00

5,50

5,00

4,50

4,00

3,00

-

200

19,00

15,00

8,00

5,50

4,50

4,00

3,50

2,50

0

210

19,00

15,00

8,00

5,00

4,50

3,50

2,50

1,00

0

220

19,00

15,00

7,00

4,50

4,00

3,00

1,50

0

0

230

19,00

15,00

7,00

4,50

3,50

2,00

0

0

0

240

19,00

15,00

6,00

4,00

3,00

1,00

0

0

0

250

19,00

15,00

5,00

3,50

2,50

0

0

0

0

260

19,00

15,00

5,00

3,50

1,50

0

0

0

0

270

19,00

15,00

5,00

3,00

0

0

0

0

0

280

19,00

14,00

4,00

2,50

0

0

0

0

0

290

19,00

14,00

3,00

1,50

0

0

0

0

0

300

19,00

14,00

3,00

0

0

0

0

0

0

310

19,00

14,00

2.00

0

0

0

0

0

0

320

19,00

14,00

2,00

0

0

0

0

0

0

330

19,00

13,00

1,00

0

0

0

0

0

0

340

18,00

13,00

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

350

17,00

13,00

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Figure 2b Minimum requirements for the length of a straight track between curves

 

pointing in opposite directions without transition curves for existing tracks per

 

01.09.2011.

 

In main tracks and relief tracks between switches and crossings that turn their switch

2.08.7

tongues against each other and where both diverted tracks enter into the same train

Requested

route, a straight track section of minimum 30 meter between the switch tongue joints

regulations for

shall be aimed at.

switches and

crossings

For switches and crossing curves, where the speed is V 70 km/h, is required that the

2.08.8

minimum allowed length of the straight track between the switch tongue joints in main

Standard

track and in interlocked switches and crossings in sidings is 7 m. For switches and

regulations for

crossing curves, where the speed is 70 < V 200 km/h, is required that the minimum

switches and

allowed length of the straight track between the switch tongue joints in main track shall fulfill the requirements for standard regulations i figure 3 in section 2.09.2.

crossings

For switches and crossing curves pointing in the same direction the following is required:

Rev. nr. 218

Section 2/Page 20-4

Track engineering rules

Date 01.09.2011

2 Track alignment

2.08 Straight track section between curves

- the minimum allowed length of the straight track between the switch tongue joints is lmited to 3 meters, provided that there are used azobé sleepers in the set of switch tongues.

- the minimum allowed length of the straight track between the tangent point can be 0 meter, if UIC60 switches and crossings on concrete sleepers are used.

For signalling reasons it may be necessary or preferable to increase this minimum length.

2.08.9

For switches and crossings with curves pointing in opposite directions, which

Regulations for

were put into service before 01.09.2011, which does not fulfill the

existing
existing

switches

requirements in section 2.08.8, it´s allowed to continue in service if the

and crossings

requiremetns in figure 2b in section 2.08.6 is fulfilled. It should be noted that the sizes in figure 2b in this case state minimum straight track section between tangent points of the switches and crossings.

Rev. nr. 219

Track engineering rules

Section 2/Page 21-5

2

Track alignment

2.09

Crossovers

A

crossover means a switches and crossing connection that allows

 

running from one track to another parallel track, for instance from right

to left track on a double track railway.

 

Date 01.09.2011

2.09.1

Definition

A crossover thus consists of 2 switches and crossings with the ends of

A crossover thus consists of 2 switches and crossings with the ends of

the crossing against each other and a track section in between.

thus consists of 2 switches and crossings with the ends of the crossing against each other

Running through a crossover will entail passing of 2 switches and

through a crossover will entail passing of 2 switches and crossing curves pointing in opposite directions
crossing curves pointing in opposite directions quickly after each other

crossing curves pointing in opposite directions quickly after each other

The requirements in section 2.09 for the length of straight track/elements are also vaild for the track alignment through the

deviation of a switch and crossing and the corresponding reverse curve

in a siding.

For running through crossovers the following straight track section between the 2 curves in the switches and crossings is required

2.09.2

Crossover between

straight parallel tracks

Speed

Requested

regulations

Standard

regulations

For V 70 km/h For 70 < V 100 km/h For 100 < V 200 km/h

Lt 0,20•V Lt 0,25•V Lt 0,30•V

Lt 0,10•V Lt 0,15•V Lt 0,20•V

Figure 3. Minimum length of straight track in a crossover.

For speeds V 70 km/h, is also required, that the requirements in section 2.08 concerning straight track between curves pointing in opposite directions is also fulfilled.

Below is listed the accordingly necessary requirements to distance between track center lines for the switches and crossings normally used by the Railway Agency. Minimum requirements for the track center distance in BN1-154 shall also be fulfilled.

Slope

Radius

 

Minimum track center distance

condition

(m)

 

(m)

 
 

Requested

 

Standard

regulations

regulations

1:7,5

190

 

4,40

 

*)

1:9

190

*)

*)

1:9
1:9
300
300
4,80
4,80
4,25
4,25

1:11

330

*)

*)

1:12

500

4,50

*)

1:14
1:14
500
500
*)
*)
*)
*)

1:19

1.200

4,65

*)

1:26,5

2.500

5,05

4,55

1:27,5

2.500

4,75

*)

*) No additional requirements compare to the Standard regulations for track center distance in the Standard BN1-154.

Figure 3a. Minimum track center distance i crossover for standard

switches and crossings.

 

Rev. nr. 220

Section 2/Page 22-4

Track engineering rules

Date 01.09.2011

 
 

2

Track alignment Crossovers

 

2.09

2.09.3

 
 

Crossovers between straight

In this situation the track section between the two switches and crossings may only in exceptional cases be designed as a straight track

non-parallel tracks

 

section; namely when the slope of two tracks in relation to each other corresponds to the difference between the slope conditions of the two switches and crossings.

 

In all other cases a curve shall be inserted in the intermediate piece.

Between this curve and the switches and crossing whose switches and crossing curve turns in opposite direction, a straight track section with

a

length in accordance with section 2.08 and 2.09.2 shall be inserted.

At the other end of the intermediate piece the curve shall connect to the switches and crossing curve in the other switches and crossings, which shall be of a type with the switches and crossing curve lead through the crossing.

Radius in the curve of the intermediate piece shall be selected so that

at the allowed speed

no cant deficiency larger than 100 mm at 100

km/h and 80 mm at 100 < V 200 km/h occurs.

 

If

the space is so narrow that

the minimum length of the straight

 

intermediate piece and/or minimum radius in centre curve cannot be fulfilled at the speed normally allowed in the applied switches and crossings, the allowed speed in the crossover shall be reduced.

 

2.09.4

Such crossovers consist of a switches and crossings with contraflexure curves and a inside curved switches and crossings, and an intermediate piece with curvature approximating the curvature of the main track.

 

Crossovers between tracks

in curves

For railway infrastructure reasons the two maintracks normally have the same cant and thereby the switches and crossings with contraflexure curves will usually also get a corresponding false cant.

Radius and cant shall be selected so that the maintrack as well as the switches and crossing curve of the switches and crossings with contraflexure curves can be trafficked with the requested speed, without exceeding the allowed values for cant deficiency in accordance with the regulations in section 2.03.6.

If this is not possible the speed shall be reduced so that the stated

conditions are fulfilled. Reference is made to section 2.04.5 including appendix 2B.

It may occur that the two curved track rails are not parallel. If so, a

detailed calculation shall be undertaken in each case.

Rev. nr. 221

Track engineering rules

Section 2/Page 23-5

2 Track alignment

2.10 Longitudinal profile

Date 01.09.2011

The longitudinal profile of the railway means the location of the

2.10.1

track on the vertical level.

Definition

The longitudinal profile is comprised of straight lines and circular curves. The slope of the straight lines (per thousand) in relation to horizontal is designated the gradient.

The gradient of a railway shall be determined taking the character

2.10.2

of the railway and the ground on which it runs into consideration.

Gradient
Gradient
Requested
Requested

regulations for gradient

Depending on the use of the track and track type as regards traffic, the following requirements are made for gradient, p:

- Tracks where coaches are parked:

p

1.5 ‰

- Tracks

along platform:

p

1.5 ‰

- Other main tracks, relief tracks or sidings:

p

8.0 ‰

regulations for gradientmain tracks, relief tracks or sidings: p ≤ 8.0 ‰ Depending on the use of the

Depending on the use of the track and track type as regards traffic, the following requirements are made for gradient, p:

- Tracks where coaches are parked:

- Tracks along platform:

- Other main tracks, relief tracks or sidings:

Exeptional
Exeptional

regulations for gradient

p ≤ 2.5 ‰ p ≤ 2.5 ‰ p ≤ 12.5 ‰
p
2.5 ‰
p
2.5 ‰
p
≤ 12.5 ‰

Depending on the use of the track and track type as regards traffic, the following requirements are made for gradient, p:

- Tracks along platforms:

p

10.0 ‰ a)

- Other main tracks and relief tracks for

passenger traffic

 

length up to 10 km

p 25.0 ‰

 

length up to 6 km

p 35.0 ‰

- Other main tracks and relief tracks for mixed traffic, which are not

related to CR TSI INF:

p 15.6 ‰

- Other sidetracks for mixed traffic, which are not relatede to CR

TSI INF: - Other main tracks, relief tracks and sidings for which are related to
TSI INF:
- Other
main tracks, relief tracks and sidings for
which are related to
CR TSI INF b)

the line from Korsør-Sprogø

p 25.0 ‰

mixed traffic,
mixed traffic,

p 15.6

c)

length up to 3 km

p 15.6 ‰

 
 

length up to 0,5 km

p 25.0 ‰ d)

a) For lines related to category I in HS TSI INF the value is 2.5 ‰. For lines related to category IV and VI in CR TSI INF ved values is 2.5 ‰ for passenger platforms, where passenger carriages are intended to be regularly attached or detached.

b) Acceptance of using these requirements can only be given by the Chief of the Track Section.

c) The value is determined by the original construction of the line.

d ) P > 20.0 ‰ is only permitted in locations, where trains are not

d) P > 20.0 ‰ is only permitted in locations, where trains are not

intended to stop and start in normal operation.

) P > 20.0 ‰ is only permitted in locations, where trains are not intended to

Rev. nr. 222

Section 2/Page 24-5

Date 01.09.2011

Track engineering rules

2 Track alignment

2.10 Longitudinal profile

Prior to an application for use of the exeptional regulations for other main tracks, relief tracks, and sidings, the project in question shall assess the consequences as regards the tractive power for all non-interoperable trains that already have or possibly will get allowance to run on the subsection.

On humps and the like the ratios of grade may in exceptional cases be allowed increased by the technical system administrators in the Railway Agency.

2.10.3

Vertical curves

Changes in the longitudinal profile normally occur though insertion of a vertical

curve.

Changes in the longitudinal profile > 1 ‰ shall be rounded at circular

curves, which shall have a minimum length of 20 m.

 

Changes in the longitudinal profile 1 ‰ are inserted as direct breaks.

Vertical curves in the longitudinal profile should to the extent possible be placed outside superelevation connecting ramps and switches and crossings. If this is unachievable the vertical radius should be made as large as possible.

Directions for determination of the tangent length of the vertical curve are stated in appendix 2G.

Requested
Requested

regulations for vertical curves

The following demands are made for vertical radius,

2 R 1.00V L ≥ and 10,000 m ≤ R ≤ 40,000 m L
2
R
1.00V
L ≥
and
10,000 m ≤
R
40,000 m
L

R

L

for 0 < V 200km / h :

(37)

(38)

For 200 < V 250 km/h the following requirements apply for vertical radius,

R L

:

R

L

Standard
Standard

= 40,000 m

regulations for vertical curves

(38a)

Depending on the speed the following demands are made for vertical radius,

-

(39)

0 < V

R

L

200 km/h :

0.35V

2 though minimum as below:

R

L

:

- 5,000 m for tracks and switches and crossings in main

tracks and through tracks in connection with new constructions

- 5,000 m for existing switches and crossings

- 2,000 m for existing tracks

- 200 < V 250 km/h :