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MATHEMATICS

Class

II IIT-JEE Achiever 2016 17


Intensive Revision Program
Solution to Worksheet - 14

Topics

Monotonoicity, MVT, Maxima and Minima

Date:

20-12-2016

Multiple choice questions with one or more than one correct alternative/s

5
1. The value of c in Lagranges theorem for the function f(x) = log sin x in the interval ,
6 6

2
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D) none of these
6
2
3
Ans (B)

1
5
5
f log sin lon sin log log 2,
6
2
6
6


f log sin log 2
6
6
1
f (c)
cos x cot x
sin x
5
f f
6
6
By Lagranges mean value theorem, cot c
5

6 6

cot c 0 c
2
5
Thus, c ,
2 6 6

2. If 3(a + 2c) = 4(b + 3d), then the equation ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = 0 will have
(A) no real solution
(B) at least one real root in (1, 0)
(C) at least one real root in (0, 1)
(D) none of these
Ans (B)
ax 4 bx 3 cx 2
Let f (x)

dx, which is continuous and differentiable


4
3
2
a b c
1
1
f (0) 0, f (1) d (a 2c) (b 3d) 0
4 3 2
4
3
So, according to Rolles theorem, there exists at least one root of f(x) = 0 in ( 1, 0)
2

3. Let f (x) e x and f(0) = 10. If A < f(1) < B can be concluded from the mean value theorem, then the
largest value of (A B) equals
(A) e
(B) 1 e
Ans (B)

(C) e 1

Applying LMVT in [0, 1] to the function y = f(x), we get f (c)

2IIT1617MTWS14S

(D) 1 + e
f (1) f (0)
, for some c (0, 1)
1 0

f (1) f (0)
1
2
2
f (1) 10 ec for some c (0, 1) but 1 ec e 1 in (0, 1)
2

ec

1 < f(1) 10 < e


11 < f(1) < 10 + e
A = 11, B = 10 + e
AB=1e
x
4. Let g(x) 2f f (2 x) and f(x) < 0 x (0, 2). Then g(x) increases in
2
1
4
(A) ,2
(B) ,2
(C) (0, 2)
(D)
2
3

4
0,
3

Ans (D)
x
We have g(x) f f (2 x)
2
Given f(x) < 0 x (0, 2)
So, f(x) is decreasing on (0, 2)
x
x
Let 2 x f f (2 x)
2
2
4
Thus, x ,g(x) 0
3
4
4
g(x) decreasing in ,2 and increasing in 0,
3
3

5. On which of the following intervals is the function x100 + sin x 1 decreasing?




(A) 0,
(B) (0, 1)
(C) ,
(D) None of these
2
2
Ans (D)
f(x) = x100 + sin x 1
f(x) = 10x99 + cos x

If 0 x , then f(x) > 0, therefore f(x) is increasing on


2


0,
2

If 0 < x < 1, then


100x99 > 0 and cos x > 0
[ x lies between 0 and 1 radian]
99
f(x) = 100x + cos x > 0
F(x) is increasing on (0, 1)

If x , then
2
100x99 > 100
[ x > 1 x99 > 1]
100x99 > 0
[ cos x 1 100x99 + cos x > 99]

f(x) > 0 f(x) is increasing in ,
2

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6. If f(x) = | x | {x} denotes the fractional part of x, then f(x) is decreasing in


1
1
1
1
(A) ,0
(B) , 2
(C) ,2
(D) ,
2
2
2
2
Ans (A)
f(x) = | x | {x} = | x | (x [x]) = | x | x + [x]
1
for x ,0
2
f(x) = x x 1 2x 1
1
Also, for x 0 0 2x 1 1 2x 1 0
2
1
f(x) < 0 f(x) decreases in ,0
2
1
Similarly, we can check for other given options say for x , 2 ,
2
1

( x) x 1, 2 x 0

0 x 1
f (x) x x 0,
x x 1,
1 x 2

1
Here f(x) decreases only in ,0 otherwise f(x) in other intervals is constant.
2

1
1
7. A function g(x) is defined as g(x) f (2x 2 1) f (1 x 2 ) and f(x) is an increasing function, then
4
2
g(x) is increasing in the interval
2 2
(A) (1, 1)
(B) ,0
,
3
3

2 2
(C) ,
(D) none of these

3 3

Ans (B)
g(x) = xf (2x2 1) xf(1 x2) = x(f(2x2 1) f(1 x2))
g(x) > 0
if x > 0, 2x2 1 > 1 x2 (as f is an increasing function)

2
2 2
3x2 > 2 x ,
, x
,

3 3

3
If x < 0, 2x2 1 < 1 x2
2 2
2
3x2 > 2 x ,
x ,0
3 3
3
8. The maximum value of
(A) 1

(log x)
is
x
2
(B)
e

(C) e

Ans (D)
2IIT1617MTWS14S

(D)

1
e

log x
x
dy
1
11 1

2 log x
(1 log x) 0
dx
x
x x x2
dy
0 log x 1 or x e
dx
For x < e log x < 1 and x > e log x > 1
dy
At x = e,
changes sign from positive to negative and hence y is maximum at x = e and its value is
dx
log e
e1 .
e
y

9. If the function f(x) = 2x3 9ax2 + 12a2x + 1, where a = 0, attains its maximum and minimum at p and q,
respectively such that p2 = q, then a equals to
1
(A) 1
(B) 2
(C)
(D) 3
2
Ans (B)
F(x) = 2x3 9ax2 + 12a2x + 1
f(x) = 6x2 18ax + 12a2 and f(x) = 12x 18a
For maximum / minimum, 6x2 18ax + 12a2 = 0
x2 3ax + 2a2 = 0
(x a) (x 2a) = 0
x = a or x = 2a
Now, f(a) = 12a 18a = 6a < 0 and f(2a) = 24a 18a = 6a > 0
f(x) is maximum at x = a and minimum at x = 2a p = a and q = 2a
Given that p2 = q a2 = 2a a(a 2) = 0 a = 2
min{f (t);0 1 x}; 0 x 1
1
3
5
10. If f(x) = 4x3 x2 2x + 1 and g(x)
then g g g has

3 x;
1 x 2
4
4
4

the value equal to


7
9
13
5
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
4
4
4
2
Ans (D)
f(x) = 12x2 2x 2 = 2[6x2 x 1] = 2(3x + 1) (2x 1)
1

f (x), if 0 x 2

1
1
Hence, g(x) f , if x 1
2
2

3 x, if 1 x 2

1
3
5
1 1
5 5
g g g f f g
4
4
4
4 2
4 2

11. The least perimeter of an isosceles triangle in which a circle of radius r can be inscribed is
(A) 4 3r
(B) 2 3r
(C) 6 3r
(D) 8 3r
Ans (C)
2IIT1617MTWS14S

Let ABC be an isosceles triangle in which a circle of radius r is inscribed.


Let BAD = (semi-verticle angle)
In OAE, OA = OE cosec = r cosec , AE = r cot
AD = OA + OD = r (cosec + 1)
In ABD, BD = AD tan = r(cosec + 1) tan
AB = AD sec = r (cosec + 1) sec
Now, the perimeter of the ABC is S = AB + AC + BC = 2AB + 2BD
4r(1 sin ) 2
S = 2r(cosec + 1) (sec + tan ) or S
sin 2
dS 4f[2(1 sin ) cos sin 2 (1 sin ) 2 2cos 2]

d
(sin 2)2
8r(1 sin )[sin 2 cos cos 2 sin cos 2]

(sin 2)2

( AC = AB)

8r(1 sin )(sin 1 2sin 2 )


(sin 2)2

16r(1 sin )2 sin


2

2
(sin 2)

dS
1

0 sin
( sin 1 as is an acute angle)
d
2
6

dS
Now if is little less and little greater than , then sign of
changes from negative to positive.
6
d

Hence, S is the minimum when , which is the point of minima.


6

For maximum or minimum of S,


4r 1 sin
6
Hence, the least perimeter of the
6 3r

sin
3

12. A wire of length a is cut into two parts which are bent, respectively, in the form of a square and a circle.
The least value of the sum of the areas so formed is
a2
a
(A)
(B) 4
4

a2
a
(C)
(D)
4( 4)
4( 4)
Ans (D)
Given 4x + 2r = a
Where x is side length of the square and r is radius of the circle
1
A x 2 r 2 (a 2r) 2 r 2
16
dA
d2A
a
0 gives r
for which
is positive and hence minimum
dr
2( 4)
dr
a
4a
4x a 2r a

4 4

2IIT1617MTWS14S

a
4

A x2 r2

a2
4( 4)

13. A bell tent consist of a conical portion above a cylindrical portion near the ground. For a given volume
and a circular base of a given radius, the amount of the canvas used is a minimum when the semi-vertical
angle of the cone is
2
2
1
(A) cos 1
(B) sin 1
(C) cos 1
(D) none of these
3
3
3
Ans (A)
Given volume and r

Now, V = volume of cone + volume of cylinder = r 3 h r 2 H


3
3V
h
2
2

V r (h 3H) H r
3
3
3V

h
2

Now, surface area, S rl 2rH r h 2 r 2 2r r

dS
h
2r
Now, let
0 r

0
dh
3
h2 r2
2
r
5
5h 2 4r 2
tan
3
h
2
h r
2
2
cos cos 1
3
3

14. If for a function f(x), f(a) = 0, f(a) = 0, f(a) > 0, then at x = a, f(x) is
(A) minimum
(B) maximum
(C) not an extreme point
(D) extreme point
Ans (C)
It is a fundamental property.

15. If A > 0, B > 0 and A B , then the maximum value of tan A and tan B is
3
1
1
(A)
(B)
(C) 3
(D)
3
3

Ans (B)
Given A + B = 60 B = 60 A
3 tan A
tan B tan(60 A)
1 3 tan A
t

Now, z = tan A tan B or z

3t

1 3t

3t t 2
1 3t

where t = tan A

2IIT1617MTWS14S

t 3
3t 1
dz
1

0 t
2
dt
3
1 3t

t = tan A = tan 30
The other value is rejected as both A and B are positive acute angles.
1 dz
1 dz
,
= positive and if t
,
= negative.
dt
3
3 dt
1
1
Hence, maximum when t
and maximum value = .
3
3

If t

16. The number of values of k for which the equation x3 3x + k = 0 has two distinct roots lying in the
interval (0, 1) is
(A) three
(B) two
(C) infinitely many
(D) zero
Ans (D)
Let there be a value of k for which x3 3x + k = 0 has two distinct roots between 0 and 1.
Let a, b be two distinct roots of x3 3x + k = 0 lying between 0 and 1 such that a < b. Let
f(x) = x3 3x + k. Then f(a) f(b) = 0. Since between any two roots of a polynomial f(x), there exists at
least one root of its derivative f(x) = 3x2 3 has at least one root between a and b. But f(x) = 0 has two
roots equal to 1 which do not lie between a and b. Hence f(x) = 0 has no real roots lying between 0 and
1 for any value of k.
17. f(x) = 4 tan x tan2 x + tan3 x, x n

(A) is monotonically increasing


(B) is monotonically decreasing
(C) has a point of maxima
(D) has a point of minima
Ans (A)
Here, f(x) = 4 tan x tan2 x tan2 x + tan3 x
f(x) = 4 sec2 x 2 tan x + sec2 x + 3 tan2 x sec2 x
= sec2 x (4 2 tan x + 3 tan2 x)
2
4

3sec 2 x tan 2 x tan x


3
3

2
1 4 1

3sec 2 x tan x
3 3 9

1 11
3sec 2 x tan x 0, x
3
9

Therefore, f(x) is increasing for all x domain.

18. Let f(x) = (1 + b2)x2 + 2bx + 1 and let m(b) be the minimum value of f(x). As b varies, the range of m(b)
is
1
1
(A) [0, 1]
(B) 0,
(C) ,1
(D) (0, 1]
2
2
Ans (D)
f(x) = (1 + b2)x2 + 2bx + 1
The graph of f(x) is upward parabola as coefficient of x2 is 1 + b2 > 0.
2IIT1617MTWS14S

D
The range of f(x) is
, , where D is discriminant of f(x).

4a
2
2
4b 4(1 b )
m(b)
4(1 b 2 )
1
m(b)
(0,1]
1 b2

x2

y 2 1 at 3 3 cos ,sin (where 0, ). Then the value of ,
27
2
such that sum of intercepts on axes made by this tangent is minimum, is

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
3
6
8
4
Ans (B)
x2

Equation of the tangent to the ellipse
y 2 1 at
3 3 cos ,sin , 0, is
27
2

19. Tangent is drawn to ellipse

3x cos
ysin 1
9
Sum of the intercepts = S 3 3 sec cos ec
dS
For minimum values of S,
0
d
3 3 sec tan cos ec cot 0
3 3 sin cos
2 0
cos 2
sin
3
3 3 sin cos3 0

1
tan

3 3 3
1

tan
tan
6
6
3
3

20. The function f(x) = sin4 x + cos4 x increase if

3
(A) 0 x
(B) x
8
4
8
Ans (B
3 1
We have f (x) sin 4 x cos 4 x cos 4x
4 4
f(x) = sin 4x

(C)

3
5
x
8
8

Now, f(x) = 0 sin 4x > 0 sin 4x < 0 < 4x < 2

(D)

5
3
x
8
4

x
4
2

Multiple choice questions with one or more than one correct alternative/s

21. If f(x) = 2x + cot1 x + log

1 x 2 x , then f(x)

(A) increases in [0, )


(C) neither increases nor decreases in [0, )
Ans (A), (D)

2IIT1617MTWS14S

(B) decreases in [0, )


(D) increases in (, )

We have
f (x) 2x cot 1 x log
f (x) 2

1 x2 x

1
1

2
1 x
1 x2 x 1 x2

(1 x 2 )
1 2x 2
1
1 2x 2

2
1 x2
1 x2
1 x2 1 x

x2 1 x2

0 for all x

1 x2 1
2

1 x
Hence, f(x) is an increasing function in ( , ) and in particular in (0, ).

22. If f(x) = x3 x2 + 100 x + 2002, then


1
1
(B) f
f

2000
2001
(D) f(2x 3) > f(2x)

(A) f(1000) > f(1001)


(C) f(x 1) > f(x 2)
Ans (B), (C)
F(x) = x3 x2 + 100x + 2002
f(x) = 3x2 2x + 100 > 0 x R
f(x) is increasing (strictly)
1
1
f
f

2000
2001
Also, f(x 1) > f(x 2) as x 1 > x 2 for x.
x

sin t
dt, x 0 , then
t
0

23. If f (x)

(A) f(x) has a local maxima at x = n (n = 2k, k I+)


(B) f(x) has a local minima at x = n (n = 2k, k I+)
(C) f(x) has neither maxima nor minima at x = n (n I+)
(D) f(x) has a local maxima at x = n (n = 2k 1, k I+)
Ans (B), (D)
sin x
f (x)
x
sin x
For f(x) = 0,
0 x = n (n I, n 0)
x
x cos x sin x
f (x)
x2
cos n
f (n)
0 if n = 2k 1 and > 0 if n = 2k, k I+.
n
Hence, f(x) has local maxima at x = n, where n = 2k 1 and local minima at x = n, n = 2k,
where k I+.
24. Let f(x) = (x 1)4 (x 2)n, n N. Then f(x) has
(A) a maximum at x = 1 if n is odd
(C) a minimum at x = 1 if n is even
Ans (A), (C), (D)
2IIT1617MTWS14S

(B) a maximum at x = 1 if n is even


(D) a minima at x = 2 if n is even

Graph of f(x)

Read the passage given below and answer questions 25 to 27 by choosing the correct
alternative

Let f(x) = 4x2 4ax + a2 2a + 2 and the global minimum value of f(x) for x [0, 2] is equal to 3.
25. The number of values of a for which the global minimum value equal to 3 for x [0, 2] occurs at the end
point of interval [0, 2] is
(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 3
(D) 0
Ans (B)
26. The number of values of a for which the global minimum value equal to 3 for x [0, 2] occurs for the
value of x lying in (0, 2) is
(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 3
(D) 0
Ans (D)
27. The values of a for which f(x) is monotonic for x [0, 2] are
(A) a 0 or a 4
(B) 0 a 4
(C) a > 0
Ans (A)
Solution to passage questions

f(x) = 4x2 4ax + a2 2a + 2. Vertex of this parabola is , 2 2a .


2

a
Case 1: 0 2
2
a
In this case, f(x) will attain the minimum value at x .
2
a
Thus, f 3 .
2

1
3 2a 2 a (Rejected) .
2
a
2
2
In this, f(x) attains the global minimum value at x = 2.
Thus, f(2) = 3
3 = 16 8a + a2 2a + 2 a = 5 10 .

Case 2:

2IIT1617MTWS14S

10

(D) none of these

Thus, a 5 10 .
a
0
2
In this case, f(x) attains the global minimum value at x = 0. Thus f(0) = 3
Convert the following graph

Case 3:

3 = a2 2a + 2 a = 1 2 . Thus, a 1 2 .
Hence, the permissible values of a are 1 2 and 5 10 .
F(x) = 4x2 49x + a2 2a + 2 is monotonic in [0, 2].
Hence, the point of minima of function should not lie in [0, 2].
a
a
Now f(x) = 0 8x 4a = 0 x . If [0, 2]
2
2
a [0, 4]
For f(x) to be monotonic in [0, 2], a [0, 4] a 0 or a 4.

Numerical Problems

28. If m is the minimum value of f(x, y) = x2 4x + y2 + 6y when x and y are subjected to the restrictions
0 x 1 and 0 y 1, then the value of | m | is
Ans 3
We have f(x, y) = x2 + y2 4x + 6y

Let (x, y) = (cos , sin ), then 0, and
2
f(x, y) = f() = cos2 + sin2 4 cos + 6 sin

f() = 6 cos + 4 sin > 0 0,
2

f() is strictly increasing in 0,
2
f()min = f(0) = 1 4 + 0 = 3
29. Number of integral values of b for which the equation

x3
x b has 3 distinct solution is
3

Ans 1
x3
x b;
3
f(x) = x2 1 = 0
x = 1 or 1
for three distinct roots f(x1) f(x2) < 0 where x1 and x2 are the roots of f(x) = 0
f (x)

1
1

1 b 1 b 0
3
3

2IIT1617MTWS14S

11

2
2

b b 0
3
3

2 2
b ,
3 3

x 3/5
30. Let f (x)
3
(x 2)

if x 1
, then the number of critical points on the graph of the function is
if x 1

Ans 3
A, B, C are the 3 critical points of y = f(x)

At B, it has vertical tangent, hence non-differentiable


At A, it is non-differentiable
dy
At C,
0
dx
DPP (Single Correct Answer)

31. If the function f (x)


(A) K < 1
Ans (D)

K sin x 2cos x
is strictly increasing for all values of x, then
sin x cos x
(B) K > 1
(C) K < 2
(D) K > 2

K sin x 2cos x
is increasing for all x, therefore f(x) > 0 for all x
sin x cos x
K2

0 for all x
(sin x cos x)2

Since f (x)

K2>0K>2
32. The function xx decreases in the interval
(A) (0, e)

(B) (0, 1)

1
(C) 0,
e

(D) none of these

(C) (1, )

(D) (1/e, )

Ans (C)
f(x) = xx [1 + log x] = xx log (ex)
f(x) < 0
log(ex) < 0
0 < ex < 1
0 < x < 1/e
33. f(x) = |x loge x| monotonically decreases in
(A) (0, 1/e)
(B) (1/e, 1)
Ans (B)
f(x) = |x loge x|
For g(x) = x loge x,
1
g(x) x log e x 1 log e x
x
2IIT1617MTWS14S

12

1
g(x) increases for , and decreases for
e
Graph of y = g(x) = x logex

1
0, .
e
Graph of y = f(x) = |x logex|

1
From the graph, f(x) = |x loge x| decreases in ,1
e
2

34. The minimum value of 2( x 3) 27 is


(A) 227
(B) 2
(C) 1
Ans (C)
Then given expression is minimum when
y = (x2 3)3 + 27 is minimum, which is so when x = 0
Hence, ymin. = 0
2
3
Min. Value of 2( x 3) 27 is 2 = 1.
35. The maximum slope of the curve y = x3 + 3x2 + 9x 27 is
(A) 0
(B) 12
(C) 16
Ans (B)
y = x3 + 3x2 + 9x 27
dy

3x 2 6x 9
dx
Let the slope of tangent to the curve at any point be m (say)
dm
m = 3x2 + 6x + 9
6x 6
dx
d2m
6 0 for all x
dx 2
dm
Therefore, m is maximum when
0, i.e., when x = 1
dx
Therefore, maximum slope = 3 + 6 + 9 = 12.
36. The least natural number a for which x + ax2 > 2, (0, ) is
(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 5
Ans (B)
Let f(x) = x + ax2 2
f(x) = 1 2ax3 = 0 x = (2a)1/3
Also f(x) = 6ax4 f((2a)1/3) > 0
x = (2a)1/3 is the point of minima.
For x + ax2 2 > 0 x we must have f((2a)1/3) > 0
(2a)1/3 + a(2a)2/3 2 > 0
2a + a 2(2a)2/3 > 0
3a > 2 (2a)2/3
2IIT1617MTWS14S

13

(D) none of these

(D) 32

(D) none of these

27a3 > 32a2


a > 32/27
Hence, the least value of a is 2.

1
37. The value of a for which the function f (x) a sin x sin 3x has an extremum at x x is
3
3
(A) 1
(B) 1
(C) 0
(D) 2
Ans (D)

If f(x) has an extremum at x , then f(x) = 0 at x


3
3
1
Now, f (x) a sin x sin 3x
3
f(x) = a cos x + cos 3x

f 0
3

a cos cos 0
3
a=2

38. The volume of the greatest cylinder which can be inscribed in a cone of height 30 cm and semi-vertical
angle 30 is

(A) 4000
cubic cm
(B) 400
cubic cm
3
3

(C) 4000
cubic cm
(D) none of these
3
Ans (A)

From geometry, we have

r
30 h

30 tan 30
30

h 30 3r

Now, the volume of cylinder, V r 2 h r 2 (30 3r)


dV
20
Now, let
0 (60r 3 3r 2 ) 0 r
dr
3
2

20
400
20
Hence, Vmax
30 3
3 10
3
3
4000

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39. In ABC, B = 90 and b + a = 4. The area of the triangle is maximum when C is

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D) none of these
4
6
3
Ans (C)

b cos = a b cos + b = 4 or b

4
1 cos

4cos
1 cos
1
area ba sin
2
1
4
4cos
4sin 2

sin
2 1 cos 1 cos
(1 cos ) 2
a

d
2cos 2(1 cos ) 2 2sin 2(1 cos )sin
4
d
(1 cos ) 4
d

0 cos 2(1 cos ) sin 2 sin 0


d
or cos 2 + cos = 0 or cos 2 = cos = cos ( )

or
3

Therefore, is maximum when .


3

40. A box, constructed from a rectangular metal sheet, is 21 cm by 16 cm by cutting equal squares of sides x
from the corners of the sheet and then turning up the projected portions. The value of x so that volume of
the box is maximum is
(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 3
(D) 4
Ans (C)
The dimensions of the box after cutting equal squares of side x on the corner will be
21 2x, 16 2x and height x.
V = x(21 2x) (16 2x)
= x(336 74x + 4x2)
dV
or V = 4x3 + 336x 74x2
= 12x2 + 336 148x
dx
dV
d2V

0 gives x = 3 for which


is ve and hence maximum.
dx
dx 2

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