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PHYSICS

Class

II IIT-JEE Achiever 2016-17


Intensive Revision Program
Solution to Worksheet - 16

Topics

Gravitation

Date:

22-12-2016

Multiple choice questions with one correct alternative

1. If radius of the earth is increased by a factor, 2 by what factor would its density have to be changed to
keep the g the same?
1
1
1
(A)
(B) 4
(C)
(D)
8
2
4
Ans (C)
GM
G 4
4
g = 2 = 2 R 3 = G R
R
R 3
3
1
Thus, if R increases by a factor 2, is to be decreased by a factor .
2
2. A simple pendulum has a time period T1 when on the earths surface, and T2 when taken to a height R
T
above the earth surface, where R is the radius of earth. The value 2 is
T1
(A) 1
Ans (D)

(B)

Period of the pendulum, T

T2
=
T1

g
=
gh

GM
R2

(C) 4

(D) 2

1
g

4R 2
=2
GM

3. Three uniform spheres, of mass M and radius R each, are kept in such a way that each touches the other
two. The magnitude of the gravitational force on any of the spheres due to the other two is
3 GM 2
3 GM 2
(A)
(B)
4 R2
2 R2
3 GM 2
3 GM 2
(C)
(D)
2 R2
R2
Ans (A)
GM 2
3 GM 2
o
Fnet = 2
cos
30
=
4 R2
( 2R ) 2
4. A particle on earths surface is projected with escape velocity. Its mechanical energy will be
(A) negative
(B) positive
(C) zero
(D) infinite
Ans (C)
5. Two earth-satellites are revolving in the same circular orbit round the centre of the earth. They must have
the same
(A) mass
(B) angular momentum
(C) kinetic energy
(D) linear speed
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Ans (D)
6. A hole is drilled from the surface of earth to its centre. A particle is dropped from rest at the surface of
earth. The speed of the particle when it reaches the centre of the earth in terms of its escape speed on the
surface of earth ve is
v
v
(A) e
(B) ve
(C) 2 v e
(D) e
2
2
Ans (D)
Low of conservation of mechanical energy,
v=

GMm
3GMm 1
+0=
+ mv 2
R
2R
2

GM v e
.
=
R
2

7. Density of a solid sphere is . Radius of the sphere is R. The gravitational field at a distance r from the
centre of the sphere inside it is
4Gr
4Gr 2
(B)
(A)
3
3
3
4GR
GR 3
(C)
(D)
r
3r 2
Ans (A)
Gravitational field inside the sphere
GM
Gr 4
4Gr
E = 3 r = 3 R 3 =
3
R 3
R

8. The percentage increase in the energy of a satellite when it is shifted from an orbit of radius r to an
higher orbit of radius 2r is
(A) 20
(B) 25
(C) 50
(D) 60
Ans (C)
GMm
Initial energy =
2r
GMm
Final energy =
4r
GMm GMm

+
4r
2r 100 = 50 .
Percentage increase =
GMm
2r
9. A planet of mass m describes an elliptical orbit around the sun. The areal velocity of the planet is
proportional to
(A) m1
(B) m
1

(C) m0
Ans (C)
Areal velocity is a constant
dA
L
=
= constant
dt 2m

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(D) m 2

10. The potential at the surface of a solid sphere of mass M and radius R assumed to be zero.
Choose the most appropriate option.
GM
(A) The potential at infinity is
R
GM
(B) The potential at the centre of sphere is
2R
(C) Both (A) and (B) are correct
(D) Both (A) and (B) are wrong
Ans (C)

Position

Potential with infinity as the


reference
3GM

2R
GM

R
0

Centre
Surface
Infinity

Potential with surface as the


reference
GM

2R
0
GM
R

11. The gravitational field due to certain mass distribution is given by E =

A
B
3 , where A and B are
2
x
x

constants. If gravitational potential is zero at infinity, potential at x is


A
B
(A)
+ 2
x 2x
A
B
(B)
2
x 2x
A B
(C)
+
x x2
A B
(D)

x x2
Ans (B)
x
A B A
B
V = Edx = 2 = 2
x 2x x 2x

12. A spherical portion of a solid sphere of mass M and radius R is evacuated as


shown in the figure. The gravitational field at the centre of the hollow
portion is
GM
(A) zero
(B)
8R 2
GM
GM
(C)
(D) 2
2
2R
R
Ans (C)
E = E remainder + E cavity

E = E remainder + 0
E remainder =

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GM
GM
r=
3
R
2R 2

r = 2

Multiple choice questions with one or more than one correct alternative/s

13. For a circular orbit


(A) orbital speed is

GM
r

(B) time period, T 2 r 3


GMm
(C) kinetic energy is
2r
GMm
(D) potential energy is
2r
Ans (A), (B) and (C)
Read the passage given below and answer questions 15 to 17 by choosing the correct
alternative

Spherical portion of a uniform solid sphere of mass M and radius R is evacuated as shown in the figure.
Y
B

15. The force on a particle of mass m, placed at A(2R, 0, 0) is


3GMm
5GMm
7GMm
11GMm
(A)
(D)
(B)
(C)
2
2
2
36R
36R
2R
8R 2
3R
16. The force on a particle of mass m kept at B 0,
,0 has its X-component
2

GMm
GMm
GMm
GMm
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
2
2
2
20 10 R
10 R
20 10 R
10 R 2
17. The force on a particle of mass m kept at C is
GMm
GMm
(B)
(A)
2
R
2R 2

(C)

GMm
3R 2

(D)

GMm
4R 2

Solution to passage

15. (A)

M
G m
GMm
GMm 1 1 7Mm
8
=

=
.
F=
2
2
( 2R )
R 2 4 18 36R 2
3R

10 R
3R

16. (C)
Hollow portion can be treated as the negative mass.
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R
2

Force due to original sphere is along Y axis and hence does not contributes to X-component.
M
G m
8
FX = 2 . sin
R
10
4
GMm R 2
GMm
=
=
2
20R 2 10 R
20 10 R 2
17. (B)
F=

GMm
GMm
r+0 =
3
R
2R 2

Choose the appropriate entry/entries from column II to match each of the entries of the
column I.

18. On the surface of earth acceleration due to gravity is g and gravitational potential is V.
Column I
Column II
(i) At height h = R, value of modulus of g
(P) decreases by a factor 1
4
R
1
(ii) At depth h = , value of modulus of g (Q) decreases by a factor
2
2
(iii) At height h = R, value of modulus of V (R) increases by a factor 11
8
R
(iv) At depth h = , value of modulus of V (S) increases by a factor 2
2
(T) none

Ans (i) (P), (ii) (Q), (iii) (Q), (iv) (T)


19. Let V denote the gravitational potential and E denote the gravitational field. R is the radius of the
sphere/shell and r is the distance from the centre of the sphere. Then, choose the appropriate
graph/graphs from column II to match each of the entries of the column I.
Column I
Column II
(i)

The plot of E against r due to a spherical shell

(P)

(ii)

The plot of V against r for a spherical shell

(Q)

(iii)

The plot of E against r for a solid sphere.

(R)

V
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3GM
2R

(iv)

The plot of V against r for a solid sphere.

(S)

(T)

Ans (i) Q (ii) (P)


For a spherical shell
GM
V=
for r < R
R
GM
=
for r > R
r

(iii) (S)

3GM
2R

(iv) (T)

E = 0 for r < R
GM
E = 2 for r > R
r
For Solid sphere
GM(3R 2 r 2 )
V=
for r < R
2R 3
GM
=
for r > R
r
GMr
E = 3 for r < R
R
GM
= 2 for r > R
r
Subjective questions

20. A cord of length 64 m is used to connect a m = 100 kg astronaut to a space ship whose mass M is much
larger than that of the astronaut. Estimate the value of the tension in the cord. Assume that the space ship
is orbiting near the surface of the earth. Assume also that the space-ship and astronaut fall on a straight
line from the earths centre. The radius of the earth is 6400 km.
Solution
M >>m. So, the centre of mass of the astronaut spaceship system is close to the space-ship. Gravitation
force provides centripetal force
GM e (M + m)
GM e
g
GM e
= (M + m)R2 R2 =
= g 2 = 2 =
2
R
R3
R
R2
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T+

rg R 2g
r R2
GM e m
2 GM e
2
=
mr

=
T
m
r
m
mg

2
2

r
r2
r 2

R
R r
2

R + h
R2
h
h 3mgh
= mg

= mg 1 + 1 + =
R
(R + h ) 2
R
R R

* * *
DPP
Multiple choice questions with one correct alternative

1. The ratio of acceleration due to gravity at a depth h below the surface of earth and at a height h above the
surface of earth for h << R (where R is radius of earth)
(A) is a constant
(B) increases linearly with h
(C) increases parabolically with h
(D) decreases
Ans (B)
h

Acceleration at a depth h, g1 = g1
R

g
Acceleration at a height h, g 2 =
2h

1 +
R

g
h
2h
h

The ratio, 1 = 1 1 +
1 +
g2
R
R
R
It increases linearly with h
2. Mass of a planet is eight times mass of earth. Density of the planet is eight times density of earth. Then,
if acceleration due to gravity on the surface of earth is g, the acceleration due to gravity on the surface of
planet is
(A) 2g
(B) 4g
(C) 8g
(D) 16g
Ans (C)
4
GM
3M
We have, g = 2 and M = R 3
R =3
3
4
R
2

4 3
g = GM

3M
1

= k M3 3
If gp is the acceleration due to gravity on the surface of the planet
gp
g

1
(8M ) 3
1
M3

2
(8) 3
2
3

= 8 gp = 8g

3. Three particles A, B, and C each of mass m, are placed at the vertices of an equiangular triangle of side
3 m. The particle at A is released at t = 0. The ratio of its acceleration soon after release and when it
reaches centeroid is
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(A) 3

(B)

1
3

(C)

(D)

1
3

Ans (D)
Gm 2
1
cos 30 o =
Gm 2
2
3
3 3
Gm

At A, FA = 2
aA =

3 3

At the centroid,
Gm 2
Gm 2
0
=
Fo = 2
cos
60
3
( 3) 2
Gm
ao =
3
aA
1

=
.
ao
3
4. A particle of mass M is placed at the centre of a uniform spherical shell of mass 2M and radius R. The
gravitational potential on the surface of the shell is
GM
3GM
2GM
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D) zero
R
R
R
Ans (B)
Potential is additive.
GM G 2M
3GM
V=

=
R
R
R
5. A satellite is launched into a circular orbit of radius r while a second satellite is launched into an orbit of
radius 1.02r. The percentage difference in the time periods of the two satellites is
(A) 0.7
(B) 1.0
(C) 1.5
(D) 3.0
Ans (D)
T 2 r 3 T12 r 3 ; T22 (1.02r ) 3
3/ 2

1.02r
3/ 2
T2 =
T1 = (1 + 0.02) T1 = 1 + 0.02 T1
r
2

= 1.03 T1
T T1
T
100 = 0.03 100 = 3.0%
100% = 2
T
T1
6. A solid sphere of mass M from which a spherical cavity of radius R/2 is
removed as shown in the figure. The gravitational field strength at centre C
of the cavity is
(A) (3GM / 4 R 2 ) (i )
(B) (GM / 2 R 2 ) i
(C) (3GM / 2 R 2 ) i
(D) (3GM / 4 R 2 )( i )

Ans (B)
7. A particle is projected upward from the surface of earth (radius = R) with a speed equal to the orbital
speed of a satellite near the earths surface. The height to which it would rise is

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(A)

2R

(B)

(C) R

(D) 2R

Ans (C)
Law of conservation of mechanical energy,
GMm 1 GMm
GMm

+
=
+0
R
2 R
R+h
2R = R + h
h = R.
8. A ring has a total mass M but non-uniformly distributed over its circumference. The radius of the ring is
R. A point mass m is placed at the centre of the ring. Work done in taking away this point mass from
centre to infinity
GMm
GMm
(A) is
(B) is less than
R
R
GMm
(C) is greater than
(D) can not be calculated
R
Ans (A)
GMm GMm
W = 0
.
=
R
R

9. The time period of revolution of a satellite close to earth is 90 min. The time period of another satellite in
an orbit at a distance of three times the radius of earth from its surface will be
(A) 90 8 min
(B) 360 min
(C) 270 min
(D) 720 min

Ans (D)
3

T2 r2 2
=
T1 r1
3

T2 = (4) 2 (90) = 720 min .


10. A double star consists of two stars having masses m and 2m separated by a distance r. Of the following
the correct option is
2r
(A) Radius of circular path traced by 2m is
.
3
(B) Kinetic energy of heavier star is double than that of lighter star.
(C) Time period of revolution of both are not same.
(D) Angular momentum of lighter star is more.
Ans (D)
The stars describe concentric circles centred at their centre of mass with equal angular speeds.
2r
Radius of lighter star r1 =
3
r
Radius of heavier star r2 =
3
2
1 2r
Kinetic energy of lighter star K 1 = m

2 3
Kinetic energy of heavier star K 2 =

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1
r
( 2 m )
2
3

K1
=2
K2

2r 2
Angular momentum of lighter star L1 = m
r
3 3
r 1
Angular momentum of heavier star L 2 = m r
3 3
L
1 =4.
L2
11. A particle lies on the axis of a ring of mass M and radius R, at a distance R from the centre of the ring.
The particle starts from rest under the gravitational attraction of the ring. Its speed at the centre of the
ring is
(A)

2GM
R

(B)

2GM
1
1

R
2

2GM
R

(C)

2 1

(D) zero.

Ans (B)
Law of conservation of mechanical energy
GMm
GMm 1

+0=
+ mv 2
R
2
2R
v=

2GM
1
1

R
2

12. The gravitational field in a region is given by E = 3i + 2j N kg 1 . Work done by this field is zero when
the particle is moved along the line
(A) 3y + 2x = 5
(B) 2y 3x = 6
(C) 6y + 5x = 4
(D) 6y + 9x = 2
Ans (D)
When displacement is perpendicular to the field, work done is zero.
13. Two bodies of mass m1 and m2 are initially placed infinite distance apart. They are then released to move
under mutual gravitational attraction. Their relative velocity when they are r distance apart is
2G ( m 1 + m 2 )
2Gm 1 m 2
G (m1 + m 2 )
Gm1 m 2
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
r
(m1 + m 2 )r
r
(m1 + m 2 )r

Ans (A)
Law of conservation of mechanical energy

Gm1 m 2 1 2
m1 m 2

+ v r = 0
=
m1 + m 2
r
2

vr =

2G ( m 1 + m 2 )
.
r

Multiple choice questions with one or more than one correct alternatives

14. Two objects of masses m and 4m are at rest at infinite separation. They move towards each other under
mutual gravitational attraction. Then, at separation r
1

(A) mechanical energy of the system is zero.

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10 Gm 2
(B) their relative speed is
.
r

10

(C) the kinetic energy of the system is

4Gm 2
.
r

(D) angular momentum of the system is zero.

Ans (A), (B), (C) and (D)

15. For a planet in elliptical orbit


(A) angular momentum about the centre of the sun is constant
(B) potential energy is constant
(C) kinetic energy is constant
(D) total mechanical energy is constant
Ans (A) and (D)
Read the passage given below and answer questions 16 to 18 by choosing the correct
alternative

A body of mass m is kept on a sensitive spring balance in a stationary ship at the equator. Normal force
exerted on the body is FN. Angular speed of the earth is . The observations are made by an observer in the
ship.
16. Number of forces exerted on the body are
(A) three.
(B) two.
(C) four.
(D) five.
17. If the ship travels due east with speed v the normal force exerted on the body becomes FN. Then
F
F
1
(A) 2mv = N
(B) 2mv N =
.
FN
FN 2mv
(C) FN = FN 2mv .
(D) FN = FN mv .
18. The normal force exerted on the body becomes FN when the ship moves with the speed 2v in the northsouth direction. Then
(A) FN FN = mv .
(C) F F = 0.3 mv nearly .

(B) FN FN = 0 .
(D) F F = 3.4 mv nearly .

Solution to passage

16. (A)
Forces exerted on the body are gravitational force, spring force and the pseudo force since the observer
also rotates with the earth.
17. (C)
At the equator, latitude = 0
fp= m2R
C

mg

FN

Net force along the equator is zero.


mg = FN + FP FN = mg m2R

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11

When the ship moves due east, the angular speed becomes +
R

FN = mg mR +
R

v 2 2v

= mg mR 2 + 2 +
R
R

mv 2 2v
= mg m2 R

R
R
mv 2

= FN 2 mv
R is very small

18. (D)

v cos

Replace v by v cos and by

2mv
FN = FN +
= FN + 2 mv
2
FN FN = ( 2 + 2)mv = 3.4 mv
Choose the appropriate entry/entries from column II to match each of the entries of the
column I.

19. Two concentric spherical shells are shown in figure. Match the following.
B
A
D
C

(i)
(ii)

Column I
Gravitational potential at A
Gravitational field at A

(P)
(Q)

Column II
greater than that at B
less than that at B

(iii)
(iv)

As one moves from C to D


As one moves from D to A

(R)
(S)

potential remains constant


gravitational field decreases.

(T)

none

Ans (i) (Q), (ii) (T), (iii) (R), (iv) (S)


Subjective questions

20. What would be the period of rotation of the earth about its axis if its rotation speed increased until an
object at the equator became weightless?
Solution
mv 2
2R
At the equator, mg e FN =
;v=
R
T
Where ge free fall acceleration at the equator.
v speed of the body of mass m.
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12

R equatorial radius of the earth.


T period of the earth.

4 2 R
mv 2
= m g e
FN = mg e

R
T2

where g acceleration as measured at the location


FN is a measure of the apparent weight of the body. The body becomes weightless when FN = 0. Thus,
4 2 R
ge =
T2

T = 2

R
4
6.4 10 6
hour
= 2 800 = 160 s =
= 2
ge
10
9

***

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