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You are on page 1of 13

Class

Intensive Revision Program

Solution to Worksheet - 16

Topics

Gravitation

Date:

22-12-2016

1. If radius of the earth is increased by a factor, 2 by what factor would its density have to be changed to

keep the g the same?

1

1

1

(A)

(B) 4

(C)

(D)

8

2

4

Ans (C)

GM

G 4

4

g = 2 = 2 R 3 = G R

R

R 3

3

1

Thus, if R increases by a factor 2, is to be decreased by a factor .

2

2. A simple pendulum has a time period T1 when on the earths surface, and T2 when taken to a height R

T

above the earth surface, where R is the radius of earth. The value 2 is

T1

(A) 1

Ans (D)

(B)

T2

=

T1

g

=

gh

GM

R2

(C) 4

(D) 2

1

g

4R 2

=2

GM

3. Three uniform spheres, of mass M and radius R each, are kept in such a way that each touches the other

two. The magnitude of the gravitational force on any of the spheres due to the other two is

3 GM 2

3 GM 2

(A)

(B)

4 R2

2 R2

3 GM 2

3 GM 2

(C)

(D)

2 R2

R2

Ans (A)

GM 2

3 GM 2

o

Fnet = 2

cos

30

=

4 R2

( 2R ) 2

4. A particle on earths surface is projected with escape velocity. Its mechanical energy will be

(A) negative

(B) positive

(C) zero

(D) infinite

Ans (C)

5. Two earth-satellites are revolving in the same circular orbit round the centre of the earth. They must have

the same

(A) mass

(B) angular momentum

(C) kinetic energy

(D) linear speed

2IIT1617PPWS16S

Ans (D)

6. A hole is drilled from the surface of earth to its centre. A particle is dropped from rest at the surface of

earth. The speed of the particle when it reaches the centre of the earth in terms of its escape speed on the

surface of earth ve is

v

v

(A) e

(B) ve

(C) 2 v e

(D) e

2

2

Ans (D)

Low of conservation of mechanical energy,

v=

GMm

3GMm 1

+0=

+ mv 2

R

2R

2

GM v e

.

=

R

2

7. Density of a solid sphere is . Radius of the sphere is R. The gravitational field at a distance r from the

centre of the sphere inside it is

4Gr

4Gr 2

(B)

(A)

3

3

3

4GR

GR 3

(C)

(D)

r

3r 2

Ans (A)

Gravitational field inside the sphere

GM

Gr 4

4Gr

E = 3 r = 3 R 3 =

3

R 3

R

8. The percentage increase in the energy of a satellite when it is shifted from an orbit of radius r to an

higher orbit of radius 2r is

(A) 20

(B) 25

(C) 50

(D) 60

Ans (C)

GMm

Initial energy =

2r

GMm

Final energy =

4r

GMm GMm

+

4r

2r 100 = 50 .

Percentage increase =

GMm

2r

9. A planet of mass m describes an elliptical orbit around the sun. The areal velocity of the planet is

proportional to

(A) m1

(B) m

1

(C) m0

Ans (C)

Areal velocity is a constant

dA

L

=

= constant

dt 2m

2IIT1617PPWS16S

(D) m 2

10. The potential at the surface of a solid sphere of mass M and radius R assumed to be zero.

Choose the most appropriate option.

GM

(A) The potential at infinity is

R

GM

(B) The potential at the centre of sphere is

2R

(C) Both (A) and (B) are correct

(D) Both (A) and (B) are wrong

Ans (C)

Position

reference

3GM

2R

GM

R

0

Centre

Surface

Infinity

reference

GM

2R

0

GM

R

A

B

3 , where A and B are

2

x

x

A

B

(A)

+ 2

x 2x

A

B

(B)

2

x 2x

A B

(C)

+

x x2

A B

(D)

x x2

Ans (B)

x

A B A

B

V = Edx = 2 = 2

x 2x x 2x

shown in the figure. The gravitational field at the centre of the hollow

portion is

GM

(A) zero

(B)

8R 2

GM

GM

(C)

(D) 2

2

2R

R

Ans (C)

E = E remainder + E cavity

E = E remainder + 0

E remainder =

2IIT1617PPWS16S

GM

GM

r=

3

R

2R 2

r = 2

Multiple choice questions with one or more than one correct alternative/s

(A) orbital speed is

GM

r

GMm

(C) kinetic energy is

2r

GMm

(D) potential energy is

2r

Ans (A), (B) and (C)

Read the passage given below and answer questions 15 to 17 by choosing the correct

alternative

Spherical portion of a uniform solid sphere of mass M and radius R is evacuated as shown in the figure.

Y

B

3GMm

5GMm

7GMm

11GMm

(A)

(D)

(B)

(C)

2

2

2

36R

36R

2R

8R 2

3R

16. The force on a particle of mass m kept at B 0,

,0 has its X-component

2

GMm

GMm

GMm

GMm

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

2

2

2

20 10 R

10 R

20 10 R

10 R 2

17. The force on a particle of mass m kept at C is

GMm

GMm

(B)

(A)

2

R

2R 2

(C)

GMm

3R 2

(D)

GMm

4R 2

Solution to passage

15. (A)

M

G m

GMm

GMm 1 1 7Mm

8

=

=

.

F=

2

2

( 2R )

R 2 4 18 36R 2

3R

10 R

3R

16. (C)

Hollow portion can be treated as the negative mass.

2IIT1617PPWS16S

R

2

Force due to original sphere is along Y axis and hence does not contributes to X-component.

M

G m

8

FX = 2 . sin

R

10

4

GMm R 2

GMm

=

=

2

20R 2 10 R

20 10 R 2

17. (B)

F=

GMm

GMm

r+0 =

3

R

2R 2

Choose the appropriate entry/entries from column II to match each of the entries of the

column I.

18. On the surface of earth acceleration due to gravity is g and gravitational potential is V.

Column I

Column II

(i) At height h = R, value of modulus of g

(P) decreases by a factor 1

4

R

1

(ii) At depth h = , value of modulus of g (Q) decreases by a factor

2

2

(iii) At height h = R, value of modulus of V (R) increases by a factor 11

8

R

(iv) At depth h = , value of modulus of V (S) increases by a factor 2

2

(T) none

19. Let V denote the gravitational potential and E denote the gravitational field. R is the radius of the

sphere/shell and r is the distance from the centre of the sphere. Then, choose the appropriate

graph/graphs from column II to match each of the entries of the column I.

Column I

Column II

(i)

(P)

(ii)

(Q)

(iii)

(R)

V

2IIT1617PPWS16S

3GM

2R

(iv)

(S)

(T)

For a spherical shell

GM

V=

for r < R

R

GM

=

for r > R

r

(iii) (S)

3GM

2R

(iv) (T)

E = 0 for r < R

GM

E = 2 for r > R

r

For Solid sphere

GM(3R 2 r 2 )

V=

for r < R

2R 3

GM

=

for r > R

r

GMr

E = 3 for r < R

R

GM

= 2 for r > R

r

Subjective questions

20. A cord of length 64 m is used to connect a m = 100 kg astronaut to a space ship whose mass M is much

larger than that of the astronaut. Estimate the value of the tension in the cord. Assume that the space ship

is orbiting near the surface of the earth. Assume also that the space-ship and astronaut fall on a straight

line from the earths centre. The radius of the earth is 6400 km.

Solution

M >>m. So, the centre of mass of the astronaut spaceship system is close to the space-ship. Gravitation

force provides centripetal force

GM e (M + m)

GM e

g

GM e

= (M + m)R2 R2 =

= g 2 = 2 =

2

R

R3

R

R2

2IIT1617PPWS16S

T+

rg R 2g

r R2

GM e m

2 GM e

2

=

mr

=

T

m

r

m

mg

2

2

r

r2

r 2

R

R r

2

R + h

R2

h

h 3mgh

= mg

= mg 1 + 1 + =

R

(R + h ) 2

R

R R

* * *

DPP

Multiple choice questions with one correct alternative

1. The ratio of acceleration due to gravity at a depth h below the surface of earth and at a height h above the

surface of earth for h << R (where R is radius of earth)

(A) is a constant

(B) increases linearly with h

(C) increases parabolically with h

(D) decreases

Ans (B)

h

Acceleration at a depth h, g1 = g1

R

g

Acceleration at a height h, g 2 =

2h

1 +

R

g

h

2h

h

The ratio, 1 = 1 1 +

1 +

g2

R

R

R

It increases linearly with h

2. Mass of a planet is eight times mass of earth. Density of the planet is eight times density of earth. Then,

if acceleration due to gravity on the surface of earth is g, the acceleration due to gravity on the surface of

planet is

(A) 2g

(B) 4g

(C) 8g

(D) 16g

Ans (C)

4

GM

3M

We have, g = 2 and M = R 3

R =3

3

4

R

2

4 3

g = GM

3M

1

= k M3 3

If gp is the acceleration due to gravity on the surface of the planet

gp

g

1

(8M ) 3

1

M3

2

(8) 3

2

3

= 8 gp = 8g

3. Three particles A, B, and C each of mass m, are placed at the vertices of an equiangular triangle of side

3 m. The particle at A is released at t = 0. The ratio of its acceleration soon after release and when it

reaches centeroid is

2IIT1617PPWS16S

(A) 3

(B)

1

3

(C)

(D)

1

3

Ans (D)

Gm 2

1

cos 30 o =

Gm 2

2

3

3 3

Gm

At A, FA = 2

aA =

3 3

At the centroid,

Gm 2

Gm 2

0

=

Fo = 2

cos

60

3

( 3) 2

Gm

ao =

3

aA

1

=

.

ao

3

4. A particle of mass M is placed at the centre of a uniform spherical shell of mass 2M and radius R. The

gravitational potential on the surface of the shell is

GM

3GM

2GM

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D) zero

R

R

R

Ans (B)

Potential is additive.

GM G 2M

3GM

V=

=

R

R

R

5. A satellite is launched into a circular orbit of radius r while a second satellite is launched into an orbit of

radius 1.02r. The percentage difference in the time periods of the two satellites is

(A) 0.7

(B) 1.0

(C) 1.5

(D) 3.0

Ans (D)

T 2 r 3 T12 r 3 ; T22 (1.02r ) 3

3/ 2

1.02r

3/ 2

T2 =

T1 = (1 + 0.02) T1 = 1 + 0.02 T1

r

2

= 1.03 T1

T T1

T

100 = 0.03 100 = 3.0%

100% = 2

T

T1

6. A solid sphere of mass M from which a spherical cavity of radius R/2 is

removed as shown in the figure. The gravitational field strength at centre C

of the cavity is

(A) (3GM / 4 R 2 ) (i )

(B) (GM / 2 R 2 ) i

(C) (3GM / 2 R 2 ) i

(D) (3GM / 4 R 2 )( i )

Ans (B)

7. A particle is projected upward from the surface of earth (radius = R) with a speed equal to the orbital

speed of a satellite near the earths surface. The height to which it would rise is

2IIT1617PPWS16S

(A)

2R

(B)

(C) R

(D) 2R

Ans (C)

Law of conservation of mechanical energy,

GMm 1 GMm

GMm

+

=

+0

R

2 R

R+h

2R = R + h

h = R.

8. A ring has a total mass M but non-uniformly distributed over its circumference. The radius of the ring is

R. A point mass m is placed at the centre of the ring. Work done in taking away this point mass from

centre to infinity

GMm

GMm

(A) is

(B) is less than

R

R

GMm

(C) is greater than

(D) can not be calculated

R

Ans (A)

GMm GMm

W = 0

.

=

R

R

9. The time period of revolution of a satellite close to earth is 90 min. The time period of another satellite in

an orbit at a distance of three times the radius of earth from its surface will be

(A) 90 8 min

(B) 360 min

(C) 270 min

(D) 720 min

Ans (D)

3

T2 r2 2

=

T1 r1

3

10. A double star consists of two stars having masses m and 2m separated by a distance r. Of the following

the correct option is

2r

(A) Radius of circular path traced by 2m is

.

3

(B) Kinetic energy of heavier star is double than that of lighter star.

(C) Time period of revolution of both are not same.

(D) Angular momentum of lighter star is more.

Ans (D)

The stars describe concentric circles centred at their centre of mass with equal angular speeds.

2r

Radius of lighter star r1 =

3

r

Radius of heavier star r2 =

3

2

1 2r

Kinetic energy of lighter star K 1 = m

2 3

Kinetic energy of heavier star K 2 =

2IIT1617PPWS16S

1

r

( 2 m )

2

3

K1

=2

K2

2r 2

Angular momentum of lighter star L1 = m

r

3 3

r 1

Angular momentum of heavier star L 2 = m r

3 3

L

1 =4.

L2

11. A particle lies on the axis of a ring of mass M and radius R, at a distance R from the centre of the ring.

The particle starts from rest under the gravitational attraction of the ring. Its speed at the centre of the

ring is

(A)

2GM

R

(B)

2GM

1

1

R

2

2GM

R

(C)

2 1

(D) zero.

Ans (B)

Law of conservation of mechanical energy

GMm

GMm 1

+0=

+ mv 2

R

2

2R

v=

2GM

1

1

R

2

12. The gravitational field in a region is given by E = 3i + 2j N kg 1 . Work done by this field is zero when

the particle is moved along the line

(A) 3y + 2x = 5

(B) 2y 3x = 6

(C) 6y + 5x = 4

(D) 6y + 9x = 2

Ans (D)

When displacement is perpendicular to the field, work done is zero.

13. Two bodies of mass m1 and m2 are initially placed infinite distance apart. They are then released to move

under mutual gravitational attraction. Their relative velocity when they are r distance apart is

2G ( m 1 + m 2 )

2Gm 1 m 2

G (m1 + m 2 )

Gm1 m 2

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

r

(m1 + m 2 )r

r

(m1 + m 2 )r

Ans (A)

Law of conservation of mechanical energy

Gm1 m 2 1 2

m1 m 2

+ v r = 0

=

m1 + m 2

r

2

vr =

2G ( m 1 + m 2 )

.

r

Multiple choice questions with one or more than one correct alternatives

14. Two objects of masses m and 4m are at rest at infinite separation. They move towards each other under

mutual gravitational attraction. Then, at separation r

1

2IIT1617PPWS16S

10 Gm 2

(B) their relative speed is

.

r

10

4Gm 2

.

r

(A) angular momentum about the centre of the sun is constant

(B) potential energy is constant

(C) kinetic energy is constant

(D) total mechanical energy is constant

Ans (A) and (D)

Read the passage given below and answer questions 16 to 18 by choosing the correct

alternative

A body of mass m is kept on a sensitive spring balance in a stationary ship at the equator. Normal force

exerted on the body is FN. Angular speed of the earth is . The observations are made by an observer in the

ship.

16. Number of forces exerted on the body are

(A) three.

(B) two.

(C) four.

(D) five.

17. If the ship travels due east with speed v the normal force exerted on the body becomes FN. Then

F

F

1

(A) 2mv = N

(B) 2mv N =

.

FN

FN 2mv

(C) FN = FN 2mv .

(D) FN = FN mv .

18. The normal force exerted on the body becomes FN when the ship moves with the speed 2v in the northsouth direction. Then

(A) FN FN = mv .

(C) F F = 0.3 mv nearly .

(B) FN FN = 0 .

(D) F F = 3.4 mv nearly .

Solution to passage

16. (A)

Forces exerted on the body are gravitational force, spring force and the pseudo force since the observer

also rotates with the earth.

17. (C)

At the equator, latitude = 0

fp= m2R

C

mg

FN

mg = FN + FP FN = mg m2R

2IIT1617PPWS16S

11

When the ship moves due east, the angular speed becomes +

R

FN = mg mR +

R

v 2 2v

= mg mR 2 + 2 +

R

R

mv 2 2v

= mg m2 R

R

R

mv 2

= FN 2 mv

R is very small

18. (D)

v cos

2mv

FN = FN +

= FN + 2 mv

2

FN FN = ( 2 + 2)mv = 3.4 mv

Choose the appropriate entry/entries from column II to match each of the entries of the

column I.

19. Two concentric spherical shells are shown in figure. Match the following.

B

A

D

C

(i)

(ii)

Column I

Gravitational potential at A

Gravitational field at A

(P)

(Q)

Column II

greater than that at B

less than that at B

(iii)

(iv)

As one moves from D to A

(R)

(S)

gravitational field decreases.

(T)

none

Subjective questions

20. What would be the period of rotation of the earth about its axis if its rotation speed increased until an

object at the equator became weightless?

Solution

mv 2

2R

At the equator, mg e FN =

;v=

R

T

Where ge free fall acceleration at the equator.

v speed of the body of mass m.

2IIT1617PPWS16S

12

T period of the earth.

4 2 R

mv 2

= m g e

FN = mg e

R

T2

FN is a measure of the apparent weight of the body. The body becomes weightless when FN = 0. Thus,

4 2 R

ge =

T2

T = 2

R

4

6.4 10 6

hour

= 2 800 = 160 s =

= 2

ge

10

9

***

2IIT1617PPWS16S

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