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IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol.

4, Issue 02, 2016 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613

Web Crippling Test of Cold Formed Steel Channels using CFRP Under
Various Load Cases
Santhif Kumar. R1 Arumugam.C2
1
P.G. Student 2Assistant Professor
1,2
Valliammai Engineering College, Potheri-02, India
Abstract Web crippling failure of cold formed steel
channel members could be found due to localized
concentrated loads or reactions. This paper reports
experimental and numerical investigation on strengthening
cold formed steel channel members using externally bonded
high modulus carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP)
plate. The CFRP plate strengthening is only applied to a
small localize area subjected to concentrated load. A series
of tests on CFRP strengthened cold formed steel channel
members sections subjected to web crippling was
conducted. The web crippling tests were conducted under
four loading conditions of end-two-flange (ETF), interiortwo-flange (ITF), end-one-flange (EOF) and interior-one
flange (IOF). The investigation was mainly focused on the
effects of web slenderness of cold formed steel channel
sections on CFRP strengthening against web crippling. Most
of the strengthened specimens were failed by deboning of
CFRP plate from the cold formed steel channel section. Two
different failure modes were observed in the tests of the
strengthened specimens, namely the adhesion failure as well
as the combination of adhesion and cohesion failure. Finite
element models have been developed and verified against
the test results. The failure loads, failure modes and the
load-web deformation behaviour of the cold formed steel
channel sections are also presented. The experimental
results are also verified with finite element analysis using
ABAQUS software. The analytical results obtained are in
good agreement with the experimental results.
Key words: Web Crippling, CFRP

flexural capacity was more than the single cold formed steel
sections. Hence a built-up cold formed steel beam is
selected in this research. The aim of this paper is to
investigate the behavior of the built-up cold formed steel
beam under flexure. In this study two specimens were
experimented which consists of two channels separated by a
spacing of 100 mm and are connected together with a plate
on top and bottom by welding.

I. INTRODUCTION

III. TEST SET-UP

Cold-Formed Steel (CFS) is a type of steel fabricated by


cold forming process and Cold-formed steel goods are
created by the working of sheet steel using stamping, rolling
or presses to deformed the sheet into a usable product. The
thickness of the sheet used is generally between 1mm and
8mm. Although cold-formed steel sections are used in car
bodies, railway coaches, various types of equipment, storage
racks, grain bins, transmission towers, transmission poles
etc but in building construction it has limited advancement.
The use of hot rolled steel sections becomes uneconomical
for the steel structures subjected to light and moderate loads.
The structural members like purlins, girts, roof trusses,
complete framing of one and two storey residential,
commercial and industrial structures subjected to moderate
load, for which cold formed steel members may be
sufficient. Cold formed sections like Channel, Zee sections,
I-sections, angles, T-sections, hat sections, and tubular
members are commonly used flexure members for purlins &
girt in roof and wall system. Studies on the flexural
behaviour of cold-formed steel beams are increasingly
popular in the last decades.
Past researchers investigated on the flexural
strength of built-up cold formed sections and found that the

The testing was carried out in a UTM machine of


400kNcapacity. An experimental investigation on
strengthening of cold formed channel members using
externally bonded CFRP was conducted. The test specimens
were subjected to web crippling. A total of eight specimens
were tested under the End-Two-Flange (ETF), InteriorTwo-Flange (ITF), End-One-Flange (EOF) and InteriorOne-Flange (IOF) loading conditions. The specimens had
the nominal thickness ranged from 2 mm, the nominal depth
of the webs ranged from 150 mm, and the flange widths
ranged from 75 mm. The measured dimensions of the test
specimens subjected to ETF, ITF, EOF and IOF loadings are
shown in fig 3 This is due to a high concentrate load applied
to the middle of the specimen and failure tends to occur near
the mid-length of the specimen. Therefore, reduced bearing
length and specimen length were used for EOF loading to
avoid failure near the mid-length of the specimen. The
bearing length was used for EOF loading. In the EOF and
IOF loading conditions, the sections having stocky webs
were not considered in order to avoid shear failure. The
experimental set-up for the test specimens are shown in
Figure 2 &3.

II. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION


The specimens are fabricated by locally available cold
formed sheets. The CFS sheet of 2mm is used for channels
and for connecting plates. The channels are connected by
intermittent weld. The yield strength of the cold formed
steel used is 250 Mpa. Fig.1 shows the entire fabricated
specimen.

Fig. 1: Fabricated Specimens

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Web Crippling Test of Cold Formed Steel Channels using CFRP Under Various Load Cases
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 02/2016/446)

The experimental load-deflection curves of the cold-formed


steel beam with various load cases of ETF, ITF, EOF, IOF
are shown in figure 4 & 5. The specimen in ETF without
CFRP failed at an ultimate load of 12kN with a central
deflection of 11.99mm. The specimen with CFRP failed at
an ultimate load of 23kN with a central deflection of 26 mm.

Fig. 2: Load setup, (a)ETF,(b)ITF,(c)EOF,(d)IOF

Fig. 3: Experimental load


setup,(a)ETF,(b)ITF,(c)EOF,(d)IOF
Fig. 4(b): Load vs Deflection graph for specimen with
CFRP
The specimen in ITF without CFRP failed at an
ultimate load of 12kN with a central deflection of 10.13
mm. The specimen with CFRP failed at an ultimate load of
17kN with a central deflection of 8.34 mm.

Fig. 3: Failure modes, (a)ETF,(b)ITF,(c)EOF,(d)IOF


IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Fig. 5(a): Load vs Deflection graph for specimen without


CFRP

A. Load versus Deflection Curves

Fig. 4(a): Load vs Deflection graph for specimen without


CFRP

Fig. 5(b): Load vs Deflection graph for specimen with


CFRP

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Web Crippling Test of Cold Formed Steel Channels using CFRP Under Various Load Cases
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 02/2016/446)

The specimen in EOF without CFRP failed at an


ultimate load of 15kN with a central deflection of 13.65
mm. The specimen with CFRP failed at an ultimate load of
21kN with a central deflection of 16.37mm.

Fig. 7(b): Load vs Deflection graph for specimen with


CFRP
V. ANALYTICAL RESULTS
Fig. 6(a): Load vs Deflection graph for specimen without
CFRP

Numerical analysis have been carried out using ABAQUS


software. Figure 7 & 8 shows the failure model of the beam.

Fig. 6(b): Load vs Deflection graph for specimen with


CFRP

Fig. 8: Analytical Model for Beam

Fig. 7(a): Load vs Deflection graph for specimen without


CFRP

Fig. 9: Analytical model for beam with lip

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Web Crippling Test of Cold Formed Steel Channels using CFRP Under Various Load Cases
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 02/2016/446)

VI. COMPARISON OF LOADS


The experimental and analytical results were compared and
the results are well within the permissible limits.
VII. CONCLUSIONS
This paper has described an experimental investigation into
the web crippling capacities of cold-formed steel unlipped
channels with stocky webs under ETF, ITF, EOF and IOF
load cases. Experimental investigations were carried out to
make a comparative study on the flexural behaviour of builtup cold formed steel section without lip, cold formed
built-up steel section with lip and following conclusions
were drawn.
1) The load carrying capacity has been increased by
29.43% by providing CFRP sheet wrapping in
comparison to the normal beam in ETF
2) The load carrying capacity has been increased by
28.5% by providing CFRP sheet wrapping in
comparison to the normal beam in ITF
3) The load carrying capacity has been increased by
15.03% by providing CFRP sheet wrapping in
comparison to the normal beam in EOF.
4) The load carrying capacity has been increased by
15.03% by providing CFRP sheet wrapping in
comparison to the normal beam in EOF.

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[11] EdwardSteau, Mahen Mahendrann, Poologanathan
Keerthan, Web crippling tests of Rivet Fastened
Rectangular Hollow Flange Channel Beams under Two
Flange
Load
Cases.
Thin-Walled
Structures
95(2015)262275.

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