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A system of patrimonial rule based on the absolute authority of the sultan reached its apex
(top). Empire developed the institutional foundations. The territory of the Ottoman Empire
greatly expanded, and led to what some historians have called the Pax Ottomana (the
Ottoman Peace). Historians like to point to the reigns of two sultans Mehmet II
(14511481) and Suleiman the Magnificent (15201566)
Mehmed-II: (7th ottoman sultan)
Mehmed by name Mehmed Fatih (Turkish: Mehmed the Conqueror). He was Born on March 30,
1432 in Adrianople. He ruled from 1444 to 1446 and from 1451 to 1481. Died on May 3, 1481 in
Expansions and Battles:

Conquest of Constantinople
Conquest of Serbia and Morea
Conquest of Empire of Trabzon
War with Venice
Conquest of Karaman
Battle of Baskent
Conquest of Genoese colonies in Crimea


Mehmed was the fourth son of Murad II from a slave girl. At the age of 12 he was sent, as
tradition required, to Manisa with his two tutors. The same year, his father set him on the throne
at Edirne. During his first period of governance (August 1444May 1446), Mehmed had to face
external and internal crises. On the one hand, the king of Hungary, the pope, the Byzantine
Empire, and Venice, all were eager to take advantage of the accession of a child to the Ottoman

throne succeeded in organizing a Crusade. On the other hand, there was a violent rivalry between
the powerful grand vizier khalil, and the viziers Zaganos and ihbeddin, who were claiming that
they were protecting the rights of the child sultan. In September 1444, the army of the Crusaders
crossed the Danube. In Edirne this news triggered the atmosphere of panic. When the Crusaders
laid siege to Varna, sultans father was urged to come back from retirement in Bursa and lead the
army. The Ottoman victory at Varna under Murad II (November 10, 1444) put an end to the
crises. Mehmed II, who had stayed in Edirne, maintained the throne, and after the battle his
father again retired and went to Manisa. Zaganos and ihbeddin then began to incite the child
sultan to undertake the capture of Constantinople, but Halil(grand vizier)engineered a revolt of
the Janissaries and called Murad II back to Edirne to resume the throne (May 1446). Mehmed
was sent once more to Manisa with Zaganos and ihbeddin, newly appointed as his tutors.
There Mehmed continued to consider himself the legal sultan. In fact, his father Murad II had
assumed the powers of Sultan again and remained in power till his death in 1451.
On his fathers death, Mehmed ascended the throne for the second time in Edirne (February 18,
1451). His mind was filled with the idea of the capture of Constantinople. Europe and Byzantine
were then not concerned much about his plans keeping in view of previous reign. Neither was his
authority firmly established within the empire nor he was showing his stature by severely
punishing the Janissaries who had dared to threaten him in his previous reign. Yet he reinforced
his military organization for his future conquests. He devoted the utmost care to all the necessary
diplomatic and military preparations for the capture of Constantinople. To keep Venice and
Hungary neutral, he signed peace treaties favourable to them.
Conquest of Constantinople:
Preparation for the conquest of Constantinople (Istanbul) started in 1452. Huge canons that were
necessary for the great siege were molded in Hungary. Rumeli Castle on the European side was
constructed to control the Bosphorus, a mighty fleet of 16 galleys was formed, the number of
soldiers were doubled, the supply routes to Byzantine were taken under control, and finally an
agreement was made with Genoese to keep Galata neutral during the war. Heavy canons and
other war machinery including naval ships were arranged for siege of Constantinople.

In April 1453, the first Ottoman frontier forces were seen in front of the city, the siege was
started. The city was besieged from the Golden Horn to the Marmara Sea from the land. Some of
the fortresses in Edirne neighbourhood were destroyed. Baltaoglu Suleyman launched the first
attack to enter the Golden Horn inlet. Some of the fortresses on Bosphorus were taken and seized
the Marmara Islands. The big walls were bombarded by cannon fires. Holes and cracks were
opened here and there. Serious destruction inflicted by ceaseless bombardment. The Ottoman
fleet attacked the ships protecting the Golden Horn. However, the victory of the Christian ships
decreased the morale of the Ottoman army. At the order of Sultan Mehmed, the Byzantine ships
were pounded by mortar fire, and one galley was sunk.The Sultan gave his first crucial order.
The attack lasted four hours but it was scattered. A naval skirmish took place close to Yenikapi
neighborhood between the Ottoman fleet and four Byzantine warships with three supply ships
full of food and weapons sent by the Papacy. The Sultan came to the shore himself and ordered
Sleyman Pasha to sink those ships by any means possible. The Ottoman fleet could not stop
enemy's ships. With this failure, the Ottoman army lost its morale and showed the signs of
defeat. Ottoman soldiers started defecting from the army. Soon, the Byzantine Emperor wanted
to take advantage of this situation and offered peace. The offer was supported by the Vizier
andarli Halil Pasha, but was rejected by Sultan Mehmed. The siege and bombardment of the
fortresses with cannons continued.
During this chaos and widespread feeling of defeat, a letter from the Sultan's spiritual teacher
Aksemseddin promised good news about the conquest. Encouraged by this spiritual support,
Fatih Sultan Mehmed escalated the attack and decided to add an element of surprise: the
Ottoman fleet anchored in Dolmabahe bay would be moved to the Golden Horn by land. On
one day, in early hours of the morning, Byzantines were shocked and horrified when they saw
Ottoman galleys moving down on the hills of the harbor. Seventy ships carried by cows and
balanced by hundreds of soldiers via ropes were slid over slipways. By the afternoon, the ships
were inside the well protected bay.
The surprise appearance of the Ottoman fleet in the bay created panic among Byzantine residents
of Constantinople. The wall on the shore of the Golden Horn became a vulnerable spot and some
of the Byzantine forces were moved there. This weakened the defence of the land walls.The
attempt to burn the Ottoman ships in the bay was prevented by heavy cannon fire. A bridge was

constructed between Ayvansaray and Sutluce neighborhoods to attack the walls located on the
shore of the bay.
An offer of unconditional surrender was delivered to the Emperor through the Genoese. If he
surrendered he could have gone wherever he wanted and the life and property of his people
would have been spared. The Emperor rejected this offer. Over the following days, bombarding
of the land walls was continued. Fatih Sultan Mehmed, sent Isfendiyar Beyoglu Ismail Bey as an
ambassador offering the Emperor to surrender for the last time. According to this offer, the
Emperor and his followers could take their wealth and go anywhere they wished. The people
who decided to stay could keep their belongings and estates. This offer too was rejected.
According to rumors, European countries and especially Hungarians were planning to mobilize
their troops to help the Byzantines unless the siege was ended. Upon hearing these rumors Sultan
Mehmed gathered his war council. In the meeting Candarli Halil Pasha and his party defended
their previous position, that is, of putting an end to the siege. Sultan Mehmed with his tutor
Zaganos Pasha, his teachers Aksemseddin, Molla Grani and Molla Hsrev opposed the idea of
They decided to continue the war and Zaganos Pasha was commissioned for preparations.
The general attack was announced to the Ottoman army.
The army spent the day by resting and preparing for the next day's attack. There was a complete
silence among soldiers. Sultan Mehmed inspected the army and encouraged them for the great
On the other side, a religious ceremony was held in Hagia Sophia Church. The Emperor urged
people to participate in the defence. This would be the last Byzantine ceremony. Platoons
positioned for the assault. Sultan Mehmed gave the order to attack at midnight. Inside
Constantinople, while the soldiers positioned for war, people filled the churches.The Ottoman
army launched its final assault. The first assault was performed by infantry and it was followed
by Anatolian soldiers. When 300 Anatolian soldiers were killed, the Janissaries started their
attack. With the presence of Sultan Mehmed, the Ottoman army was motivated and hand to hand
fights started. A young soldier, Ulubatli Hasan, who first erected the Ottoman flag on Byzantine
land wall, was martyred. Upon the entrance of the Janissaries from Belgradkapi neighborhood

and the surrender of the last defenders in Edirnekapi front, the Byzantine defense collapsed. The
Emperor was killed during street skirmishes.
Turkish forces entered from every direction and crushed the Byzantine defence completely.
Towards noon Sultan Mehmed entered the city. He went directly to Haghia Sophia Church and
ordered to convert it into a mosque. The war which started in April 1453 ended on 29th May
1453 with conquest of Constantinople by Mehmet II.

Consequences of the Conquest

The conquest of Constantinople has had such a historical impact in the world, some historians
even marked it as the end of the Middle Ages. After the conquest, Ottoman Muslims were to take
dynamic roles in shaping international politics. The sovereignty of the Muslims was assured, and
they were no longer threatened by the Crusaders.
Mehmed II made Consatantinple, the capital of Ottoman Empire and assumed the title of Kaisere-Rum
Conquest of Serbia (1454-1459):
Mehmed II's first campaigns after Constantinople were in the direction of Serbia. Serbia was an
Ottoman vassal state in the first Battle of Kosovo in 1389. ura Brankovi the ruler of serbia
had made an alliance with the Hungarians. The Ottoman ruler had a connection with the Serbian
because one of Murad II's wives was Mara Brankovi. She used to claim some Serbian islands.
When Serbia refused this claim, the Ottoman army set out from Edirne towards Serbia in 1454.
Smederevo was besieged, as was Novo Brdo, the most important Serbian metal mining and
smelting center. Ottomans and Hungarians fought during the years till 1456.
The Ottoman army advanced as far as Belgrade, where it attempted but failed to conquer the city
from John Hunyadi at the Siege of Belgrade, on 14 July 1456.
The sultan retreated to Edirne, and ura Brankovi regained possession of some parts of Serbia.
Serbian independence survived for only two years.After the death of Durad, his youngest son
Lazar poisoned his mother and exiled his brothers, but he also died soon afterwards. In the
continuing turmoil the oldest brother Stefan Brankovi gained the throne but was ousted in
March 1459. After that the Serbian throne was offered to Stephen Tomaevi, the future king of

Bosnia, which infuriated Sultan Mehmed. He sent his army, which captured Smederevo in June
1459, ending the existence of the Serbian Despotate.
Conquest of Morea (14581460)
The Despotate of the Morea bordered the southern Ottoman Balkans. The Ottomans had already
invaded the region under Murad II, destroying the Byzantine defences. His attack opened the
peninsula to invasion, though Murad died before he could exploit this. His successor Mehmed II
"the Conqueror" captured the Byzantine capital Constantinople
in 1453. The despots, Demetrios Palaiologos and Thomas Palaiologos brothers of the last
emperor, failed to send him any aid, as Morea was recovering from a recent Ottoman attack.
Their own incompetence resulted in an AlbanianGreek revolt against them, during which they
invited in Ottoman troops to help them put down the revolt. At this time, a number of influential
Moreote Greeks and Albanians made private peace with Mehmed. After more years of
incompetent rule by the despots, their failure to pay their annual tribute to the Sultan, and finally
their own revolt against Ottoman rule, Mehmed came into the Morea in May 1460. Demetrios
ended up a prisoner of the Ottomans and his younger brother Thomas fled. By the end of the
summer the Ottomans had achieved the submission of virtually all cities possessed by the
Conquest of Trabzon Empire:
The Trapezuntine defenders had relied on a network of alliances that would provide them with
support and manpower when the Ottomans began their siege, but failed at the moment Emperor
David Megas Komnenos most needed it. In August 1461, the Emperor of Trebizond, David
Komnenos, surrendered Trabzon to the Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II after a siege of 32 days. The
Emperor and members of his family, together with their movable properties were sent to
Istanbul. The Emperors officials, plus other notables and some of its wealthiest families and
their belongings, were also sent by ship to Istanbul.
Mehmet II then selected around 1,500 young men and women from Trabzon and the surrounding
countryside. Of this number, around 800 of the boys were sent to Istanbul to join the Janissary
Corps. The remaining around 700 young women and men were enrolled in the personal service
of the Sultan and also sent to the capital. The remainder of the inhabitants were left in the town

and confirmed in the ownership of their properties. Mehmet II appointed a governor and left a
garrison of 400 Janissaries in the citadel and settled a community of guards in the town.
First war with Venice:
Venice and the Ottoman Empire fought several wars over holdings in the Adriatic Sea, starting as
early as 1423. The Ottoman Empire became one of the most powerful forces in Europe in the Era
of Murad II. The empire eventually reached as far west as Hungary and included Egypt and
Syria. The empire had a large Christian population but the ruling class and government was
Islamic. Unsurprisingly, the Christian nations of Western Europe were deeply suspicious of an
Islamic empire which regularly attempted to increase its holdings and there was a great deal of
tension between the Ottoman Empire and Western Europe. Negroponte, Lemnos and Albania
Venetia were conquered by the Ottomans in Venetian wars ranging between 1461 to 1479.
Conquest of Karaman:
During the Crusade of Varna against the Ottomans in 144344, Karamanid brahim Bey marched
on Ankara and Ktahya, destroying both cities. In the meantime, the Ottoman sultan Murad II
was returning from Rumelia with a victory against the Hungarian Crusaders. Like all other
Islamic emirates in Anatolia, the Karamanids were accused of treason. Hence, brahim Bey
accepted all Ottoman terms. The Karamanid state was eventually terminated by the Ottomans in
1487, as the power of their Mameluke allies was declining. To never again gather and threaten
the integrity of the Empire, they displaced the entire population to the last man. Some were
resettled in various parts of Anatolia. Large groups are accommodated in northern Iran on the
territory of present-day Azerbaijan. The main part is brought to newly conquered territories in
north-western BulgariaLudogorie. Another group of what is now northern Greece, southern
Bulgariapresent-day Kardzhali region and Macedonia. Ottomans founded Karaman Eyalet
from former territories of Karamanids.
Battle of Bakent (1473)
Battle of Bakent was a battle between the armies of Mehmed II and the Ak Koyunlu ruler Uzun
Hasan. The Battle of Bakent also known as Battle of Otlukbeli.
The expansionist drive of Mehmed II into Anatolia impelled the Ak Koyunlu, who ruled Iran and
southern Caucasus to form an alliance with Venice and other Christian powers. Venice, a long

time naval power in the Levant had hoped for control of a port on the Syrian or south Anatolian
coast and to that end had attempted a military alliance with Uzun Hasan.
Both the Ottoman and Ak Koyunlu armies were ready for a final confrontation. Finally, on 11
August 1473, in a pitched battle at Bakent near Otluk Beli, Uzun Hasans army was completely
The Venetians, who at that time were at war with the Ottomans, sent artillery units to support the
Ak Koyunlu. Though the Ak Koyunlu army was superior in terms of manpower, the Ottoman
troops were better organized and equipped. In this battle, Ottoman artillery employed in concert
worth war wagons created havoc within the ranks of the nomadic Ak Koyunlu army. While other
factors such as discipline were important, the artillery overshadowed the rest.
The battle took nearly a whole day. With this defeat, the Ak Koyunlu in effect no longer played a
serious role in the great powers struggle for Anatolia.
Conquest of Genoese colonies (1475)
Taking advantage of a conflict between the khanate and the Genoese in Caffa in 1475, the
Ottoman fleet not only eliminated the Genoese colonies but also managed to establish a mutually
advantageous relationship with the Crimean Khanate. In exchange for Ottoman protection and
subsidies, the khanate controlled the Black Sea steppes, averting possible threats from their
northern neighbours, the Polish- Lithuanian Commonwealth and Russia. There was a strong
mutually beneficial commercial basis for the Ottoman-Crimean suzerain-vassal relationship, the
basis of which was the supply of slaves for the huge Ottoman market from the Crimean Tatars as
a result their annual raids for captives in the Ukrainian lands of the commonwealth and in
southern Russia.
Invasion of Otranto and Apulia (1480-1481):
To consolidate the claim of Kaseir-e-Rum,Mehmet II wanted to gain control over the Western
capital,Rome, and Ottoman forces occupied parts of the Italian peninsula.They started with the
invasion of the Otranto and Apulia on 28 july 1480. After Mehmed IIs death on 3 May 1481 the
campaign in Italy was cancelled and Ottoman forces retreated.
Bayezid-II: (8th ottoman sultan)

Sultan Bayezid was born in Dimetoka on 3rd December 1448. He was the son of Mehmet the
Conqueror. His mother was Mukrime khatun.
Bayezid was a brave, religious and a calm man. His father Sultan Mehmet II was an admirer of
science and he put great emphasis on his son's education. Bayezid was also very well educated
by the famous scholars of the period.
He was only seven when he was appointed as the Governor of Amasya a centre of culture and
civilisation since The Seljuk Empire.
Sultan Bayezid II was a very religious man and very fond of literature. He invited many famous
poets to the palace. He was so gracious that he always helped the poor.
He had spoken Arabic and Persian fluently, afterwards, he learnt Cagatay and Uygur dialects.
Besides theology, he studied philosophy and mathematics. He left the throne on 24th April 1512
and passed away one month later.
His Era: 1481-1512
His Wifes : - Nigar Hatun, Sirin Hatun, Gulruh Hatun, Bulbul Hatun, Husnushah Hatun,
Gulbahar Hatun, Ferahshad Hatun, Ayse Hatun
His Sons: Mahmud, Ahmed, Seyidsah, Selim, Mehmed, Korkud, Abdullah and Alimsah.
His Daughters: Aynisah, Gevher, Muluk, Hatice, Selcuk and Huma
Fight for throne
Bayezid was the governor of Sivas, Tokat and Amasya, and Cem ruled the provinces of Karaman
and Konya. With no designated heir after Mehmed, conflict over succession to the throne erupted
between Cem and Bayezid. Bayezid had already established a political network of influential
pashas ( two of whom were his sons in law), the janissaries, and those opposed to the policies of
Mehmed II and the grand vizier. In spite of Karamanl Mehmet Pasha's attempts at secrecy, the
Sultan's death and the grand vizier's plan were discovered by the Janissary corps, who supported
Bayezid over Cem and had been kept out of the capital after the Sultan's death. As a result, the
Janissary corps rebelled, entering the capital, and lynched the grand vizier.

Prince Bayezid arrived at Constantinople on May 21, 1481 and was declared Sultan Bayezid II.
Only six days later, Cem captured the city of Inegl with an army of 4,000. Sultan Bayezid sent
his army under the command of vizier Ayas Pasha to kill his brother. On May 28, Cem had
defeated Bayezid's army and declared himself Sultan of Anatolia, establishing his capital at
Bursa. He proposed to divide the empire between him and his brother, leaving Bayezid the
European side. Bayezid furiously rejected the proposal, declared that "between rulers there is no
kinship,"[3] and marched on to Bursa. The decisive battle between the two contenders to the
Ottoman throne took place on June 19, 1481, near the town of Yeniehir. Cem lost and fled with
his family to the Mamluk Cairo where he performed pilgrimage he was the only prince to have
made the pilgrimage.
War with mamluks of Egypt
The relationship between the Ottomans and the Mamluks was adversarial: both states vied for
control of the spice trade, and the Ottomans aspired to eventually taking control of the Holy
Cities of Islam. Mamluks declined to offer Cem any military support, this act aroused the
hostility of Bayezid, which was further fanned when the Mamluks seized an Ottoman
ambassador who was returning from Deccan with an Indian ambassador and gifts for the
Ottoman Sultan. An Ottoman-Mamluk war took place between 14851491.
Bayezid launched a land and sea attack on the Mamluks in 1485 but the army was defeated by
the Mamluks in battle outside Adana on 9 February 1486.
Ottoman rearranged their army and attacked but were defeated again. In 1487, the Ottomans
again sent a major army consisting in a great number of regular army units and Janissaries.
However avoided operations against the Mamluks, instead focusing his troops in suppressing
securing his rear. In 1488, the Ottomans launched a major attack, from both land and sea but the
mamluks defended this attack. Ottomans were unsuccessful in all these attacks. the Ottomans'
Turkmen allies began to turn to the Mamluks
In 1490, the Mamluks would again return to the offensive, advancing into Karaman and laying
siege to Kayseri. As soon as Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha marched against them with a relief army
however, they raised the siege and returned to Cilicia. By this time the Mamluks were weary of
the war and its heavy financial burden, while the Ottomans grew concerned over a possible
Crusade directed against them. Thus both powers were eager to settle the inconclusive conflict. A

treaty was signed which fixed their mutual border at the Glek Pass in the Taurus Mountains,
leaving the Cilician plain to the Mamluks.
Second Ottoman-Venetian war:
In January 1499, Kemal Res set sail from Constantinople with a force against the Republic of
Venice. In August 1499, Kemal Reis defeated the Venetian navy (also known as the Battle of
Sapienza or the First Battle of Lepanto). It was the first naval battle in history with cannons used
on ships, and took place on four separate days. After reaching the Ionian Sea with the large
Ottoman fleet, Kemal Reis encountered the Venetian won an important victory. During the battle,
Kemal Reis sank the galley of Andrea Loredan, a member of the influential Loredan family of
Venice. Antonio Grimani was arrested on 29 September but was eventually released. Grimani
later became the Doge of Venice in 1521. The Ottoman Sultan Bayezid II gifted 10 of the
captured Venetian galleys to Kemal Reis, who stationed his fleet at the island of Cefalonia.
In December 1499, the Venetians attacked Lepanto with the hope of regaining their lost
territories in the Ionian Sea. Kemal Reis set sail from Cefalonia and re-took Lepanto from the
Venetians. From there, Kemal Reis set sail and bombarded the Venetian ports on the island of
Corfu, and in August 1500 he once again defeated the Venetian fleet at the Battle of Modon (also
known as the Second Battle of Lepanto). Kemal Reis bombarded the fortress of Modon from the
sea and captured the town. He later engaged with the Venetian fleet off the coast of Coron and
captured the town along with a Venetian brigantine. From there Kemal Reis sailed towards the
Island of Sapientza (Sapienza). With the Battle of Modon, the Turkish fleet and army quickly
overwhelmed most of the Venetian possessions in Greece. Modon and Coron, the "two eyes of
the Republic", were lost. Doge Agostino Barbarigo asked the Pope and the Catholic Monarchs
for help, and on 24 December a SpanishVenetian army took Cephalonia, temporarily stopping
the Ottoman offensive on eastern Venetian territories.
On 31 January 1503, Venice signed another treaty. In 1503, Turkish cavalry raids reached
Venetian territory in Northern Italy, and Venice was forced to recognize the Ottoman gains,
ending the war.
He left the throne on 24th April 1512 and passed away one month later.
Salim-I: (9th ottoman sultan)

Sultan Selim was born on 10th October 1470.

His father was Sultan Bayezid II and his mother was Gulbahar Sultana.
He was a tall and a strong man. He was a very brave soldier and naturally tough. He was very
well educated. Selim was very much interested in science and theology beside the governmental
During the sultanate of his father Bayezid II, Selim was appointed as the Governor of Trabizon
(The Black Sea Region of Anatolia). He learnt the administrative regulations and the military
system of the Empire there. He ruled the region very successfully. He improved the Ottoman
relations with the neighbourhood states. He organised three campaigns to Georgia against their
continuos anti-Ottoman propagandas. With these successful campaigns Selim invaded Kars,
Erzurum, Artvin (1508). All the Georgians living in those regions converted to Islam.
Selim was a brilliant rider and a successful fencer. He was very good at wrestling and archery
too. He had a military spirit but he was fond of arts as well. He was very modest; for example; he
was used to eat only one sort of food from a wooden plate, in every meal. He never liked vanity,
never spent the Empire's money.
He died on 22th September 1520 because of cancer. He was just fifty years old. The historians
agreed on that, he had short but a very brilliant career.
His Era: 1512-1520
His Wifes: Ayesha khatun, Ayesha Hafsa khatun
His Sons: Suleyman (the Magnificent)
His Daughters: Hatice Sultan, Fatma Sultan, Hafsa Sultan, Shah Sultan
Battle of Chaldiran (1514)
In 1514 the Ottoman sultan Selim I launched a campaign against Shah Ismail founder of the
S afavid dynasty. Safavid were in open revolt against Ottoman domination and expressed their
discontent by defying orthodoxy.
Selim first subdued the Anatolian Kizilbash, then proclaimed that his expedition against the shah
was a holy war against heretics who were corrupting Islam. The two armies finally met at

Chldirn, northeast of Lake Van in eastern Anatolia. Selim, taking precautions against followers
of the shah among his own troops, ordered an immediate attack on August 23 and won an
overwhelming Ottoman victory. The Janissaries (elite Ottoman troops) were well provided with
small arms. It was one of the earliest field battles won by gunpowder weapons.
Although Selim entered Tabriz in western Iran (September 7), the victory did not lead to
immediate Ottoman conquest because of unrest among the Janissaries. Selim soon returned to
Anatolia. The most significant outcome of the Battle of Chldirn, however, was the subsequent
incorporation into the Ottoman state of the Kurdish principalities in eastern Anatolia and the
Turkmen principality of Dulkadir in the Mara-Elbistan region (1515). Thenceforth Ottomans not
only had a rampart against eastern invaders but also controlled the Tabrz-Aleppo and TabrzBursa silk trade routes.
Ottoman-Mamluk war (1516)
The relationship between the Ottomans and the Mamluks had been adversarial since the Fall of
Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453. By 1516, the Ottomans were free from other concerns
Sultan Selim I had just vanquished the Safavid Persians at the Battle of Chaldiran in 1514 and
turned their full might against the Mamluks, who ruled in Syria and Egypt, to complete the
Ottoman conquest of the Middle East.
The war consisted of several battles. The Mamluk army was rather traditional, mainly consisting
in cavalry using bows and arrows, whereas the Ottoman army, and especially the Janissaries, was
quite modern, using arquebus. The Mamluks remained proud in their tradition and tended to
disregard the usage of firearms.
The Ottomans first captured the city of Diyarbekir in southeastern Anatolia. The Battle of Marj
Dabiq (24 August 1516) was decisive, in which the Mamluk ruler Kansuh al-Ghuri was killed.
The Ottomans apparently outnumbered the Mamluks by a factor of 3 to 1.Syria fell under the
rule of the Ottomans with this single battle. The Battle of Yaunis Khan occurred near Gaza
(1516) and was again a defeat for the Mamluks.
Operations in Egypt (1517)
At the doorstep of Cairo, the Battle of Ridaniya (24 January 1517) took place, in which the
Ottoman commander Hadm Sinan Pasha lost his life. In this battle, Selim I and Tuman Bay

faced each other. The firearms and guns deployed by Tuman Bay turned out to be almost useless,
as the Ottomans managed an attack from the rear. A few days later, the Ottomans captured and
sacked Cairo, capturing Caliph Al-Mutawakkil III. Tuman Bay regrouped his troops in Giza,
where he was finally captured and hanged at the gate of Cairo.
As a consequence the Sharif of Mecca also submitted to the Ottomans, placing the holy cities of
Mecca and Medina under Ottoman rule.Ottoman power extended as far as the southern reaches
of the Red Sea, although control of Yemen remained partial and sporadic.