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november 2016

november 2016

november 2016
november 2016

The eXact I/O you need

eXactly where you need it!

$384.00 $36.00 $63.00 $24.00 $277.00 (PX-TCP2: 2-port Modbus TCP Coupler) (PX-172-1: 2-point (PX-248: 8-point
$384.00
$36.00
$63.00
$24.00
$277.00
(PX-TCP2: 2-port
Modbus TCP Coupler)
(PX-172-1: 2-point
(PX-248: 8-point
(PX-334-K:
AC Input)
DC Output)
(PX-970: AC Power
Feed Terminal)
Thermocouple)
TM
Xpansion I/O has never been so practical
Built to be versatile in the eld, the Protos X Field I/O system has
a slim design with numerous I/O point con gurations. The small
footprint lets you install Protos X I/O assemblies exactly where you
mblies exactly where you
need them, even in tight locations. No need for excess eld wiring,
ed for excess eld wiring,
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he already low price,
you’ll save money again and again with Protos X.
rotos X.
Rackless design for easy installation in
areas with limited space
Distributing I/O
for your process
saves space, wiring
and money!
Bus Couplers available in both Modbus
RTU/ASCII and Modbus TCP protocols
to integrate with a wide variety of
controllers and SCADA/HMI packages
Discrete terminals available in AC and DC
with a variety of point configurations
including: 2, 4, 8 or 16 points
2, 4 and 8-channel analog terminals with
4-20 mA, 0-10 VDC, and +/- 10 VDC
capabilities, as well as, RTD and
Thermocouple options
Fully expandable up to 255 I/O terminals
FREE, downloadable, easy-to-use
configuration software tool

• A variety of power supply and power distribution options give you added versatility

and power distribution options give you added versatility Research, price, and buy at:
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Don’t let visual indication be your weakest link

Orion magnetic level indicators and transmitters are built tough for the world’s most intense environments
Orion magnetic level indicators and transmitters are built tough
for the world’s most intense environments and applications.
visit www.orioninstruments.com for more information
for the world’s most intense environments and applications. visit www.orioninstruments.com for more information S
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Can selecting the right I/O save you money? Absolutely. Selecting the right combination of digital

Can selecting the right I/O save you money? Absolutely.

Selecting the right combination of digital fieldbus, hardwired and wireless technologies can drastically reduce project, operational, and maintenance costs over time. System 800xA's Flexible I/O Solutions provide the freedom to choose the best fit for your next automation project creating a foundation for continuous improvement and support for life.

For more information visit: www.abb.com/800xA

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information visit: www.abb.com/800xA ABB Process Automation Division Visit us at www.abb.com/800xA Tel. +1 800 HELP 365

November 2016 • Volume XXIX • Number 11

November 2016 • Volume XXIX • Number 11 features Support & protect 38 / cybersecurity in

features

Support & protect 38 / cybersecurity in the SIS world

Find and slay the dragons lurking in typical safety instrumented systems. by William L. Mostia, Jr., P.E.

Cover story

30 / Harness big data

How to manage new information streams, identify correlations, and achieve gains. by Jim Montague

meaSure & manIpulate

43 / motors & drives make magic

Innovation, intelligence and networking bring motion to life in unusual applications and environments. by Jim Montague

CONTROL (ISSN 1049-5541) is published monthly by PUTMAN Media COMPANY (also publishers of CONTROL DESIGN, CHEMICAL PROCESSING, FOOD PROCESSING, THE JOURNAL, PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURING, PLANT SERVICES and SMART INDUSTRY), 1501 E. Woodfield Rd., Ste. 400N, Schaumburg, IL 60173. (Phone 630/467-1300; Fax 630/467-1124.) Address all correspondence to Editorial and Executive Offices, same address. Periodicals Postage Paid at Schaumburg, IL, and at additional mailing offices. Printed in the United States. © Putman Media 2016. All rights reserved. The contents of this publication may not be reproduced in whole or part without consent of the copyright owner. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to CONTROL, P.O. Box 3428, Northbrook, IL 60065-3428. SUBSCRIPTIONS: Qualified-reader subscriptions are accepted from Operating Management in the control industry at no charge. To apply for qualified-reader subscription, fill in subscription form. To non-qualified subscribers in the Unites States and its possessions, subscriptions are $96.00 per year. Single copies are $15. International subscriptions are accepted at $200 (Airmail only.) CONTROL assumes no responsibility for validity of claims in items reported. Canada Post International Publications Mail Product Sales Agreement No. 40028661. Canadian Mail Distributor Information:

Frontier/BWI,PO Box 1051,Fort Erie,Ontario, Canada, L2A 5N8.

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November 2016 • Volume XXIX • Number 11

November 2016 • Volume XXIX • Number 11 Departments 11 / Editor’s page Cubs win The

Departments

11 / Editor’s page

Cubs win The Chicago baseball team isn’t the only group of “loveable losers” ending a drought.

12 / Control online

Our most recent, valuable and popular offerings at ControlGlobal.com

15 / Feedback

You can do intrinsically safe wireless, human factors and Deepwater Horizon

16 / Lessons learned

Controlling the smart cars, part 2 They’ll be safer if engineers draw on the experience of other industries.

20 / On the bus

Control at the edge, revisited A new flame comes into our long love/ hate relationship with distributed control.

22 / Without wires

Redefining determinism Today, even Ethernet and wireless are almost always fast enough.

24 / In process

Emerson, Yokogawa user groups meet; ICS Cybersecurity event gathers experts and solutions; GE Oil & Gas to merge with Baker Hughes; Festo multitasks at new Ohio plant

29 / Resources

Information to do your level best

46 / Develop your potential

FOPDT modeling

A good way and a better way to test a first

order plus dead time model.

49 / Ask the experts

How to determine open-loop gain? What to do when the process overshoots the mark.

51 / Roundup

Terminal terminus—and I/O The latest choices in I/O and terminal blocks are more flexible than ever.

53 / Exclusive

Easy, reliable, safe level measurement Rosemount 5408 radar level transmitter and 2140 vibrating-fork level detector.

54 / Products

Selections from our editors’ inboxes.

55 / Control talk

Success in career and system migration The motivations and rewards often seem

to have a lot in common.

58 / Control report

Busy fall Big data, cybersecurity, election results or other chores all need the same response from you.

CirCulation audited deCember 2015 Food & Kindred Products 12,824 Electric, Gas & Sanitary Services 3,451
CirCulation audited deCember 2015
Food & Kindred Products
12,824
Electric, Gas & Sanitary Services
3,451
Chemicals & Allied Products
10,797
Rubber & Miscellaneous Plastic Products
Paper & Allied Products
3,380
Systems Integrators & Engineering Design Firms
Pharmaceuticals
8,103
2,874
4,405
Stone, Clay, Glass & Concrete Products
Textile Mill Products
1,604
Primary Metal Industries
4,290
803
Petroleum Refining & Related Industries
Miscellaneous Manufacturers
4,198
Tobacco Products
120
3,171
Total Circulation
60,020
N O v E m b E R /2016
www.controlglobal.com
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EDITOR’S PAGE
EDITOR’S
PAGE
EDITOR’S PAGE Cubs win O nce upon a time, not so long ago and for about

Cubs win

EDITOR’S PAGE Cubs win O nce upon a time, not so long ago and for about

O nce upon a time, not so long ago and for about 10 years, I was on a team of “loveable losers.” On hiatus from Control between

2003 and 2012, as editor of Plant Services mag- azine I did all I could to champion the cause of asset reliability through proactive maintenance. Convinced of the intrinsic rightness of con- verting critical equipment from catastrophic breakdown and wasteful preventive to the ad- vanced technologies of predictive maintenance (as part of a world-class, risk-based, reliabil- ity-centered asset management program, of course), I sat at the feet of crusty gurus as we wondered aloud how any successful company could survive, how any reasonable person could not see the light, and embrace the power of vi- bration, ultrasound, infrared and oil analysis. But again and again, most plants found they couldn’t get it done. They couldn’t spare the labor, training and equipment dollars long enough to get enough ROI for sufficient time to sustain the effort—to get over the mountain and reach the promised realm of reliability. And of the few that could, many found them- selves slipping back when management recog- nized and rewarded their good work and savings by cutting their budgets and letting go the very people who made it happen. Their handhelds, cameras and sample con- tainers gather dust, and the fresh trainees’ knowledge slips away as their days are again filled with emergency repairs, expediting re- placement parts and rigging workarounds. Every now and then, a vendor PR person from my Control days would realize we were talking about asset management, and would want to tell me again how their instruments and valves can monitor their condition and send alerts to operations when maintenance is needed, and I would say, “That’s nice. But let me know when you’re ready to connect that beautiful DCS and its plantwide network to sensors on real equip- ment that has bearings, gears and windings, and call me when you get it integrated with asset

management systems so it alerts the right peo- ple, and maybe even sends them a work order.” Well, as you probably know, on Nov. 2, the Cubs won the World Series, ending the team’s

108-year streak as “loveable losers.” That’s nice. But the week before, at the Emerson Global Us- ers Exchange in Austin, I learned the company is making a major-league push into rest-of-plant asset condition monitoring.

As part of Emerson’s Plantweb digital ecosys-

tem, the company’s “pervasive sensing” initia- tive uses wireless and fieldbus to connect a new generation of low-cost sensors and provides ana- lytics for insights into asset performance. This year, the company added technologies to monitor pipes and vessels for corrosion and erosion; medium-voltage switchgear for hot spots, partial discharges and humidity; toxic gases; and process temperatures with sophisti- cated surface-mount sensor/transmitters. There

also are pressure gauge, steam trap, relief valve and power monitoring applications.

A new Asset Health Advisor performs diag-

nostics and provides alerts for predictive main- tenance. It takes in heat exchangers, blowers, compressors, cooling towers and pumps. By building condition monitoring and pre- dictive technologies into the plant, whether by making them part of the automation system or by using a separate Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) infrastructure, Emerson and other auto- mation, sensor and analytics suppliers are re- ducing the needs for handhelds, for making rounds, and even for specialized training, as much of the knowledge is being built into soft- ware applications or made available via moni- toring and analysis by off-site experts. It’s great that the Cubs have ended the Curse of the Billy Goat. I’m even happier that soon, asset management won’t require so much time at the feet of crusty reliability gurus.

so much time at the feet of crusty reliability gurus. PAUL STUDebAKer EDITOR IN CHIEF pstudebaker@putman.net

PAUL STUDebAKer

EDITOR IN CHIEF pstudebaker@putman.net

Their handhelds, cameras and sample containers gather dust, and the fresh trainees’ knowledge slips away as their days are again filled with emergencies.

CONTROL ONLINE
CONTROL
ONLINE
CONTROL ONLINE The rise of configurable I/O T he latest critical trends in I/O systems take

The rise of configurable I/O

T he latest critical trends in I/O systems take advantage of the versatility and commu- nications capabilities of intelligent, con-

figurable I/O. Being able to install universal

I/O based on approximate point count, then configure or reconfigure it later to match the needed process variables allows construction and installation to proceed independent from engineering, taking I&C off the critical path. Intelligent I/O transmits more than just the measured and manipulated variables, open-

ing the possibilities for integrating capabilities from condition monitoring and predictive maintenance to all the potential of the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). Our latest State of Technology eHandbook explores more. http://info.con- trolglobal.com/the-rise-of-configurable-io_io

SPECIAL REPORT The rise of configurable I/O The latest critical trends in I/O systems take
SPECIAL REPORT
The rise of configurable I/O
The latest critical trends in I/O systems take advantage of the versatility and communications
capabilities of intelligent, configurable I/O. Being able to install universal I/O based on approxi-
mate point count, then configure or reconfigure it later to match the needed process variables
allows construction and installation to proceed independent from engineering, taking I&C off the
critical path. Intelligent I/O transmits more than just the measured and manipulated variables,
opening the possibilities for integrating capabilities from condition monitoring and predictive
maintenance to all the potential of the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). Here’s the latest I/O
system coverage from the annals of Control. For a deeper dive into I/O technology, applications
and analysis, download the March 2015 Control State of Technology Report on I/O Systems.

Trends in HMI/SCADA

The key to better decisions isn’t just more data; it’s getting the right information delivered the right way at the right time. This downloadable special report curated by the editors of Con- trol provides a concise, single-volume overview of the trends and technology that are enabling decision support with HMI/SCADA. Articles include:

• How to design a better operator-centered system

• Developing a lasting plan for managing alarms

SPECIAL REPORT SPECIAL REPORT: Trends in HMI/SCADA How advanced systems are simplifying operators’ ability to
SPECIAL REPORT
SPECIAL REPORT:
Trends in
HMI/SCADA
How advanced systems are
simplifying operators’ ability
to respond to what matters.
Sponsored by

• Using visible data for operational excellence

• Understanding and minimizing HMI/SCADA system security gaps

Our “Trends in HMI/SCADA” report is available at global.com/special-reporton-hmi/scada-hmi

http://info.control-

Industrial computers field guide and resources

Industrial computers, PCs and many of their counterpart devices can take almost any form these days, and serve in almost any setting thanks to miniaturization, diskless and fanless technologies, more capable software and other advances. This is good news for users and ap- plications in harsh environments, but it can be hard to sort out all the available options. This report includes a bounty of instructional ma- terials, products and other resources that can help you do just that. http://info.controlglobal.com/lp-pcs-guide

INDUSTRIAL COMPUTERS FIELD GUIDE & RESOURCES Industrial computers, PCs and many of their counterpart devices
INDUSTRIAL
COMPUTERS
FIELD GUIDE
& RESOURCES
Industrial computers, PCs and many of their counterpart devices can take
almost any form these days, and serve in almost any setting thanks to
miniaturization, diskless and fanless technologies, more capable software
and other advances. This is good news for users and applications in harsh
environments, but it can be hard to sort out all the available options.
Here is a bounty of instructional materials, products and
other resources that can help you do just that.
BEGIN
It’s high time to upgrade systems A market analysis by ARC Advisory Group estimates that
It’s high time to upgrade systems
A
market analysis by ARC Advisory
Group estimates that globally, in
excess of USD $65 billion in control
systems have reached their end of
life, with more than 80% of those
systems having been in service
for over 20 years. This whitepaper
explains why the time is now to up-
grade to a new control system migra-
tion standard.
e-NEWSLETTERSWHITE
PAPERS
BLOG & NEWS
http://info.controlglobal.com/on-
line-control-system-migrations_io
NERC CIPs continue to expose the grid
Cybersecurity expert Joe Weiss dis-
cusses NERC CIP in the wake of the
Ukranian hack. www.controlglobal.
com/blogs/unfettered/the-nerc-cips-
continue-to-expose-the-grid-to-sig-
nificant-cyber-vulnerabilities-even-
after-the-ukrainian-hack
Pepperl+Fuchs acquires ecom
The move will accelerate new devel-
opments in technology and products,
according to CEO Gunther Kegel.
http://www.controlglobal.com/in-
dustrynews/2016/pepperl-fuchs-ac-
quires-ecom-instruments
Industry change doesn’t ‘just happen’
At
the 2016 Yokogawa User Confer-
ence, Sandy Vasser told how he and
his team at ExxonMobil set out to
improve their own project execution
processes, and catalyzed industry
change in the process.
http://www.controlglobal.com/arti-
cles/2016/yokogawa-article-1
ControlGlobal E-News
Multimedia Alerts
White Paper Alerts
Go to www.controlglobal.com and
follow instructions to register for our
free weekly e-newsletters.
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Yaskawa’s A1000 is a full-featured drive, providing
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Safety Measures

Hard Hat

Safety Measures Hard Hat Goggles High-Visibility Vest Remote Mount Capability Keeps Workers Off Top of Tank

Goggles

Safety Measures Hard Hat Goggles High-Visibility Vest Remote Mount Capability Keeps Workers Off Top of Tank

High-Visibility Vest

Safety Measures Hard Hat Goggles High-Visibility Vest Remote Mount Capability Keeps Workers Off Top of Tank

Remote Mount Capability Keeps Workers Off Top of Tank for Switch Modification

Keeps Workers Off Top of Tank for Switch Modification Insulated Gloves Safety Harness Best-in-Class Safe Failure
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Safe Failure Fraction >91% Steel-Toed Boots Protect your plant with Echotel ® Ultrasonic Level

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your plant with Echotel ® Ultrasonic Level Switches Advanced Self Diagnostics Assures Reliable Performance

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Performance Dual-Point Option for Two-Alarm Safety Protocol ECHOTEL liquid level control technology measures up to the

ECHOTEL liquid level control technology measures up to the most rigorous safety standards, with intelligent design that ensures outstanding quality, reliability and overfill prevention.

echotel.magnetrol.com

reliability and overfill prevention. echotel.magnetrol.com magnetrol.com • 800-624-8765 • info@magnetrol.com ©

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IN MEMORY OF JULIE CAPPELLETTI-LANGE, VICE PRESIDENT 1984-2012 1501 E. WOODFIELD ROAD, SUITE 400N SCHAUMBURG,

IN MEMORY OF JULIE CAPPELLETTI-LANGE, VICE PRESIDENT 1984-2012

1501 E. WOODFIELD ROAD, SUITE 400N SCHAUMBURG, ILLINOIS 60173

editorial team

Editor in Chief: PAUL STUDEBAKER

pstudebaker@putman.net

Executive Editor: JIM MONTAGUE

jmontague@putman.net

Digital Managing Editor: KYLE SHAMORIAN

kshamorian@putman.net

Contributing Editor: JOHN REZABEK

Columnists: BÉLA LIPTÁK, GREG MCMILLAN, IAN VERHAPPEN, STAN WEINER

Editorial Assistant: LORI GOLDBERG

design & production team

VP, Creative & Production: STEVE HERNER

sherner@putman.net

Art Director: JENNIFER DAKAS

jdakas@putman.net

Art Director: CHRIS YU

cyu@putman.net

Senior Production Manager: ANETTA GAUTHIER

agauthier@putman.net

publishing team

VP, Content and Group Publisher: KEITH LARSON

klarson@putman.net

VP, Sales & Publishing Director: TONY DAVINO

630/467-1300 x 408, tdavino@putman.net

Midwest/Southeast Regional Sales Manager: GREG ZAMIN

gzamin@putman.net,

630/551-2500, Fax: 630/551-2600

Northeast/Mid-Atlantic Regional Sales Manager: DAVE FISHER

508/543-5172, Fax 508/543-3061

dfisher@putman.net

Classifieds Manager: LORI GOLDBERG

lgoldberg@putman.net

Subscriptions/Circulation: JERRY CLARK, JACK JONES

888/644-1803

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President & CEO: JOHN M. CAPPELLETTI

VP, Circulation: JERRY CLARK

VP, CFO: RICK KASPER

foster reprints

Corporate Account Executive: RHONDA BROWN

219-878-6094, rhondab@fosterprinting.com

FINALIST JESSE H. NEAL AWARD, 2013 AND 2016 JESSE H. NEAL AWARD WINNER ELEVEN ASBPE EDITORIAL EXCELLENCE AWARDS TWENTY-FIVE ASBPE EXCELLENCE IN GRAPHICS AWARDS ASBPE MAGAZINE OF THE YEAR FINALIST, 2009 AND 2016 FOUR OZZIE AWARDS FOR GRAPHICS EXCELLENCE

2009 AND 2016 FOUR OZZIE AWARDS FOR GRAPHICS EXCELLENCE FEEDBACK You can do intrinsically safe wireless
FEEDBACK
FEEDBACK
AND 2016 FOUR OZZIE AWARDS FOR GRAPHICS EXCELLENCE FEEDBACK You can do intrinsically safe wireless Regarding

You can do intrinsically safe wireless

Regarding “Where wireless meets intrin-

sic safety,” (Control, Oct. ’16. p. 26, www.

controlglobal.com/articles/2016/where-

wireless-meets-intrinsic-safety), you can put wireless network access points in un- classified areas (or zone 2, which does not

require intrinsic safety), so wireless sensor networks with intrinsically safe (IS) trans- mitters can be easy, provided you pick the right wireless topology. Only the wireless sensors need to be in the area requiring intrinsic safety. However, this requires a full mesh topology. There are many wireless net- works using IEEE 802.15.4 radio, but they’re not the same. By full mesh to- pology, I mean capable of seven or more “hops” from the sensor to the gateway, allowing the data to be routed around metal obstructions in the plant. Wire- lessHART already supports seven or more hops. The two to four hops cur- rently supported by other networks are not sufficient. By using a full mesh to- pology, you only need the gateway at the edge of the plant unit—there is no need for powered backbone routers in the mid- dle of the plant units.

If there is any weak spot in the Wire-

lessHART network, simply drop in an additional device as a router—an IS, bat- tery-powered device needs no power wir- ing and is very simple to deploy.

I agree that IS power over Ethernet

(PoE) is an issue at the moment. Apart from the Ethernet switches, are there any field devices actually supporting it? An- other problem is that there are no standard IS parameters (I, U, P, L and C), so lots of engineering is needed to demonstrate safety. When you replace any part with an- other model, you have to redo it. So, avoid this problem by placing the gateway at the edge of the unit as unclassified or Zone 2.

JONAS BERGE, jonas.berge@emerson.com

Ready to win Top 50 automation suppliers jockey for advantage when the market returns MEASURE
Ready to win
Top 50 automation suppliers jockey for
advantage when the market returns
MEASURE THICK FLOWS
FAST BOILER CONTROL
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al-safety-discussion-for-hollywood-tropes] is that it seeks to demonize “big oil.” In one of its most egregious moments, it makes it look as if the control panel operator knew something was going to happen, but held back the information because of company direction. In the official review, the opera- tor said the information/data flow to view the process was terrible enough that when the crap hit the fan, she was completely be- fuddled and confused. This is not the fault of an operator. It has been blamed on hu-

man error, and now in the Hollywood ver- sion, on political complicity. The real fault lies in poor human fac- tors in the control system HMI. Billions of dollars have been invested in research-

ing the interaction of humans with oper- ating equipment. The blowout was poten- tially avoidable, but engineering mistakes will always be there. The point is, once the engineering failed, the tragedy could have been mitigated, perhaps even avoided. So, while a company may not be complicit in direct actions to prevent the loss of human life, its lack of making access to tools that could have given humans visibility into the incident is disappointing. Like most companies, they’re content with technol- ogy that’s decades in arrears because it is “sufficient,” when in actuality it is not. ROI is hard to measure for human factors until the holes in the Swiss cheese line up.

STEPHEN APPLE

Human factors and Deepwater Horizon

The worst shame of the movie [“Truth meets fiction,” Control, Sept. ’16, p. 86,

www.controlglobal.com/articles/2016/

deepwater-horizon-film-likely-sacrifices-re- stephen.apple@schneider-electric.com

LESSONS LEARNED
LESSONS
LEARNED
LESSONS LEARNED Controlling the smart cars, part 2 BÉLA LIPTÁK liptakbela@aol.com People asked whether the autopilot
LESSONS LEARNED Controlling the smart cars, part 2 BÉLA LIPTÁK liptakbela@aol.com People asked whether the autopilot

Controlling the smart cars, part 2

BÉLA LIPTÁK

liptakbela@aol.com

People asked whether the autopilot was on or off at the time of the Tesla crash in Florida. This is the wrong question.

[This article suggests improvements in controls for self-driving cars based on experience in the process industries. The state of the art, as ex- emplified by the Tesla accident May 7 in Wil- liston, Fla., is discussed in part 1 (Sept ‘16, p. 52, www.controlglobal.com/articles/2016/anal- ysis-of-the-recent-self-driving-tesla-crash).]

O ver the past century, general industry

(power, chemical, oil, nuclear, etc.) faced

the same safety concerns that the auto-

mobile industry is facing today. One camp ar- gued that manual control is safer because all sensors can fail, computers can freeze, etc., while the other camp argued that automatic control is better because operators can be in- toxicated, untrained, tired, distracted, etc. Both camps assumed there’s no third option. It took a long time to realize that one must not choose between manual and automatic control, but should benefit from both simul- taneously. In other words, one should always consider both, and select the safer one for control. This is called Selective Safety Con- trol (SSC). It would be wise for the transportation in- dustry to learn from the experience accumu- lated in other industries, and not attempt to

“rediscover the wheel.”

Where we are today

In just the U.S., more than 35,000 people died in car accidents last year. According to most estimates, smart cars could eliminate 95% of these accidents. Yet 71% of the American pub- lic believes that smart cars are less safe than regular ones. These numbers contradict each other, and that’s unfortunate because techno- logical advances require public support, but that support won’t evolve until there’s confi- dence in the safety of such technological ad- vances. This is the reason I’m writing this se- ries of articles. Many smart cars are electric, and the ac-

ceptance of electric cars is growing. Tesla sold 50,000 of these cars in 2015, 82,000 in 2016, and has approximately 400,000 custom- ers on its waiting list for next year. In 2017, it hopes to market an electric car (Model 3) that will cost around $35,000 and can travel 240 miles on one charge. Other car manufac- turers (GM’s Bolt, Nissan’s Leaf, BMW’s i3, Volkswagen’s e-Golf, etc.) place less empha- sis on driving distance per charge because they’re focusing on commuting. The smart car designs on the road today use autopilots, and require drivers to keep their hands on the steering wheel, so they can take over control when needed. As of to- day, Tesla has some 70,000 such cars on the road, and others like Mercedes-Benz plan to start selling them in 2017. Tesla is also work- ing on driverless cars—it will have all the sensors needed for autonomous driving in its Model 3, but will not enable the system until more testing is performed. Model 3 has some 300,000 preorders, which Tesla will start fill- ing in 2017. Other manufacturers, like GM and Audi, are also taking an incremental ap- proach by developing cars capable of grad- ually updating from the autopilot mode of operation to the driverless one. Others are starting out with limited application goals— an example is Google (working with Otto), which plans to market trucks that will be self-driving only on highways. Development of completely driverless cars is still in the test- ing or field trial stage (Uber in Pittsburgh, Google in California, Ford, etc.) and are gen- erally expected to be available by 2021.

Autopilot vs. driverless

People asked whether the autopilot was on or off at at the time of the Tesla crash in Florida. This is the wrong question. Just as we don’t need to turn on the seat belt alarm to be re- minded the buckle is closed, the autopilot should have been on all the time—in addi-

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LESSONS LEARNED
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FIRST-GENERATION SENSORS AND ZONES

Figure 1: These are the types of sensors and their observation zones that are being used in the first generation of smart cars. The instruments are: computer (C), lidar (L), radar (R), ultrasonic (U), video camera (VC). On some cars, as many as 12 cameras are used. Observation zones are: (1) Protection zone detected by 360° rotating lidar, (2) rear-collision protection and lane change assistance zone, (3) self-parking function, (4) traffic light, lane departure, collision avoidance and emergency brake assist functions, and (5) cross-traffic and pedestrian-detection function.

tion to the driver always being ready to take over. The important differ- ence between the design that existed in the Florida eccident and the cor- rect one is that neither the driver nor the autopilot should be able to over- rule the other (be the primary source of control). However, whenever they disagree, the control system (SSC) should automatically select the safer one to control braking, accelerating or steering. As I noted earlier, smart cars have great lifesaving potential because they can provide safe driving even if the driver is tired, panicked, drunk, under the influence of drugs, inex- perienced, distracted or has slow re- flexes, decreasing vision and hearing, etc. Yet their lifesaving potential is

reduced because all computer sys- tems can fail, and even if they don’t fail, their software can be hacked or be insufficiently sophisticated to rec- ognize complex situations. It’s for this reason that the software packages in operation (Figure 1) can safely handle only simpler tasks such as changing lanes, stopping at red lights, parking or keeping safe dis- tances between vehicles, but they can’t yet distinguish between, say, a pedestrian trying to hitch a ride or a police officer flagging the car down. Such “fuzzy” conditions haven’t yet been effectively enshrined in com- puter code, while the human driver can usually recognize them. A great advantage of smart cars is that the software of the whole fleet

can be improved over the air when- ever new information becomes avail- able. In other words, whenever the causes of an accident are determined and the software is modified to pre- vent reoccurance of that accident, the revised software package can be immediately transmitted wirelessly to the entire fleet. As a result, the

safety of the fleet can be continually improved. Advocates of driverless cars argue that using the autopilot is less safe

than autonomous driving because

even if the driver’s hands are on the steering wheel, the driver, being pas- sive, can’t be expected to snap back and make split-second decisions when needed. They refer to studies that have found that the time needed to “wake up” the average driver is 17 seconds, and a car moving at 65 mph travels five football fields during that time. Yet as of today, “driver-assisted collision avoidance software” (auto- pilot) is better developed, and so for some years more, the “hands on the wheel” mode of driving is likely to prevail. It’s also interesting to note that the major process control firms (ABB, Emerson, Honeywell, Schneider Electric, Siemens, Yokogawa, etc.) seem to be doing very little to de- velop sensors and control software for this new market. Newer compa- nies are starting to fill this gap, such as Nirenberg Nouroscience, Otto or Saips in the fields of machine and computer vision, and Velodyne in the area of miniaturized lidar (laser imaging and ranging), etc. [The next part in this series will dis- cuss the capabilities of today’s sensors, potential for developing additional or better ones, and improvements in con- trol software packages needed to im-

prove smart car safety.]

software packages needed to im- prove smart car safety.] Béla Lipták, PE, control consultant and editor

Béla Lipták, PE, control consultant and editor of the Instrument Engineers’ Handbook is seeking new co-authors for the new edition of that multi-volume work. He can be reached at liptakbela@aol.com.

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O n the Bus
O n
the
Bus
O n the Bus Control at the edge, revisited johN rezabek Contributing Editor Jrezabek@ashland.com Every little
O n the Bus Control at the edge, revisited johN rezabek Contributing Editor Jrezabek@ashland.com Every little

Control at the edge, revisited

johN rezabek

Contributing Editor

Jrezabek@ashland.com

Every little skid had a different little PLC. Some used ladder logic and some used weirdly structured text reminiscent of HP calculators’ “reverse Polish.”

E very compressor in the facility went down

at once that day, when a PLC redundancy

switchover didn’t transfer in time. The en-

gineers didn’t know that each P453 remote I/O processor had a dip-switch-selectable tim- eout setting—if it didn’t hear from the logic solver before the timeout, all the associated I/O would go to the zero power state. And so they did, when the startup team decided to invoke a switchover one day, much to the dismay of the commissioning manager for the new unit. Before PLCs, compressor interlocks were all solved in local panels using relay logic. This “natural” distribution of logic solving lent a cer- tain fault tolerance to the process; at least (bar- ring a total power outage) only one critical piece of machinery would go offline at a time. The disadvantage was, interlocks implemented with hardwired relay logic were difficult to config- ure, costly and labor-intensive to build, difficult to troubleshoot, difficult to modify, and subject to mechanical assaults on reliability in the form of lose wires, vibration, corrosion and unseen jumpers. This was why the early adopters were eager to move logic to the magical PLC. Fortunately for us, it took less than 10 years for PLCs to become powerful and inexpensive enough for each compressor to have its own, in- dividual, local, dedicated PLC. This was a great capability, but it also introduced a new challenge:

every little skid that arrived, from truck loading to wastewater filters, had a different little PLC aboard. Some used ladder logic and some used weirdly structured text reminiscent of HP calcu- lators’ “reverse Polish.” One site tried to stem the divergent solutions by specifying, for example, “all logic shall be solved by Modicon 984 PLCs,” only to find that 1) there were several “grades” of that generation of 984s, and 2) systems integrators that favored another PLC wanted to charge a pre- mium for the deviation, but frequently didn’t ex- cel at programming the PLC of choice. Modbus was still developing as a de facto standard, so net- working the growing and divergent field of PLCs

to the built-for-purpose DCS host was expensive and complex, requiring painstaking mapping of PLC coils and registers for the DCS to display. The DCS, which I’ll emphasize stood for “dis- tributed control system,” was itself more central- ized and less distributed than the network of lit- tle PLCs out in local panels and skids. But few entrusted the PLC to do much closed-loop con- trol, since most of the analog measurements were wired to the centrally-located DCS I/O, and con- trol could be solved with greater determinism than the master-slave polling network of Modbus over

RS-232/485. So critical, closed-loop “control,” in- deed nearly all PID control, remained centralized despite the “DCS” moniker. And so it remains. But today, I can go on Amazon and buy a credit-card sized Raspberry Pi, already in its third generation, for less than $50. You can load

a stripped-down Windows 10 OS on Raspberry

Pi, and I have little doubt such a platform could solve PID or even invert a matrix for model-pre- dictive control. Not that you would, but the point is that astounding computing power and networking capability have become cheap and

ubiquitous. “Control at the edge” is becoming part of the IoT vernacular as it pertains to access control and security, but also because micro- processor-based devices at the edge are smart enough to invoke actions—to solve logic or do closed-loop control—without having to “phone home” to a central host or human operator. Process control professionals have had “con- trol at the edge” since the days of local pneu- matic controls, and this heritage lives on al- most unnoticed in every valve positioner with

a servo solving proportional or PID to position

the valve stem where it’s directed. While we might not have trusted PID to 1990s-vintage PLCs, why not empower valve positioners and their ilk to execute rudimentary control loops? To the degree networks and standards can pro- vide easy, consistent and seamless access to de- vice-resident controls, the vision of truly distrib-

uted control may finally dawn upon us.

controls, the vision of truly distrib- uted control may finally dawn upon us. 20 www.controlglobal.com November/2016

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WITHOUT WIRES Redefining determinism IAN verHAPPeN SENIOR PROJECT MANAGER, AUTOMATION CIMA+ Ian.Verhappen@cima.ca The
WITHOUT WIRES Redefining determinism IAN verHAPPeN SENIOR PROJECT MANAGER, AUTOMATION CIMA+ Ian.Verhappen@cima.ca The

Redefining determinism

IAN verHAPPeN

SENIOR PROJECT MANAGER, AUTOMATION CIMA+ Ian.Verhappen@cima.ca

The control system can easily be made to believe that updates are as regular as necessary to be viewed as deterministic.

A s automation professionals, one issue we

have about control loops is ensuring we’re

able to support real-time control. Back

when Ethernet was 10 MB/s with multiple drops on one port, collisions were a concern and im- pediment to its adoption because we couldn’t guarantee delivery of every message, every time, at a repeatable frequency. Ethernet wasn’t “real time” enough, and hence not deterministic, or so we believed. So we waited until we got faster switched networks that almost eliminate the chance of a message not getting where it should be when it should. We still lose packets, but we can recover fast enough to satisfy our defini- tions of determinism and real time. In fact, what we’re really doing is confirm- ing that the definition of determinism depends on the application. In factory automation or ro- botics, response times often need to be in mil- liseconds, while continuous processes, being essentially analog, are scanned at high enough frequency to allow us to model the system, with “high enough” generally accepted as six times (6x) the process frequency/response time (pro- cess time constant plus process delay). Many use a ‘rule of thumb’ of 10x, though I suspect it’s to provide a margin of error, and it’s easier to move the decimal point than divide by 6. Another underlying assumption in conven- tional PID is that control is executed on a pe- riodic basis, which implies a regular scan and update rate. Fortunately, the scan rate for con- tinuous processes, where flow is likely the fastest changing loop, is normally seconds long. Control systems and their networks are com- plicated enough to design and build without having to calculate the definition of determin- ism for every loop, and then design hardware to match. So instead, we configure our systems to scan the I/O at one or perhaps a few different scan rates, based on the applications in the fa- cility. This is one reason why the scan rates for PLCs are in milliseconds (as required by factory applications from which they evolved), while a

DCS, which scans many more points per cycle, can have scan rates of seconds. A continuous process doesn’t change that much that quickly, and if it does, a different system such as an SIS, provides the necessary extra protection. Wireless sensor networks (WSN), on the other hand, have update rates of 15 seconds or longer (updating only when the process has changed outside the prescribed “window,” re- sulting in a non-periodic basis to preserve bat-

tery life). And since they’re mesh systems, the signal itself is retransmitted multiple times, in- creasing the risk that an update can be lost, so the control system and algorithm must also be able to handle a loss of communications. If this sounds similar to some of the chal- lenges associated with legacy 10 MB/s Ethernet, where updates can be affected by a collision or

a node malfunction, perhaps our systems aren’t,

nor need to be, as deterministic as we think. As long as we have reliable communications with

the WSN access point, the control system can easily be made to believe that updates are as reg- ular as necessary to be viewed as deterministic. Terry Blevins, Mark Nixon and Marty Zie- linski published an interesting paper “Using Wireless Measurement in Control Applica- tions” (www.controlglobal.com/articles/2012/

addressing-control-applications-using-wire-

less-device/) describing one approach to mod- ifying the PID algorithm, and in particular the reset (integral) component, for irregular signal updates. Other manufacturers are taking differ-

ent approaches, and if your system does not have

a specific solution, with the processing ability

of today’s control systems, they’re able to cre- ate simple process models to fill in the gaps be- tween the updates, much like we’ve done with manually analyzed samples for many years. In the end, as demonstrated above, everyone’s definition of real time and hence determinism depends on the application. Or perhaps we can argue that determinism no longer has the same

clout as it did when things were slower.

that determinism no longer has the same clout as it did when things were slower. 22

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I n Process Emerson users interact and enlighten
I n
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Emerson users interact and enlighten

The 2016 edition of Emerson Global Users Exchange in Austin, Texas, accelerated learning and innovation, and gave its customers the tools and know-how to do it.

S everal thousand users, integrators, technical experts, managers, lead- ers and friends gathered for Emer-

son Global Users Exchange 2016, Oct. 24-28 in Austin, Tex., and feasted on their usual cornucopia of technical in- novations, end user experiences, con- ference sessions, workshops, training sessions, exhibits and networking. “Time here is well spent getting fresh ideas, making good connections, find- ing the energy and urgency to solve tough problems, and work with rapid technology change,” says Steve Sonnen- berg, chairman, Emerson Automation Solutions (www.emerson.com), which recently transformed its internal struc- ture to focus on two business platforms, combining its former Emerson Process Management and Industrial Automa- tion businesses into one organization. “We’re continuing the same sales, sup- port, engineering and services as in the past, and now we can better address life sciences, food and beverage and packag- ing industries. We’re working harder to be a trusted partner.” Following his appointment as chair- man, Sonnenberg added his former role is being filled by Michael Train, executive president, Emerson Automa- tion Solutions, who’s served as presi- dent of Emerson’s global sales, analyt- ics group and Asia-Pacific divisions.

Operational Certainty

Train stressed the continuing advantages of Emerson’s Top Quartile and Project Certainty programs for improving their engineering, products and services. Plus, he announced that Emerson is introduc- ing its Operational Certainty consulting practice with expanded project execu- tion methods, workshops and services. “By helping customers leverage the best practices of Top Quartile perform-

leverage the best practices of Top Quartile perform- EarningS aSSiSt Michael Train, executive president, Emerson

EarningS aSSiSt

Michael Train, executive president, Emerson Automartion Solutions, reports Top-Quartile practices can help custom- ers improve their earnings by 15%.

ers, Emerson can help improve their earnings as much as 15%,” says Train.

Innovations aplenty

To provide users with even better tools and services, Emerson debuted a host of other solutions, services and initia- tives at the event. They included:

• Launching its expanded Plantweb digital ecosystem, a scalable portfolio of standards-based hardware, software, intelligent devices and services for se- curely implementing the Industrial In- ternet of Things (IoT) with measurable business performance improvement; • Collaborating with Microsoft to help manufacturers realize business impact and value of the Industrial In- ternet of Things (IoT) with help from Emerson’s revamped Plantweb digital ecosystem and Connected Services, powered by Microsoft Azure IoT Suite.

Releasing AMS ARES platform to deliver asset and device health data, enabling maintenance decisions that increase availability; and

Detailing recent acquisitions, includ- ing Pentair Valves and Controls for pressure management, isolation valves and controls; Permasense for wireless corrosion monitoring; and FMC for blending and transfer technologies.

Supreme sessions

Following yet another tradition, five Best-in-Conference Award winners were chosen from among the 300 ses- sions delivered at Emerson Exchange. The five tracks and winners were:

Solve and support: “Fighting Irish tackle alarm management—imple- menting an alarm management program @ UND power plant” by Thomas Cole, UND Power Plant, Bill Farmer, Novaspect, and Todd Stauffer, exida

Measure and analyze: “A wireless odyssey—from resistance to enthusi- asm” by Alan Weldon, Hunt Refin- ing, and Donna McClung and Steve Moore, both of Emerson

Operate and manage: “Intelligent solvent tank farm management” by Matt Rauschke of 3M and Kyle Nystrom and Colin Singer, No- vaspect

Final control and regulate: “Natural gas pipeline integrity improvements— reducing risks with pressure con- trol station reinforcement” by Niko Boskovic and Andrew Loge, FortisBC, and Reese Dawes, Spartan Controls

Business management and career de- velopment: “Better listening, better life—listen like a pro” by Nikki Bishop and Bruce Smith, both Emerson For more coverage, visit www.control- global.com/emersonexchange.

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I n Process
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I n Process Yokogawa and users partner for a brighter future Just before Hurricane Matthew charged

Yokogawa and users partner for a brighter future

Just before Hurricane Matthew charged up the Florida coast, Yokogawa Users Conference and Exhibition 2016, Oct. 3-6, in Orlando, delivered an equally strong but positive surge of technical presentations, exhibits, corporate ini- tiatives and networking opportunities to help hundreds of users, system inte- grators, suppliers and other attendees weather today’s economic storms. “The market is facing challenges, and innovation is a key driver to sus- taining growth,” says Takashi Nishi- jima, CEO, Yokogawa Electric Corp., who spoke via video. “We must re-cre- ate ourselves to create wealth and value to society. Yokogawa is moving into the future one step at a time. We’ll be work- ing with you to build greater bonds of trust and to stimulate growth.” Opportunities for co-innovation were described by Dr. Tsuyoshi “Ted” Abe, vice president and CMO, Yokogawa Electric Corp. “Analysts are always look- ing at the short range,” says Abe. “Let me focus on the long range. Our big, hairy, audacious goal (BHAG) is sustainable processes. While Yokogawa today has many industrial customers, our future customers are today’s children. We must all work together, to contribute to save the earth for our children. Leadership does matter, but not only at Yokogawa. Let’s work together for a co-innovative tomorrow for our bright future.” To help its customers overcome to- day’s challenges, Centum Vigilant Plant (VP) DCS and its supporting sensors, I/O, networks, ProSafe-RS SIS and other components continue to offer a rock- solid foundation backed by Yokogawa’s deep knowledge of process control and optimization. “Yokogawa launched the first DCS on the market in 1975, and it’s continued to offer progressive compati- bility for effectively aging in place,” ex-

compati- bility for effectively aging in place,” ex- BIG-tImE SuStaInaBIlItY Dr. Tsuyoshi “Ted” Abe, vice

BIG-tImE SuStaInaBIlItY

Dr. Tsuyoshi “Ted” Abe, vice president and CMO, Yokogawa Electric Corp., reported that its goal is sustainable processes.

plains Gene Chen, product manager for DCS and safety instrumented systems (SIS) at Yokogawa. “Yokogawa delivers easy upgradeability that’s simple and fast; low complexity and easy expandabil- ity; highest proven field reliability with a bulletproof foundation; applications that migrate forward for continued value and reduced lifecycle costs; and knowl- edgeable engineers to execute, solve your problems, and ensure benefits through- out the solution lifecycle.” For more coverage, including Con- trol’s show daily on technical and other sessions, visit www.controlglobal.com/

articles/2016/live-from-yokogawa-2016.

ICS Cybersecurity event gathers experts and solutions

Security experts from industry, gov- ernment, academia and elsewhere presented and exchanged their expe- riences at ICS Cybersecurity Con- ference 2016, Oct. 24-27 at Georgia Tech University in Atlanta. They rep- resented multiple worldwide indus- tries, government and military defense departments, industrial control sys- tem (ICS) suppliers, cybersecurity re- searchers, consultants and educators. The keynote address was delivered by Adm. Michael Rogers, director of the

U.S. National Security Agency (NSA)

and CyberCommand. He addressed many security issues related to control systems, such as tradeoffs of remote ac- cess, value of air-gapped systems and the need for educating management. Rogers also asked private industry to work with NSA to help identify precursors to cyber attacks; addressed the recent distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack using IoT botnets; stated that secure control systems need to be designed from the be- ginning and not use “bolt-on” security. Joe Weiss, control system cyberse- curity expert and Controlglobal.com’s Unfettered blogger, reports this year’s event had several main themes:

General lack of understanding about Level 0,1 devices;

Issue of control system incidents not involving network malware (physics issues);

Continuing cultural and knowledge gaps between ICS and IT security, IT forensics, safety and senior man- agement

Continuing lack of universally-ac- cepted definitions, particularly “OT” and cyber incidents;

Ongoing scarcity of ICS cybersecurity information and incident sharing, in- cluding no adequate guidance on pre- venting ICS cyber incidents from re- curring; and

Ability of skilled hackers to compro-

mise ICSs, as well as efforts to iden- tify new ICS zero-day attacks. For more coverage, visit www.control

global.com/blogs/unfetteredobserva-

tions-and-implications-from-the-2016-ics-

cyber-security-conference.

GE oil and gas unit merging with Baker Hughes

GE (www.ge.com) and Baker Hughes (www.bakerhughes.com) announced Oct. 31 that they’ve agreed to combine GE’s oil and gas business and Baker

I N PROCESS
I N
PROCESS
I N PROCESS EXPANSIONS AND CONTRACTIONS • Emerson Automation Solutions (www.emerson.com) and Flexim

EXPANSIONS AND CONTRACTIONS

Emerson Automation Solutions (www.emerson.com) and Flexim (www.flexim.com) are combining their flow portfolios. They report their collaboration will enhance flow consulting and selection; reduce piping, design and installation costs; and help their customers execute more effective capital projects. Emer- son project teams, using Flexim’s clamp-on, ultrasonic flow-me- tering tools with Emerson’s broad, in-line flow metering, can consult early and throughout project cycles to reduce engineer- ing, piping, and installation costs, and schedule risk. • GE Digital (www.ge.com/digital) and Gerdau (www.gerdau.com) agreed Sept. 19 to work together to transform the steel producer’s industrial operations by implementing GE Digital’s Asset Perfor- mance Management (APM) solution, GE’s SmartSignal and His- torian software as well as services, remote monitoring and ana- lytics expertise at 600 assets in 11 Gerdau plants across Brazil. • Pepperl+Fuchs (www.pepperl-fuchs.us) has bought ecom in- struments GmbH (www.ecom-ex.com), a leading provider of mobile industrial devices for hazardous areas, and developer of

explosion-proof cell phones, 4G smart phones and tablet PCs. Pepperl+Fuchs reports its acquisition complements its portfolio and know-how in explosion protection with mobile solutions. • Advantech (www.advantech.com) has launched its WebAc- cess+IoT Solution Alliance program, which is based on its We- bAccess IoT software suite. The program is a market-oriented cooperation model aimed at building win-win partnerships by us- ing WebAccess to link solutions, partner strengths and strategic co-marketing to penetrate focused vertical markets and applica- tions in the IoT industries. Joining WebAccess + IoT lets members buy non-expiring, virtual points that become digital currency. • Schneider Electric (www.schneider-electric.com) has acquired software supplier MaxEAM (www.maxeam.com) to strengthen its asset management portfolio, including enhancing Schnei- der’s Avantis.Pro software. Together, they’ll give customers a single point of contact for support and delivery services, and more closely align future product development, according to Schneider Electric.

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Industrial Box Thin Client

VisuNet Industrial Box Thin Client

Pepperl+Fuchs’ industrial box thin client provides the latest thin client technology inside a compact, ruggedized aluminum housing that can withstand harsh industrial environments.

housing that can withstand harsh industrial environments. Technical Features  Windows Embedded Standard 7  Dual

Technical Features

Windows Embedded Standard 7 Dual NIC cards and up to four video outputs Visunet RM Shell 4.1 pre-installed Supports RDP, VNC, and ICA protocols ACP ThinManager-ready and Emerson DRDC options

RDP, VNC, and ICA protocols  ACP ThinManager-ready and Emerson DRDC options 28 www.controlglobal.com NOVEMBER /2016
Resou R ces
Resou R ces
Resou R ces level measures up Control’s Monthly Resource Guide BOILER DRUM INSPECTION GUIDE The 2016

level measures up

Control’s Monthly Resource Guide

BOILER DRUM INSPECTION GUIDE

The 2016 edition of Clark Reliance’s Boiler Inspection Guidelines for Drum Level Instrumentation is easy to under- stand and concisely presents ASME Section I water gauge inspection re- quirements for handy, on-the-job ref- erence by boiler operators. It includes code requirements for water columns, water gauge valves, gauge glass, remote level indicators, magnetic water level gauges and water column isolation shutoff valves, as well as 2015 Code changes and CSD-1 requirements and recommendations from Section 7. The guide also lists the most common non-compliant, drum-level arrange- ments and solutions. Copies are avail- able at www.boilerinspectionguide. com, and free to qualified recipients.

Clark-relianCe Corp. 440-572-1500; www.clark-reliance.com

LEVEL SENSING INTRODUCTION

The “Level Sensor” article at Omega

Engineering’s website covers non-con- tact ultrasonic, contact ultrasonic and capacitance technologies. It also pro- vides questions to help choose level measurement sensors, and answers fre- quently asked questions. It’s at www.

omega.co.uk/prodinfo/level-measure-

ment.html#faq.

omega engineering

www.omega.co.uk

DP LEVEL FOR ROOKIES

This online feature article, “Beginner’s Guide to Diffential Pressure Level Transmtters,” by David Spitzer pres- ents “the not-so-straightforward ba- sics of this measurment technique.” To help users avoid costly mistakes, it shows readers how to understand DP

level measurement, and its techniquea and limitations. The guide also covers three different techniques used to cali- brate pressure level transmitters. It’s lo- cated at http://info.controlglobal.com/ differential-pressure-lp

ConTrol

www.controlglobal.com

BASICS OF LEVEL—AND HISTORY

This classic, 10-minute video hosted by former Control editor Walt Boytes examines all the essential concepts of measurement, including some of its earliest origins in, where else, Egypt, where floods from the Nile made early level measurement a necessity. The video also demonstrates methods for selecting the correct level technology for different types of process applica- tions. It’s located at www.youtube.com/

watch?v=-MQU0xgh6bA.

ConTrol

www.controlglobal.com

ULTRASONIC VS. GUIDED WAVE

This 13-minute video is presented by Jason Beck of Flo-Corp., who ex- plains the some of the basic physics and characteristics of ultrasonic and guided-wave radar technologies, shows how their capabilities work in process applications, demonstrates potential issues with each method, and shows how viewers can find the most useful solution for their requirements. It’s lo- cated at www.youtube.com/watch?v=- siAMerrbpPU.

Flo-Corp.

www.flo-corp.com

OPEN TANK LEVEL

Initially intended for students at NAIT, this 17-minute tutorial video demon-

strates how to perform open-tank level measurement with a Rosemount 1151 DP transmitter, though the meth- ods and concepts presented are use- ful for many technologies. It also cov- ers set up, calibration, system layout, output wiring, input calibration and bench calibration hook-up, and other tasks. It’s located at www.youtube.com/

watch?v=xfo9n_ly8sA.

norThern alberTa insTiTuTe oF TeChnology www.nait.ca

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

The level measurement entry in the Encyclopedia of Chemical Engineer- ing Equipment by the Chemical En- gineering Dept. at the University of Michigan’s College of Engineering covers the many of the main types of level measurement technologies with descriptions and photos. However, it

also presents the advantages and dis- advantages of each level measurement method. It’s at http://encyclopedia.

che.engin.umich.edu/Pages/Process-

Parameters/LevelMeasurement/Lev-

elMeasurement.html.

universiTy oF miChigan www.engin.umich.edu/che

CAPACITIVE LIQUID LEVEL

This 4.5-minute, blackboard-style video by U.K.-based Gill Sensors & Controls provides a quick summary of the primary aspects of capacitive level sensing, including behavior of the dielectric, and shows how dif- ferent probe materials can serve the needs of different applications. It’s lo- cated at www.youtube.com/watch?v=-

0du-QU1Q0T4.

gill sensors & ConTrols www.gillsc.co.uk

If you know of any tools and resources we didn’t include, send them to ControlMagazine@Putman.net with “Resource” in the subject line, and we’ll add them to the website.

and exible cloud computing services. Most come from IT, and thanks to ever-lower microprocessor, software
and exible cloud computing services. Most come from IT, and thanks to ever-lower microprocessor, software
and exible cloud computing services. Most come from IT, and thanks to ever-lower microprocessor, software
and exible cloud computing services. Most come from IT, and thanks to ever-lower microprocessor, software
and exible cloud computing services. Most come from IT, and thanks to ever-lower microprocessor, software
and exible cloud computing services. Most come from IT, and thanks to ever-lower microprocessor, software
and exible cloud computing services. Most come from IT,
and thanks to ever-lower microprocessor, software and com-
puting costs, they’re now arriving in force in process control
applications, on plant oors and in the eld.
Dig deep, nd treasure
Consequently, though cautious end users remain reluctant
to migrate, others are nding ways to cope with all the new
data streams coming from newly connected, Internet-en-
abled devices, identify previously unseen correlations and
trends, and achieve unprecedented operating gains.
For example, Avangrid Renewables (www.avangridre-
newables.us) in Portland, Ore., collects lots of time series
and other information from its 3,000 U.S. wind turbines
and other generating assets, and seeks to coordinate it with
related operations, independent system operator (ISO),

W hat’s so big about big data? Isn’t it just more data—more of the same old information from the same places, which many users are nally waking up to and using?

Well, yes, many of the usual data handling methods, software and devices are being trotted out again under the “Big Data” buzzword, and so they must have a new banner and be called something new even if they’re not. However, despite the hype and distractions, there are per- sistent differences between traditional data and big data that can’t be ignored. Some of these differences include infor- mation sources not accessed before, data types not analyzed previously, and new management and storage technologies. These distinguishing features are summarized in big data’s oft-cited “four Vs:” volume, variety, velocity and value. The challenges presented by big data are being met by augmented and new analysis tools, networking pathways

30 www.controlglobal.com NOVEMBER /2016

big data are being met by augmented and new analysis tools, networking pathways 30 www.controlglobal.com NOVEMBER

weather, market and pricing data (Figure 1). Main sources include OSIsoft PI, SCADA, SQL databases and SAP. Avan- grid wanted to examine and better visualize its existing OSIsoft content, so it could understand operations better and improve decisions. Avangrid especially wanted to more accurately report and get paid by the ISO for lost generating capacity during required curtailment periods, but it needed deeper turbine ramp-down cost data to prove its economic losses. “We knew we were losing money, but determining the actual impact required investigat- ing years of turbine data,” says Brandon Lake, senior business systems analyst at Avangrid Renewables. To that end, Avangrid enlisted Seeq Corp. (www.seeq. com) and its data investigation and discovery software, which integrates information from historians, databases and analyzers without altering existing systems. Its software uses a property-graph database geared toward querying relation- ships across nodes to work with data and relationships be- tween data in objects called “capsules,” which store “time periods of interest” and related data used to compare ma- chine and process states, save data annotations, enable cal- culations, and perform other tasks. Lake reports that Avangrid tried to compile ramp-down data before using Excel, but it took too much time and labor. “With Seeq’s software, we were able to isolate shutdown events, add analytics and determine what was happening in just hours,” says Lake. “In the past, this would have taken days or weeks.” Once its participating wind farms isolated shutdowns and ramp-down events, determined curtailment times, added pricing and other setpoints, and determined differential power-generation scenarios to determine losses, Seeq could export the data to Excel and identify revenue the wind farms could claim. Depending on its ISO contracts and wind availability or curtailment, Lake reports that Avangrid saves $30,000 to $100,000 per year.

What do you have? What do you want?

Despite its obvious advantages, big data is still a hard sell for many users because they must shift their data-gathering gears not just to new tools, but to new ways of thinking— mostly to understanding what big data is and how it can serve their applications and goals. While traditional data architectures move structured in- formation through an integration process before warehous- ing and analyzing it, Oracle Corp. (www.oracle.com) reports in its “Enterprise Architect’s Guide to Big Data” that big data uses distributed, multi-mode, parallel data processing to handle its larger, unstructured data sets, and employs dif- ferent strategies, such as index-based retrieval for real-time storage needs and map-reduce ltering for batch processing storage. Once ltered data is discovered, it can be analyzed directly, loaded onto other unstructured or semi-structured databases, sent to mobile devices, or merged with regular data warehousing (Figure 2).

BIG

DATA

or merged with regular data warehousing (Figure 2). BIG DATA Business systems Cloud IoT IoT sensors
Business systems Cloud IoT IoT sensors platform Context Context Control Manufacturing Business network Historian
Business systems
Cloud IoT
IoT sensors
platform
Context
Context
Control
Manufacturing
Business
network
Historian
systems
systems

CASH BLOWS IN

Figure 1: The 400-MW Klondike Wind Power Projects in Sherman County, Ore. (top) is one of several Avangrid Renewables wind farms in the U.S. using Seeq data investigation and discovery software (bottom) to integrate information from historians, databases and analyzers, and recover lost-generation revenue from the local grid. Source: Avangrid

“We’ve always handled many forms of information, and to us, big data begins with multiple streams and events pro- duced by people, machines and processes. However, big data ties these streams together with heuristics and analysis, so users can relate what couldn’t be related before, and nd new links and ef ciencies,” says Ian Tooke, consulting di- rector at Grantek Systems Integration (https://grantek.com) in Oak Brook, Ill. “We do environmental controls for phar- maceutical and warehouse applications, and we can use big data to tie changes in environmental factors to the state of drugs in storage. For example, humidity can affect glue vis- cosity when we’re making corrugated substrates, but now we can use this new data to make adjustments, which can help improve the shelf life and effectiveness of some drugs. Sim- ilarly, there are many regulations for manufacturers about keeping pharmaceuticals cool in storage, but fewer rules for trucks and distribution warehouses, so we provide environ- mental monitoring in warehouses and on trucks.” Jim Toman, lead consultant for manufacturing IT at Grantek, adds that food manufacturers are also looking at their control and support systems for more traceability by gathering environmental measurements, and applying statistics to help meet production line setpoints. “Food manufacturers are shift-

BIG

DATA

ing from testing for poor quality to pre- venting it by ensuring that their process controls and documentation give them better traceability, and then maintaining that genealogy through manufacturing and distribution,” he adds. “While traditional process data is stored in historians and crunched later for standard deviations, big data can also participate in more advanced statistical analyses, such as clustering, regression and multivariate modeling, and con- sider correlations among many more variables,” says Mike Boudreaux, con- nected services director, Emerson Auto- mation Solutions (www.emerson.com). “The process control industries already do process optimization and predictive maintenance, and big data can enable predictive analytics and machine learn- ing as open-loop advanced process con- trol (APC). This is a gross generalization, but it puts these concepts in context be-

cause predictive analytics and machine learning use the same mathematics as APC, such as neural networks to model relations between data parameters.”

Wide net, big haul

No doubt the best-known aspect of big data is the namesake amounts of infor- mation its servers take in, though the less glamorous chore is making sense of it all, and putting that intelligence to use. “Manufacturing generates more data than any other sector of the economy, but only a little bit of it is used, and so there are huge opportunities to create value by using that information,” says Bill King, CTO of the Digital Manu- facturing and Design Innovation Insti- tute (http://dmdii.uilabs.org) at Univer- sity of Illinois Labs (www.UILabs.org) in Chicago. “This data is produced at every stage of the manufacturing lifecy- cle, including design, assembly, opera-

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tions, shipping, maintenance and end of

life. It’s a powerful idea that these digital threads can connect, and that any part of the lifecycle can reach the other stages to do useful things. If we can design know- ing more about manufacturing—and get data from users to ow back to the fabricators—then we can make different decisions in digital manufacturing and achieve greater value, but it’s still hard to get those stages to work together.” Scott Howard, regional sales man- ager, Statseeker (www.statseeker.com), adds that, “Big data begins by collecting whole bunches of information because

at rst its users don’t know what matters,

so they gather everything, and then try to

nd correlations and statistical threads,

such as more closely matching equip- ment performance to effects on quality and end products.” Statseeker makes a networking monitoring tool that checks participating ports every 60 seconds. “We were dealing with big data be- fore it was called big data. We created a big repository with tons of data in it, but

the challenge was now that we’ve got it, what do we do with it? There’s no value

in reams of data if it doesn’t help your op- erations or business,” adds Chris Hem- ric, P.E., technical services director, R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co. (www.rjrt.com), Winston-Salem, N.C., who spoke during

a panel discussion at Inductive Automa-

tion’s Ignition Community Conference 2016 in mid-September. “The lesson we learned is that you don’t want to save ev- ery point. You have to decide what’s the purpose in life for the points you want to save, so you don’t create clutter and in- formation that’s too complex. Collecting absolutely everything is too hard for plant staff, so you need to decide, do I need that point or not?” Hermic adds that an overall engi- neering and management team can talk about how to rationalize data, and de- cide what they need compared to what they’ve got. “We’re drowning in tera- bytes of data,” he explains. “However, ‘big data’ really is just more data, and it doesn’t necessarily add value. So, our process controls engineering group, con- trol engineering group and manufactur-

StructuredUnstructured

StructuredUnstructured Reference and master data Enterprise Data Analytic integration warehouse capabilities
Reference and master data Enterprise Data Analytic integration warehouse capabilities Transaction data
Reference and
master data
Enterprise
Data
Analytic
integration
warehouse
capabilities
Transaction
data

Management, security, governance

Machine Distributed Discovery generated file system lab Map Analytic reduce capabilities Text, image, Key value
Machine
Distributed
Discovery
generated
file system
lab
Map
Analytic
reduce
capabilities
Text, image,
Key value
Data
audio, video
data store
warehouse

Management, security, governance

More data, better paths

Figure 2: Traditional architectures (top) send structured data through integration to

warehousing and analysis, but Oracle Corp. reports that big data (bottom) uses distrib-

uted, multi-mode, parallel data processing to handle larger, unstructured data sets, and

employs different strategies for real-time and batch processing. Source: Oracle Corp.

ing managers are working to decide. The control engineering group does factory au- tomation and integration for the upper lev- els, while the process controls engineering group examines operating trends, OEE issues and other details. As a result, these three groups came up with five points for deciding what data is useful. These in- clude: total product produced by the work cell, good product quality, rejects, work in process, and amount of work in intermedi- ate work in process. “We stumbled onto Ignition SCADA software, and added it to our new pro- cesses, including our largest manufactur- ing process with 70,000 tags, and we’re now connecting it to all our manufactur- ing, which includes 40 acres under roof. What’s really challenging is the pace of change, and how all the pieces of our SCADA and other systems are evolving in relation to each other. This is another way that Ignition helps because now we can put in standards for HMI and screen development, which reduces develop- ment time and cost and ultimately im- proves our product and quality.”

Big fish handling and filleting

Beyond its larger and more varied sources and the amounts of information it takes in, big data is also distinguished

by how its information is handled and stored. While traditional data manage- ment involves gathering, compressing, simplifying and asking questions, and then slicing and dicing big chunks of in- formation for analysis, big data is about shuffling many more small pieces of data through as fast as possible with database strategies like online transactional pro- cessing (OLTP) or online analytical pro- cessing (OLAP). “Where we traditionally used RTUs to manage our wells and drilling pads, our construction schedules are so aggressive now, and bringing so many wells, controls and I/O into our central control pads, that it’s no longer efficient to use RTUs only,” says C. Kisha Herbert, PE, staff electrical engineer at QEP Resources (www.qepres. com), an independent crude oil and natu- ral gas exploration and production firm in Denver. In addition, Herbert reports that QEP has built 32 drilling and production facilities since July 2012, and each has 160-220 I/O points. It also employs a va- riety of automated valves, manifolds and skid equipment. To help automatically and quickly manage all the new data coming in from its new wells, pads, sensors, controls and other components, QEP recently adopted ControlLogix PLCs from Rockwell Auto-

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Big

data

Big data Sifting through SudS Figure 3: Sierra Nevada Brewing is using Ignition software and Dynamic
Big data Sifting through SudS Figure 3: Sierra Nevada Brewing is using Ignition software and Dynamic

Sifting through SudS

Figure 3: Sierra Nevada Brewing is using Ignition software and Dynamic SQL pro- gramming to visualize data streams and find failing RTDs in two cellars with 10-14 beer fermentation tanks each, which have layered, glycol-jacketed zones that generate two different data flows and about 2 million software database rows per year.

Source: Sierra Nevada Brewing

mation (www.rockwellautomation.com). “On a typical QEP pad and produc- tion facility, well locations are protected through constant monitoring of protec- tive shutdown devices; alarm and event logs are used to review and track spe- cific information and recent events; and standardized ControlLogix PLCs and RSLogix software are helping us meet our aggressive schedules and maintain safe, standard process controls,” ex- plains Herbert. “Understanding local regulations and requirements upfront and having good controls is a big help, but ControlLogix enables the remote I/O points at our remote pads to provide useful information to our central con-

trol pad. This is easier than using the former RTUs because they require a lot of linear programming to run their loops, routines and subroutines.” Chirayu Shah, marketing man- ager, visualization and information software, Rockwell Automation, adds that, “Because information is com- ing in from so many more places, such as unstructured sources, video feeds and social media, users that can leverage this data can make more ed- ucated decisions. Process data is no longer isolated at sites where it’s gen- erated, so it can also join with input from outside facilities such as busi- ness intelligence, gain a wider con-

text, and function at higher levels in both large and small organizations.” Though it also uses longstanding statistical tools, Emerson’s Boudreaux adds, big data’s innovation is that it applies them using web-based and cloud-computing services carried out by distributed computing and storage infrastructures, such as Hadoop, Cas- sandra, Mongo DB and others. “These services are based on data storage mod- els that use map-reduction to reduce information into usable forms,” he said. “They also build server clusters that share data across many servers, and process data in parallel to return results quickly—much like searching, clicking and getting immediate results via the web and Internet.” For process control users, Bou- dreaux adds that big data is an oppor- tunity to get more insights, actionable intelligence and value from informa- tion they’ve been collecting for de- cades. For example, Batch Analytics software embedded in Emerson’s Del- taV DCS has protected services for tak- ing process equipment information from valves and gas chromatographs, and uses big data methods to visual- ize them; take transactional snapshots to collect their histories and identify trends; and employ machine learn- ing to predict equipment failures and model complex fault scenarios. This is why Emerson recently announced that its Plantweb digital ecosystem and Connected Services will be powered by Microsoft’s Azure IoT Suite. “Because we didn’t have access to big data sets before, the traditional ap- proach was theoretical and used phys- ics models and equations, which were time-limited and had to generalize among many applications,” explains Boudreaux. “Now, we’re using big data to develop empirical equations and models describing actual behav- iors, which are more effective because they’re individualized. As computing gets faster and software costs go down, we get closer to continuous monitoring and management that’s more tailored to each user.”

Plan for big data success Similar to any new technology emerging on the process control

Plan for big data success

Similar to any new technology emerging on the process control front, big data can

only help users make better decisions if they understand what it is, how it can af- fect their controls and processes, and how they can use it to optimize operations. Some of the primary tasks include:

Investigate business areas, facilities and applications that could benefit from big data;

Inventory existing processes, data sources and analysis devices and software for information gaps;

Evaluate possible big data tools, including software and statistical packages, server strategies for data storage, and virtualized and cloud-based computing services;

Examine how to coordinate big data devices and software with existing data ac- quisition systems, historians, and diagnostic and analytics functions;

Determine and enable cybersecurity capabilities for planned big data imple- mentation, including software, servers, networking and cloud devices; and

Apply chosen big data solution, but schedule and periodically carry out future reexaminations, and make adjustments as needed.

Organize and analyze

Of course, big data only delivers on its even bigger promises when users can get useful nuggets they can turn into bet- ter decisions, efficiencies and profits. In process control applications, this often means better predictive analytics and maintenance, and/or improved remote monitoring and optimization. For instance, Sierra Nevada Brewing Co. (www.sierranevada.com) in Chico, Calif., recently enhanced critical tempera- ture controls on its fermentation tanks by improving its data visualization tools with Ignition SCADA software, and efficiently sorting through reams of batch data to pro- actively identify failing resistance tempera- ture devices (RTD) and other issues. The brewery has about 100 tanks at its plant, including two main brewing cellars, each with 10 to 14 beer fermentation tanks (Fig- ure 3). Each of the 15-foot-wide tanks has layered zones and two or three RTDs that can generate two different data flows for the same three- or four-week batch. Tem- perature is controlled by the solenoids and glycol flowing to jackets on the tanks and by an overall chiller plant. “We wanted, at a glance, to show there was either no problem or there was an item we needed to look at,” says David Lewis, technical services manager at Sierra Ne- vada. “We also wanted bar graphs show-

ing number of batches per year per tank, as well as number out-of-spec incidents. We also wanted to drill into data about the last several batches, so we could check the de- tails of several out-of-spec incidents.” Ignition let Sierra Nevada moved batch data into tables from 200-300 tanks, brew kettles and supporting devices. “We cap- ture data every five minutes, and we already had about 10 years worth of information in our database,” says Lewis. “In early alert at- tempts, we had to determine which RTD was indicating it was beginning to fail, for ex- ample, by causing the chiller to run on. We also needed to figure out which data tails to exclude, though this might mean missing some stuck solenoids, and we had to avoid email overload. So, we stepped back, prior- itized our data, and tried to make it more proactive. We also required an appropriate context in which we could see everything together, so we’d know when operations were happening that were supposed to be happening, instead of looking tank by tank and batch by batch. This meant bringing in much more data, but then separating useful signals from noise.” Because data is captured in five-minute intervals for the brewery’s more than 100 tanks, Lewis reports this generates about five software database rows of data per tank per batch. At about 2,000 batches annu- ally, Sierra’s brewing operations produce a

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Big

data

MaJor big data tools

To bring in and use big and non-traditional information streams, there are many software packages, data manage- ment and storage methods, new communication protocols, programming tools, and cloud-computing services, coming

mostly from the IT side. Here’s an incomplete list and glos- sary of the primary players:

Cassandra (http://cassandra.apache.org), or Apache Cassandra, is a free and open-source distributed da- tabase management system designed to handle lots of data across servers with high availability and no single point of failure

classified as a NoSQL database program. It uses JSON-like documents with schemas

MySQL (www.mysql.com) is an open-source data- base and Oracle’s big data intelligence platform and application

Power BI 9 (https://powerbi.microsoft.com/en-us) is Mic- rosoft’s data visualization/business analytics tool

SAP Hana (http://go.sap.com/product/technology-plat- form/hana.html) is an in-memory, column-oriented, re- lational database management system developed and marketed by SAP SE

Cloudera (www.cloudera.com) provides Apache Ha- doop-based software, support, services and training

Spark Streaming (http://spark.apache.org/streaming) is an extension of the core Spark API that enables scal- able, high-throughput, fault-tolerant stream processing of live data st reams

Dynamic SQL is a programming method that lets users build SQL statements dynamically at runtime

Hadoop (http://hadoop.apache.org/Hadoop) is an open- source, Java-based programming framework that sup- ports processing and storage of large data sets in a distributed computing setting. It’s part of the Apache project sponsored by Apache Software Foundation

Splunk (www.splunk.com) produces software for searching, monitoring and analyzing machine-gener- ated big data using a web-based interface

Tableau (www.tableau.com) is data visualization soft- ware that joins databases and graphics

Mongo DB (www.mongodb.com)is a free, open-source, cross-platform, document-oriented database program

TrendMiner (www.trendminer.com) is a predictive ana- lytics tool for the process industry

total of 2 million software database rows per year. To access this data and begin to improve decisions, he adds that he and his colleagues are using Dynamic SQL programming to build queries for their database. Sierra also uses Tableau (www.tab- leau.com) data visualization software to view database results, which are displayed in conjunction with Ignition software. “Our MES is located on one server and batch data is on the DAQ server. This means critical data was on different servers, but our initial cross-server queries weren’t working, and replicating data from one server to another was too cum- bersome,” says Lewis. “We needed data from 2,000 batches with their own start and stop times, so we ran a query string using Dynamic SQL, joined one with another, did it 2,000 times, and it crashed. So, we threw a Hail Mary, and cut and pasted the 2,000 queries into Tableau, and five minutes later, we got the 2 million rows we needed.” Lewis adds that all displays for its newly enabled database were built with Ignition, which allows users to click on each batch and see a profile for it. “Then we can use known and previous failure patterns to better determine when the next RTD is going to fail,” adds Lewis. “We can see drift and be- havioral changes in the graph for a batch, and fix problems before they become failures.” Similarly, Nick Moceri, president of SCADA Solutions (www.scadasolutions.com) in Irvine, Calif., showed how his company is using IoT-based remote monitoring and control to let its client’s legacy wind turbines ramp electricity pro- duction up or down more quickly in response to fluctuat-

ing grid demand and to avoid negative pricing, which may require 200 turbines to be adjusted in 10 minutes or less. SCADA Solutions added its in-house software to Opto 22 (www.opto22.com) controllers and other components. “Many older wind farms weren’t built with the Internet in mind, but now they need to add Internet protocol (IP) switches that are addressable to a server, so they can be brought into a central location,” says Moceri. “IP-address- able switches, controls and servers allow us to get ahead of the game, optimize production, and perform predictive maintenance that extends turbine life. In fact, one wind farm in Palm Springs, Calif., went from flat results to a 16% production improvement and complete return on invest- ment in just three months.” To begin to implement a big data strategy, Grantek’s Toman suggests it can’t be done merely from the ground up, and in- stead requires an organization-wide strategic plan. “You can’t just look at the needs of individual silos. You have to reach out to the rest of the company, evaluate systems in place, and iden- tify other data silos that can be leveraged,” says Toman. “Many times, organizations have blinders on, so they need to bring in someone who isn’t in the existing culture to poke around, and mediate between the engineering and IT sides on how they can adopt some best practices and standards for big data. This isn’t just converging data technologies; it’s about convincing

process people to practice and benefit from them.”

process people to practice and benefit from them.” Jim Montague is Control’s executive editor 36

Jim Montague is Control’s executive editor

SAFETY

SYSTEMS

Cybersecurity in the SIS world

Find and slay the dragons lurking in the typical safety instrumented system.

by William L. Mostia, Jr., P.E.

C ybersecurity is a growing concern in the process indus-

tries, and a number of good articles have been written

about it for industrial control systems (ICS)—many full

of doom and gloom. Here, we will divide the ICS into two parts: safety instrumented systems (SIS) and all other ICS components, which we lump into the basic process control system (BPCS). There are distinct differences between the SIS and BPCS in function, design and cybersecurity. The SIS and BPCS differ in regard to cybersecurity from

a process safety perspective, how traditional SIS design prac-

tices can help provide cybersecurity, and how cybersecurity concerns can affect the design of the SIS. This article examines some of the differences between the BPCS and the SIS, SIS vulnerabilities to cyberattack and other security concerns unique to the SIS. It also covers how traditional SIS design can help with cybersecurity, and how traditional design practices of the SIS are affected by cybersecurity. Due to its size limits, one article can’t cover all aspects of designing or securing a SIS in the presence of cybersecurity threats, but it’s instead intended to provide food for thought on this topic.

When a cyberattack gets physical

It’s important to note that operating a chemical plant or re- finery is complex, with many checks and balances as well

as human beings to provide 24/7 oversight and some level of resilience. A cyberattack is really a cyber-physical attack because it involves a system with direct connections to the real world, as opposed to attacking a computer and data. A process plant is also a system designed to work in the pres- ence of failures (even multiple ones) and uncertainty, even

if the failure mode is unknown, whether it be a cyberattack,

control valve failure, pump failure, etc. For example, if a tower is over-pressurized, chances are you’ll have an independent, high-pressure alarm, possibly a high pressure override of the tower reboiler, an SIS and a re- lief valve protecting it, plus operator observations. This illus- trates how defense-in-depth achieves process safety, which also provides protection against a cyberattack as an initiating

cause. This is not to say that cybersecurity is not important for process safety, but rather that it must be considered in the mix of potential failures and safeguarding against those failures. Figure 1 illustrates the overall cyber-domain including the SIS. Generally speaking, only digital systems are a concern for a direct cyberattack, however, even analog or mechanical systems aren’t as completely immune as one might think. For example, the safe operating limit database (alarm and trip set- points), asset management (changes in device parameters), SIS field instrument calibration databases (incorrect calibrations), and even the relief valve database (incorrect trip setpoints and test intervals) can potentially be corrupted by a cyberattack, leading to failure in the SIS or other process safety systems un- der the right circumstances.

process safety systems un- der the right circumstances. Threat vector Threat vector Government- Terrorists and
Threat vector Threat vector Government- Terrorists and state- supported Public Company BPCS SCAI SIS Threat
Threat vector
Threat vector
Government-
Terrorists
and state-
supported
Public
Company
BPCS
SCAI
SIS
Threat vector
Unknown unknowns
THE CYBER DOMAIN

Figure 1: Along with the basic process control system (BPCS) and safety controls, alarms and interlocks (SCAI), the safety instrumented system (SIS) is a critical component of a process facility’s defense against myriad cybersecurity threats that might lead to loss of life and destruction of property.

The role of the SIS in safety

It’s important to understand how process safety is achieved

through functional safety, and how the SIS fits into the over- all picture. Achieving process safety using functional safety typically involves a defense-in-depth protective scheme con- sisting of independent protection layers (IPLs).

In Figure 2, we can see the SIS is not the only IPL in the

layer of protection scheme. Some IPLs are subject to direct cyberattack and some are not. Modern design of functional safety protection systems (FSPS) for hazardous processes is

all about preventing a hazardous condition, even in the pres- ence of failures of some of the IPLs. The cyberattack threat does not change that paradigm, but rather adds additional potential failure modes of the BPCS and process equipment that may lead to potential safety demands of unknown fre- quency (an important risk consideration).

A fundamental SIS design principle is that failure of

the BPCS to control the process for any reason should not cause a simultaneous failure of the SIS protecting the pro- cess. This does not change with the introduction of the cyberattack threat; if a cyberattack has compromised the BPCS, it should be substantially more difficult for the same attack to compromise the SIS either synchronously or asynchronously. Defense-in-depth and the related principle of requiring multiple failures or difficulties—a “tortuous path” before you have a successful cyberattack—are important protec- tive concepts. This also applies to the BPCS, where safety controls, alarms and interlocks (SCAI) and other protective safeguards should present a difficult path to defeat them all to cause a loss of process safety protection and situational awareness of the operator.

How a SIS differs from a BPCS

Her are some the primary differences between the SIS and BPCS. The primary purpose of the BPCS is as an active, continuous system that controls level, pressure, temperature and other process variables designed to keep the hazardous materials in the process under control within the safe op- erating envelope, while efficiently and cost-effectively mak- ing on-spec product. The vast majority of SISs, on the other hand, operate as passive systems that sit there doing nothing until a safety demand occurs. When the process exceeds its safe operating limits, the SIS acts to maintain or bring the process to a safe state. This passiveness also makes it difficult for an intruder to analyze the system and its relationship to the BPCS by observation alone. Failure of the BPCS can be an initiating cause for a haz- ardous scenario, whereas a properly designed, low-demand SIS can’t typically be the initiating cause of a hazard—even during a cyberattack. The BPCS will have tens of thousands of data points (reads and writes) and other parameters transferred digitally between BPCS boxes via multiple paths, where the SIS may

SAFETY

SYSTEMS

Acceptable

Layers of protection

Risk inherent

risk level

in the process

SCAI

Other (safety SIS Alarms BPCS valves, etc.)
Other (safety
SIS
Alarms
BPCS
valves, etc.)
Risk inherent risk level in the process SCAI Other (safety SIS Alarms BPCS valves, etc.) Process
Process
Process
Risk inherent risk level in the process SCAI Other (safety SIS Alarms BPCS valves, etc.) Process

Risk

RISK REDUCTION

Figure 2: Reducing risk typically involves a defense-in-depth scheme of independent layers of protection including the basic process control system (BPCS); safety controls, alarms and inter- locks (SCAI); and the safety instrumented system (SIS).

have a few hundred data points, mostly reads with a lim- ited number of writes. The BPCS will typically talk to the SIS through only one communication path per SIS. The SIS will also have its own internal communication structure. In most cases, the SIS is implemented on different hard- ware, in some cases by a different manufacturer than the BPCS equipment. The SIS is periodically proof-tested, while the BPCS is many times operated to failure. This provides a mechanism for detecting unauthorized changes.

Cybersecurity standards for SIS

There are several standards pertinent to cybersecurity and the SIS. The second edition of IEC 61511-1 will require that a security risk assessment be carried out to identify the secu- rity vulnerabilities of the SIS, including both physical and cybersecurity vulnerabilities. The standard also will require that the design of the SIS provide the necessary resilience against the identified security threats. This is a new, substan- tial requirement. The ISA 99 committee has generated a series of perti- nent standards, one of which is IEC 61511-1, ANSI/ISA/ IEC-62443-1-1, “Security for Industrial Automation and Control Systems Part 1-1: Terminology, Concepts and Models.” The ISA 84 committee also has a subcommit- tee looking at cybersecurity for technical reports (TR). They’re in the draft stages of dTR84.00.09, “Cyber Secu- rity Related to the Functional Safety Lifecycle,” which is attempting to bring the principles of ANSI/ISA/IEC- 62443-1-1 to functional safety and the safety lifecycle. Hopefully, they will do this in a practical manner without too much computer-speak.

Protecting SIS assets

Protecting the SIS against cyberattacks is a simple matter of

SAFETY

SYSTEMS

preventing unauthorized changes that can compromise its safety functionality. Easy as pie, right? To get a high-level view of your SIS and its potential vul- nerabilities, draw a boundary around all the SIS assets (typ- ically your SIS zone). Then, identify all of the communi- cations paths and any other data, remote or physical access paths that cross that boundary. This is illustrated in Figure 3 for a generic SIS, but your system may have more or dif- ferent vulnerabilities. This conceptual boundary can help you visualize your potential cyberattack vulnerabilities and systematically address them. To evaluate your cybersecurity vulnerabilities and current protections, one of the first things to do is an inventory of all SIS equipment, software (with version numbers), and critical operating parameters. This should be followed by a security as- sessment of the SIS as required by the IEC 61511-1 2nd Ed. This inventory will provide a baseline for monitoring changes in your system. Contact your equipment vendors and ask them to provide an analysis of their equipment’s known cyber vulnerabilities, and

include those in this assessment. This should be coordinated with the cybersecurity efforts on the BPCS. The identified vul- nerabilities should be eliminated or their risk minimized. Potential vulnerabilities include remote access, uncontrolled writes, ability to program remotely, configuration database in- direct attacks and cyberattacks via manufacturer or third-party software. Red flags include any computer equipment that is Win- dows-based, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technology, “open” systems, connections to the enterprise or Internet, the ability to write to the SIS, SIS equipment under lock and key, and/or portable media (USB ports, memory sticks, CDs, etc.). Ethernet and Ethernet switches (too vulnerable) are a no-no in a SIS zone or to cross the boundary. Wireless may be an open invitation and should be avoided in a SIS. Don’t connect to what you don’t have to connect to. Risk vs. benefit has to be factored in, particularly when convenience is considered. Implement intrusion detection, including monitoring for changes in software and safety-critical parameters. Fortunately,

BPCS communication Digital Analog/discrete Conduits (typical) Remote access SIS zone Remote access SIS Safe
BPCS communication
Digital
Analog/discrete
Conduits
(typical)
Remote access
SIS
zone
Remote access
SIS
Safe operating
controller
parameters database
Run/off/
Windows
program/
vulnerabilities
remote switch
Original, patch and
update software
Original, patch
Engineering
and update
station
software
Removable media
UnknownUnknownthreatthreatvectorvector
(memory sticks,
Unauthorized
SIS
CDs, etc.)
access
Field
Physical access
Unknown gap
Windows
Windows
vulnerabilities
vulnerabilities
Original, patch and
update software
Original, patch and
update software
Calibration
AMS
Remote access
Remote access
Unauthorized access
Unauthorized access

ICSs typically have extensive logging, and the SIS should log to them all changes in parameters and SIS accesses for program- ming, maintenance, etc. A cyberattack response plan should be put into place, including operator procedures and a recovery plan. Failure to plan is planning on failure.

SIS design for cybersecurity

Most articles on cybersecurity for ICS revolve around the con- ceptual approach of dividing the control systems up into zones and conduits (essentially, protection by controlled isolation), do- ing a cybersecurity assessment, and placing a bunch of firewalls or security appliances in your networks. These are important aspects of cybersecurity, but they are not the only things to do in designing the SIS system for protection against cyber attacks. Many of the traditional design principles for SIS provide some level of cybersecurity protection (e.g. independence, sep- aration, diversity, limited digital connectivity, controlled writes, distributed architecture, 4-20 mA signals, etc.). So legacy SIS have some cyber vulnerabilities, but they are not as exposed to cyber attacks as many people seem to assume. Unfortunately, in recent times, the use of some of these principles have de- clined due to cost considerations, competitive differentiation and changing demographics. Independence, separation and diversity are philosophies that have been cornerstones of SIS design. Independence keeps the safety functionality separate from the control functionality. Keeping the SIS hardware physically separate eases physical security and isolating the SIS into zones. Having diversity in hardware can mean different hardware from the BPCS but the same manufacturer, or it can mean different manufacturers for the SIS hardware. Both are good practices, but having different manufacturers reduces common cause failures, and increases the knowledge required to hack both systems. The safety PLC is commonly used as a logic solver for a SIS, and is typically the focal point of most cyberattacks on the SIS because it communicates with the outside world and is extensively software-based (e.g. requires programming soft- ware, software updates and patches, commonly networked, etc.). Safety PLCs are different from general-purpose, indus- trial PLCs and DCS controllers, and are much less open to unauthorized changes. SIS logic solvers that are more tightly integrated with the BPCS or use the same hardware as the con- trol system can be more exposed to a cyberattack. Most safety PLCs have a hardware watchdog timer that monitors their logic cycle. A separate hardware watchdog timer may also be a good idea. Communication watchdogs can also be created in logic to detect communication problems between the SIS and the BPCS independent of the communication channel, and can detect problems with the communication channel. Run/stop/program/remote switch: Almost all PLCs and certainly safety PLCs have some form of this hardware key-lock switch that can control programming access and in some cases, control “writes” to the PLC. No programming of SIS equip- ment should be allowed across a network connected to the

SAFETY

SYSTEMS

BPCS, enterprise network or outside world, even through fire-

walls. It should be verified with the SIS logic solver manufac- turer that their key-lock can’t be overridden externally through

a communication link of any sort “Read” requests from the BPCS are common to transfer

the SIS status to the BPCS. These should be limited in scope.

It should be verified that problems with the PLC communica-

tion processor/port (e.g. denial of service attacks, incorrect or garbled “read” requests, etc.) can’t affect the PLC’s safety logic cycle or its safety functionality. Writes: the safest approach is to not allow any writes to the SIS logic solver from the BPCS. Most SIS logic solvers can limit writes to specific memory locations (e.g. will not accept writes to other locations). DCS, PLC or foreign device gateways may also allow only certain tags be read or written to the SIS. These features should be implemented. If you must write to a SIS logic solver, you might consider an analog or digital input to transfer the data. Deep-packet inspection (DPI) security appliances and data diodes can stop all writes, and in some cases can whitelist read and write tags or memory locations. These security appli- ances must be able to get down to the write command and the write tag or memory location to be effective. The safety PLC should also ensure that write data values are within an accept- able range. Non-digital SIS logic solvers such as relay logic and trip- amps are directly immune to a cyber attack. Indirectly, they may have a small cyber vulnerability if the database for their trip and alarm points is corrupted by a cyber attack. These sys- tems can be used as a back-up safety PLC’s safety instrumented functions (SIF). In small applications or localized systems, they can provide a cyber-immune solution. SIS field devices are less prone to cyberattack because the vast majority of their outputs are 4-20 mA or on/off 24 VDC/120 VAC, which are notoriously hard to hack. Safety protocols have been developed for digital fieldbus communications between field devices, but are not very common for SIS. When these are used, they may be more exposed than a 4-20 mA loop to a cy- berattack. When a fieldbus safety protocol is used, the transmit- ters should be connected point-to-point, and high-speed Ether- net (HSE) should be avoided for SIS service. A hardware security jumper blocks changing any of the pa- rameters of a field transmitter, including changes via HART or fieldbus. SIS field sensors and other applicable SIS field devices should always have their security hardware jumper engaged in normal operating service. Software lockouts should not be used unless they’re the only security feature available. If an AMS sys- tem is present via HART, it should have read-only access for SIS field devices, even if the security jumper is not engaged. All SIS transmitters should have a deviation alarm where feasible. 4-20 mA smart transmitters typically communicate via a HART communicator during calibration and maintenance. There is a cybersecurity exposure due to the software in the communicator, but it must come indirectly through corruption

SAFETY

SYSTEMS

of the software from the communicator’s manufacturer. Calibration tools are another potential cybersecurity vul- nerability for SIS field devices because modern ones are dig- itally based, and may communicate with a database or AMS system that would typically be on a Windows machine con- nected to the site enterprise network. Corruption of the calibra- tion database could lead to miscalibration of safety transmitters. Keeping a computer backup of the calibration data, trip and alarm points, transmitter parameters and programs is a good practice, and historical copies should be kept in case the cur- rent one gets corrupted. This will help you recover from a cyber or internal security attack. Remember, plan ahead. Final elements, such as solenoids, valves, motor starters, etc. are typically immune to cyber attack. If your valve has a digital valve controller or a smart positioner, it may be possible for a cy- berattack to spuriously trip or cycle the SIS valve. These devices may be communicated with by a portable Windows-based computer, and may be subject to a cyber attack. Bypasses are points in the SIS logic solver that are com- monly a write from the BPCS to the SIS to bypass a particu- lar sensor to allow maintenance. Erroneous activation by the BPCS or SIS would defeat a SIF or part of a SIF. The common practice of having a manual, bypass-enable switch that must

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be activated, with a short timeframe to enable a bypass and by- passes that time-out are good practices. Also, having a bypass alarm generated from the SIS that restrikes periodically when in bypass, and remotely monitoring the bypass state, are also good practices, again, making it more difficult for a cyber in- truder to enable the bypasses undetected. Manual shutdown: IEC 61511-1 states that a “manual means (for example, emergency stop pushbutton), independent of the logic solver, shall be provided to actuate the SIS final elements unless otherwise directed by the safety requirement specifications.” This was put in place because there was a fear that the PLC logic solver would not operate when required, the PLC might go into a loop, or it might begin operating errati- cally (sounds applicable to a cyberattack). However, primarily for convenience and cost reduction, it’s been the practice of many people, to use the “…otherwise directed by the safety re- quirement specifications” to route the manual shutdown to the SIS logic solver because they rationalize that the logic solver is highly reliable. From a cybersecurity perspective, this is a bad practice because if the SIS logic solver is compromised, so may be the manual shutdowns in this logic solver. This takes away the operator’s ability to quickly implement a manual shutdown to bring the plant to a safe state. This is particularly worrisome for SIF where there are no other IPLs associated with the haz- ardous scenario. Also, companies often have procedures that are “gun-drilled” (exact and ingrained) for shutting down the plant due to power loss, cooling water loss, etc. It makes sense that you should have a gun-drilled procedures to shut down your plant if you suffer a cyber attack that compromises process safety. Reset function: Software resets may provide some protec- tion against a cyberattack that cycles the safety PLC outputs, but may be compromised by a knowledgeable attacker. Field manual resets on the solenoids physically prevent the shutdown valve from cycling, and are immune to cyber attacks.

Cybersecurity is never done

Cybersecurity is a complex, important topic that is ever evolving. Many practical things can be done based on engi- neering analysis of the SIS’s vulnerabilities and data flows. Use of the zones and conduit concept, defense in depth, and the torturous path concepts are steps in the right direction. The standards in this area have a steep learning curve, and with the ever-changing cyber threat environment, may re- quire a specialist to keep up. I will leave you with an interest- ing question: are identified hardware (and related software) vulnerabilities in your ICS and SIS covered by your hard-

ware warrantees and afterward?

and SIS covered by your hard- ware warrantees and afterward? [I want to thank Mark Carrigan

[I want to thank Mark Carrigan of PAS Inc. (www.pas.com) for the excellent discussion on cybersecurity when I was researching this article.]

W.L. Mostia, Jr., P.E., is a frequent contributor to Control.

MOTORS

&

DRIVES

Ongoing innovations, added intelligence and networking let motors and drives serve in unusual applications and replace obsolete equipment.

by Jim Montague

J ust when it seems like today’s sophisticated motors and drives can’t possibly add more efficiencies and capabilities, engineers conjure up new tricks and refinements, followed

by end users and system integrators who materialize new set- tings and challenges where they can make big gains. As usual, the rest of us are left to wonder, “How did they do that?” This is because, while long-established drives and motor solutions might not appear unusual to most technical profes- sionals and other onlookers, they obviously manifest as lifesav- ers to those most in need of their capabilities. Necessity doesn’t just lead to invention, it grants new vision along the way. One company with this mindset is Acadian Seaplants (www. acadianseaplants.com) in Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada, which grows and processes agricultural biostimulants in liq- uid and powdered forms at its plant in nearby Cornwallis. The company starts with local, sustainably harvested ascophyllum nodosum seaweed, from which various bioactive compounds are extracted, clarified, filtered and concentrated in a complex production process that requires careful process control. The fi- nal products are shipped to more than 80 countries to improve the health and growth of plants worldwide.

to improve the health and growth of plants worldwide. CUSTOMIZE, EXPAND SEAWEED CROPS Figure 1: Acadian

CUSTOMIZE, EXPAND SEAWEED CROPS

Figure 1: Acadian Seaplants employs Allen-Bradley Centerline motor control centers (MCCs) with IntelliCenter software from Rockwell Automation to more easily reconfigure for different crop biostimulant products, and increased capacity 40% at its plant in

Nova Scotia. Source: Acadian Seaplants and Rockwell Automation

Growing gracefully

“Our motor controls and facility communications were hard- wired before 2006, so if we wanted to change or add a step in the production process, we’d often to rewire entire areas of the facility,” says Wade Hazel, engineering manager at Acadian. “We began automating the Cornwallis facility during 2006- 2008, but this modernization wasn’t enough to meet growing demand, so we decided to build onto the existing plant to add capacity, and automate the new equipment to increase process control and efficiency.” Hazel adds that Acadian supplier Graybar (www.graybar. com) knew it was already using Allen-Bradley CompactLogix programmable automation controllers (PACs) from Rock- well Automation (www.rockwellautomation.com), so it pro- posed adding Allen-Bradley Centerline motor control centers (MCCs) with IntelliCenter software and EtherNet/IP network- ing. This meant Acadian could expand its capacity by integrat- ing with existing controllers, and avoid adding hardwiring for motor controls (Figure 1). Consisting of variable-speed drives (VSD) and full-voltage starters, the MCCs and supporting automation let Acadian increase seaweed processing by 50% during 2008-09. However, demand continued to swell, so Acadian’s manage- ment decided to build the new Deveau Center plant across the street with three times the space. This included underground piping for moving product between the plants, three more ControlLogix PACs, expanded Centerline and Intellicenter ap- plications, plantwide EtherNet/IP for monitoring and motion control, and Rockwell Software Studio 5000 to set up and con- figure the PACs and MCCs. The new plant was finished in 2014, and it’s already running at 40% more capacity than its earlier version, and can expand capacity another 250%. “This facility isn’t static,” added Hazel. “We may need to change functions one day, do improvements the next, or add new processes. With all controls connected via EtherNet/IP, many former hardwires became virtual wires, so we can make changes faster at a lower cost. Integrated MCCs and controllers

MOTORS

&

DRIVES

MOTORS & DRIVES LONG CONVEYOR FOR COPPER HAULING Figure 2: Codelco is deploying ABB’s 800xA control

LONG CONVEYOR FOR COPPER HAULING

Figure 2: Codelco is deploying ABB’s 800xA control system and Mining Conveyor Control Program (MCCP) to automate the 13- km conveyor and gearless conveyor drive system between its new underground mine and concentrator plant at the Chuquica- mata copper mine near Santiago in Chile. Source: Codelco and ABB

give us a more connected, reliable and continuous facility with data shared more seamlessly between processes and operators. Engineers can also access the plant’s computer remotely to re- duce downtime compared to former onsite visits. “Based on the plant science division’s successful expansion, our engineering team has started using CompactLogix PACs to automate processes in the food science division’s land-based cultivation facility, and we’d like to migrate to EtherNet/IP-en- abled MCCs in the animal science division in the next few years,” adds Hazel.

Rotating evolution

Integrating microprocessors, intelligence, networking and other functions into motors and drives enable them to achieve remarkable gains, but these advances have also altered their ba- sic nature. “Process and discrete controls are more the same now, and their technologies are adapting to fit,” says Rob- ert Soré, product marketing manager for general-purpose, Sinamic and VG drives, Siemens (www.siemens.com). “PLCs and other process controllers aren’t much different now, and many drives are much the same, even though their AC motors may run at different speeds. In fact, increasing pressure for effi- ciency has pushed drives to evolve until they can now do what servo drives did just a few years ago.” Because they’re easier and less costly to deploy, drives are spreading to rotating equipment that hasn’t used them before, according to Soré. “Over the past five to seven years, drives are appearing on more pump jacks, fans, pumps and positive-dis- placement pumps. These used to have contactors and starters because there were less concerns about saving power. However, with the oil and gas industry down, people want to save money, and they’re doing it with smaller, smarter and less costly drives, and more precise variable-frequency drives (VFD).” Soré adds that similar efforts to save are spurring adoption of more efficient, relatively higher-tech motors, such as synchro- nous reluctance motors. “A manufacturer may add variable speed to a motor that usually runs at full speed and 60 Hz, but

to a motor that usually runs at full speed and 60 Hz, but GET A GRIP

GET A GRIP ON PIPE EXPANSION

Figure 3: Tata Steel’s Hartlepool SAW pipe mill in northeastern England is replacing the 40-year-old DC motor on its pipe ex- pander’s gripper car with a 150-kW, 300-Amp, 1,070-rpm motor from Vascat S.A. and a 250-kW Powerflex 755 inverter drive from

Rockwell Automation. Source: Tata Steel and CP Automation

then it’s only 40-50% efficient at half speed,” he explains. “Syn- chronous reluctance gets that efficiency back up to 70% at half speed, which is why we’re rolling them out.”

Tough, old environment? No problem

Thanks to these and other enhanced capabilities, size reduc- tions and lower costs, users are increasingly willing to apply new motors and drives in difficult environments, and replace aging equipment they couldn’t remove before. At the Chuquicamata open-pit copper mine in Chile, state- owned Codelco (www.codelco.com) recently began develop- ing an underground mine to access an ore body beneath the pit. The new mine is scheduled to begin operations in 2019 and expand “Chuqui’s” capacity, but one major hurdle is it will need one of the world’s largest, most complex and most power- ful conveyor systems to get copper ore up steep gradients and over long distances to its concentrator plant 13 km away (Figure 2). As a result, Codelco recently contracted with Tenova Takraf GmbH (www.takraf.tenova.com) to build the conveyor system, and Takraf enlisted ABB (www.abb.com) to automate it. So far, it’s designed to have conveyor flights powered by up to 20 MW and a total requirement of 55 MW, which will allow it to trans- port more than 11,000 tons of material per hour. ABB will implement a complete power and automation solu- tion at Chuqui, including gearless drives, motors, instrumenta- tion and power components, which will be custom engineered to meet onsite requirements to optimize power, control, mea- sure and actuate the conveyor. This design will integrate the belt’s power and automation through ABB’s 800xA control sys- tem, and combine with its Mining Conveyor Control Program (MCCP) to ensure optimum power quality and control. “The gearless conveyor drive system is a key feature of the solution because it meets the conveyor’s extremely high load requirements and necessary power availability, which wouldn’t have been achievable with a conventional drive solution,” says Roger Bailey, head of ABB’s Process Industries division. “The gearless drive system eliminates the gearbox from the motor,

Motors

&

drives

which reduces part wear and required maintenance. Another advan-

tage

is the reduction in the drive system footprint and instrumenta-

tion

required. Less parts increases reliability and efficiency of the

overall conveyor system by several percentage points.” Similarly, Tech Folien Ltd. (www.techfolien.co.uk) in Liverpool, U.K., recently needed to replace the 15-year-old motor/drive system on its extruder due to lacking spare parts and excessive energy con- sumption. The firm produces polycarbonate, polypropylene and other co-extruded, blown films. As a result, Emerson Automation Solutions (www.emerson.com) and Rewinds & J. Windsor (RJW, www.rjweng.com) combined a Unidrive M701 VSD from Control Techniques and an energy-efficient IE4 LSRPM motor from Le- roy-Somer, both Emerson Industrial Automation firms. Installed in a cabinet away from the line, the M701 sets the speed

control parameters of the motor, which is installed close to the line. Control parameters are programmed via onboard drive macros. Em- erson and RJW’s solution is expected to save the extruder and Tech Folien about 75% on its energy costs. “Energy efficiency plays a vi- tal role in ensuring our profitability, and this new drive and motor combination ensures that we have complete confidence that we can control our energy costs and maintain 24/7 operation,” says David Churm, maintenance manager at Tech Folien. Finally, located in the heart of Tata Steel Europe’s (www.tatasteel- construction.com) Hartlepool SAW pipe mill in northeastern En- gland is an expander machine that shapes, sizes and strengthens its pipe products with help from a large gripper car and 40-year-old

DC motor, which moves 12.5-meter pipes over the expander’s head.

Used only for pipe making, this machine is unique in the U.K. How- ever, the old motor also required frequent maintenance (and DC drives and spare parts were scarce), consumed too much energy, and

was hobbled by an obsolete, inaccurate and slow control system that often caused production bottlenecks (Figure 3). Consequently, Tata sought help from Rockwell Automation and

CP Automation (www.cpaltd.net) to find a replacement. “Require-

ments for better energy efficiency and accuracy meant an off-the- shelf motor and drive wouldn’t suffice, so we worked with Vascat (www.vascat.es) to produce a bespoke, 150-kW motor at 300 A and 1,070 rpm, and Rockwell supplied its 250-kW Powerflex 755 inverter drive with CIP Motion function and PLC,” says John Mitchell, global business development manager at CP.

To boost the new motor’s start/stop speed and prevent drive trips,

CP introduced a Revcon regenerative braking unit to make start/

stops more seamless, accelerate the gripper car, and move the pipes

faster. The old motor was replaced in August 2016, and Tata had also planned to replace the expander’s auxiliary drive later in 2016. “The regenerative unit is where we reaped the benefits of the new equipment, both in increased speed and energy efficiency,”

says Tony Brown, electronics engineer at Tata Steel. “Also, the new

servo drive’s accuracy allows us to position pipe with 1-mm accuracy,

whereas the old DC system’s accuracy was closer to 50 mm. This improved accuracy coupled with a 10% increase in speed gives us

productivity improvements throughout the expander.”

us productivity improvements throughout the expander.” Jim Montague is Control’s executive editor. PROTECT PUMPS

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45

PV

DEVELOP YOUR POTENTIAL
DEVELOP YOUR
POTENTIAL
PV DEVELOP YOUR POTENTIAL FOPDT modeling r. rUSSeLL rHINeHArT russ@r3eda.com A first-order plus deadtime (FOPDT) model
PV DEVELOP YOUR POTENTIAL FOPDT modeling r. rUSSeLL rHINeHArT russ@r3eda.com A first-order plus deadtime (FOPDT) model

FOPDT modeling

r. rUSSeLL rHINeHArT

russ@r3eda.com

A first-order plus deadtime (FOPDT) model is

a simple approximation of the dynamic re-

sponse (the transient or time-response)

of a process variable to an influence. It’s also

called first-order lag plus deadtime (FOLPDT), or “deadtime” may be replaced with “delay,” changing the acronym to FOLPD. The FOPDT model is often a reasonable approximation to process behavior, and has

demonstrated utility for controller tuning rules, for structuring decouplers and feedforward con- trol algorithms, in communicating essential process attributes, and as a computationally simple surrogate model in simulations for train- ing and optimization. There is no claim that the FOPDT model is a true representation. The process is likely higher order and nonlinear. However, a FOPDT model

is a practicable representation, balancing multi-

ple aspects of utility. In FOPDT modeling, typically, we con- sider that the influence has remained con-

stant in the recent past, and that the process variable (PV) had achieved a steady value. Then, we consider that the influence makes

a step-and-hold, and holds that new value un-

til the PV reaches its new steady state. The

75

70

65

60

55

50

45

40

35

30

150 155 160 165 170
150
155
160
165
170

Time (step-and-hold happened at 155)

TYPICAL COMPARISON OF FOPDT MODEL TO DATA

Figure 1: Compared to the data (dots), the FOPDT model (solid curve) has a longer delay, changes rapidly to catch up, then rises above the process before relaxing more slowly to the final steady state.

deadtime represents the time duration after the influence changes during which the PV

does not change. It’s like a transport delay in

a pipeline with plug flow or a laboratory anal- ysis time. Figure 1 compares the model to data.

Here, for clarity, the data is ideally noiseless, s-shaped, and indicated by the dots. The step- and-hold in the influence happened at a time of 155, but the high-order process doesn’t be- gin to reveal a response until about 156 when

it starts to rise slowly, then achieves its fastest

rate of change at about 159. For a best fit to the data, the FOPDT model (solid curve) has a longer delay, and does not begin to make a change until a time of about 157. Because it is a single lag, its fastest rate of change is when it starts to respond. The model has a delay longer than the pro- cess, then must change rapidly to catch up to the process. The model rises above the pro- cess in the 158-162 time period, then relaxes to the final steady state value a bit slower. This model best balances the “+” and “-“ de- viations from the data. Mathematically, the model could be stated as an ordinary differential equation.

model could be stated as an ordinary differential equation. The model gain, K m , is

The model gain, K m , is the multiplier for the influence change that determines the new steady-state value for the PV. The FOPDT model pretends that once the delay duration, m , has passed, the PV follows a first-order ex- ponential trajectory to the final steady-state value. The FOPDT time-constant, m , is an indicator of how fast the PV moves toward the new value. In contrast to some conventions,

I used the subscript “m” for “model,” not the

subscript “p ” for “process,” to acknowledge that the model is not the process. I explic- itly placed a squiggle hat over the model re-

is not the process. I explic- itly placed a squiggle hat over the model re- 46
is not the process. I explic- itly placed a squiggle hat over the model re- 46
develop your potential
develop your
potential
develop your potential sponse variable, (t’) , to indicate that it’s the model, not the process.

sponse variable, (t’), to indicate that it’s the model, not the process. And, I used the prime mark to indicate that the model influence, response and time are each a devia- tion from the initial steady conditions as well as the time for the step-and-hold influence. In figure 1, the change happens at a time of 155. Although t = 155, at that instant

t’ = 0. Similarly, the initial process value is y = 37, but the deviation value is y’ = 0. Although the concept for the model is a response to a step-and-hold influence from an initial steady state, and though this makes for convenient analytical solutions, it is a generic model, and not so restricted when solved with numerical methods. And, though the model can be equiv- alently stated in Laplace or z-transform notation, I won’t! The classic textbook method to generate FOPDT mod- els is the reaction curve technique, a pre-computer era method. It’s simple to understand and implement, and it can be derived from the analytical solution of the ODE, so it serves the current content of undergraduate engi- neering education appropriately. However, I be- lieve reaction curve techniques don’t express best practices in the computer era.

However, a crude approximation FOPDT model is oftern all that’s needed. In such cases, a reaction curve technique can be a simple and fast method to get a good-enough model. The reaction curve technique asks you to make a step-and-hold change in the process in- put, from an initial steady state, and hold the input until the response variable levels to an ending steady state. Unfortunately, noise and drifting alternate influences confound the re- sponse. And, a single step pushes the process away from a desired setpoint. Further, a push to one side of a nominal value will misrepre- sent nonlinear aspects. So, for effective reaction curve tests, we often use an up-down-down-up pattern in the influence step-and-hold values. This generates four reaction curves, and their average can temper the influence of noise and disturbances. Further, the pattern explores both sides of the original manipulated variable (MV) value, making compensating upsets and, ideally, returning the process to the original value. These steps must be large enough to make a noticeable change in the response. If the change is small relative to normal noise and drifts, then the FOPDT model coefficients will have a large uncertainty. Once the response curves are completed, the model coefficients are calculated from a few points on the response curve. There are multi-

from a few points on the response curve. There are multi- ple twists on the method.

ple twists on the method. Howver, this approach requires operator attention for an extended time to wait for four steady-state periods; may create process deviations that impact downstream quality; requires the human to interpret the signal to pro- vide data for the mathematical analysis; only uses a small part of the data generated; and can be substantially con- founded by uncontrolled disturbances. In the computer era, by contrast, nonlinear least squares regression is simple to implement, and a skyline input function has advantages in operational duration, magni- tude of upsets, and number of excitations over classical methods. A skyline pattern in the controller output could look like Figure 2. The nonlinear regression method seeks to fit the model to all data points, not just the selected several points in a classic reaction curve fit. So, it better reject noise and disturbances. The skyline and regression method does not require operator attention or judgment, which lessens the pos-

60 1.2 50 1.0 40 .08 30 .06 20 .04 10 .02 0 0 0
60
1.2
50
1.0
40
.08
30
.06
20
.04
10
.02
0
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Input(s)

Time

SKYLINE PATTERN

Figure 2: Nonlinear least squares regression is simple to implement and a skyline input function has advantages in duration, upset size and number of excitations.

42 41 20 39 38 37 36 35 34 0 20 40 60 80 100
42
41
20
39
38
37
36
35
34 0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Response

Time

SKYLINE RESPONSE

Figure 3: The data (dots) and best FOPDT model (solid curve) from the input sequence in Figure 2 for a pilot-scale process flow rate shows that the model is not perfect, but is a very good representation of the process dynamics.

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develop your potential
develop your
potential
ENGINEERING, INC ALL RIGHTS RESERVED develop your potential Though the model can be equivalently stated in

Though the model can be equivalently stated in Laplace or z-transform notation, I won’t!

sibility for operator error or bias. And the skyline input has many ups and downs, which tempers the influence that environmental drifts have on confounding the CV response to the MV. The skyline and regression method does not extend the period of off-nominal production as each “+” or “-“ period is shorter, creating less objection by a quality manager. The skyline and regression method does not require an initial steady state, and the entire test period takes less time. For a nonlinear process, gains, delays and time-con- stants change with MV and CV. The FOPDT model is linear, and may not provide a great match to the process over a wide operating range. Just because the optimizer converges on a best model, doesn’t mean that the model actually fits the data. So, after the regression, see if the fit is satisfactory for your model-use purposes. Figure 3 reveals the data and best FOPDT model from the input sequence in Figure 2 for a pilot-scale process flow rate response to controller output. The model is the solid line, the data are the dots. It should be noted that early-time data is usually below the model, but late-time data is usually above. Perhaps some drifting influence was affecting the data. In addition, note the kinks in the model at times a bit after 80 and 100. These are expected responses to small changes in the MV at those times, but these are not ex- pressed in the data. Perhaps valve stiction prevented the valve from moving, even though the MV made changes. Finally, this data is not expected to be a linear response. Although the linear FOPDT model does not perfectly match the data, it’s also a very good representation of the process dynamics. My Excel/VBA file for generating FOPDT models is posted at www.r3eda.com. It also offers a user guide to generate skyline data, use the software, and explain the nonlinear regression procedure. The VBA code is open. My entire academic career has been devoted to enabling students with best practices in engineering. I’m using the web site to extend beyond the classroom. I hope you find

it useful.

to extend beyond the classroom. I hope you find it useful. Russ Rhinehart, principal, the R3

Russ Rhinehart, principal, the R3 Co., was head of the School of Chemi- cal Engineering at Oklahoma State University, president of the American Automatic Control Council, and editor-in-chief of ISA Transactions. For more information, visit www.r3eda.com.

ASK THE EXPERTS How to determine open-loop gain?
ASK THE
EXPERTS
How to determine open-loop gain?

Q This is for tuning a control valve on a

pipeline. In an open-loop gain test, with

a step increase applied to valve opening,

the controlled parameter increases, then set- tles at a number. In this case, flow increased and then decreased to settle at x number. To calculate my T c , should I use the peak value that PV (flow) reached or the final value that it settled at? If I use x, then 63% of PV hap- pens much sooner. Our control valve impacts all three: flow, valve inlet (suction) and discharge pressure. The flow and discharge pressure controllers are reverse acting, and the suction pressure

controller is direct acting. After a step change from 30% to 35%, flow increases and then de- creases to settle at a higher value than what

it was before the change was made. My ques-

tion is: which number should I use to calcu-

late K, T p and T c ? If I use first peak for the set- tled value, then my K and T c will be higher. Since after this peak the flow decreases, if I use the final number, my K will be lower and hence T c will also be lower. With everything descaled, my K using final number for flow is 0.3425. T p and T c are near 2 sec. If I use the first peak, my K is 0.6225. My T p , of course, remains the same at 2 sec, but T c is 4 sec. This is liquid service. I will use lower numbers, so the loop is slower since our process is not that fast. In this case, I could only do two step tests. Usually, I do the step test by starting from fully open, so I also get a full valve profile. These have been good starting point numbers based on Ziegler-Nichols or GE’s ideal tuning ap- proach. GE’s tuning approach formulas are:

K p gain = 2•T c / (3•K•Tp) %/%. K i = T c rep/sec

and K d = K i /4. I did not use D since it is liquid service. Of course, I adjust them in closed loop with observation during setpoint changes. Units used in GE block were also important. The second step is from 35% to 40%. I have your handbook, and have referred to it already. By the way, we use low select at the three separate PID outputs, so the lowest, saf- est output controls the valve.

HITEN A. DALAL, hiten_dalal@kindermorgan.com

Pump curve (P 1 ) ∆P 1 @35% ∆P 2 @48% System curve (P 2
Pump curve (P 1 )
∆P 1 @35%
∆P 2 @48%
System curve (P 2 )
Flow (%)
20
25
30
35
40
Pressure

PIPELINE SYSTEM

Figure 1: When flow is stepped from 35% to 40%, P 1 and ΔP drop, and P 2 rises. This is because at a higher flow, the pipe friction rises, leaving less ΔP for the control valve.

A In my answer, I’m assuming that your process fluid is being pumped through your pipeline by constant speed pump(s)

and that your goal is to keep the flow and the up and downstream pressures at the control valve within the desired safe limits. I’m also assuming that you want to tune the three controllers, so the one that will be in control will always be the one that requires the low- est valve opening, and you want to use the open-loop method of tuning, which requires the knowledge of the process gain. In my answer, I will briefly discuss both the process and the process gain determination. Figure 1 shows the system curve of a pipeline and the pump curve of a constant-speed pump. When you step up the flow from 35% to 40%, P1 and ΔP drop, and P2 rises. This is because at a higher flow, the pipe friction rises, leaving less ΔP for the control valve. By applying the low-se- lecting envelope on the three variables (F, P1 and P2), you’re maximizing flow while protect- ing the pipe from excess pressure, which might cause leakage. In my view, this goal could be more elegantly accomplished if you used a vari- able-speed (instead of constant-speed) pump, and just throttled the speed, thereby eliminat- ing both the control valve and the associated waste of energy represented by the pressure drop through it.

This column is moderated by Béla Lipták (http://belaliptakpe.com/), automation and safety consultant and editor of the Instrument and Automation Engineers’ Handbook (IAEH). If you have an automation- related question for this column, write to liptakbela@aol.com.

Ask the e xperts
Ask the
e xperts
Ask the e xperts Input signal to valve (%) 40 A 35 30 25 Time 0
Input signal to valve (%) 40 A 35 30 25 Time
Input signal
to valve (%)
40
A
35
30
25
Time

0

DEFINITION OF A

Figure 2: For an open-loop test, “A” is the change of input signal to the valve.

Process

variable (PV)

Flow (%)

Overshoot ∆t B B 1 =63%B 0 td t63%
Overshoot
∆t
B
B
1 =63%B
0
td
t63%

Time

BUMP TEST REACTION CURVE

Figure 3: Where A is the valve signal change (Figure 2) and B is the flow change, process gain K = B/A, proportional gain P = 0.9A/B•t d •Δt, and integral time I = 3.33t d .

If you experience an overshoot (which you do), it can be caused by wrong valve characteristics, sticking valve or other causes.

Now, coming to the bump test (Figures 2 and 3), if you’re interested in the open-loop gain (K) of a linear process (such as a linear flow con- trol valve on a pipeline), then you calculate it by the ratio B/A: K = B/A = (% change in flow after reaching steady state) / (bump size in % of full stroke). In other words, the process gain is based on the final PV value. If you experience an overshoot (which you do), it can be caused by wrong valve characteristics, sticking valve or other causes. In any case, we don’t consider the overshoot in the determination of K, but try to eliminate it. When bump testing, I would make the step change in both direc- tions, to make sure that K also remains unaf- fected when you apply the step to reduce the valve opening and therefore the flow.

Please note that I’m using the standard ter-

minology for the various parameters in the

bump test:

A:

Test input

B:

Test output

I:

Integral gain setting of controller

K:

Process gain

P:

Proportional gain setting of controller

R r : Reaction rate

t d : Dead time τ : Time constant (defined as Δt or as K/R r ) For tuning the controllers, you can use Chapter 2.35 in the 4th edition of my hand- book, where some of the most common control- ler tuning constant and control mode setting recommendations are presented. On flow and pressure applications, we usually end up with

control mode values in the ranges listed below:

%PB = 50 to 500

I = 20 to 200 repeat/min.

D = None

BÉLA LIPTÁK, liptakbela@aol.com

A In addition to the various instrumenta- tion reasons mentioned by Mr. Lipták, you have to consider that your flow is

coming from a pipeline. This effect would be more pronounced if it was a gas service. This means that the line resistance is de-

veloped over a length of pipe. Initially, if the pipe carries gas, the pressure in the pipe sec- tion nearest to the gas source will be high, but as the flow establishes over the whole pipe work, as the flow (and pressure drop) rises, the pressure will drop at the inlet of the valve (compared to the pressure before making the step change by step-opening the valve).

If you check the pressure just upstream of

the valve, you should see the pressure drop (corresponding to the lower flow). I’m not sure if in your case this is significant enough to be considered for the tuning. Generally, flow loops are fairly straight for- ward and default parameters are adequate. The only issues I’ve found for flow tuning concerned the characteristics of the valve: linear or equal percentage (EQ%), i.e., if the valve character- istics don’t match the flow range of interest. However, I have not done a lot with pipelines and there may be additional issues.

SIMON LUCCHINI, Simon.Lucchini@fluor.com

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ROUNDUP RUGGED I/O FOR TIGHT SPACES Simatic ET200AL I/O has IP65/67 protection in a compact, rugged,

RUGGED I/O FOR TIGHT SPACES

Simatic ET200AL I/O has IP65/67 protection in a compact, rugged, lightweight design that’s easily mounted in tight spaces. Quickly con gured with TIA Portal engineering software, ET 200AL I/O is available with M8 and M12 modules, increasing channel density with more I/O points per module. Up to 2-A actu- ators can be connected per module, and it has SIL 2 safely trip actuators. Siemens

http://w3.siemens.com/mcms/distributed-io

Siemens http://w3.siemens.com/mcms/distributed-io HIGH-DENSITY, WILL NETWORK E3 I/O modules include 17

HIGH-DENSITY, WILL NETWORK

E3 I/O modules include 17 high-density I/O modules with hardened metal enclo- sures and powerful communi- cations. They’re con gurable with Crimson 3.0 software. With one RS-485 terminal block and dual Ethernet ports including user-selectable Eth- ernet modes for ring, pass through and two networks, E3 I/O eliminates the need for added switches. They also offer up to 34 mixed I/O points. Red Lion Controls 877-432-9908; www.redlion.net

I/O points. Red Lion Controls 877-432-9908; www.redlion.net WIRELESS I/O, CLOUD CONNECTIVITY Wise-4051 2.4-G IoT

WIRELESS I/O, CLOUD CONNECTIVITY

Wise-4051 2.4-G IoT wireless Ethernet I/O combines the three functions of data acquisition, processing and publish- ing in one I/O module. Wise-4051 can automatically push data to the cloud, and its Wise data logger can send time- stamped data to a Dropbox account. A private-server function lets Wise mod- ules push data to a web server via the RESTful web service and MQTT proto- col with WebAccess. Advantech Corp. 888-576-9668; www.advantech.com

WebAccess. Advantech Corp. 888-576-9668; www.advantech.com CABLE SHIELD TERMINALS The fasis WST Series shielding

CABLE SHIELD TERMINALS

The fasis WST Series shielding terminals provide simple, reliable, convenient grounding and interference immunity for cables requir- ing grounded shields. Ac- commodating 8-32-mm ca- ble diameters, they provide vibration-proof grounding of shielded cables. Made of hardened steel with high corrosion resistance, they can mount on busbars, TS35 DIN rails or C-pro le rails, or directly with screws on at surfaces. Wieland Electric 800-WIELAND (943-5263); www.wielandinc.com

Wieland Electric 800-WIELAND (943-5263); www.wielandinc.com MINIMIZE FIELD-LEVEL CABLING EtherCAT P system and I/O is IP

MINIMIZE FIELD-LEVEL CABLING

EtherCAT P system and I/O is IP 67-rated, combines ul- tra-fast EtherCAT communi- cation and power in a standard four-wire Ethernet cable, and reduces wiring requirements by enabling direct power sup- ply for EtherCAT P slaves and connected sensors and actuators, so separate power lines can be eliminated. A full range of components in IP 67 and four- wire Ethernet cables are available for 24-V I/O. Beckhoff Automation 877-TwinCAT; www.beckhoffautomation.com

Beckhoff Automation 877-TwinCAT; www.beckhoffautomation.com 100 µS SAFETY RESPONSE TIME The reActionOn module for

100 µS SAFETY RESPONSE TIME

The reActionOn module for ultra-fast safety applications achieves safety response times down to 100 µs. This makes it possible for time-critical sub- processes to be executed di- rectly in I/O modules, which reduces response times by 100 times or more. No expensive special hardware is needed to use reAction, and programming is as easy as for conven- tional controls. B&R www.br-automation.com

is as easy as for conven- tional controls. B&R www.br-automation.com 52 www.controlglobal.com NOVEMBER /2016
CONTROL EXCLUSIVE Easy, reliable, safe level measurement
CONTROL
EXCLUSIVE
Easy, reliable, safe level measurement

J ust as you can’t have too many friends, level measurement can’t get enough ease of use, reliabil-

ity and safety. These three priorities drove development of Emerson Auto- mation Solutions’ new SIL 3-capable Rosemount 5408 Series non-contact- ing, radar level transmitters for contin- uous measurement and its world’s first Rosemount 2140 vibrating-fork, liq- uid-level detector with wired HART for point-level measurement, as well as its dedicated Rosemount 5408:SIS and Rosemount 2140:SIS models for safety instrumented systems (SIS). Rosemount 5408 incorporates human-centered design to simplify operator tasks. Pictorial instructions and an intuitive software interface guide users, while on-board diagnos- tics support preventive maintenance. Rosemount 5408 can also perform

proof-testing and site acceptance tests remotely. In a departure from traditional pulsed-radar devices, Rosemount 5408 employs two-wire, 12-Vdc, loop-powered, fre- quency-modulated, continuous-wave (FMCW) technology. “Running two-wire FMCW with just normal 12-Vdc power is a big game changer because we can now do level measure- ments in places where they couldn’t be done before, including potentially explosive environments,” explains Andreas Hessel, strategic product manager, process radar level measurement, Emerson. “We built the microprocessor and other pieces for Rosemount 5408 from scratch, which really gives us ‘radar-on- a-chip.’ This means we can do two-wire FMCW for more ac- curate and reliable measurements because, instead of pulsed radar, it provides a constant stream of microwaves. With some limits due to individual settings, we estimate Rosemount 5408 is 100 times more sensitive than pulsed, which means much more accurate and reliable measurements, even with interfer- ence from foams, turbulence and condensation in tanks.” The transmitter’s safety version, Rosemount 5408:SIS, is cer- tified to IEC 61508 for use in a SIL 2 loop with redundant in- strumentation required. “This is the only level transmitter rec- ognizing that overfill prevention and SIS integration is more than a certificate,” explains Hessel. “Rosemount 5408:SIS can be used in any common-practice, SIL 2 safety loop, and its proof-testing interval can accommodate one-, three- or even five-year turnaround times.”

one-, three- or even five-year turnaround times.” LEVEL-HEADED LEVEL MEASUREMENT Rosemount 5408 Series
one-, three- or even five-year turnaround times.” LEVEL-HEADED LEVEL MEASUREMENT Rosemount 5408 Series

LEVEL-HEADED LEVEL MEASUREMENT

Rosemount 5408 Series non-contacting, radar level transmitter for continuous measurement and Rosemount 2140 vibrating-fork level detector with wired HART for point-level measurement.

Vibrating-fork detector

Hessel reports Rosemount 2140 combines proven-in-use Rosemount short-fork technology and the HART functionality of the wireless Rose- mount 2160 to create a new wired solution. It complements the com- plete 2100 portfolio, but 2140 is a new product designed for SIS and control applications where HART is used. Unlike 2160, 2140 includes proof test- ing and smart diagnostics. Rosemount 2140 performs in high temperatures and harsh condi- tions unsuitable for other level de- tectors, and it’s easy to install and maintain because there are no mov- ing parts. It’s virtually unaffected by flow, bubbles, turbulence, foam, liquid properties and product varia- tions. It can be used to monitor not only liquids, but also liquid-to-sand

interface, which can be used to de- tect build-up of sand or sludge deposits in vessels such as

separators. An optional LCD shows switch output states and diagnostics, allowing local inspection, or data can be viewed remotely from a host system such as a DCS. Compatible with HART 5 and HART 7 hosts, Rosemount 2140 enables continuous monitoring of electronics and me- chanical health with smart diagnostics. For example, the fre- quency-profiling function continuously monitors fork vibra- tion, and alerts if the instrument sees an unusual frequency

or detects a trend change in the frequency. “Rosemount 2140 is clever because it’s a wired HART de-

tector and not a switch, so it uses changes in frequency and vibration over time to determine if its forks are coated or cor- roded, and alerts operators when it needs maintenance or before,” adds Hessel. “What’s fun about Rosemount 2140 is

it can still be used as a simple switch when needed.” For safety applications, the detector’s dedicated safety ver- sion, Rosemount 2140:SIS, is certified to IEC 61508, with

a 97% safe failure fraction and 96% diagnostics coverage,

making it one of the safest SIL 2 devices available. Rose- mount 2140:SIS also has fully-integrated, remote proof-test- ing, which eliminates the need to access the top of a vessel

to extract the detector from the process.

For more information, visit www.emerson.com/en-us/automation/ measurement-instrumentation/level

visit www.emerson.com/en-us/automation/ measurement-instrumentation/lev el November /2016 www.controlglobal.com 53
PRODUCT INTRODUCTIONS
PRODUCT
INTRODUCTIONS
PRODUCT INTRODUCTIONS METERING PUMP MASTERS DIFFICULT FLUIDS Series MP7000 mechanical dia- phragm metering pumps are as

METERING PUMP MASTERS DIFFICULT FLUIDS

Series MP7000 mechanical dia- phragm metering pumps are as rugged as hydraulic pumps without the poten- tial for oil contamination. Oversized check valves, straight-through ow design and elimination of the contour plate improve ow characteristics for viscous, shear-sensitive and uids with suspended solids. Capacities range to 27 gph and pressures to 235 psi with 10:1 turndown. An optional automatic speed control uses variable-frequency or SCR drive. Neptune

www.neptune1.com

variable-frequency or SCR drive. Neptune www.neptune1.com ALL-IN-ONE DEVICE SIMPLIFIES UPS CBI uninterruptible power

ALL-IN-ONE DEVICE SIMPLIFIES UPS

CBI uninterruptible power supply (UPS) solutions combine supply, charger, battery care and backup module functions in a sin- gle device. Real-time diag- nostics continuously mon- itor battery status, charging levels, and emerging battery faults. Available in 12, 24 and 48 VDC for multiple battery types, they feature three charging levels (recovery, boost or trickle), allow adjustment of charging current, and automati- cally distribute power between load and battery. Altech www.altechcorp.com

power between load and battery. Altech www.altechcorp.com DETERMINE CONDUCTIVITY HYGIENICALLY Memosens CLS82D

DETERMINE CONDUCTIVITY HYGIENICALLY

Memosens CLS82D four-electrode sen- sor measures conductivity from 1 µS/cm to 500 mS/cm and temperature from 23 to 248 °F (-5 to 120 °C) with 4% accuracy 0.2% repeatability. With 316L stainless steel construction, electropolished sur- faces, hygienic process connections and IP68 protection, it can be sterilized in place (SIP) at up to 284 °F (140 °C) for clean-in-place (CIP) operations, and is certi ed for EHEDG, FDA, 3-A and phar- maceutical applications. Endress+Hauser

www.us.endress.com/cls82d

VENT PREVENTS BLANKET OVERPRESSURE, VACUUM

Model 1100 sanitary vent enhances the VCI Model 1088 sanitary blan-

keting valve, operating at multiple setpoints as a breather valve to avoid vacuum or overpressurization. It has

a true sanitary blanketing connec-

tion and is available in 2-, 3-, 4- and 6-in. sizes, in 316 or 304 stainless steel with a stainless steel weather screen to prevent debris from entering the tank. Setpoint range is 0.43 psi to 3.42 psi; vacuum is 0.069 psi to 0.385 psi, depending on the size. Cashco 785-472-4461; www.cashco.com

depending on the size. Cashco 785-472-4461; www.cashco.com MEASURE OIL IN WATER QUICKLY, ACCURATELY TD-120 oil in

MEASURE OIL IN WATER QUICKLY, ACCURATELY

TD-120 oil in water monitor is compact, responds in less than 1 sec., uses a remote owcell for easy switching of optical con guration, and requires no reagents or chemicals. It fea- tures extended dynamic range (up to 6,000 ppm) with 1% ac- curacy, a touchscreen interface and 4-20 mA or optional HART. A NEMA 4X/IP 66-rated 316 stainless steel enclo- sure and 316 wetted metallic parts are standard; other mate- rials are available for marine applications. Turner Designs Hydrocarbon Instruments Inc. 559-253-1414; www.oilinwatermonitors.com

Instruments Inc. 559-253-1414; www.oilinwatermonitors.com SAFETY ANALYTICS SOFTWARE KEEPS EYE ON IPL IPL Assurance

SAFETY ANALYTICS SOFTWARE KEEPS EYE ON IPL

IPL Assurance provides real-time predictive ana- lytics on health and avail- ability of safety instru- mented systems (SIS), alarm management sys- tems, and other inde-

pendent protection layers (IPL). It reports SIS performance during demand; manages safety instrumented function (SIF) performance, testing and maintenance; tracks status

of safety-related alarms; manages safety system bypass; pro-

vides a safety and operational risk dashboard, and more. PAS Inc. www.pas.com

vides a safety and operational risk dashboard, and more. PAS Inc. www.pas.com 54 www.controlglobal.com NOVEMBER /2016
CONTROL TALK
CONTROL TALK
CONTROL TALK GreG mCmILLAN STAN WeINer, Pe controltalk@putman.net Greg McMillan and Stan Weiner bring their wits
CONTROL TALK GreG mCmILLAN STAN WeINer, Pe controltalk@putman.net Greg McMillan and Stan Weiner bring their wits

GreG mCmILLAN STAN WeINer, Pe

controltalk@putman.net

Greg McMillan and Stan Weiner bring their wits and more than 66 years of process control experience to bear on your questions, comments and problems.

Write to them at controltalk@putman.net.

How to succeed in career and system migration

Greg: Here we take advantage of the chance to talk to Bill Thomas, who provides a great les- son on how to succeed in advancing capabilities and opportunities in his career and the control systems for which he was responsible. His ca- reer and the systems he improved are analogous examples of the power of migration and the re- sults gained from extra effort and dedication to improvement. Bill is one of the early members of the ISA Mentor Program. He is a very upbeat and positive guy, who I have had pleasure of get- ting to know at ISA and user group meetings.

Stan: Bill, what has been your career path?

Bill: I started out as an electronics technician in the Navy. When my enlistment was up, I worked at a shipyard doing electronic repair and retrofits on Coast Guard cutters. I started taking classes at night working toward a B.S. degree in electrical engineering. After a while, I decided I wanted my degree a little quicker, even though I’d be poorer during the process. I enrolled at Auburn University in EE, and focused on power and controls. The first year was pretty tough because, in addition to the full course load, I also worked third shift at a local saw mill, hoping to make ends meet. This became my motivational factor in finish- ing the degree, even though I was struggling fi- nancially—I felt that this type of job might be in my future if I didn’t get a degree. Fortunately, after a year or so, I got a position as a co-op at a paper mill. The co-op experi- ence was great for me as I got to work in mainte- nance, in capital projects and with the automa- tion group. With that experience, I knew that I wanted to go into automation. Upon gradua- tion, I went to work for a large consumer prod- ucts company as a controls engineer. I worked at their headquarters for eight years and at one of their plants in Texas for another two years. In 2005, I went to work for 3M as a corporate en- gineer in the Process Information and Control

Solutions (PI&CS) group. I’m presently living in Alabama, and workng at the Decatur Plant.

Greg: What type of equipment?

Bill: I worked on automating web lines most of my career, first doing narrow web lines for the consumer products company and then a vari- ety of wider lines for 3M. Some of these lines travel at incredibly fast speeds. They were mak- ing around 1,000 products per minute. In the past six years, I’ve focused on chemical reactors and the process industry. When I first came to

the chemical side of the site, there was only me,

a maintenance controls engineer and the proj-

ect manager responsible for upgrading controls

and automation on all the chemical produc- tion units. I was lucky to work with those guys.

I don’t think there is a control system that the

controls guy hasn’t worked on or a problem that he hasn’t seen. We learned early that we were

problem that he hasn’t seen. We learned early that we were Creatively invest your work ethic

Creatively invest your work ethic into new horizons and opportunities. For the top 10 reasons to migrate, see the online version at www.controlglobal.com/articles/2016/ how-to-succeed-in-career-and-system-migration.

Control t alk
Control t alk
Control t alk limited somewhat on the instrumentation side, so we con- vinced a retired 3M

limited somewhat on the instrumentation side, so we con- vinced a retired 3M technician to give us a hand. He has been with us ever since, and been instrumental in the suc- cess of our projects. We’re now fortunate to have another PI&CS resident engineer, an additional maintenance controls engineer, and some technicians working on these systems. We’re responsible for the migration of about 20 reactors and the tank farm. We decided on one controller per reactor to maximize independent maintainability, since these reac- tors are going up and down. We’ve completed over a dozen of the reactors, and have about a half dozen to go. Each sys- tem can have 300-1,200 inputs and outputs.

Stan: What are some things you learned?

Bill: I was a programmable logic controller (PLC) guy, so I had to quickly become proficient in the configuration and implementation of a distributed control system (DCS). I learned to standardize on a preferred, class-based library of modules. I developed the ability to communicate better with manufacturing engineers to make sure we get the right functionality. I also developed a more structured methodol- ogy and better documentation in the front-end definition for each reactor system.

Greg: How did you use dynamic models?

Bill: We started out using simplistic tiebacks with VMware on a laptop, but graduated to a workstation with Mimic. This enabled us to get operators involved in the functional testing of the control system. Four to six weeks before the configuration needed to be finalized, we would do this test- ing to make improvements based on operator input.

Stan: How did you contract out the work?

Bill: We split up the work between the local business partner of our DCS supplier and some contract engineering firms, keeping the most proprietary functionality in-house. If we develop the ability to use source protection on the more sen- sitive details, we can send more outside.

Greg: How did you deal with skids?

Bill: We learned that we had to give model numbers and performance specifications as well as manufacturer names of the instruments we wanted. Otherwise, we would end up with less reliable types and poor performance.

Stan: What is your general approach?

Bill: We never have time or money to do everything. We do

the best with what we have to get it to the customer on time. New projects are more of a challenge in terms of a miss- ing starting point. We help the customer understand auto- mation is their friend and we can keep doing more in that friendship. We make it an ongoing conversation.

Greg: What are some examples of communication needed?

Bill: In a vacuum system, we were asked to ramp down from

point A to B as fast as you can go. We did this, but the manu- facturing engineer wasn’t satisfied because the process vari- able could not keep up with setpoint, so we worked out a compromise between speed and tightness of control. In an- other system, the speed of a heat-up cycle was specified, but

it was later determined that the cool-down cycle was also critical. We needed to get creative.

Greg: I’ve had process engineers ask to keep the process vari-

able close to setpoint, but not move the manipulated variable. The realization is lacking that you you can’t make variability in

a loop completely disappear, and that you can’t predetermine

flows as a function of time. The flows and compositions on a process flow diagram (PFD) are a guide and aren’t to be taken literally. Feedback control is designed to automatically correct for the unknowns and disturbances, and can be tuned to pro- vide the desired degree of transfer of variability.

Stan: What’s been achieved besides the elimination of ob- solescence?

Bill: Modernizing the control systems has led to better perfor- mance, principally by using signal selection and split range to increase versatility, particularly in jacket loops. We also have much more functionality and support available for the new DCS. I really appreciate being able to focus on learning how to get the most out of a new DCS rather than investing my time getting by with an old DCS with no future.

Greg: What about your overall experience as an automation engineer?

Bill: I feel lucky to having gotten into automation. It’s like I’m building multimillion-dollar erector sets. I get to see stuff working in action. The control system is the window into the process and means of affecting the process. The dynamic and visual impact is impressive. I look forward to seeing in 15-20 years how much will change. I’ve gone from ladder logic, an- alog devices and 4-20 mA to function blocks, digital devices and fieldbus in my career so far. At the end of the day, what we do in automation is solve problems, and we get to see the effect on the plant efficiency and capacity. Automation is a

challenging and rewarding profession.

and capacity. Automation is a challenging and rewarding profession. 56 www.controlglobal.com Novem B er /2016

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